A grammar of Qiang, R Lapolla, C Huang

Tags: Qiang, intransitive verb, noun phrase, Chenglong Huang Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Copyright, Bernard Comrie, Randy J. LaPolla, City University of Hong Kong, demonstrative pronoun, transitive verb, Predicate noun phrases
Content: A Grammar of Qiang with annotated texts and glossary by Randy J. LaPolla City University of Hong Kong with Chenglong Huang Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Copyright ©1996 Randy J. LaPolla
v Acknowledgments This project was funded by the National Science Council of the Republic of China (Grants No. NSC 85-2418-H-001-002 P2 and NSC 85-2418-H-001-005), by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation (Grant No. RG005-D-'93), and by the "Project for Research on Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim" of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, Culture and Technology. Revision of the manuscript was supported by a grant from the Research Committee, City University of Hong Kong (Grant No. 9030548). I would like to thank these organizations for their generous support. I would also like to thank Matthew Chen, Dean of the Facutly of Humanities and Social Sciences at City University, and C. C. Cheng, Head of the Department of Chinese Translation, and Linguistics, for approving a generous publication grant for this book. Of course this book would not have been possible without the help and hospitality of Huang Chenglong and his family, as well as other residents of Ronghong Village. For this I am extremely grateful. The initial project that led to this grammar being written was initiated and organized by Ho Dah-an, now of the Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. I would like to express my deep appreciation to him for taking that initiative. I would also like to thank Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, Bernard Comrie, R. M. W. Dixon, Jonathan Evans, Peter Lester, Ying-chin Lin, James A. Matisoff, and Yoshio Nishi for taking the time to give me extensive and very helpful comments on an earlier draft of this book. Bernard Comrie in particular went carefully through three different drafts and each time sat down with me to go page by page through the draft to explain his comments. For this I am extremely grateful. All of these people helped improve the final output considerably, but of course bear no responsibility for the remaining imperfections.
Table of Contents
List of tables, figures, and plates
1. Introduction
1.1. The land
1.2. The language
1.3. The people and their culture
1.3.1. The people
1.3.2. Architecture
1.3.3. Food
1.3.4. Clothing
9 Men's clothing
9 Women's clothing
1.3.5. Family and kinship relations
1.3.6. Religion
1.3.7. Mobility
1.3.8. Livelihood
1.4. Previous work on Qiang
1.5. The data and their presentation
1.6. Typological profile
2. The phonological system
2.1. Consonants
2.2. Vowels
2.2.1. The basic inventory
2.2.2. Diphthongs and triphthongs
2.2.3. R-coloring
2.3. The syllable canon
2.4. Phonological processes
2.4.1. Initial weakening
2.4.2. Stress and its effects
2.4.3. Vowel harmony
2.4.4. Epenthetic vowels
viii Contents
2.4.5. Assimilation
2.4.6. Free variation
3. The noun phrase
3.1. Structure
3.1.1. The noun
42 Gender marking
48 Diminutive marking
49 The kinship prefix
3.1.2. Pronouns
3.1.3. Locational nouns
3.1.4. Definite, indefinite marking
3.1.5. Numerals and quantifiers
3.1.6. Classifiers and measure words
3.1.7. Number marking
3.2. Nominal relational morphology
3.2.1. Topic
3.2.2. Single direct argument of an intransitive verb
3.2.3. Actor of a transitive verb
3.2.4. Topic of a copula clause
3.2.5. Undergoer of a transitive verb
3.2.6. Goal or recipient of a ditransitive verb
3.2.7. Standard of a comparative construction
3.2.8. Standard of an equative comparative construction
3.2.9. Predicate noun phrases
3.2.10. Benefactive
3.2.11. Source
3.2.12. Instrument
3.2.13. Comitative, conjunction
3.2.14. Possessor in a possessive clause
3.2.15. Genitive
3.2.16. Whole-part relations
3.2.17. Price, value
3.2.18. Extent, distance
3.2.19. Inclusion, exclusion, addition
3.2.20. Locative, directional phrases
3.2.21. Temporal phrases
3.2.22. Form-function summary of relational marking
Contents ix
4. The verb complex
4.1. Structure
4.2. Verb types
4.2.1. Intransitive, transitive, reciprocal
4.2.2. Causatives
4.2.3. Intransitive state predicate verbs (adjectives)
4.2.4. Existential/locative verbs
4.2.5. `Come' and `go'
4.2.6. Auxiliary verbs
4.2.7. The copula
4.3. Verbal morphology
4.3.2. Person marking
4.3.3. Direction marking
4.3.4. Aspect
161 Prospective aspect
161 Perfective and imperfective aspect
164 Change of state aspect
165 Experiential aspect
167 Repetition
168 Continuative aspect
169 Habitual aspect
171 Resulting state
171 Simultaneous actions
4.3.5. Illocutionary force
172 Declarative
172 Imperative and prohibitive
173 Interrogatives
4.3.6. Mood
186 Optative
189 Intentional
189 Debitive (Obligation)
190 Potential
4.3.7. Evidentials, degree of certainty/authority
197 Direct evidential
198 Inferential/mirative marking
200 Hearsay marking
204 Evidential strategies
206 Correlations with other grammatical categories
x Contents
4.4. Adverbials
4.4.1. Degree marking adverbs
4.4.2. Negation
4.4.3. Adverbial phrases
5. The clause and complex structures
5.1. Structure
5.2. Nominalization and relativization
5.3. Complementation
5.4. Coordination and disjunction
5.5. Other complex structures
5.6. The structure of narratives
The Creation of the World (Qiang, with gloss)
The Creation of the World (English free translation)
The Legend of the Origin of All Things (Qiang, with gloss)
The Legend of the Origin of All Things (English free translation) 255
An Orphan (Qiang, with gloss)
An Orphan (English free translation)
Uncle Snake (Qiang, with gloss)
Uncle Snake (English free translation)
The Story of a Lazy Man (Qiang, with gloss)
The Story of a Lazy Man (English free translation)
The Old Man of the Chen Family (Qiang, with gloss)
The Old Man of the Chen Family (English free translation)
English-Qiang glossary arranged by semantic field
Natural phenomena
Animals (wild)
Animals (domestic)
Fish, frogs, and turtles
Food preparation Eating and storage utensils Cloth and clothing Buildings and structures Furniture Tools Trade and business Town and road Travel Language and communication Religion Festivals Games and play Bodyparts Actions involving bodyparts Grooming Life, death, and illness Warfare Kinship Types of people Verbs of interaction between people Stative verbs (adjectives) Time phrases Location phrases Movement Quantifiers Pronouns Adverbs and particles Index to the English glosses in the glossary Notes References Index to the grammar
Contents xi 343 344 345 347 349 349 351 352 353 354 355 355 356 357 360 363 364 366 366 368 370 374 379 380 382 383 384 385 389 421 433 443
List of tables, figures, and plates
Plate 1: Map of Sichuan Province
Plate 2: Photo of Ronghong Village
Plate 3: Watchtowers of Heihu Village
Table 1: The Qiang orthography
Table 2: The Qiang consonants
Table 3: The Qiang vowel inventory
Figure 1: The Qiang syllable canon
Figure 2: The structure of the Qiang noun phrase
Table 4: The Qiang personal pronouns
Table 5: The Qiang demonstrative pronouns
Table 6: The Qiang reflexive pronouns
Table 7: Locational nouns for `above' and `below'
Figure 3: The structure of the Qiang verb complex
Table 8: The Qiang person marking suffixes for intransitive
Table 9: The Qiang non-actor person marking suffixes
Table 10: The Qiang person marking suffixes for transitive verbs 144
Figure 4: The structure of the Qiang clause
first person second person third person adjective (stative verb) adverbial marker agentive marker aspect marker auxiliary particle for monosyllabic Chinese loan words benefactive marker causative suffix Chinese classifier comitative marker comparative marker continuative aspect marker copula change of state marker dative marker definite marker demonstrative pronoun directional prefix dual directive particle emphatic sentencefinal particle exclusion particle experiential particle genitive marker
habitual action marker hortative marker hearsay marker imperative verb form imperative suffix indefinite marker indirect directive marker inferential/mirative evidential marker interjection, intensifier1 instrumental marker literally locative marker (includes the use of the locative markers to mark temporal or other relations) clause linker noun narrative (hearsay) form made up of the inferential and hearsay particles (this abbreviation is used in the stories to save space) negative prefix negative imperative (prohibitive) prefix nominalizer numeral
xiv Abbreviations
PART perf. PERF pl POST PRS PTB Q RCA RECIP REFL REP REQU RESULT sg Tib. TOP U singular V v. vi. VIS evidential vt.
clause/sentence final particle perfective form of a verb perfective marker plural postposition prospective aspect suffix Proto-TibetoBurman question marker relevant condition achieved marker reciprocal form reflexive form repetition (`again') marker request marker this form marks a transition in the Texts, and was often translated by the Chinese word ji|egu«o `result' singular Tibetan topic marker bound non-actor marker (e.g. `2sgU' means `second person non-actor marker') verb ambitransitive verb intransitive verb direct (usually visual) marker transitive verb
WH (...) & / vs. ±
interrogative pronoun a gloss that appears in parentheses with a dagger in front of the parentheses glosses a Chinese code-mixed stretch of text (possibly very short). Only clear examples of code mixing rather than loan words are marked this way. Items that have a dagger but no parentheses are items that may be either code mixing or loans. allofam marker (marks two reconstructed forms as being related variants in the protolanguage) In the glossary, a slash (stroke) between forms means the two forms are assumed to be different words, whereas a tilde between forms means they are assumed to be different pronunciations for the same form.
Plates Plate 1: Sichuan Province, showing Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, the Min River and Yadu Township
xvi Plates Plate 2: Ronghong Village
Plates xvii Plate 3: Watchtowers of Heihu Village
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. The land The speakers of the Qiang language live in Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, on the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau in the northwest part of Sichuan Province, China (roughly 103 to 104 degrees longitude east and 31 to 32 degrees north). The entire prefecture covers 4046.35 square kilometers. The Qiang people mainly live along the Min River and in tributaries in the counties of Mao, Wenchuan, Heishui, Songpan and Beichuan, all contiguous areas in the southeast of Aba Prefecture (see Plate 1). A small number of Qiang people live in Danba County of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, to the west of Aba Prefecture, and in Shiqian and Jiangkou of the Tongren area in Guizhou province, to the east of Aba Prefecture. The entire area is very mountainous, with many mountains 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) high. The Qiang build their villages on the top or side of the mountains, with generally one village (often thirty-odd families or less) per mountain side. In many cases there are no roads to the village, and as the villages are often 2,500-3,500 meters up the mountain, the only way to get to the village is to climb a steep path. The weather is generally cold in the winter and cool in the summer. It is usually dry and windy and the temperature varies greatly between day and night. Weather conditions also vary greatly between the mountains and the valleys; in the springtime, there is still snow up in the mountains, but flowers are already blooming down in the valley. The weather in different valleys also varies. In those below 2,500 meters the weather is relatively warm, with very little rain. In those valleys above 2,500, the weather is cold all year round, with an average temperature of five degrees Celsius. Above 4000 meters it is very cold all year, often with snow ten months of the year. The typography and varied weather conditions contribute to the stunning beauty of the landscape.
2 Introduction The geographic features, weather conditions and soil composition also contribute to the abundance and peculiarities of the natural flora and fauna of the area. The mountains are heavily wooded. Gingko, camphor, Chinese hemlock, and Chinese little leaf box trees grow wild in the valleys, as do 189 types of grasses and bushes, including some rare medical herbs such as Cordyceps sinensisia, Fritillaria thunbergii (unibract fritilary bulb; "chuan bei", a popular sore throat remedy), and gastrodia elata. The Qiang will pick these for their own use and to sell. Forty-one types of wild animal, among them endangered species such as the giant panda, the small panda, the golden monkey, the wild donkey, and the musk deer, can be found in the area. 1.2. The language The Qiang language belongs to the Qiangic branch of the TibetoBurman family of the Sino-Tibetan stock. Some of the characteristics of the Qiangic branch include having a cognate set of direction marking prefixes; quite degenerate, though clearly cognate person marking paradigms; and radical loss of syllable final consonants, but preservation of complex initials and clusters.2 Sun (1981a:177-78) divides the Qiang language into two major dialects, Northern Qiang and Southern Qiang (see Wen 1941 for an earlier classification into eight dialects). Qiang speakers living in Heishui County and the Chibusu district of Mao County, including those designated by the Chinese government as Tibetans, are said to be speakers of the Northern dialect. Sun further subdivides the Northern dialect into the Luhua, Mawo, Cimulin, Weigu, and Yadu subdialects. Qiang speakers living in Li County, Wenchuan County, parts of Mao County other than Chibusu, and Songpan County are said to be Southern dialect speakers. The Southern dialect is also subdivided by Sun into the Daqishan, Taoping, Longxi, Mianchi, and Heihu subdialects. Liu (1998b:17) adds Sanlong and Jiaochang to the list of Southern subdialects. Recent fieldwork as part of the Qiang Dialect Map Project (funded by City University of Hong Kong and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong) has called into question some aspects of this classification. In particular, dialects in Songpan County and the Sanlong area of Mao County are now considered to be within
The language 3 the Northern dialect area. The dialect situation should become clearer with the completion of the Qiang Dialect Atlas Project. Until recently there was no writing system for the language. The Qiang carved marks on wood to remember events or communicate. In the late 1980's a team of Qiang specialists from several different organizations developed a writing system for the Qiang language, based on the Qugu variety of the Yadu subdialect of the Northern dialect. In 1993 the government officially acknowledged the writing system. The writing system uses 26 Roman letters to represent the 42 consonants and eight vowels in that variety of Qiang. Twenty of the consonants are represented by single Roman letters while the remaining 22 consonants are represented by double Roman letters (the letter r is not used as a single consonant). Five of the vowels are represented by single letters while the other three are represented by double letters. (See Table 1, overleaf). The promulgation of the writing system has not been successful, and one of the main reasons is the complexity of the Qiang sound system and the concomitant complexity of the writing system. It is quite difficult for adult villagers, especially the illiterate peasants, to remember all of the letters and combinations representing different types of consonants and vowels. Another factor is the diversity of Qiang dialects. As the writing system is based on the Qugu variety of the Yadu subdialect of the Northern dialect, those who are not Northern dialect speakers resent learning another variety of the Qiang language in order to read and write (ideally they would eventually be able to write their own dialect, but would learn the script using the Qugu dialect). A third and very important factor is the fact that even if somebody masters the sound system and is able to read and write using the writing system, there are no reading materials available to make what they have learned useful. Education in the Qiang areas is all in Chinese, though in recent years there has been a movement to implement bilingual education. Many of the children now can go to school, but the children often have to travel great distances to get to school. They will often live at the school, either for one week at a time, if the school is relatively close, or for months at a time, if it is farther away. Local educators have noticed that even with the opportunity for free education offered by the central government, there has been a continuously high drop-out rate among children from
4 Introduction
remote villages. One reason, they believe, is that most of the children from the remote villages cannot cope with the school education because teaching in the schools is all in Chinese and they cannot speak Chinese. The call for a bilingual approach in education mainly refers to the use of spoken Qiang as a medium of instruction in the lower grades alongside Mandarin in order to facilitate the learning of Chinese. Another reason for the high drop-out rate is the fact that while schooling is technically free, the schools charge various fees and the cost of room and board, so it can be prohibitively expensive for the villagers.
Table 1: The Qiang orthography
AE ae
BB bb
CH ch
DD dd
DH dh


EA ea
GG gg
GV gv
HH hh
HV hv
IU iu

JJ jj
KV kv
LH lh
NG ng

NY ny

RR rr
SH sh
SS ss

VH vh
VV vv
XX xx

ZH zh

ZZ zz
The people and their culture 5 In general, Chinese has been the main language of education and communication with non-Qiang people. The spoken form of Chinese used is the Western Sichuan subdialect of Southwest Mandarin, while the written form used is that of Standard Modern Chinese. The Qiang have been in contact with the Han Chinese for centuries (see Sun 1998). However, in the past, only the men who left the Qiang area to trade or work or had to deal with Han Chinese on a regular basis would learn Chinese. Children below the age of fifteen rarely spoke Chinese, but now with more universal access to Chinese Schooling and to TV (which is all in Standard Modern Chinese), even small children in remote villages can speak some Chinese. Now very few Qiang people cannot speak Chinese, but there are many Qiang who cannot speak the Qiang language. In many villages by the main roads, and in some whole counties in the east of Aba Prefecture (where contact with the Han Chinese has historically been most intense), the entire population is monolingual in Chinese. The tendency toward becoming monolingual in Chinese is becoming more prevalent now than ever before due to strong economic and social pressure to assimilate, and to the popularization of free primary and secondary education in Chinese. The number of fluent Qiang speakers becomes smaller day by day. Qiang is therefore very much an endangered language. The culture of the Qiang people is also in jeopardy of disappearing. This loss of the Qiang language and culture was noted as early as the 1940's (Graham 1958; see also Sun 1988), and accelerated greatly after 1949. It is hoped that the linguistic and cultural information presented in the present volume will serve as a record of some part of this vanishing language and culture. 1.3. The people and their culture 1.3.1. The people In most studies of the Qiang, especially those written in China, there is an assumption that the people classified by the present Chinese government as the Qiang living in northern Sichuan can be equated with the Qiang mentioned in Chinese texts dating back to the oracle bone inscriptions written 3,000 years ago. A more careful view would be that the ancient "Qiang" were the ancestors of all or almost all of the modern Tibeto-Burman speakers, and the modern "Qiang" (who call themselves
6 Introduction /Вme/ in their own language, written RRmea in the Qiang orthography), are but one small branch of the ancient "Qiang". They in fact did not think of themselves as "Qiang" (a Chinese exonym) until the early 20th century. It is clear that the culture of the stone watchtowers (see Plate 3), which can be identified with the modern Qiang people, has been in northern Sichuan since at least the beginning of the present era. Being in this area, the Qiang people are between the Han Chinese to the east and south and the Tibetans to the west and north. In the past fighting between these two larger groups often took place in the Qiang area, and the Qiang would come under the domination of one group or the other. At times there was also fighting between different Qiang villages. The construction of the watchtowers and the traditional design of their houses (with thick stone walls and small windows and doors; see Plate 2) give testimony to the constant threat of attack.3 The majority of Qiang speakers, roughly eighty thousand people, are members of the Qiang ethnicity, and the rest, approximately fifty thousand people, are a subgroup of the Tibetan ethnicity.4 These ethnic designations are what they call themselves in Chinese. In Qiang they all call themselves /Вme/ or a dialect variant of this word. Not all members of the Qiang ethnicity speak Qiang, and as just mentioned, not all of those who speak Qiang are considered members of the Qiang ethnicity. 1.3.2. Architecture The traditional Qiang house is a permanent one built of piled stones and has three stories. Generally one nuclear family will live in one house. The lowest floor houses the family's animals, and straw is used as a ground covering. When the straw becomes somewhat rotted and full of manure and urine, it is used for fertilizer.5 A steep wooden ladder leads to the second floor from the back of the first floor. On the second floor is the fireplace and sleeping quarters. Beds are wooden platforms with mats made of straw as mattresses. The third floor has more rooms for sleeping and/or is used for storage. A ladder also leads from there to the roof, which is used for drying fungi, corn or other items, and also for some religious practices, as a white stone (flint) is placed on the roof and invested with a spirit. The fireplace, which is the central point of the main room on the second floor, originally had three stones set in a circle
The people and their culture 7 for resting pots on, but now most homes have large circular three or four-legged iron potholders. In some areas, particularly to the north, enclosed stoves are replacing the old open fires. On the side of the fireplace across from the ladder leading to the second floor there is an altar to the house gods. This is also the side of the fireplace where the elders and honored guests sit. Nowadays one often finds pictures of Mao Zedong and/or Deng Xiaoping in the altar, as the Qiang are thankful for the improved life they have since the founding of the People's Republic and particularly since the reforms instituted by Deng in the late 1970's and after.6 Traditionally the Qiang relied on spring water, and had to go out to the spring to get it. In recent years pipes have been run into many of the houses, so there is a more convenient supply of water, though it is not like the concept of "running water" in the West. There are no bathrooms inside the house, though in some villages (e.g. Weicheng) a small enclosed balcony that has a hole in the floor has been added to the house to function as a second story outhouse. Many villages now have electricity, at least a few hours every night, and so a TV (relying on a large but inexpensive satellite dish) and in some cases a VCD player can be found in the house. All TV and VCD programs are in Chinese, and so the spread of electricity has facilitated the spread of bilingualism. In the past each village had one or more watchtowers, six or seven story-high six- or eight-sided structures made of piled stones. The outside walls were smooth and the inside had ladders going up to the upper levels. These allowed early warning in the case of attack, and were a fallback position for fighting. In some villages underground passages were also dug between structures for use when they were attacked. In most villages the towers have been taken down and the stones used to build new houses. 1.3.3. Food The main staple foods are corn, potatoes, wheat, and highland barley, supplemented with buckwheat, naked oats, and rice. Wheat, barley and buckwheat are made into noodles. Noodles are handmade. Among the favorite delicacies of the Qiang are buckwheat noodles cooked with pickled vegetables. Because potatoes are abundant in the area, the
8 Introduction Qiang have developed many ways of cooking potatoes. The easiest ways to cook them is by boiling or baking (that is, placing the potatoes into the ashes around the fire). The more complicated and more special ways of preparing them involve pounding boiled potatoes in a stone mortal and then shaping the Mashed Potatoes and frying them to become potato fritters or boiling them with pickled vegetables. The latter is eaten like noodle soup, the same way as noodles made of buckwheat flour are eaten. Since corn is also quite abundant in the area, the Qiang have also developed different ways of eating corn. Corn flour is cooked with vegetables to become a delicious corn porridge. Corn flour mixed with water without yeast and then left in the fire to bake is the Qiang style of corn bread. This bread is often eaten with honey. Honey is a delicacy in the Qiang area. It is not easy to come by as they have to raise the bees in order to collect honey. Another important item is salt. Because the Qiang live in the highlands, salt was traditionally difficult to come by, so when you are invited to eat in a Qiang family, the host will always try to offer you more salt or will see to it that the dishes get enough salt. The Qiang also grow walnuts, red and green chili peppers, bunge prickly ash peel (pericarpium zanthoxyli), several varieties of hyacinth bean, apples, pears, scallions, turnips, cabbage, and some rape. Crops are rotated to preserve the quality of the fields, some of which are on the mountain sides and some of which may be on the side of the stream found at the bottom of many of the gorges between the mountains. Qiang fields are of the dry type and generally do not have any sort of irrigation system. Aside from what they grow, they are also able to collect many varieties of wild vegetables, fruit, and fungi, as well as pine nuts. They now eat rice, but as they do not grow rice themselves, they exchange other crops for rice. Many types of pickled vegetables are made as a way of preserving the vegetables, and these are often cooked with buckwheat noodles or potato noodles in a type of soup. Vegetables are also salted or dried in order to preserve them. While grain is the main subsistence food, the Qiang eat meat when they can, especially cured pork. In the past they generally ate meat only on special occasions and when entertaining guests. Now their economic circumstances allow them to eat meat more frequently. They raise pigs, two kinds of sheep, cows, horses, and dogs, though they do not eat the horses or dogs. Generally there is only one time per year when the
The people and their culture 9 animals are slaughtered (in mid-winter), and then the meat is preserved and hung from the rafters in the house. The amount of meat hanging in one's house is a sign of one's wealth. As there are no large fish in the streams and rivers, the Qiang generally do not eat fish. In the past they would hunt wild oxen, wild boars, several types of mountain goat, bears, wolves (for the skin), marmots, badgers, sparrows, rabbits, and musk deer (and sell the musk). They used small cross-bows, bows and arrows, pit traps, wire traps, and more recently flint-lock rifles to hunt. Now there are not many animals left in the mountains, and many that are there are endangered species, and so can no longer be hunted. The low-alcohol liquor made out of highland barley (similar to Tibetan "chang") or occasionally corn or other grains, called /°i/ in Qiang, is one of the favorite beverages of the Qiang. It plays a very important role in the daily activities of the Qiang. It is an indispensable drink for use on all occasions. It is generally drunk from large casks placed on the ground using long bamboo straws. For this reason it is called z--aji«u `sucked liquor' in Chinese. Opening a cask of /°i/ is an important part of hosting an honored guest. 1.3.4. Clothing Men's clothing At present only a few of the older Qiang men still wear the traditional Qiang clothing except on particular ceremonial occasions. One item of traditional clothing still popularly worn by men and women is the handmade embroidered shoes. These are made of cloth, shaped like a boat, with the shoe face intricately embroidered. The sole is made of thickly woven hemp. It is very durable and quite practical for climbing in the mountains. In the summer men often wear a sandal version of these shoes with a large pomp on the toe. These shoes are an obligatory item of a Qiang woman's dowry when she gets married. In many villages, embroidered shoe soles or shoe pads are still a popular engagement gift of a woman to her lover. Recently some women have taken to selling them as tourist souvenirs as well. Another item still popular among the Qiang men and women as well is the goat-skin vest. The vest is reversible; in the winter it is normally worn with the fur inside for warmth, and when worn with the fur out, it
10 Introduction serves as a raincoat. It also acts as padding when carrying things on the back. Qiang men often carry a lighter (traditionally it would be flint and steel) and knives on a belt around their waist. The belt has a triangular pouch in front. There are two types of these triangular pouches: one is made of cloth and intricately embroidered, another is made of leather (the skin of a musk deer). Men sometimes will also wear a piece of apron-like cloth (also embroidered with a floral pattern) over their buttocks, to be used as seat pad. Women's clothing The majority of Qiang women in the villages still wear traditional clothing. Qiang women's clothing is very colorful, and also varies from village to village. The differences are mainly manifested in the color and styles of their robes and headdresses. Headdresses are worn from about the age of twelve. Women in the Sanlong area wear a square headdress embroidered with various floral patterns in wintertime. In the spring, they wear a headband embroidered with colorful floral patterns, and wear a long robe (traditionally made of hemp fiber) with fancily embroidered borders, and tie a black sheep-leather belt around the waist. Women of the Heihu area wear a white headdress, and are fond of wearing blue or light green robes (the borders are also embroidered with floral patterns). Women from the Weimen area wear a black headdress and a long robe. The border of the robe is embroidered with colorful floral patterns. They also often wear an embroidered apron (full front or from the waist down) and an embroidered cloth belt. The headdress worn by women of Mao county and the Muka area of Li county is a block-like rectangle of folded cloth, with embroidered patterns on the part that faces backwards when worn. Women in Puxi village of Li county wear plain black headdresses, oblong in shape with the two sides wider than the front. In the Chibusu district of Mao counry women wear brick-shaped headdresses wrapped in braided hair. They braid their hair, and at the tip of their braid sometimes add a piece of blue fake hair braid in order to make the braid longer (if necessary), and then coil the braid around the headdress to hold it in place.
The people and their culture 11 Clothing of those living near the Tibetan areas bear the influence of the Tibetan ways of clothing. Other than the headdresses and the robes, Qiang women are also fond of wearing big earrings, ornamental hairpins, bracelets, and other silver jewelry. Jewelry pieces of those who are wealthier are inlaid with precious stones like jade, agate, and coral. They often hang a needle and thread box and sometimes a mouth harp from their belt. Babies wear special embroidered hats with silver ornaments and bronze and silver bells, and a small fragrance bag. 1.3.5. Family and kinship relations Although in the Qiang language traditionally there are no surnames, for several hundred years the Qiang have been using Han Chinese surnames. The clans or surname groups form the lowest level of organization within the village above the nuclear family. In one village there may be only a few different surnames. The village will have a village leader, and this is now an official political post with a small salary. Many of the traditional "natural" villages have now been organized into "administrative" villages comprised of several "natural" villages. Before 1949 (as early as the Yuan dynasty--13-14th century), above the village level there was a local leader (called t«us--о in Chinese) who was enfiefed by the central government to control the Qiang and collect taxes. This leader could also write his own laws and demand his own taxes and servitude from the Qiang people. The Qiang had to work for this local leader for free, and also give a part of their food to him. His position was hereditary, and many of these leaders were terrible tyrants and exploiters of the people. Some of the Qiang traditional stories are of overthrowing such tyrants. Kinship relations are quite complex, and while generally patrilineal, the women have a rather high status, supposedly a remnant of a matriarchal past. Only men can inherit the wealth of the parents, but women are given a large dowry. Marriages are monogamous, and can be with someone of the same surname, but not within the same family for at least three generations. The general practice is to marry someone of the same village but it can also be with someone outside the village. Increasingly Qiang women are marrying out of the villages to Chinese
12 Introduction or Qiang living in the plains to have an easier life, and many of the young men who go out to study or work marry Han Chinese women. In the past marriages were decided by the parents of the bride and groom, although now the young people generally have free choice. The traditional form of marriage in the village is characterized by a series of rituals focused around drinking and eating. It is consists of three main stages: engagement, preparation for the wedding, and the wedding ceremony. The rituals start when the parents of a boy have a girl in mind for their son. The parents will start the "courtship" by asking a relative or someone who knows the girl's family to find out whether she is available or not. If the girl is available, they will move on to the next step, that is, to ask a matchmaker to carry a package of gifts (containing sugar, wine, noodles, and cured meat) to the girl's family. This is only to convey their intention to propose a marriage. If the girl's parents accepted the gift, the boy's parents will proceed to the next step, asking the matchmaker to bring some more gifts to the girl's parents and "officially" propose. If the girl's parents agree, then a date will be set to bring the "engagement wine" to the girl's family. On that day, the girl's parents and all the siblings will join in to drink and sing the "engagement song". Once this is done, the couples are considered to be engaged, and there should be no backing out. After being engaged, the girl should avoid having any contact with members of the groom's family. Before the wedding, a member from the groom's family will be accompanied by the matchmaker to the bride's family, carrying with them some wine which they will offer to the bride's family members and relatives of the same surname, to have a drink and decide on the date of the wedding. Once the wedding date has been set, the groom, accompanied by the matchmaker and carrying some more wine, personally goes to the bride's family to have a drink with the bride's uncles, aunts and other family members. The wedding ceremony itself takes three days, and is traditionally hosted by the oldest brothers of the mothers of the bride and groom. On the first day, the groom's family sends an entire entourage to the bride's place to fetch the bride. The entourage usually consists of relatives of the groom and some boys and girls from the village whose parents are both still living, with two people playing the trumpet. They carry with them a sedan chair, horses (in some cases), clothing and jewelry for the
The people and their culture 13 bride. The entourage has to arrive in the bride's village before sunset. They stay there overnight. The next day, the bride has to leave with the group to go to the groom's family. Before stepping out of her family door, she has to cry to show how sad she is leaving her parents and family members. One of her brothers will carry her on his back to the sedan chair. Once the bride steps out of her parents' house she should not turn her head to look back. She is accompanied by her aunts (wife of her uncle from her mother's side, and wife of her uncle from her father's side), sisters and other relatives. Before the bride enters the groom's house she has to step over a small fire or a red cloth (this part of the ceremony varies among areas). The bride enters the house and the actual wedding ceremony starts. The couple will be led to the front of the family altar, and, just like the wedding practice of the Chinese, the couple will first make vows to heaven and earth, the family ancestors, the groom's parents, the other relatives, and finally vows to each other. There is a speech by the hosting uncles, and the opening of a cask of highland barley wine. There will then be dancing and drinking. As the cask is drunk, hot water is added to the top with a water scoop, and each drinker is expected to drink one scoop's equivalent of liquor. If the drinker fails to drink the required amount, he or she may be tossed up into the air by the others in the party. Before the couple enter the room where they are to live, two small children (whose parents are both still living) will be sent in to run around and play on the couple's bed, as a way of blessing the couple to soon have children. On the third day the bride returns to her parents' home. When she leaves her newlywed husband's village, relatives of the husband wait at their doorways or at the main entrance to the village to offer her wine. The bride's family will also prepare wine and food to welcome the newlywed couple. The groom has to visit and pay respects to all of the bride's relatives. The bride then stays at her parents' house for a year or so, until the birth of the first child or at least until around the time of the Qiang New Year (see below). The groom will visit her there and may live in the woman's house. She returns to her husband's family to celebrate the birth or the New Year, and stays there permanently. In recent years there has been movement away from traditional style marriage ceremonies towards more Han Chinese style or ChineseWestern-Qiang mixed style marriage ceremonies.
14 Introduction 1.3.6. Religion The Qiang native religion is a type of pantheism, with gods or spirits of many types. To this day when a cask of /°i/ (barley wine) is opened, a ritual is performed to honor the door god, the fireplace god, and the house god. Flint stone (called "white stone" in Qiang and Chinese) is highly valued, and when a house is built a piece of flint is placed on the roof of the house and a ceremony is held to invest the stone with a spirit.7 The fireplace at the center of the house is considered to be the place where the fireplace spirit lives. Before each meal, the Qiang will place some food near the iron potholder for the fireplace spirit. The iron potholder is treated by the Qiang people with great respect, and cannot be moved at random. One cannot rest one's feet on it, or hang food there to grill. Most important is that one cannot spit in front of the potholder. When the Qiang drink barley wine or tea, or eat meals, an elderly person who is present has to perform the ritual of honoring the god of the fireplace, that is by dipping his finger or the drinking straw into the barley wine and splashing the wine into the fireplace. Every household has an altar in the corner of the main floor of the house facing the door. It is usually ornately carved, and its size reflects the financial status of the family. The altar and the area around the altar is considered to be sacred. One cannot hang clothes, nor spit, burp, expel flatuence, or say inauspicious words around the altar area. Pointing one's foot toward the altar is strictly prohibited. Other than believing in the spirits of the house and of the fireplace, the Qiang also believe in the spirits of all natural phenomena, such as heaven, earth, sun, moon, stars, rivers, hills and mountains. Two of the biggest festivals in the Qiang area are related to their worship of these spirits: the Qiang New Year, which falls on the 24th day of the sixth month of the lunar calendar (now the festival date is fixed on October 1st), and the Mountain Sacrifice Festival, held between the second and sixth months of the lunar calendar. The former is focused on sacrifices to the god of Heaven, while the latter is to give sacrifice to the god of the mountain. Religious ceremonies and healing rituals are performed by shamans known as /°pi/ in Qiang and Du--an G--ong in Chinese. To become such a shaman takes many years of training with a teacher. The Du--an G--ong also performs the initiation ceremony that young men go through when
The people and their culture 15 they are about eighteen years old. This ceremony, called "sitting on top of the mountain" in Qiang, involves the whole family going to the mountain top to sacrifice a sheep or cow and to plant three cypress trees. These shamans also pass on the traditional stories of the Qiang. The stories include the creation story, the history of the Qiang (particular famous battles and heroes), and other Cultural Knowledge (see the Texts for some of the stories). As there was no written language until recently, story telling was the only way that this knowledge was passed on. Very few such shamans are left, and little story telling is done now that many villages have access to TVs and VCD players. 1.3.7. Mobility Because the Qiang villages are generally high up on the mountains, and there often is no road to the village, only a steep narrow path (this is the case, for example, in Ronghong village [see Plate 2], where the nearest road is hours away), travel has traditionally been by foot, though horses are sometimes used as pack animals where the path or road allows it. In the summer the horses are taken to remote pastures to prevent them from eating the crops near the villages. In some cases there is a road to the village large enough for vehicles to pass, but the condition of the road is usually quite bad, and as it runs along the very edge of the mountain, it can be quite dangerous. On every field trip we saw at least one car or truck that had just fallen off the side of a mountain. Because the condition of the road varies with the weather and there are sometimes landslides, before attempting to drive to (or near) a village, one has to try to find out if the road is actually passable. The streams and rivers are too shallow to navigate, and so the Qiang do not make boats. 1.3.8. Livelihood In general it was the work of the men to hunt, weave baskets (large back baskets and small baskets), shepherd the cows, gather wild plants, and do some of the harder labor such as plowing the fields, getting wood, and building houses, and it was the work of the women to weave cloth,
16 Introduction embroider, hoe the fields, spread seeds, cook most of the food, and do most of the housework. In the winter men often went down into the flatlands to dig wells for pay (this often involved a twelve-day walk down to the Chengdu area!). Any trading was also only done by men. In the past the Qiang traded opium, animal skins and medicinal plants in order to get gold, silver, coral, and ivory. These items were often made into jewelry for the women. Nowadays both men and women cook and gather wild plants, and it is common for men to leave the village for long periods of time to go out to work in the flatlands or to sell medicinal herbs, wood, vegetables, animal skins or other items in exchange for money or rice. Although some ancient ceramics have been unearthed in the Qiang areas, in the recent past ceramics were not made by the Qiang. Most Qiang-made utensils were of wood, stone or iron. There were specialists in metalworking. Nowadays most such items are bought from outside the Qiang area. 1.4. Previous work on Qiang Fieldwork on Qiang and initial analysis was first carried out by Wen Yu in the late 1930's (Wen 1940, 1941, 1943a, 1943b, 1943c, 1945). Wen also did some initial comparisons and historical work on the language (1943b, 1947), and published two vocabularies of Qiang (1950, 1951). Chang Kun (1967) used Wen's data for a comparative study of the southern Qiang dialects, and attempted to reconstruct the protolanguage. In the late 1950's the Chinese Academy of Sciences organized teams of linguists to go to the different areas where ethnic minority peoples lived and carry out fieldwork. Two members of the team that worked on Qiang were Sun Hongkai and Liu Guangkun.8 An early report drafted by them was published with "Institute of Nationalities, Chinese Academy of Sciences" as the author in the journal Zhongguo Yuwen in 1962. They have also published much of the material available on Qiang since then (Sun 1981a, 1981b, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1988; Liu 1981, 1984, 1987, 1997, 1998a, 1998b, 1999). Huang Bufan, another member of the team, now retired from the Central University of Nationalities, has also done important work on Qiang (1987, 1991, 1994, 2000, 2002), and is now in the process of
The data and their presentation 17 writing a grammar of the Qugu Village variety of the Yadu subdialect of the Northern dialect. These three scholars have trained a native Qiang linguist, Huang Chenglong, who has published a number of articles on his native dialect, the Ronghong Village variety of the Yadu subdialect of the Northern dialect (1992, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 2000a, 2000b, 2003; Huang, Yu & Huang 1992), on which this grammar is also based. Sun Hongkai and Huang Chenglong are currently preparing a manuscript entitled Studies on Qiang Dialects that will compare 20 different Qiang dialects in terms of phonology and to some extent grammar as well. Randy LaPolla has published an overview sketch of Ronghong Qiang (LaPolla 2003c) and a paper on the evidentials of the Ronghong variety (LaPolla 2003d), as well as a lexical list and texts in the Qugu variety (LaPolla, 2003e; LaPolla & Poa, in press). Randy LaPolla and Huang Chenglong have presented papers on adjectives (LaPolla & Huang 2002a) and copula constructions (LaPolla & Huang 2002b) in Qiang. Jonathan Evans has published a monograph on the Southern Qiang lexicon and phonology (2001a) and a paper on contactinduced tonogenesis in Qiang (2001b), and has presented a paper on the directional prefixes (2000). Randy LaPolla, Huang Chenglong, Dory Poa, Jonathan Evans, and Wang Ming-ke are currently collaborating with Zhou Facheng and a team of other Qiang linguists on the Qiang Dialect Map Project, which will attempt to record the language and customs in at least fifteen Qiang villages and make the data and images available on an Internet web site (the Qiang Language and Culture Web Site: http://victoria.linguistlist.org/~lapolla/qiang/index.htm). 1.5. The data and their presentation All data presented in the Grammar, Texts, and Glossary are of the Yadu subdialect of northern Qiang spoken in Ronghong Village, Yadu Township, Chibusu District, Mao County (see Plates 1 and 2). The data are from Mr. Huang Chenglong, a native of Ronghong Village, and members of his family. The grammatical analysis is based on naturally occurring texts (narratives) as well as elicited sentence patterns. Examples taken from the Texts are marked by the number of the text and the line number(s) the example appears on. For example, "(T3:2324)" means the example appears in lines 23-24 of Text 3, "An Orphan".
18 Introduction Stories and lexical items were also collected from the Qugu variety of Northern Qiang, also of Chibusu district, from Mr. Chen Yonglin, though as the Qugu variety differs somewhat from the Ronghong variety, those data are not presented here. The lexical data and some of the stories have been published separately as LaPolla, 2003e, and LaPolla & Poa, in press, respectively. All of the fieldwork was carried out in Chinese, and the first draft of the grammar and stories had only Chinese glosses. The glosses and free translations were then translated into English. The English glosses for the items in the Glossary are largely from the Handbook of Chinese Dialect Vocabulary, which was used as a basis for the lexical elicitation.9 For this reason the glosses are in a sense twice-removed (twice-translated) from the Qiang, and so some ambiguities may have been introduced that were not in the first translation. If readers have questions about any such items, they should contact Randy LaPolla ([email protected]). The glossary is also available as a freestanding HypercardTM application which includes the original Chinese glosses (and the Qugu lexical data mentioned above), for those who might be able to make use of it. Again, contact Randy LaPolla. Reconstructions given for Proto-Tibeto-Burman forms are from Benedict 1972, except for the numerals, which are from Matisoff 1997. The last section of this chapter is a typological overview of the language. The discussion in the rest of the grammatical description is divided into four main parts: the sound system of the language (Chapter 2), the form of representation of the participants of an action or state and the expression of their relationship to the verb and to each other (Chapter 3), the form of representation of an action or state (Chapter 4), and complex structures (Chapter 5). Following the grammatical description are Qiang oral texts, presented with interlinear glosses and a free translation at the end of each text. Following the Texts is an annotated glossary of basic Qiang vocabulary organized by semantic field, and an English alphabetical index to the glossary. The Lingua descriptive studies: Questionnaire (Comrie & Smith 1977) was very helpful in collecting part of the data, though the mode of presentation in this grammar is not always that of the Questionnaire. The guidelines for summarizing grammatical information prepared as part of the research project "The Categories of Human Language" being carried out by R. M. W. Dixon and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald were also
Typological profile 19 helpful in trying to make the information presented here as complete as possible. 1.6. Typological profile Qiang is a largely agglutinative language, with some phonological processes of vowel harmony, lenition, and morpheme coalescence. Nouns take only a limited number of optional suffixes with restricted distribution, while verbs take up to three prefixes and four suffixes. Except for nominalizing suffixes and the causative suffix, which are derivational, all other verbal affixes are inflectional. Reduplication of verbs is of the whole root, and with active verbs it signifies reciprocal action (and intransitivization) or an iterative sense; with stative verbs it signifies intensification or plurality. Qiang has a rather complex phonological system, with thirty-seven initial consonants, including voiced and voiceless fricatives at seven different points of articulation and many consonant clusters. Unlike most Tibeto-Burman languages, Qiang has many consonant finals, including clusters, due to the collapsing of two syllables into one (there is a tendency towards monosyllable words). There are two open lexical classes: nouns, those forms which can take definite marking and number marking, and verbs, those forms which can take the negative prefix and person marking (see Chapters 3 and 4 respectively). Adjectives are a subset of the verbs, and can be identified as a set by their semantics and their morphosyntactic behavior (§4.2.3). Closed lexical classes include pronouns (including demonstratives, interrogatives, and personal pronouns; §3.1.2), classifiers (§3.1.6), postpositions (§3.2), definite/indefinite markers (§3.1.4), clause-final particles (§4.3), and adverbs (§4.4). Of these the pronouns and classifiers are subsets of the nouns. Qiang has both head marking and dependent marking. Noun phrases can take enclitic postpositions to show their semantic or pragmatic role in the clause (§3.2), and there is person marking of an animate actor and/or an animate non-actor on the verb (§4.3.2). There is no other agreement marking in Qiang. Qiang has not grammaticalized syntactic relations (i.e. there are no syntactic pivots--see Van Valin & LaPolla 1997, Ch. 6 on this concept); the postpositions and person marking are
20 Introduction of the semantically based type discussed in Dixon 1994, Ch. 2. The use of the topic marker, and to some extent the non-actor person marking, are controlled by pragmatic factors. While the word order is generally verb-final, the order of noun phrases is determined by pragmatic factors. Negation precedes the verb, while modal and aspect marking follow the verb. Within the noun phrase, the noun head can be preceded by a genitive phrase or relative clause, and may be followed by an adjective, a demonstrative pronoun or definite marker, and a numeral plus classifier phrase, in that order. There are intransitive, transitive, and ditransitive verbs, plus some ambitransitive verbs where the single argument of the intransitive use corresponds to the actor of the transitive use. Transitives can be formed from intransitives, or ditransitives from transitives, by the addition of the causative suffix. There is no intransitivizing marking other than the reduplication that marks the reciprocal. When a verb is part of a predicate (verb complex), it can be preceded by an adverbial, a directional prefix, a negative marking prefix, and an aspectual prefix, and can be followed by the causative suffix, aspectual suffixes, and person marking suffixes. This complex can be followed by clause final particles marking illocutionary force, modality, mood, and evidentials.
Chapter 2 The phonological system
In the context of Tibeto-Burman, the phonological system of Qiang is rather complex, as there are a large number of consonants, both in initial and final position, and a large number of complex consonant clusters, also both in initial and final position. In particular, having such a variety of consonant finals and clusters sets it apart from most other SinoTibetan languages. While the basic vowel inventory is not large, there are phonemic length and r-coloring distinctions. There is also a complex system of vowel harmony, and there are vowel changes due to differences in stress. We will discuss and exemplify the consonant system in §2.1, the vowel system in §2.2, the syllable canon in §2.3, and phonological processes in §2.4. Sound symbolism does not seem to play a significant role in the language. The only somewhat sound symbolic form found was the use of /°a/ for the meaning `small' instead of the usual word /t®е/ (which is very un-sound-symbolic!) in one example:
(2.1) moЩu-°a-kе:
wind-small-INDEF:CL DIR-exist
`There is a light wind (blowing)!'
The only iconic forms are the ideophonic adverbials, such as /uе uе/ `the sound of water flowing' (see §4.4 for examples of these adverbial uses).
2.1. Consonants There are thirty-seven consonant phonemes found in the Qiang language, as listed in Table 2:
22 The phonological system
Table 2. The Qiang consonants labial dental
uvular glottal
voiceless stop voiceless aspirated stop
voiced stop
voiceless affricate voiceless aspirated affricate

voiced affricate

voiceless fricative (f) s

voiced fricative
В (%) ()

voiceless lateral
voiced lateral
The items in parentheses in Table 2 are not phonemic: [%] is an allophone of /В/ in initial position; [] and [©] are voiced allophones of /°/ and /x/, respectively, when they appear as the first consonant of clusters where the second consonant is voiced (see the discussion of clusters below). A glottal stop can also often be heard when there is an absence of any other initial, but it does not contrast phonemically with a pure vocalic onset. There also does not seem to be a contrast between /u/ and /wu/ or /i/ and /ji/, but I am using the symbols /j/ and /w/ rather than /i/ and /u/ respectively for the relevant sounds when they appear in syllable-initial position to allow for easy syllable recognition in words such as [tiwike] Жa tall onefl. As these sounds do not follow the voicing harmony pattern of consonant clusters (that is, they can be preceded by a voiceless consonant, as in the second syllable of /Веuе/ Жinsidefl),
Consonants 23
they are clearly within the vocalic segment of the syllable and not part of the initial, and so I have not used /j/ and /w/ when they are not the intial sound in the syllable (to avoid them being confused with consonant clusters). All of the phonemic consonants can be initials, though /ї/ only appears as the initial of one of the directional prefixes and a commonly used filler/emphatic interjection /їе/, and // only appears as an initial before the vowel /u/. Many of these consonants (almost all except the aspirated stops) can be finals. The large number of finals is not due to the preservation of Proto-Tibeto-Burman finals; all of the original Proto-Tibeto-Burman finals were lost (cf. Liu 1984, Benedict 1983, Huang 1998). Only in Chinese loan words can the finals be said to be "original". After the loss of the original finals, and the destressing of second syllables in two syllable compounds, the two syllables merged, with the initial of the original second syllable, or a reduced form of it, becoming the final of the original initial syllable (e.g. [sf] Жtreefl < /s/ Жwoodfl + /ph/ Жforestfl, where /ph/ reduces to [f] in non-word-initial position due to the stress on the initial syllable; see §2.3). Following are examples of single consonant contrasts in initial position:
pе phе bе fе mе wе tе thе dеs tsе tshе-thе dzе sе zе nе ¬е lе
Жbloom (vi.)fl
Жsun (clothes) (vt.)fl °е-
Жmother (address term)fl °i
(verb particle)
Жwear a hatfl
Жfinish (v.)fl
jе ku

Жwipefl (< Ch.)
gеn khu
Жrice ladlefl

Жwolffl (< Ch.)
Жstonefl INDTV prefix Жwherefl Жdrink (1sg)fl Жreleasefl Жbearfl Жbrotherfls sonfl Жandfl Жivoryfl Жgo (1sg)fl Жrice huskfl11 Жsnap buttonfl (< Ch.) Жfragrantfl Жsilverfl 1sg pronoun Жbitterfl Жgrassfl
24 The phonological system
Жfilter, strain (solids)fl Ще
locative postposition
hе-i Жtwelvefl
hе-qе Жgo upfl
Жborder (garments) (vt.)fl їе-qе Жgo downfl
Following are examples of single consonants in final position:
®uеp Щuam еf wet ws dВuz t®uеts t®huen ju-®pul t®h®
Жtorchfl Жservantfl Жgrassfl Жstickfl Жeggfl Жchew the cudfl Жtablefl (< Ch.) Жtread onfl (< Ch.) Жfistfl Жspiderfl
t®ht® Жweigh (vt.)fl
Жland otterfl
®pet° Жpatch (vt.)fl
jimig`u Жtracefl
t®ho-thе Жaggressivefl (< Ch.)
t®ue Жhave the mumpsfl
Жexit (v.)fl
Phonemically, consonant clusters are formed by /®/ followed by /p, t, k, q, t°, b, d, g, m, d/, /x/ followed by /k, s, t°, ®, t®, ¬, l, z, d, В, dВ/, or // followed by /q, s, ®, t®, ¬, l, d, z, n, d, , В, dВ/. Phonetically the situation is more varied, as /®/ becomes [s] before /t/ and /d/, and becomes [°] before /pi/, /pe/, /bi/, /t°/ and /d/,12 and the preinitials all become voiced before voiced initials. Following are examples of the various consonant clusters in initial position.
mi:-xkеm Жeyebrowfl
Жentrust tofl
xt®еp Жpitch darkfl
xt°epi Жknifefl
Жbarking deerfl
x¬iex-buВ Жloess soilfl
®ku Жthieffl
su ® t®u ¬u ¬еte Вbu Вgue Вmu di Щduе Щlu Щni
Жliving, to be alivefl Жmanurefl Жsixfl Жhawkfl Жwavefl Жdrumfl Жfoxfl Жcorpsefl Жdiseasefl Жhammer (n.)fl Жstonefl Жkind of wild goatfl
Vowels 25
®qе-i ©lu ©z ©Вem qu ©dВ
Жdicefl Жroll (v.)fl Жhot (peppery); numbfl Жrice gruel, congeefl Жgoldfl Жenoughfl
Щzu ЩdВs Щis °pies °t°i:mi bie
Жchisel (n.)fl Жtoenailfl Жspring (of water)fl Жnoodlefl Жheartfl Жsoak (barley to make wine)fl
Examples of some clusters in final position:
t®hex¬ w® l©z ©l
Жsip (vt.)fl Жhorse dungfl Жbookfl Жuprightfl
dВе°t° lax® xt®
Жlaugh (v.)fl Жpalm (of hand)fl Жshade (vt.)fl
2.2. Vowels 2.2.1. The basic inventory
There are eight vowel positions, seven of which show a phonemic contrast in length. Table 3 gives the forms for all the Qiang vowels:
Table 3. The Qiang vowel inventory
i, i: y, y:
u, u:
e, e:

o, o:
a, a:
е, е:
The functional loads of the /u/-/o/ contrast and the /i/-/e/ contrast are not very great: in many cases /o/ and /u/ are interchangeable, and /i/ and /e/ are interchangeable. Aside from this, /o/ can also be pronounced [ш], and /e/ is often pronounced []. The length contrast in some cases is lexical, but in many cases it is grammatical, reflecting a collapsing of a lexical item and a following classifier or locative postposition, or reflecting the prospective aspect marking, as in the following examples:
(2.2) a. the b. t°е
Жthatfl + ze (CL) > the: Жwherefl + lе (LOC) > t°е:
3sg pronoun Жwherefl
26 The phonological system
c. dytе ЖChengdufl + lе (LOC) > dytе: Жin/at Chengdufl
d. qpеt® Жheadfl + lе (LOC) > qpеt®е: Жat the headfl
e. k
Жto gofl + е: (PRS) > kе:
Жwill gofl
There is also nasalization of some word-initial high vowels, such as in the second person singular pronoun /ч~u/, but this may be related to what Matisoff (1975) has called rhinoglottophilia, the spontaneous nasalization of vowels when they are preceded by a glottal segment (see also the affirmative reply [ч~h~], § Following are examples of the vowel contrasts in open syllables:
pi pe paha p pе po pu mi mi: phi-phi se s
Жpen, writing brushfl Жsnowfl Жstrawfl Жbuyfl Жbundle (CL)fl Жthick (e.g. thread)fl Жpint, 1/10 peckfl Жhuman beingfl Жeyefl Жdigfl Жsprinkle (vt.)fl Жday; woodfl
bе ba ba: khstе bеhе dytе: t°o do: ku-thе ku: gu gu:
Жoldfl Жbigfl Жclothfl Жhusbandfls motherfl Жremotefl Жin/at Chengdufl Жten fen (cents)fl Жchinfl Жhire, to employfl Жelder brotherfl Жable to fit infl Жplow-sharefl
Examples of some of the vowels in closed syllables:
phi® Жwhitefl
Жpowderfl (< Ch.)
dam Жforgetfl
buВ me:fi pho® bеq
Жdrizzlefl Жvulvafl Жscarffl
2.2.2. Diphthongs and triphthongs Aside from the monophthongs listed above, there are fourteen native diphthongs (/ia, iе, ie, ye, eu, u, ei, i, oi, uе, ua, u, ue, ui/) and one native triphthong (/ui/). Another diphthong, /ya/, only appears as a result of person marking, as in /t°ya/ ЖI carryfl, from /t°ye/ + the first
Vowels 27
person suffix /-е/ (when /е/ is added to a root ending in /-e/, /-i/, or /-y/, the resulting form is generally /-a/; see §4.3.2). There is also a longvowel form of this diphthong (/t°ya:/), which appears only in the prospective aspect, as the prospective aspect marker is the suffix /-е:/ and is subject to the same assimilatory process (see §4.3.4). Among the native diphthongs there are both on-glides and off-glides. Some forms also show length and r-coloring distinctions (see below, §2.2.3). Aside from these native forms, there are two off-glide diphthongs (/ai/, /au/) and two triphthongs (/uai/, /iеu/) that appear only in Chinese loan words (see examples below). In theory, all of the native diphthongs should be able to appear in both open and closed syllables, as originally, before the coalescence of two syllables into one that gave rise to the consonant finals, all were open syllables, but no unmarked lexical examples of /i, oi, ye, eu, ui/ in closed syllables have been found. Even so, for those diphthongs where there are no lexicalized closed syllables, closed syllables could be formed by the addition of certain grammatical morphemes, such as the agentive nominalizer /-m/, the instrumental nominalizer /-s/, the comparative standard marker /-s/, and the genitive marker /-t°/. Following are examples of each type of diphthong and triphthong. Examples of the native diphthongs and triphthong in open syllables:
mia-pi phie ei-i i®pi doЩoi t°ye t°u (°t°y) heu phiе-que
Жplant (vt.)fl
Жnext yearfl
ku ®е
Жmotherfls brotherfls wifefl gue-i
Жcall to, summon (vt.)fl guefi
Жhoe (n.)fl
Жrepay (debt)fl
Жoutsidefl Жleftfl Жhave diarrheafl Жnearfl Жarmyfl Жroadfl Жafternoonfl Жmountain goatfl
Examples of the native diphthongs in closed syllables:
ji-miaq pies stu® tkhueВ
Жthumbfl Жmeatfl Жpot luck mealfl Жanger (vt.)fl
®uaq duеЩl tus
Жmoonlightfl Жcurved knifefl Жcarrying polefl
28 The phonological system
Examples of diphthongs and triphthongs due to Chinese borrowings:
Жplaying cardsfl
t°еu-ts Жdumplingsfl
kuеi-thе Жblame (vt.)fl phiеu-ts Жpaper moneyfl
2.2.3. R-coloring
An additional aspect of the vowel system is r-coloring, which is a retroflexion of the tongue at the end of the vowel. At least four of the basic vowels show a contrast in lexical items (i, e, , a),14 and all vowels can take r-coloring when they are the final vowel of a verb with first person plural marking (which is /-fi/; see §4.3.2). This r-coloring is often lost in rapid speech, and it seems that it is being lost completely among the younger people, as there is variation and uncertainty about its use. The r-coloring also often appears on words followed by the expression meaning Жallfl. This meaning is variously expressed as [wu], [le-wu], [©le-wu], [lefiwu], [-efiwu], and [-fiwu]. In the case of the latter form, the final vowel of the previous word becomes r-colored, e.g.:
(2.3) a. tsе-sfiwu b. е-sfiwu c. е-jfiwu d. mifiwu
[this:one-few (< s):all] [one-day (< е-s):all] [one-night (< е-j):all] [person (< mi):all]
Жall thesefl Жall dayfl Жall nightfl Жall the peoplefl
While the r-coloring is used to represent Chinese final /-fi/, /-n/ or /-/ in nativizations of some Chinese loan words (e.g., /fefi/ Жcentfl < Chinese f--en; /thiеukfi/ Жspoonfl < Chinese ti|aog--eng), and may in some cases be due to either the historical evolution of a post-initial retroflex segment (/%/ or /В/ e.g., *phri > phifi; see Huang 1992:154, 157) or to synchronic assimilation to a following retroflex consonant, it is not treated here as a consonantal phoneme, as it participates in the vowel harmony scheme (see §2.4.3). Following are some examples of contrasting r-colored and non-r-colored vowels, and long and short r-colored vowels.
Жsprinkle (vt.)fl
sefi fu
Жmourning apparelfl
se:fi-muj`u Жmushroomfl
khstе khfi phi-phi
Жhusbandfls motherfl Жsaw (vt.)fl Жdigfl
Жday; woodfl
Жwillow treefl
Жface southfl)15
Жexist/be atfl
Examples in closed syllables:
khefix pеfi z-tefim pefiВ
Жcombfl Жclawfl Жearthquakefl Жbreed, raise (vt.)fl
phifi-phifi pеuuеfi gufi gu:fi
Vowels 29 Жrip (v.)fl Жshavingsfl Жarmyfl Жroadfl
їa-khfip dy-gfim Щfip
Жgo blindfl Жdoorkeeperfl ЖHan personfl
2.2.4. Morphologically derived vowel forms
The following are vowels and diphthongs that only appear in morphologically derived verb forms:
(< tse)
(< p)
(< qhu)
(< t°y)
phiefi (< phie)
phia: (< phie)
phia:fi (< phie)
(< gu)
(< gu)
guе:fi (< gu)
t°hyefi (< t°hye)
t°hya (< t°hye)
t°hya: (< t°hye)
t°hya:fi (< t°hye)
stua: (< stue)
stua:fi (< stue)
Жlook (PRS:1pl)fl Жbuy (PRS:1pl)fl Жfire gun (1pl)fl Жbring/carry (1pl)fl Жtill land (1pl)fl Жtill land (PRS:1sg)fl Жtill land (PRS:1pl)fl Жput on clothes (1pl)fl Жput on clothes (PRS:1sg)fl Жput on clothes (PRS:1pl)fl Жpen livestock (1pl)fl Жpen livestock (1sg)fl Жpen livestock (PRS:1sg)fl Жpen livestock (PRS:1pl)fl Жpull up weeds (PRS:1sg)fl Жpull up weeds (PRS:1pl)fl
30 The phonological system
2.3. The syllable canon
The coalescence of syllables resulting in the creation of new finals and clusters (discussed in §2.1) has affected the syllable canon, which is given in Figure 1:
(C) (Ci) (V) V (V) (C) (Cf) [fric] [glide] [glide][fric] Figure 1. The Qiang syllable canon
The minimum syllable type is a single vowel, such as one of the forms for the word for Жonefl: /е/. While a glottal stop often appears at the beginning of a syllable with no other consonant initial, there is no phonemic difference between glottal stop onset and vocalic onset.16 Glottal stops also often appear at the end of syllables with short vowels and no final consonant, but again, this is not phonemic. The initial consonant of the syllable may be any of the consonants listed in Table 2, but if there is a pre-initial consonant (i.e. the first consonant of a cluster), it must be a fricative.17 As the final consonant clusters derive from initial clusters, the same restriction applies: the first consonant of the two must be a fricative.18 Most of the combinations of the optional items given in parentheses in Figure 1 are possible forms in Qiang. I have not yet found an example where there is an off-glide and a following consonant cluster, though there is nothing in principle that would make this an impossible combination. Following are the possible syllable types and examples ("V" here is used for both full vowels and on/off glides within a single syllable):
е еu еs ® p khu kuеi-thе pеq bx®
Жonefl Жone pilefl Жone dayfl Жtightfl Жbuyfl Жdogfl Жstrangefl Жinterestfl Жhoneyfl
duеp xt®e ®kue ®kui ®pl ®ps ®quap °piex¬
Жthighfl Жlousefl Жroastfl Жmt. goatfl Жkidneyfl ЖChibusufl Жquietfl Жscarfl
Phonological processes 31 The VC and VCC forms are generally formed from a single vowel form, such as the number Жonefl or the Жinner-directedfl directional prefix (§4.3.3), plus a reduced form of a classifier or verb, respectively. The word in Qiang is defined on phonological grounds, as a free form with pauses at both ends within which the phonological processes discussed in §2.4 operate. It may include more than one grammatical word, such as when a directional verb follows a main verb and forms one phonological word with it. While very often bimorphemic, the word tends to reduce to a single syllable in the case of unmodified nouns and verbs. Huang (1998:64) counted 836 basic words, and found 444 were monosyllabic and 392 were bisyllabic or polysyllabic. Even when various derivational and relational affixes have been added the root may still be monosyllabic due to processes of syllable weakening and vowel dropping (see §2.4 below, and Huang 1998).19 There is no sense of `word' in the Qiang language (what we would call the sociological word), only /sе/ 'sentence'. Other than the word, we recognize the noun phrase, the verb complex, the clause, and the complex sentence as levels of grammatical structure. 2.4. Phonological processes In this section we will discuss the weakening of initial consonants, stress, vowel harmony and epenthesis. These phonological processes occur within a unit that can be defined as the phonological word. 2.4.1. Initial weakening Several types of initial consonant undergo a form of weakening when, due to derivation, they appear in non-word-initial position, particularly in non-syllable-initial position. This occurs both in compounds and when the directional prefix is added to verb roots. Following are some examples (see also Huang 1998; see §2.4.2 on the effects of the change in stress on the vowels): (2.4) ph > ± f: a. - DIR + ph Жblowfl > Жblow (imperative)fl
32 The phonological system
b. s Жtreefl + ph Жforestfl > sf Жtree/shrubfl c. d- DIR + phu Жescapefl > duu Жescaped (perf.)fl
(2.5) kh > x: a. me:fi Жrainfl + khfi Жfall (of frost)fl > mefix Жfrost (n.)fl b. n- DIR + khfite Жhit (people)fl > nxte Жhit (perf.)fl
(2.6) dz > z: - DIR + dzu Жsitfl > z`u`
Жsit (imperative)fl
(2.7) dВ > l:20 mе- NEG + dВ Жablefl > mе-l
Жnot ablefl
(2.8) b > w: a. t- DIR + b b. t- DIR + ba
Жpilefl > tw Жpiled (perf.)fl Жbigfl > twa Жbecome bigfl
When an aspirated initial becomes the final of a preceding syllable, losing its own vowel, it also generally loses its aspiration. For example, when the word /t°h/ Жdrink, eat (wet foods)fl takes a directional prefix (as in an imperative), it becomes [st°]. Comparing the Ronghong forms with those of some of the more conservative Qiang dialects, such as the Mawo dialect (Sun 1981a), we can see that a similar type of weakening has occurred historically to preinitial consonants in Ronghong. Compare the following Ronghong and Mawo dialect forms.
(2.9) Ronghong xs xs x®u°t° sutu sе ® ©z ©zifе ©В
Mawo khsi khs kh°ust qhsu qhsе qh® gz gziguafi gВ
Gloss Жgodfl Жnewfl Жhear/listenfl Жjumpfl Жknow/understandfl Жmanurefl Жgovernment officialfl Жwingfl Жfourfl
Phonological processes 33
2.4.2. Stress and its effects
Intonation is usually even in a clause, with no particular peaks on any one part of the clause. Stress is used for emphasis in, for example, imperative constructions, where the prefix and sometimes the root as well are stressed, but stress does not seem to be used for emphatic (focal) contrast, e.g. in English I came YESTERDAY with phonetic stress on yesterday, marking it as the focus of the assertion. To have emphatic focus on the verb in Qiang (e.g. the equivalent of English I BOUGHT this, I didn't MAKE it), it is necessary to use a cleft construction (see §5.2). Within individual words, in most cases, the stress is on a single vowel, with the other vowels being to different degrees unstressed. Changes in stress often occur when syllables form compounds, or when grammatical morphemes are added to root forms. In cases where the unstressed vowel is any vowel other than /i/ or /e/, that vowel may be reduced to [], devoiced, or dropped altogether. Following are some examples (stress is marked by an acute accent mark in these examples):
(2.10) a. їе- DIR + t®hе Жdeepfl + -В CAUS > ї|еt®hВ Жdeepenfl b. t- DIR + watsi Жshortfl > tw|еtsi Жbecome shortfl c. t°е- CON + watsi Жshortfl > t°|еwtsi Жstill shortfl
It seems in the examples of /watsi/ Жshortfl given in (2.10b-c) that there is a three-way pattern of stress and vowel form: without any prefix, the first vowel of the root is [a], with an unstressed prefix it is [е], and with a stressed prefix, it is []. In general there is a trochaic pattern of stress,21 which leads to the loss of second syllables in bisyllabic words, but the stress of a particular derived form depends on the number and type of syllables that appear in the particular word, and this effects the realization of the vowels. Compare the following two examples:
(2.11) a. ї|е-m-t°|о-xt®|еp-t° DIR-NEG-CON-dark-GEN Жbefore it got darkfl
b. ї|е-xt®p-ike DIR-dark-after Жafter it got darkfl
34 The phonological system
In (2.11a), there is stress on the continuative aspect prefix (as well as the directional prefix), even though it breaks the usual strong-weak stress pattern, as this prefix is always stressed, and on the root vowel, so the root vowel is realized as [е], whereas in the example in (2.11b), the stress is only on the directional prefix, and so the root vowel reduces to []. In cases where the final vowel of a compound or prefixed verb is /u/ or /u/, unstressing/devoicing often gives a rounded quality to the preceding syllable (e.g. the prefix). Following are some examples of words where this happens (I do not have a way to mark the rounding, but the initial syllables in the forms on the right are more rounded than they would be in isolation):
(2.12) a. a Жonefl + gu Жbasketfl > ag`u` Жone basketfullfl b. mе- NEG + u COP > mе`u` Жis notfl c. - DIR + dzu Жsitfl > z`u` Жsit! (imperative)fl d. a Жonefl + tu Жspanfl > еt`u Жone handspanfl
If the final is //, then it is simply dropped. We saw several examples of this just above, in §2.4.1. Following are some other examples:
(2.13) a. - DIR + dz Жeatfl > z Жeat! (imperative)fl
b. s- DIR + t°h Жdrinkfl > st° Жdrink! (imp.)fl
c. b Жbeefl + ® Жmanurefl > b® Жhoneyfl
d. tsu Жwaterfl + В Жoxfl
> tsuВ Жwater buffalofl
In some cases, where the final vowel of a bimorphemic compound that would otherwise be dropped becomes a non-final vowel due to the addition of a third syllable, the vowel takes on a full, harmonized form, e.g. [ps] Жtodayfl (< p-s), but [psu-quе] Жthis morningfl. This dropping of an unstressed final vowel is a regular phonological process, and has led to the total loss of the final vowel in some cases (i.e. it has lexicalized), e.g. there are two forms [pk] Жarrive therefl and [pl] Жarrive herefl. These are seen as indivisible lexical items by many Qiang speakers, yet they clearly derive from the verb /p/ Жarrivefl plus the deictic motion verbs /k/ Жgofl and [lu ± l] Жcomefl respectively. There is also a loss of an unstressed vowel when a prefix is added to forms whose base form is a reduplicated form. E.g.:
Phonological processes 35 (2.14) a. n- DIR + llе Жexchangefl > nllе Жexchangedfl b. t- DIR + t®ht®h Жweighfl > tt®t®h Жweighedfl Another type of vowel loss often occurs in certain combinations of demonstrative, number, and classifier (e.g. [tsou] < tse-o-u (this-oneCL) Жthis (child)fl) or definite marker, number and classifier (e.g. /tou/ < /te-o-u/ (DEF-one-CL) Жthe (child)fl). The word [tsai] Жnowfl is derived from such a coalescence: /tse-е-i/ (this-one-time).
2.4.3. Vowel harmony
In general, the pattern of vowel harmony is for the vowel of the first syllable of a compound or prefix + root combination to harmonize with the vowel of the second syllable or root. This is most common when the first vowel is //. The harmony pattern is generally roughly in terms of the height of the vowel: before /o/ or /u/ the first vowel becomes [o] or [u], before /i/ or /e/ the first vowel becomes [i] or [e], before /е/ and /u/ the first vowel becomes [е]. In cases where the first vowel is /е/ and the second vowel is /i/, then the first vowel often changes to [a]. Following are some examples (See also the examples of the kinship prefix in § and the directional prefixes in §4.3.3):
a. w Жbirdfl + b. m Жfirefl + c. ph Жforestfl + d. - DIR + e. - DIR + f. hе- Жtenfl + g. ji Жtwo +
®pu Жflockfl > -xu Жsmokefl > x®u Жroe deerfl > pi Жunclefl > tse Жlook atfl > t®i Жonefl22 > -su Жtenfl >
wu®pu Ж(wild) pigeonfl mux`u Жsmokefl phux®u Жwild animalfl ipi Жunclefl itse Жsawfl hat®i Жelevenfl jusu Жtwentyfl
R-coloring is also involved in vowel harmony: if the second syllable of a compound or prefix + root form has r-coloring, in many cases the first syllable also takes on r-coloring. E.g.:
(2.16) a. Щuе Жfivefl + khefi Жhundredfl > Щuеfi-khefi Жfive hundredfl23 b. me Жnotfl + wefi Жreducefl > mefi-wefi Жunceasinglyfl
36 The phonological system This shows that r-coloring is feature of the vowel, and so is not a consonant phoneme (see §2.2.3). There are also cases where the vowel harmony works in the opposite fashion, that is, the vowel of the second (or third) syllable harmonizes with the vowel of the preceding syllable, as in the following examples involving loan words from Chinese that take the Qiang verb /p/ Жto dofl (see §3.1.1 on loan words): (2.17) a. Chinese zh\aog\u + Qiang p Жto dofl > t®еuku-pu Жtake care offl b. Chinese w--ak«u + Qiang p Жto dofl > Щuеkhu-pu Жbe sarcastic offl
2.4.4. Epenthetic vowels
While there are many consonant clusters in Qiang, there are restrictions on the type of clusters allowed by the syllable canon. When there is a collocation of consonants due to derivation or compounding that results in a cluster of consonants not allowed by the canon, an epenthetic vowel (//) is inserted to break up the cluster. Following are some examples:
(2.18) a. di-t®hop-m [illness-cure-NOM (< -m)] Жdoctorfl
b. stuеhе-bl-m [rice, food-do-NOM (< -m)] Жcook (n.)fl
c. bl-s-je
[do-NOM (< -s)-good to eat] Жadvantageousfl
d. bl-В-mo-Щu [do-CAUS (< -В)-NEG-allow] Жhinderfl
e. iq-®
[black-too (< -®)]
Жtoo blackfl
2.4.5. Assimilation In Section 2.1 it was mentioned that there is assimilation of the first consonant of a cluster in terms of voicing and place of articulation to that of the second consonant of the cluster, with the phonemically posited /®/ becoming [s] before /t/ and /d/, and [°] before /pi/, /pe/, /bi/, /t°/ and /d/, and all the preinitials becoming voiced before voiced initials. Aside from this we also find assimilation of /l/ to [n] when it follows a nasal in rapid speech, as in [themne], an alternate form of the 3pl pronoun [themle], in several tokens of the word [lefiwu] Жallfl in the Texts pronounced as [nefiwu] when it followed [-hеn] Жkindfl (e.g.
Phonological processes 37 T5:54), and in several tokens of the definite marker /le/ in the Texts which were pronounced [ne], e.g. one token of [jin-ne:] (< /jin-le:/) Жmonkfls robefl in "The Story of a Lazy Man" (T5:163). Vowel harmony, both in the position of articulation and the retroflexion of the vowel, discussed in Section 2.4.3, is also a kind of assimilation.
2.4.6. Free variation
Quite a number of lexical items in Qiang allow variation of the preinitial, initial, vowel, or final consonant. Examples:
phi® ± phi ± phi mux`u ± mu`u ®quat® ± quat® qut ± qut° khesu ± khefisu
Жwhitefl Жsmokefl Жstealfl Жcoverfl Жeightyfl
iq ± ix fut ± futs xupе ± fupе ®qu ± qu
Жblackfl Жincensefl Жfurfl Жmouthfl
The most common of these is the /®/-// variation. There are also cases where there is variation not in the form of the final, but in whether there is a final or not, or whether there are two syllables or one, as in the following:
mutu ± mutup Жskyfl qhе ± qhеq Жbitterfl kеp ± kеpt® Жorphanfl
38 The phonological system
Chapter 3 The noun phrase In Section 3.1 we discuss the syntax of the noun phrase and certain individual elements of the noun phrase, plus modifiers of nouns within the noun phrase. In Section 3.2 we discuss the various roles the noun phrase can have in the clause and the different types of marking it takes when it has those roles. 3.1. Structure The structure of the noun phrase is generally head-initial, though a genitive phrase or relative clause (or both) precedes the head noun. The maximum structure of a simple noun phrase is as in Figure 2: GEN phrase + Rel. clause + Noun + ADJ + DEM/DEF + (NUM + CL)/PL Figure 2. The structure of the Qiang noun phrase Any combination of the above elements is possible, as long as they follow the order given above, though a numeral must be followed by a classifier. Classifiers also occur with demonstratives alone (i.e. without numerals). A demonstrative plus classifier expression, or an adjective plus (in)definite marking and classifier, or even (in)definite marking plus classifier alone, can be used alone as a noun phrase. Some items can be doubled, such as the adjective (no more than two can appear together24). When more than one adjective appears in a noun phrase, the relative order of the adjectives in terms of type of adjective (value, shape, quality, age, or color; see Dixon 1982) is the mirror image of that in English (i.e. HEAD^color^shape^age^quality^value), but the same if one thinks in terms of order relative to the head. Compare the examples in (3.1a-j).
40 The noun phrase
(3.1) a. Щuеt®е lеpе ba bowl flowery big Жbig colorful bowlfl
c. fе
phi® bе
clothing white old
Жold white clothingfl
e. mianpеu phi® mеt®е bread white soft Жsoft white breadfl
g. xt®epi dВ nе knife long good Жnice long knifefl
i. stei xs tse axe new sharp Жsharp new axefl
b. fе
phi® dВ
clothing white long
Жlong white clothingfl
d. fе
dВ bе
clothing long old
Жold long clothingfl
f. t®hets xs
Жgood new carfl
nе good
h. sf po ti-wi tree thick DIR-tall Жtall thick treefl
j. mi
xs tshimpe
person new smart
Жsmart young personfl
Modification of a noun by an adjective phrase can be done by either a non-nominalized post-head adjective, as in the examples in (3.1), or by a nominalized adjective in a pre-head relative clause structure. Whether a post-head adjective or a pre-head relative clause structure is used often depends on the complexity of the modifier: a complex modifier will appear in the pre-head relative clause structure, while the simple adjective will generally appear in the post-head position. Compare the following two examples:
(3.2) a. °t°imi nе-t° mi heart good-GEN person Ж(a) good hearted personfl
b. mi

Ж(a) good personfl
There is also a form where the head noun is followed by a nominalized adjective which is in apposition to the head, e.g. /mi ba-m/ [person bigNOM] Жa person, a big onefl (see §4.2.3).
Structure 41
The noun phrase may also be followed by postpositions and/or the topic marker (see §3.2). Following are some examples of complex noun phrases (the noun phrases are in brackets for clarity):
(3.3) [nes
th xs-zi]-wu
yesterday come-NOM Tibetan that three-CL-AGT
t®hets-le: de-°t°i-ji-t°i.
car-DEF:CL DIR-push-CSM-3pl
ЖThose three Tibetans who came yesterday pushed the car away.fl
(3.4) [qе ptsa-i
ba: iq tsa
1sg just.now-ADV DIR-buy-GEN cloth black this
i-j-t®]-ui qе ч~u de-le °t°еq-lu-е.
one-two-feet-TOP 1sg 2sg DIR-give heart-come-1sg
ЖI want to give you these few feet of black cloth that I just
(3.5) [the:-t°-t°iЩuе bе the-zi] pienе-lе [Веwе ba xs-zi] 3sg-GEN-house old that-CL beside-LOC rock big three-CL ®. exist ЖThere are three big rocks beside that old house of his.fl
(3.6) [t°ile ns
1pl yesterday DIR-arrive-come-NOM younger.brother-DEF:CL
umt®i u.
(name) COP
ЖOur brother who returned yesterday was Xumt®i.fl
This last example has both a genitive phrase (though one not marked by the genitive postposition) and relative clause preceding the head noun. In some instances, an adverbial noun phrase is formed from a combination of a demonstrative and a numeral plus classifier or measure word. In these cases it is as if the demonstrative pronoun precedes the head, though it is the normal order for DEM + (NUM)-CL.25
(3.7) a. tse Жthisfl + е Жonefl + p Жyearfl > tsp Жthis yearfl b. the Жthatfl + е Жonefl + s Жdayfl > thеs Жthat dayfl
42 The noun phrase
c. tse Жthisfl + е Жonefl + i Жtimefl > tsai Жnowfl
It is also possible to have noun phrases in apposition to pronouns or other types of noun phrases where they specify the nature of the pronoun or first noun phrase, as in the following examples:
(3.8) a. t°ile st®huеn mi 1pl Sichuan people Жwe/us Sichuan peoplefl
b. t°ile le©z su-m 1pl book learn/teach-NOM Жwe/us scholars/teachersfl
(3.9) Вmt®i-le:
е Вmt®i-stsim jautsan
emperor-DEF:CL COM emperor-wife man.eating.devil
demi s-l . . .
(name) DIR-look
ЖThe emperor and his wife, the man-eating devil Demi, looked . . . fl
Kinship terms used with personal names follow this pattern as well (unlike the order found in Chinese), e.g. [upu-umt®i] ЖUncle Xumt®ifl. Noun phrases can be omitted if they are recoverable from the context. There is no system for distinguishing more important third person referents from less important ones, such as in an obviative/proximate system; there is only the topic/non-topic contrast (see §3.2.1), the person marking (see §4.3.2), and the definite/indefinite contrast (see §3.1.4). (See also the discussion of the pronoun /qupu/ in §3.1.2, below for something of an exception to this statement).
3.1.1. The noun The noun in Qiang may be defined as a free form that can be followed by an (in)definite marker26 and a numeral-classifier phrase or number marking, and is generally not predicative without the use of a copula. Some nouns can also take gender and diminutive marking. When acting as a noun phrase, they can be followed by the relational morphemes that are introduced in Section 3.2, and can appear as the complement of a copula clause. Aside from being the head of a noun phrase, nouns can be used to modify other nouns directly (appearing immediately before the modified noun) or in a genitive phrase (also pre-head, with or
Structure 43
without a genitive postposition). There does not seem to be any semantic restriction on the class of nouns (e.g. only words with concrete reference). In terms of structure, a noun may be as simple as a single monosyllable, or it may be a complex construction consisting of two nouns, one modifying the other, two tightly coordinated nouns, a nominalized verb, a noun plus classifier, or a noun plus verb combination. As in all Sino-Tibetan languages, in the case of compound nouns where one noun modifies the other, the modifying noun must always precede the modified noun, as in (3.10):
(3.10) a. s-Щuеt®е wood-bowl Жwooden bowlfl
b. bu-zd plank-ladder Жplank ladderfl
c. pie-ns pig-bed Жpig-penfl
d. b-x® bee-manure Жhoneyfl
In the case of tightly coordinated nouns, no mark of coordination is used, and the two nouns simply appear one after the other, as in (3.11):
(3.11) a. ep-ew father-mother Жparentsfl
b. tu-tuwa yngr.brother-older.brother Жbrothersfl
Lexicalized deverbal nouns are formed using one of two types of marking. The nominalizing suffix /-s/ is used to form instrumental, locative, and object nouns out of verbs:
(3.12) a. n Жsleepfl + -s NOM > ns
b. gu Жwearfl + -s NOM > gus Жclothingfl
c. dz Жeatfl
+ -s NOM > dzs Жgrainfl
d. susuе Жcalculatefl + -s NOM > susuеs Жabacusfl
In some cases a noun + verb combination is nominalized using the /-s/ suffix to form an instrumental noun phrase:
44 The noun phrase (3.13) a. pies Жmeatfl + qhua Жcutfl + -s > piesqhuas Жchopping knifefl b. fе Жclothingfl + jeji Жsewfl + -s > fеjejis Жneedle & threadfl c. t°ymi Жchildfl + bie Жcarryfl + -s > t°ymi bies Жbaby strapfl The nominalizing suffix /-m/ (< /mi/ Жmanfl) is added to a verb or noun + verb combination to form an agentive noun (this term from Comrie & Thompson 1985), that is, one which refers to an animate being, generally a person (Жone who . . .fl): (3.14) a. Щua Жhelpfl + -m > Щuam Жservantfl b. t°iЩuе Жhousefl + le Жexistfl + -m > t°iЩuеlem Жoccupantfl c. ma NEG + q Жhavefl + -m > maqm Жpauperfl Comrie & Thompson (1985) divide lexical nominalizations into two major categories, Жname of activity or statefl and Жname of an argumentfl, and divide the latter into six sub-types: Жagentive nounsfl, Жinstrumental nounsfl, Жmanner nounsfl, Жlocative nounsfl, Жobjective nounsfl, and Жreason nounsfl. Qiang does not seem to have any nominalizations of the Жname of activity or statefl type, and within the Жname of an argumentfl type have no Жmanner nounsfl or Жreason nounsfl formed by lexical nominalization have been found. Examples of the other types were given above. Nouns can also be formed from adjectives (reduplicated or not) by simply adding one of the definite markers after the adjective: (3.15) a. iq Жblackfl + le: DEF:CL > iqle: Жthe black onefl b. ba Жbigfl + te: DEF:CL > bate: Жthe big onefl c. tiwi Жtallfl + ke: INDEF:CL > tiwike: Жa tall onefl There are few clear examples of nouns formed from a noun plus a classifier in Qiang (though this method of forming nouns is found in other Sino-Tibetan languages, e.g. Chinese; see Chao 1968:396). One example is the word /t°isе/ Жroomfl, from /t°i/ Жhousefl plus /sе/, the classifier for rooms and sections. The nouns formed from a noun plus verb combination without overt nominalization are sometimes straightforward, such as [s-ste] Жfire
Structure 45
tongsfl, from Жfirewoodfl + Жpick up with chopsticksfl, but often they involve a verb that is uniquely used for the action involving that noun, and it isnflt clear whether the noun was formed from a monosyllabic noun plus the verb, or the verb was formed from part of the original disyllabic noun. Most of the examples are natural phenomena.27 Following are some examples:
(3.16) a. mefix Жfrostfl < me:fi Жrainfl + khefi Жfall (of frost)fl b. zdqhu Жfogfl < zd Жcloudfl + qhu Жdescend (clouds)fl c. tspе Жicefl < ts Жwaterfl + pе Жform (of ice)fl d. mefig`u Жthunderfl < me:fi Жrainfl + gu Жthunder (v.)fl e °i®ue Жmoonfl < °i Жmoonfl + ®ue Жbrightfl28 f. lе(m)pе Жflowerfl < lе(m) Жflowerfl + pе Жto bloomfl29
In each case the verb can follow the combined noun plus verb form, e.g. /tspе p/ Жto form icefl, /zdqhu do-qhu/ Жfog formedfl, /lеmpе dе-pе/ Жflowers bloomedfl. There are many nouns which include an identifiable morpheme, but there is also an added final consonant relative to the usual form of the morpheme. This final consonant may be the result of compounding, though the rest of the original syllable has been lost, and so is no longer identifiable. In some cases, the form with the extra final consonant has the same or a very similar meaning to the plain form, but in some cases the meaning is quite different. The most common such finals are /-q/ and /-p/. The final /-q/ in many cases may be a remnant of /q/ Жheadfl. The use of a morpheme meaning Жheadfl in forming nouns would parallel the use of t|ou Жheadfl in Chinese, where it also sometimes changes the meaning of the root form and sometimes doesnflt, e.g. qu|an-t|ou [fisthead] Жfistfl, ch--о-t|ou [eat-head] Жthe quality of being good to eatfl. The suffix /-p/, as suggested by James A. Matisoff (p.c., 1997), may derive from the common Tibeto-Burman suffix *-pa. This is particularly likely in cases where the form with /-p/ refers to a type of person, as in (3.17a) and (3.17e), below. Following are more examples of both suffixes:
(3.17) a. t°ip b. zp c. mutup d. duеp
Жmasterfl Жearth, groundfl Жskyfl Жthighfl
< t°i < z < mutu < duе
Жhousefl Жground, landfl Жskyfl Жlegfl
46 The noun phrase
e. Щfip f. mziq-p g. ji-sеq h. qhеq i. °t°еq-lu j. ®uaq
ЖHan personfl
< Щfi
Жtalk in sleepfl
< mzi
Жfingerfl [hand-section] < sе
< qhе
Жthink of, wantfl
< °t°i
< ®ue
ЖHan personfl Жsleepfl Жsection, jointfl Жbitterfl Жheartfl Жbrightfl
There may even be related sets that have the same root but differ in terms of the finals, such as /liaq/ Жpenisfl and /lie®/ Жsperm, semenfl, though I do not have enough evidence to be sure of this sort of connection. Some nouns, particularly the names of some birds, are iconic with the sound the bird makes: /gug`u/ Жpigeonfl, /kuput/ Жcuckoo birdfl, /°t°i°t°еq/ Жmagpiefl. Another type of iconic noun is a sound that represents an action, such as in /mi: phq-phq-p/ [eyes-phq-phq-do] Жto bat the eyes, blinkfl. This type is rather rare. A large number of loan words are also used by the Qiang people. The majority of these loan words are from Chinese (the Southwestern Mandarin dialect), as there has been substantial contact with Chinese since at least the thirteenth century (Sun 1988), but there are also some loan words from Tibetan. There are in fact two or more layers of loans from Chinese, as there are older, harder to identify loans, such as /lup/ Жradishfl (< Chinese l|uobo) and /lе/ Жwolffl (< Chinese l|ang), and newer, more transparent loans, such as /kunt®hеntеn/ Жcommunist partyfl (< Chinese g\ongch«and«ang). As shown by Sun (1988), there are differences in the phonology and use between the old and the new loans. The Tibetan loans are generally old loans, such as /sin/ (or /sigi/) Жlionfl (from Sanskrit, through Tibetan). This form is now being replaced by the Chinese loan /sts/ (< sh--оzi) in the speech of the younger Qiang speakers. Tibetan loans are somewhat more frequent in the Qiang spoken by the Tibetans of Heishui County. The loan words which appear in the Glossary are identified as being from Chinese or Tibetan. (See also Liu 1981 on the Tibetan loans). When verbs (including stative verbs) are borrowed into Qiang, they are generally borrowed as nouns. In order to be used as verbs in Qiang, the suffix /-thе/ is added to monosyllabic borrowed verbs, and the verb /-p/ Жto dofl is added to polysyllabic borrowed verbs. Following are some examples:
Structure 47
(3.18) a. tuen-thе
b. ®-thе
Жspend (money)fl <
c. thеu-thе
Жwash (rice)fl
d. uе-thе
e. °unian-p Жtrainfl
f. tetsui-p Жoffendfl
g. phiphan-p Жcriticizefl
h. pethiеu-p Жchatfl
d--un ( sh«о ( t|au ( h\ua ( x\unli\an (8 ) d|ez\ui (V p--оp\an ( b«aiti|ao (
Even if the total phrase borrowed from Chinese involves more than one syllable, if the verbal part of it is monosyllabic, then /-thе/ is added, as in, for example, /phit°hi fе-thе/ Жto lose onefls temperfl (< Chinese f--a p|оq\о [emit temper]. In the case of verbs with the /-thе/ suffix, the borrowed verb, with the affix attached, is treated the same as a native verb, to the extent that it can take the directional prefixes, as in /s-phinthе/ Жmake levelfl (< Chinese p|оng), and can take the postpositive adverb /-wa/, as in /khuеi-thе-wa/ Жvery fastfl (< Chinese ku\ai). In the case of those loan words that take the native verb /p/, the prefixes are added to this verb, as in /thunt®-t-p/ Жnotifiedfl (< Chinese t--ongzh--о). A few adjectives borrowed from Chinese, such as /phin/ Жlevelfl, can be used as nouns or verbs, taking /thе-/ when they are used as verbs. Another small set of adjectives recently borrowed from Chinese, such as /°ian/ Жrarefl (< Chinese x--оhan) and /t°hikuai/ Жstrangefl (< Chinese q|оgu\ai), are only used as nouns, and take the copula if used predicatively. With a small number of adjectives (intransitive stative verbs), possibly older loans, instead of having the /-thе/ suffix, the form /-ti/ follows the borrowed form, e.g. /nin-ti/ Жfragmentary, piecemealfl (< Chinese l|оng), /lan-ti/ Жbluefl (< Chinese l|an), /jyuеn-ti/ Жroundfl (< Chinese yu|an). This suffix is itself a loan form of the Chinese genitive/ nominalizing particle de. Aside from direct loans, there are a number of items that might be calques on Chinese expressions. For example, /l©z-bie/ [Жbookfl + Жcarry on backfl] Жrecite lessons from memory, memorizefl is probably a calque on Chinese b\ei sh--u [Жturn back on, carry on backfl + Жbookfl] Жrecite lessons from memory, memorizefl.
48 The noun phrase Gender marking
In Qiang there is no division of nouns into gender (or other) classes, and so there is no marking of grammatical gender, only of natural gender. In fact, only animals are marked for gender. For female animals the suffix is /mi/, though in a few cases /miaha/ can be used (e.g., as /jy-mi/ could be either Ж(female) chickenfl or Жfemale musk-deerfl, /miaha/ is added to /jy/ for Жchickenfl); for male animals, the suffixes used are /zdu/ (for small animals), /В/ (for bovine only; this can be used alone to mean Жstud bullfl, or it can be suffixed to /soЩu/ Жcowfl), /-/ (for castrated male animals), /°i/ (for pigs), and /pi/ (for birds). Some examples:
(3.19) x®e-
Жmixed breed oxfl30 khu-(zdu)
x®e-mi Жmixed breed cowfl khu-mi
Жcommon cowfl khu-miaha
u/u-mi Жfemale cowfl
soЩu-u Жfemale cowfl
soЩu-В Жbullfl
Жmale pigfl
piej-mi Жsowfl
tshe-mi Жfemale goatfl
jy-pi (jy < t°y:)
Жdogfl Жbitchfl Жbitchfl Жcatfl Жmale catfl Жrabbitfl Жmale rabbitfl Жchickenfl Жhenfl Жcockfl
There seems to be a markedness difference, where the male and female animal names form a privative opposition, but in the case of the larger animals, it is the male name that is unmarked, whereas for the smaller animals, it is the female name that is unmarked. That is, for larger animals, using the unmarked form, e.g. /w/ Жhorsefl, the implication is that it is male, and female gender marking is needed to mean Жmarefl, whereas for the smaller animals, e.g. /puu/ Жcatfl, the implication is that it is female, and male marking is necessary to express the meaning Жmale catfl (cf. English cat vs. tom cat).
Structure 49 Diminutive marking
The diminutive, which is used only for animals, has one main form, /-t®u ± t®`u/ (< /t®u/ Жchildfl), and two forms with exclusive uses, /-Щl/ and /-zdue/. These latter two are used for dogs and sheep respectively. None of these forms is widely used, and when they are used, they have the concrete sense of Жchildfl. They are not used for hypocoristic or other abstract uses. The origins of the /Щl/ and /zdue/ forms are unclear. Examples:
(3.20) a. x®e-t®u ± x®et®`u Жcalffl
c. t°y-t®`u
e. khuе-Щl
b. owu-zdue Жkidfl d. tshe-zdue Жlambfl
It seems the word /wtshi/ Жsparrowfl might be formed from the word for bird (/w/) plus some sort of diminutive suffix, but it is the only such form found so far. The kinship prefix
The majority of Qiang kinship terminology (largely terms for the older generation) is comprised of a vocalic prefix plus a root. The form of the prefix depends on the vowel of the root (see §2.4.3 on vowel harmony). Following are some examples (see the Glossary for other examples):
(3.21) a. е-pе b. u-tumе c. i-pi d. i-mi e. u-pu f. i-t°i g. е-kuе h. i-®pi i. е-tsе
Жgrandfatherfl Жgrandmotherfl Жuncle (older brother of father)fl Жaunt (wife of older brother of father)fl Жuncle (younger brother of father)fl Жaunt (wife of younger brother of father)fl Жuncle (brother of mother)fl Жaunt (wife of brother of mother)fl Жhusband of fatherfls sister; brother-in-lawfl
An interesting feature of this system is that the male relatives on the father's side seem to be largely based on a /p-/-initial form, with the
50 The noun phrase
vowel of the root and prefix varying for the specific relation. In (3.21) compare Жgrandfatherfl, Жuncle (older brother of father)fl, and Жuncle (younger brother of father)fl, and also [ep] Жfatherfl, most likely a shortened form of *epe.
3.1.2. Pronouns Three persons and three numbers are marked in the personal pronouns, as shown in Table 4.
Table 4. The Qiang personal pronouns

the: / qupu
plural t°i-le чi-le them-le
There are two forms for the third person singular pronoun, /qupu/ and /the:/. The form /qupu/ is used to refer to a third person who has a close relationship to the speaker, such as a spouse (see the two examples in (3.22) below). It is also used as a logophoric pronoun, that is, in indirect quotes when the person quoted and the one being talked about are the same, as in (3.23) below.31
(3.22) a. qupu dytе:
їе-q. (Closely related to the speaker)
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go
ЖShe (my wife) went to Chengdu.fl
b. the: dytе:
їе-q. (Not closely related to speaker)
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go.
ЖShe went to Chengdu.fl
(3.23) the:i qе-tе
3sg 1sg-LOC thus-say 3sg
ЖHe told me he is not going to go.fl
mе-kе:-i. NEG-go:PRS-HS
The form /the:/ is a reduced form of /the ze/ (Жthatfl + classifier) Жthat onefl. It is the most generally used form. Secondarily, a reduced form of the proximate demonstrative plus classifier (/tse/ + /ze/ > [tse:]) is also
Structure 51 sometimes used. The third plural pronoun /themle/ is often pronounced [themne], due to assimilation. There is no exclusive/inclusive distinction in the pronouns, and there are no differences in the pronouns depending on semantic role or whether it is followed by a postposition, as is found in some Southern Qiang dialects, such as the Taoping dialect (Sun 1981, Liu 1987). While there are dual forms of the pronouns, the plural pronouns are not exclusively used for more than two referents; they can be used for dual referents when the precise number of referents is not important. The dual pronouns are used only for emphasis of the dual number. The dual and plural forms seem to be based on roughly the same root forms, but have different suffixes, [-zzi] (which possibly derives from a combination of /j/ Жtwofl and the classifier /ze/, or a combination of a form of the plural marker /©le/ plus /j/ Жtwofl and the classifier /ze/) in the case of the dual pronouns, and a form of the plural marker /©le/, discussed in §3.1.7, in the case of the plural pronouns. The pronouns can appear in all positions, can be used in imperatives, can appear in cleft and pseudocleft constructions, and can be used in answer to Жwho is that?fl: /qе uе!/ (1sg COP:1sg) ЖItfls me!fl, and the demonstrative pronouns can be used anaphorically, including for discourse deixis (see the Texts for examples). Pronouns do not seem to be used for non-specific reference. They can be omitted if recoverable from context. In fact they are usually dropped except when there is a change of topic or when they are needed for emphasis. Pronouns are freely used; there does not seem to be any restriction, in terms of politeness, on addressing someone with a pronoun, as in Chinese, except one does not usually use /the:/ for onefls spouse. Pronouns take the same cases and case marking forms as nouns. It is possible to associate numbers and classifiers with pronouns, as in the dual forms and in /t°ile s-t®/ (1pl three-classifier) Жus threefl. In pronoun-noun apposition constructions, all persons are possible, but only plural numbers are possible. There are no special adjectival forms of any pronouns; there are no special possessive/genitive pronouns (the postposition /-t°/ is added if necessary; see §3.2.15 on the genitive construction), and no pronominal possessive prefixes (such as those found in many other Tibeto-Burman languages), but the plural pronoun is generally used before kinship terms (this is considered more polite; e.g. /themle-tеt/ (3pl-Жfatherfl) Жhis fatherfl). No gender and no verbal
52 The noun phrase
categories are reflected in the pronouns. There are no reciprocal pronouns, as reciprocal meaning is expressed by reduplication of the verb (see §4.2.1). Except for the use of /qupu/ and the use of the plural pronouns before kinship terms, no status distinctions (familiar, honorific) are marked in the pronouns. There is no construction meaning ЖJohn and the othersfl involving pronouns as in Chinese (e.g. Zh--angs--an t--amen (Zhangsan 3pl) ЖZhangsan and the othersfl); instead the plural marker is used after the personal name, as discussed in §3.1.7. The demonstrative pronouns mark relative distinctions from the point of view of the speaker only. There are only proximate and distal forms,32 and there is no difference of visibility or not, or other factors. Table 5 gives the basic forms and several extended forms:
Table 5. The Qiang demonstrative pronouns singular plural locative
proximate tse
tsеhе thеhе
tsе / tsu / tsеkua thе / thu / thеkua
locative (side) tsex®e thex®e
extent/ method tsi thi
kind tsеhеn thеhеn
Aside from the main locative forms, /tsе/ and /thе/, given in Table 5, there are also two other less frequently used forms, /tsu/ and /thu/ that also mean Жherefl and Жtherefl respectively, but /tsu/ refers to a smaller, more immediate area around the speaker than /tsе/, and /thu/ means a place somewhat closer than /thе/. The third set of locative forms given in Table 5 include /-kua/ Жsidefl. The demonstrative pronouns are marked for number in the same way as nouns, by adding [е-hе], with the vowel of the demonstrative pronoun becoming [е] because of the addition of the word /е/ Жonefl, with which it coalesces. The demonstrative pronouns take the same postpositions as nouns, but cannot take the definite marker, as the demonstrative pronouns and the definite markers both fill the same functional slot. They must take a classifier (or numeral plus classifier), or the vowel can be lengthened to represent a classifier (e.g. /tse-ze/ or /tse:/). The one exception to this is the discourse deixis use of /the/ in the phrase /the-wu/ [that-ABL] Жafter thatfl to refer to a previously mentioned action or set of actions (see T3:29, T5:130, T5:191, T6:191, T6:228, T6:242, T6:284 for examples). When the number following the
Structure 53
demonstrative pronoun is Жtwofl, the combination of pronoun + number + classifier results in [tsizzi] and [thizzi]. The same form of the demonstrative pronoun is used for both free pronoun and adjectival uses. Demonstratives are also used in a number of temporal adverbials, such as /tsai/ Жnowfl < /tse/ Жthisfl + /е-i/ Жone timefl. In the Texts demonstrative pronouns often take the prefix /їе-/, which acts as an intensifier. For example, [їе-thе] would represent a place farther away than [thе] Жtherefl. Following is a list of the interrogative pronouns:
(3.24) a. s-(le:) b. t°е-lе ± t°е: c. i©i d. i©i-le: e. i©i-la-kua f. i©i-lai g. i-kai h. a-wu / a-we i. i©i-uе-i j. i-qs k. i-ke: l. t°ho: m е-tian
Жwhofl Жwherefl Жwhatfl Жwhich onefl Жwhich sidefl [what-DEF:one-side] Жwhat timefl [what-DEF:one:time] Жhow long (time)fl [what-INDEF:one:time] Жhow much/manyfl Жwhyfl [what-because-ADV] Жhowfl Жhowfl Жwhenfl Жwhat hourfl
The majority of the forms here are built around a general interrogative morpheme [е ± i ± o ± a], the most common derived form of which is [i: ± i©i] Жwhat, whichfl. The forms for Жwhofl and Жwhatfl can sometimes take the definite marker /le/, with the meaning of Жwhatfl becoming Жwhich onefl (Жwhich sidefl also includes this form and /е/ Жonefl). The form for Жwherefl includes the locative postposition /lе/. The forms for Жwhich onefl, Жwhich sidefl, and Жwhat timefl have the same structure, the interrogative pronoun [i©i] plus the definite marker, Жonefl, and a classifier, measure word, or locative noun, such as [kua] Жsidefl here, or as in [i©i-lе-tshuе] Жwhich village?fl. The form for Жhow long (of time)fl has roughly the same structure, but with the indefinite marker rather than the definite marker. A second option is to have the noun before Жwhichfl, and so Жwhichfl forms a modifier of the noun with the definite marker and classifier:
54 The noun phrase
(3.25) t°iЩuе i©i-leЪ-ta
house which-DEF:CL-LOC exist-Q
ЖWhich house does he live in?fl
The expression /i-qs/ [what-form] is used for the sense of Жhowfl in /pefi®en i-qs we/ [body what-form exist] Жhow is your health?fl. The form meaning Жwhyfl is that for Жwhatfl plus the adverbial marker of cause. The form for Жwhat hour?fl is the question particle plus the word for Жhourfl (< Chinese di«an; possibly a calque of Chinese j«оdi«an Жwhat time?fl plus borrowing). The expression [a-wu] Жhow much/manyfl involves the question word /a/ plus /wu/ Жmanyfl. When it is used, it follows the noun it is modifying, just as with numeral plus classifier expressions:
(3.26) a-t°
one-catty money-how.much COP-Q
ЖHow much money is one catty?fl (i.e., how much does one catty
cost; Жcattyfl = one unit of 500 grams)
Other units of time or measurement or classifiers can also be used with the general interrogative particle, as in the following examples:
(3.27) the: a-°i-t°-o-t°u-Ще 3sg WH-month-GEN-WH-day-LOC -p-l-uе? DIR-arrive-come-Q ЖWhen will he arrive in Chengdu?fl
dytе: Chengdu:LOC
(3.28) чile t°u-lе
е-t® В-i-wе?
2pl home-LOC person WH-CL exist-2pl-Q
ЖHow many people do you have at home (in your family)?fl
(3.29) ч~u-t°-tut®
2sg-GEN-yngr.brother WH-year exist-CSM-Q
ЖHow old is your younger brother?fl
(lit.: ЖHow many years does your younger brother have?fl)
Structure 55
The interrogative pronouns take the same postpositions as lexical nouns, and can appear in any preverbal position in the clause.
(3.30) a. ч~u s-е їе-q-n? 2sg who-COM DIR-go-2sg ЖWith whom did you go?fl
b. s ч~u-е їе-q? who 2sg-COM DIR-go ЖWho went with you?fl
There is only one unique indefinite pronoun, /i©i/ Жanythingfl, though the interrogative pronouns /s/ Жwhofl and /i©i/ Жwhatfl can also be used as indefinite pronouns, as in (3.31)- (3.33a-b). The indefinite pronoun /i©i/ contrasts with the indefinite use of /i©i/ in that /i©i/ is only used with a negated verb, while /i©i/ is only used with a non-negated verb. Contrast (3.33b) and (3.33c).
(3.31) s-(le:)
k °t°еq u-lu-tu,
s °е-k.
who-(DEF:CL) go heart DIR-come-LNK who INDTV-go
ЖLet whoever wants to go go.fl
(3.32) qе i©i dz-i i©i 1sg what eat-ADV what ЖWhatever I eat, (you) will eat, . . . fl
dz, . . . eat
(3.33) a. Q: ч~u i©i
dz topu-n-е?
2sg what eat like-2sg-Q
ЖWhat would you like to eat?fl
b. A: i©i l їe-si. what also DIR-allow ЖAnything would be fine.fl
c. ps-ui i©i
l de-me-zde.
today-TOP anything also DIR-NEG-hit
Ж(He) didn't hit (kill) anything today.fl
56 The noun phrase
Otherwise a construction such as /mi e: le/ (Жpersonfl + Жone (plus lengthening representing classifier)fl + Жexistfl) Жthere is a personfl or a nominalized clause is used for an indefinite referent.
(3.34) k-°t°еq-lu-m
go-heart-come-NOM DEF:one-pl:all INDTV-go-3pl
ЖLet all that want to go go.fl
Reflexive pronouns for first and second person are formed by reduplication of the regular pronouns. In the case of the 3rd person, there are the forms /ii/ (3sg reflexive) and /il(e)/ (3pl reflexive). It is also possible to add the third person pronoun before these latter forms. The reflexive pronouns exhibit person and number differences, as they are based on the regular pronouns, except that there are no dual reflexive forms. Table 6 gives the forms of the reflexive pronouns:
Table 6. The Qiang reflexive pronouns
(the:)ii ± i:
plural t°il-t°ile il-ile il-ile
The reflexive pronouns can be marked for case, with the same postpositions as nouns. There is no other way than by reduplication of the pronouns to express reflexive meaning.
(3.35) ii
Ж(S/he) committed suicide.fl
The reflexive pronouns are also used as emphatic pronouns. In some cases there is ambiguity between an emphatic and a reflexive use, but case marking can be used to differentiate the two, as in (3.36b,c). It would also be possible to have both an emphatic and reflexive use in the same clause, though this would be unusual.
Structure 57
(3.36) a. qеqi
ЖI hit myself/I hit it myself.fl
(ambiguous between emphatic and reflexive)
b. qеqi-wu
їе-tshuе. (emphatic)
ЖI myself smashed it (someone/something).fl
c. qеqi-tе
їе-tshuе. (reflexive)
ЖI smashed myself.fl
(< dete)33 (< tshu) (< tshu)
In some cases either type of marking (or no marking) may be possible:
(3.37) ч~iч~i:-(wu)/(tе)
2sgREFL-(AGT)/(DAT) take.care
ЖYou take care of yourself.fl
tu-pu-n. DIR-do-2sg
It is also possible to have benefactive, genitive, and other non-directargument reflexives, as in the examples in (3.38a-c).
(3.38) a. qеqi-t°
ЖI'll buy it for myself.fl
b. чiчi-е
ЖDonflt be mad at yourself.fl
c. Khumtsi
uncle-DAT thus
3sgREFL-GEN-dog-DEF:CL DIR-see-NOM NEG-exist-CSM
ЖKhumtsi did not tell her uncle that her dog is missing.fl
(lit.: ЖKhumtsi did not say to her uncle, the seeing of self's
dog does not exist now.fl)
58 The noun phrase
As can be seen from (3.38c), the antecedent of a reflexive/emphatic pronoun in Qiang does not have to be in the same clause as the pronoun. For emphatic genitives, it is possible to have a genitive phrase with a reflexive/emphatic pronoun, as in /qеqi-(t°)-fе-le:/ (1sgREFL-(GEN)clothing-DEF:CL) Жmy own clothesfl. Following are a few other forms that have uses like pronouns:
(3.39) a. e-©lewu [one-pl:all] b. mi [= Жpersonfl] c. nai [= Жotherfl] d. ut°uku e. ®®e:fiwu [exist:REDUP:all]
Жwe all, all of usfl Жother peoplefl Жothersfl Жeach, individuallyfl Жeverything; all of themfl
3.1.3. Locational nouns
One closed class of items within the general class of nouns is the set of locational nouns. There is a complex subset of locational nouns where the form for a locational noun meaning Жabove/upper partfl or Жbelow/lower partfl differs depending on the type of location. These are presented in Table 7, along with the locative postpositions they take if postpositions are used (see §3.2.20):
Table 7. Locational nouns for Жabovefl and Жbelowfl
type of location
above/upper part
river valley
story of building
below/lower part ql-(lе)±®ql-(lе) guaq-(tе) khi-(lе) t®h-(lе) wi-(lе) t°ike-(lе)
Aside from the forms given in Table 7, there are also the following forms:
(3.40) a. t°iquе b. Веuе c. Щuе-lе d. t°hupu
Жinsidefl Жinside (deeper inside than /t°iquе/)fl Жoutsidefl Жwhere the sun comes upfl
Structure 59
e. dВupu f. steke g. q:fi h. Вek`u i. pienе
Жwhere the sun goes downfl Жbehindfl Жin front offl Жbetweenfl Жnear, (be)sidefl
The forms for Жbehindfl and Жin front offl are also used for the temporal notions Жafterfl and Жbefore, long agofl (see §3.2.21). There is also some metaphorical use of body parts for certain locations, such as the use of /qpеt®/ Жheadfl for the top of a ladder (/buzd-te-qpеt®е:/ [plank.stairsDEF-head:LOC (LOC realized as a long /е:/ on Жheadfl] Жat the top of the stairsfl) in the story "An Orphan" (T3:114).
3.1.4. Definite, indefinite marking In this variety of Qiang it is usual to have either definite or indefinite marking on referential noun phrases. Generics and mass nouns are not marked this way. There are two definite markers, /le/ and /te/; /le/ is used more for animate referents and after nouns that end in voiced segments, while /te/ is used more for inanimate referents and after nouns that end in voiceless segments, though very often they are interchangeable. There is also an indefinite marker, /ke/, which marks newly introduced referents and predicate noun phrases. Newly introduced referents can also be marked with just a number (usually Жonefl) and a classifier. All three of these markers appear after the head noun and post-head adjective, if there is one, in the same position as the demonstrative pronouns, so cannot appear together with the demonstrative pronouns.35 They must be followed by a classifier or numeral plus classifier, though, as with the demonstrative pronouns, the classifier may simply be reflected in a lengthened vowel. The two definite markers can be used with proper names (though this is not common), but /ke/ cannot be used with proper names. All three can be used to nominalize adjectives (single argument state verbs), e.g. /iqle:/ or /iq-te:/ Жthe black onefl, /iq-ke:/ Жa black onefl, and occasionally to nominalize other verbs, especially existential verbs, as in (3.41a), and when it nominalizes other verbs it can have the sense of a simultaneous action or state, as in (3.41b), or simply a state, as in (3.41c). This latter
60 The noun phrase
sense is often expressed by using [kе-hеn] (INDEF:one-kind) instead of [ke:].
(3.41) a.
ep l me-Вi ew l me-Вi-ke: father also NEG-exist mother also NEG-exist-INDEF:CL u-ki-t°u. COP-INF :HS-PART Ж(I) am one who has no father or mother.fl
b. їe-zei-ke:
DIR-cry-INDEF:CL this:CL-behind DIR-go-NAR-PART
Ж(She) went (followed) behind him crying.fl
c. kеpt® tou-ui
orphan DEF:one:CL-TOP INT-this.manner
NEG-afraid-INDEF:CL exist-NAR
ЖIn this way the orphan was not afraidfl (lit.: ЖThere was the
orphan who was not afraidfl).
The use of /ke/ on a predicate noun (a non-referential noun which forms the main semantic content of the predicate) is not obligatory, but it is obligatory if /ke/ is acting as a nominalizer of a predicate noun formed from an adjective or verb. With dual forms, the number and classifier merge with the (in)definite marker to form [lzzi], [tzzi], and [kzzi]. When the plural marker /е-hе/ (§3.1.7) is added after any of these forms, the vowel of the definite/indefinite marker is supplanted by [е]: [lеhе], [tеhе], [kеhе]. The vowel of the definite marker often changes to [a] when it is followed by the locative postposition /Ще/, but in this combination the vowel of the postposition also changes, so /le:-Ще/ and /te:-Ще/ result in [la:Щa] and [ta:Щa], respectively, in rapid speech. As mentioned in §2.4.2, in some cases the definite or indefinite marker combines with the number Жonefl and a classifier to form a single syllable, e.g. [tou, lou, kou] (< /te, le, ke/ + [o] Жonefl + u Жclassifier for round objects and groupsfl). As mentioned above, the vowel of the (in)definite marker can sometimes be lengthened to represent the marker plus a classifier. That is, rather than have a classifier following, for example, /ke/, the vowel is
Structure 61
lengthened, e.g. /ke-ze/ > /ke:/. If a referent is known to the speaker, but not to the hearer, then the indefinite form is used; there is no difference in marking of specific vs. non-specific referents. Space relations between referents do not affect the form of the definite marking. Following are some examples of the differences in meaning the use of the markers can make:
(3.42) a. the: sum-ke-ze (or -ke:) u. 3sg teacher-INDEF-CL COP ЖHe is a teacher.fl
b. the: sum-le:
3sg teacher-DEF:CL COP
ЖHe is the teacher.fl
(3.43) a. qе pi-le:
1sg pen-DEF:CL search:1sg
ЖI am looking for the pen.fl
(< mefiВ)
b. qе pi-е-lе
1sg pen-one-CL search:1sg
ЖI am looking for a pen.fl
(< mefiВ)
(3.44) a. dytе:
k-t° t®hets-e-ze
Chengdu:LOC go-GEN car-one-CL (one of several cars)
Жa car that is going to Chengdufl
b. dytе:
k-t° t®hets-le:
Chengdu:LOC go-GEN car-DEF:CL (one specific car)
Жthe car that is going to Chengdufl
Following is the first part of one Qiang story, "An Orphan", to show how the definite and indefinite markers are used in context.
(3.45) qe:fi-qefi-tu before-before-LNK u-kei-t°u, COP-INF:HS-PART
їеlе INT ep father
l me-Вi
also NEG-exist
62 The noun phrase
also NEG-exist-INDEF:CL
їеlе ®kup-le:-ui
RESULT INT orangutan-DEF:CL-TOP INT-here
dz kеnt°hi-kui-t°u,
dz kеnt°i:
orphan-DEF:one:CL eat think/want RESULT INT
orphan-DEF:one:CL night-LOC DIR-dark:PRS-REP-LNK
qu-kp-ki-®, . . .
ЖLong ago (there was) an orphan, one with no father or mother.
The orangutan wanted to eat the orphan, wanted to eat the
orphan, (so) the orphan was afraid at night, when it will get dark
again, . . .fl
In the first line the orphan is introduced with the /ke/ indefinite marker (in this case combined with the number Жonefl and a classifier into a single syllable), and in the second line, in giving a characterization of the orphan as a person with no father or mother, the indefinite marker is again used, but after that (in lines four and five) the two definite markers are interchangeably used in referring to this referent. It is interesting that the /®kup/ Жorangutanfl is not introduced into the story, but is assumed at its first mention to be accessible to the audience. The /®kup/ shows up in a lot of Qiang stories,37 and is the typical bogeyman, and so is known to all the Qiang. It is for this reason that it does not need to be introduced.
3.1.5. Numerals and quantifiers The cardinal numeral system is a simple decimal system, with Жonefl to Жtenfl being unique forms, Жelevenfl to Жnineteenfl being Жtenfl + Жonefl, etc., Жtwentyfl to Жninetyfl being Жtwofl + Жtenfl, etc., and the numerals in between being Жtwofl + Жtenfl + Жonefl, etc., though the forms for Жtenfl used in Жelevenfl to Жnineteenfl and Жtwentyfl and up are different: /hе/ is used for the former, and /su/ is used for the latter. The forms of the basic
Structure 63
numerals differ somewhat in word initial and non-initial position; most notable, the prefixes are dropped from Жthreefl, Жfourfl, Жsixfl, and Жninefl. As mentioned in §2.3, this is significant because more recent word formations generally preserve the prefixes of second syllables. The bisyllabic numerals then must have been formed and fossilized at a time before the prefixes became inseparable parts of the root morphemes. The element meaning Жfivefl in Жfifteenfl, [-`u] more closely reflects the original form of the word Жfivefl in Proto-Tibeto-Burman (*b/l-е). It is unclear whether the initial /Щ-/ in /Щuе/ is the original prefix and has preempted the initial, or is a reflex of the original initial *-. Counting of the numbers is done without classifiers: [е, j, xs, ©В . . .]. All of the forms are the original Qiang forms, except for Жzerofl and Жten thousandfl, which are Chinese loan words. There are variant forms for Жonefl ([dВ ± t®i]) which appear in Жelevenfl, Жtwenty-onefl, Жthirtyonefl, etc., a form for Жtwofl ([i]) which appears only in Жtwelvefl, and a form for Жthreefl ([si]) which appears only in Жthirteenfl. The forms [dВ ± t®i] and /-i/ representing Жonefl and Жtwofl in combinations seem to be more direct descendants of the Proto-Tibeto-Burman forms *g-tik & *gtyak and *g-ni-s/k respectively (the reconstructed forms are from Matisoff 1997). Following are the basic numbers and combinations:
(3.46) lin е j xs ©В Щuе
Жzerofl Жonefl Жtwofl Жthreefl Жfourfl Жfivefl
t®u °t° khefi ± khe38 Вgu hot°u
Жsixfl Жsevenfl Жeightfl Жninefl Жtenfl
hеdВi ± hеt®i hеi hеsi hеВ hе`u hеt®`u hе° hеkhefi hеg`u jusu
Жelevenfl Жtwelvefl Жthirteenfl Жfourteenfl Жfifteenfl Жsixteenfl Жseventeenfl Жeighteenfl Жnineteenfl Жtwentyfl
khesu ± khefisu Жeightyfl
64 The noun phrase
e-khe ± e-khefi 100 e-khe-е-e:(eze) 101
е-stu е-Щuan
1,000 10,000
There are no ordinal numerals in Qiang; only Жthe most front onefl (= Жthe first onefl), Жthe one after this (one)fl (= Жthe next onefl), Жthe one after thatfl (= Жthe third onefl), and Жthe last onefl have special forms, but they do not involve the use of numbers.
(3.47) a. t°i-q:fi-le: b. ts-steke-le: c. th-steke-le: d. t°i-steke-le:
(most-front-DEF:CL) Жthe first onefl (this-back-DEF:CL) Жthe second/next onefl (that-back-DEF:CL) Жthe third onefl (most-back-DEF:CL) Жthe last onefl
Above the first three, the cardinal numbers plus classifiers are used as ordinal numbers, e.g. /©В-ze/ (Жfourfl + classifier) Жthe fourth (one)fl (= Жfour (of something)fl). Following are some other quantifiers:
(3.48) a. mifiwu [person:all] b. е-hе [one-pl] c. e-ze [one-CL] d. e-ze e-ze [one-CL] e. е-zе ± е-z [one-CL] f. izi [one:two:CL] g. е-i [one-time] h. hodu-ma-xt®e i. a®pala j. i©i-l k. lefiwu [pl:all] l. ®®e:fiwu [exist:REDUP:all] m. їе:n
Жeach onefl Жsome/a few (number)fl Жanyonefl Жone by onefl Жa little, some (quantity)fl Жseveralfl Жa little whilefl Жten oddfl Жsomewherefl Жwhat also; anythingfl Жeveryone/body; allfl39 Жeverything; allfl Жaboutfl
The modifier [е:n ± їе:n] Жaboutfl follows a numeral expression:
(3.49) ©Вusu-е-е-еu-їе:n
fourty-and-one-size-about wear(shoes):1sg
ЖI wear about a size 41 (of shoes).fl
(< t®u)
Structure 65
3.1.6. Classifiers and measure words
Classifiers are necessary whenever a number, demonstrative pronoun or (in)definite marker is used, though often the classifier is simply reflected in a long vowel on the demonstrative pronoun or (in)definite marker. The long vowel can represent almost any classifier. That is, there is a neutralization of classifiers in rapid speech when the classifier is replaced by the lengthened vowel. Only one classifier can be used with a noun at any one time. The classifiers in Qiang are not used to mark specific referents the way they are in, for example, Cantonese, though a number plus classifier can be used without a head noun to refer to a referent (see §3.1.5). The classifiers can be divided semantically into measure words and sortal classifiers, depending on whether they represent quantities rather than forms/functions, but syntactically they pattern in the same way. A number of both types, particularly measure words, are clearly related to nouns, e.g. /qu/ Жmouthfulfl < /®qu/ Жmouthfl, /t®е/ Жbowlfullfl < /t®е/ Жbowlfl; /sе/ Жclassifier for sectionsfl < /sеq/ Жjointfl. Following is a list of some common classifiers (the form of the number Жonefl is given with each classifier to show how it varies due to harmony with the vowel of the classifier--the vowels of all of the numbers from Жonefl to Жtenfl, except for Жsixfl, Жeightfl, and Жninefl harmonize with the vowel of the classifier; numbers above ten do not harmonize with the classifier):
(3.50) e-ze е-lе е-pе e-x®e e-tue e-tsi o-u
General (default) classifier, used for people, houses, belts, and many other types of objects, particularly if one is unsure of the usual classifier used. Used for stick-like, long, thin objects, and clothes (native word). Used for long stick-like objects (where the stick is a handle, e.g. a broom; < Chinese b«a). Used for one item of things that usually come in pairs, such as shoes and chopsticks. One pair (< Chinese d\ui). One pair (native word). Used generally for (small) round objects (such as steamed bread), but in some cases also for people (with the same semantics as [eze]).
66 The noun phrase
е-w е-t® e-pe е-t®е o-Вgu o-pu е-z e-fi ± i e-pi o-qpi e-kue е-q е-qut е-sе o-xo е-sе е-t`u e-ze е-p() е-Щuе e-®e е-s е-°() o-lu e-pen e-phin a-t®еn е-t° е-qp
Used for piles of things (cf. the verb /b/ Жto pilefl which becomes [w ± w] when there is a prefix, e.g. [tw] Жpiledfl).40 Used only for people (there seems to be no difference in the semantics or occasion of use of the three classifiers that can be used for people, though there is a difference in frequency, with [eze] being the most frequent). One bowl (of something). One bowl (of something) (< /t®е/ Жwooden bowlfl). One tree. One liter (of something). A little bit (of something). Used for flat, thin things, such as a leaf. The form for a unit of currency (< Chinese b\о). Used for a family of people. Used for a backload of things (< /kue/ Жto transportfl). Used for a string of small things, such as beads. One bushel (of something). One clause or other stretch of speech (< /sе/ Жsoundfl). One box (of something) (possibly < Chinese h|e). Used for sections (e.g. room of a house), joints (cf. /sеq/ Жjointfl). One handspan, thumb to tip of extended middle finger (< PTB *twa). One fathom (finger to finger with arms outstretched). One year (of time/age). One step (cf. /Щuеtsi/ Жto step over/acrossfl). Also used as a classifier for houses in some dialects (e.g. Qugu). One lifetime. One day. One month. One ounce (< Chinese li«ang). One volume (< Chinese b«en). One bottle (< Chinese p|оng). Used for flat things, like tables (< Chinese zh--ang). One catty (a unit of 500 grams) (< Chinese j--оn). One can/bottle (< /qp/ Жbottlefl).
Structure 67
е-g`u` o-Вbu е-hеn
One backbasketful (cf. /guaga/ Жbackbasketfl); also used as a classifier for houses. One team (of people). One kind/type (sometimes pronounced [еn]).
Of the two words for Жpairfl, /tsi/ is used for shoes, chopsticks, and (legs of) pants, while /tue/ is used for earrings and bracelets. Some of the classifiers are borrowed from Chinese. A borrowed word will not necessarily take a borrowed classifier, though. Where the semantics of the Chinese word fit a native classifier, then a native classifier will be used. There are also cases where a native Qiang word is used with a borrowed classifier. Following are examples of these different possibilities.
Qiang word-Qiang classifier:
(3.51) a. wets
chopsticks one-pair
Жone pair of chopsticksfl
c. jеpе e-x®e hand one-CL Жone handfl
b. khu e-ze dog one-CL Жone dogfl
Qiang word-Chinese classifier: (3.52) a. dzig`u e-pi money one-CL Жone dollarfl c. tolu е-pе broom one-CL Жone broomfl
b. l©z e-pen book one-CL Жone bookfl
68 The noun phrase
Chinese word-Qiang classifier:
(3.53) a. phi°ye e-tsi leather.boot one-CL Жa pair of leather bootsfl
b. thеnts e-ze blanket one-CL Жone blanketfl
c. pi: е-lе pen one-CL Жone penfl
Chinese word-Chinese classifier:
(3.54) a. phinko е-t° apple one-catty Жone catty of applesfl
b. t®uеts е-t®еn table one-CL Жone tablefl
c. phit°u e-phin beer one-bottle Жone bottle of beerfl
Verbal action classifiers precede the verb they modify. They are often derived from the verbs themselves, as in the case of (3.55c,d) below. Following are some examples (verb forms that might be used with these classifiers are given in imperative form in parentheses in the normal word order):
(3.55) a. е-® (ulu) b. o-qu (t°) c. e-¬i (t¬i) d. е-t®u (t®`u) e. е-xui (k) f. a-i (uz`ulu) g. e-zdue (їеn)
Ж(come in) one timefl Ж(eat) one bitefl (cf. ®qu Жmouthfl) Ж(hit) one timefl Ж(kick) one timefl Ж(go) one timefl (< Chinese h|ui) Ж(wait) a little whilefl Ж(sleep) one timefl
Structure 69
3.1.7. Number marking
Number marking on nouns involves only singular and plural. Singular is unmarked. There are two plural markers, /е-hе/ [one-pl] Жa fewfl, which is used for the vast majority of referent types, and [le] (< ©le Жfewfl), which is used only on pronouns, kinship terms, and some nouns referring to people. Following are examples of these latter two uses (see §3.1.2 for its use with pronouns):
(3.56) a. еp-le
b. upu-le c. it°i-le d. t°ymi-le
The full form of this latter marker, /©le/, appears only after the definite marker (possibly because the reduced form of the plural marker has the same form as the definite marker--the two are distinguished by the fact that the definite marker is followed by a classifier or has a long vowel), e.g. /t°ymi-le-©le/ (child-DEF-pl) Жthe childrenfl, /wut®hu-pu-m-le-©le/ (help-do-NOM-DEF-pl) Жthe helpersfl; in all other cases the form is [le]. Aside from this use of [le] (/©le/), there is no animate vs. inanimate or other distinction in plural marking, all types take /е-hе/. The plural marker follows the definite marker or demonstrative pronoun, if there is one. It was mentioned in §3.1.4 above that the vowel of the definite/indefinite marker is supplanted by the /е/ of /е-hе/, becoming [lеhе], [tеhе], or [kеhе]; this is true also of the demonstrative pronouns, e.g. /the/ + /е-hе/ > [thеhе]. When there is no definite marker or demonstrative pronoun, /е-hе/ can be used alone. Following are some examples of the use of /е-hе/:
(3.57) a. qhеl-lе-hе
qе de-l.
steamed.bun-DEF:one-pl 1sg DIR-give
ЖGive me the steamed buns.fl
(< le)
b. qhеl-thе-hе
qе de-l.
steamed.bun-that:one-pl 1sg DIR-give
ЖGive me those steamed buns.fl
70 The noun phrase
c. qhеl-lе-hе
steamed.bun-DEF:one-pl delicious-very
ЖThe steamed buns are very delicious.fl
d. the: qhеl-е-hе
3sg steamed.bun-one-pl DIR-buy
ЖHe bought some steamed buns.fl
A less prototypical use of the plural marking is when it follows a proper name in order to refer to that person Жand othersfl, as in the following example:
(3.58) t°iquе-lе upu-bs-lе-hе-ui
inside-LOC uncle-snake-DEF:one-pl-TOP liquor
ЖUncle Snake and others are drinking inside.fl
Plural marking is not used when a numeral + classifier phrase is used, and when plural marking is used, there is only one token of the number marking within a noun phrase. That is, there is no number marking on adjectives in agreement with nouns. In a noun phrase containing two coordinated plural noun phrases there may be one token of the plural at the end of the total noun phrase or one token at the end of each of the two coordinated noun phrases, e.g. [puu (lе-hе) е khu lе-hе] (cat-(DEF:one-pl) COM dog DEF:one-pl) Жthe cats and the dogsfl. Number marking on verbs is part of the person marking system (see §4.3.2) and unrelated to this system.
3.2. Nominal relational morphology In this section we discuss the forms and uses of relational morphology, essentially postpositions, which express relations between the verb and its arguments or between the arguments themselves, but also word order. In this section we are only dealing with marking which appears on the noun phrase; for relational morphology marked on the verb, see Section 4.3.
Nominal relational morphology 71 The semantic and pragmatic roles of the major arguments of a clause are mainly expressed by word order and postpositions. Postpositions are used for marking some topics, some agents, instruments, genitives, goals, recipients, locatives, ablatives, allatives, perlatives, temporal expressions, comitatives, and comparatives, among others. There is no vocative marking postposition. Postpositions are generally used alone, but there are some instances where a locative and the ablative postposition, or a semantic postposition (e.g. a locative postposition) and the topic marker, are used together. The postpositions are enclitic on the noun phrase, that is, they follow whatever elements appear in the noun phrase and generally form a phonological unit with the noun phrase. The use of postpositions after nominalized verbs or clauses is the same as after non-derived nouns and noun phrases. Below we will discuss each of the roles a noun phrase can play in a clause, and its marking when it has that role. See Section 3.2.22 for a form-function summary of the relational marking. 3.2.1. Topic The topic is the first noun phrase or postpositional phrase in a clause, regardless of its semantic role, and sometimes there is a secondary topic after the first topic. If there are two topics, one is usually a scene-setting temporal or locative adverbial phrase. The topic may be a lexical noun, a pronoun, or a nominalized sentential complement (with or without overt nominalization marking). It is optional to use the topic marker /ui/ after a topic, and when there are multiple topics it is possible for there to be marking on the second topic and not the first, as in (3.59b), below, or on both topics, as in (3.59c-d). That is, there could be no overt topic marking on any topic, or there could be marking only on the first topic, or marking only on the second, or marking on both, depending on which topic(s) the speaker wants to emphasize. This marking is unlike the other types of marking to be discussed below, as it marks a pragmatic rather than a semantic status. Following are some examples of its use:
72 The noun phrase
(3.59) a. dВ-ui qе the:-tе affair-TOP 1sg 3sg-LOC ЖI told him about the affair.fl
k-ji-wе. thus-say-3sgU:1sg
b. t°iquе-lе upu-bs-lе-hе-ui
inside-LOC uncle-snake-DEF:one-pl-TOP liquor
t®he-ki-st~u, . . .
ЖUncle Snake and others are drinking inside, . . .fl
c. tsе-tеu-tu-ui
this:one-time-LNK-TOP orphan-DEF:one:CL-TOP
gul їe-se-kei-stu . . .
this:one-few:all friend DIR-make-INF:HS-PART
ЖThis time, the orphan had made friends with all these, . . .fl
d. t°iquе-lе-ui t°y-le:-ui
inside-LOC-TOP chicken-DEF:CL-TOP call-go-NOM
he-°i-kui-st~u, . . .
Ж(Uncle Snake) while inside sent the chicken to come and
call, . . . fl
There may even be three topics marked in a clause, as in (3.60) (in this case the first topic is marked by position alone, while the second and third are marked by the topic marker):
(3.60) mе:-le:-wu
Mom-DEF:CL-AGT one-day-each-TOP wool-TOP
pеn-t°in-wu pеn-t°in t-t®h-i . . .
one-day half-kilo-INST half-catty DIR-weigh-ADV
ЖEach day Mom (takes) half a catty of wool and weighs it (to
make yarn balls).fl
The topic may also be a clausal complement or complex noun phrase in sentence-initial position. In this case it may or may not be followed by the topic marker:
Nominal relational morphology 73
(3.61) a. [ч~u ps mе-k] їe-m-si. 2sg today NEG-go DIR-NEG-allow ЖYou cannot not go today.fl (lit.: ЖYour not going is not allowed.fl)
b. [ptsa-i-z-p-ji-pеn-lе-hе]-ui

just.now-ADV-DIR-buy-CSM-thing-DEM:one-pl-TOP 1sg
the: de-l-wе.
(< le + w + е)
3sg DIR-give-3sgU:1sg
ЖI gave him the things that were just bought.fl
There is also a "double topic" construction similar to that described for Chinese and Japanese, where there is a genitive or part-whole relation between the first and second topics, and in this case it is possible to have a topic marker after the first noun phrase in the construction:41
(3.62) the:-ui skue
stomach pain
ЖHis stomach hurts.fl
The topic marker is often used for contrastive topics, as in (3.63) (from T6:17-18): (3.63) pit°-ui Вmt®i ®pi-®, q:fi-ui juеnЩuеi Вm. now-TOP emperor call-LNK before-TOP yuanwai be.named ЖNow hefls called emperor; in the past, he was called yuanwai.fl
In a noun phrase with a numeral expression modifying the head, the topic marker can appear between the head and the numeral expression, as in (3.64):
(3.64) Вb-ui xs-zi z-p-i
yak-TOP three-CL DIR-buy-ADV cowpen-LOC
Вi-В-kui-t°u, . . .
Ж(He) had three yaks (he) had bought and tethered in the
74 The noun phrase In the sections to follow, we will state whether the noun phrase representing the particular role being discussed can be followed by the topic marker or not.
3.2.2. Single direct argument of an intransitive verb
The single direct argument of an intransitive verb is the only argument that is semantically necessary for the verb to be used in a clause. All other arguments are oblique arguments, are optional, and when present in a clause, are marked by some sort of relational morphology showing their non-direct status. The direct argument of an intransitive verb can be of at least two different semantic types, actor (including experiencer) or undergoer. In Qiang clauses where there is an intransitive verb, the single direct argument always precedes the verb, and is often in sentence-initial position, but may be preceded by a temporal or locative adverb(ial). There is no word order difference based on information structure (as is found, e.g. in Italian and Chinese, where the direct argument of an intransitive verb can occur after rather than before the verb if that argument is not topical). The single direct argument of an intransitive verb is generally a topic, and so can be followed by the topic marker /ui/, but no semantically based marking can be used, whether the argument is an actor or an undergoer (e.g., neither the agentive marker /-wu/ or the dative /-tе/ can be used with the single argument of an intransitive verb, though the locative and ablative markers can be used for a second non-direct argument). There is no difference whether the noun phrase is a pronoun or a lexical noun. Following are examples of agentive and non-agentive arguments:
(3.65) qе
1sg home-LOC go:PRS:1sg
ЖIflm going to go home.fl
(< k)
(3.66) the: jts-le:-tе
3sg chair-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-sit
ЖHe sat down on the chair.fl
(< dzu)
Nominal relational morphology 75
(3.67) a. the: t°y-tе-wu
3sg building-LOC-ABL DIR-jump
ЖHe jumped from a/the building.fl
b. the: ts-Ще
3sg water-LOC swim
ЖHe is swimming in the river.fl
(3.68) a. khuеЩl-le: die-®e. puppy-DEF:CL DIR-die ЖThe puppy died.fl
(3.69) a. me:fi de-°i! rain DIR-fall ЖItfls raining!fl
b. m qе. sky clear ЖThe sky is clear.fl
c. msi -ts`u. sun DIR-shine ЖThe sun is out.fl
(3.70) the: t°y-tе-wu
3sg building-LOC-ABL floor
ЖHe fell down from a/the building.fl
їе-l. DIR-come
It is also possible to have a non-referential/impersonal subject, but again the marking (i.e., the lack of postposition, the word order) is the same:
(3.71) mi
people many-Q
ЖAre there many people?fl
mo-wu-uе? NEG-many-Q
One subtype of intransitive clause is an exception to the rule given above in that it has two unmarked noun phrases. This is the double-topic construction mentioned in §3.2.1, for example (3.62), above, and (3.72a-b), below. Even though there are two unmarked noun phrases,
76 The noun phrase
the clause is intransitive, as the primary topic of the clause is not acting on the secondary topic, but instead has a possessive relation with it. Although there is a possessive relation between the referents of, for example, [the:] Жhefl and [qpеt®] Жheadfl in (3.72a) (the two topics), no genitive marking can appear between the two noun phrases, so they cannot be considered a single noun phrase. The latter noun phrase, while part of a comment about the primary topic, also cannot be considered part of the predication, as if an adverb is added to the predicate, it would follow the secondary topic, not precede it.
(3.72) a. the: qpеt® di. 3sg head ache ЖHe has a headache.fl
b. the: ku
3sg stomach runs
ЖHe has diarrhea.fl
3.2.3. Actor of a transitive verb The actor of a transitive or ditransitive verb is the argument that performs, either volitionally or not, or experiences the action or state specified by the verb. Depending on the semantics of the verb and the context, the actor may be agentive, or it may be non-agentive, i.e., a force, an effector, or an experiencer. In both transitive and ditransitive clauses, if the word order is , that is, when the actor is the topic, then the noun phrase representing the actor need not take any agentive marking. With few exceptions, this is true regardless of whether the noun phrase is a noun or a pronoun, or whether the referent is first, second, or third person, or whether the argument is agentive or non-agentive, and is true for all aspects. The topic marker can be used after the noun phrase, though, to emphasize the topical nature of the actor referent. The person marking on the verb generally reflects the person and number of the actor, regardless of whether the actor is agentive or non-agentive. Following are some examples:
Nominal relational morphology 77
(3.73) a. the: pеut®
3sg newspaper look.at/read
ЖHe is reading a/the newspaper.fl
b. qе pеut®
1sg newspaper look.at/read:1sg
ЖI am reading a/the newspaper.fl
(< tse + е)
c. ч~u pеut®
2sg newspaper look.at/read-2sg
ЖYou are reading a/the newspaper.fl
(3.74) qе
ЖI am eating.fl
t°hе. eat:1sg
(< t°h)
(3.75) umt®i Вt°hеq-e-ze їе-t®. Xumt®i rabbit-one-CL DIR-pierce(kill) ЖXumt®i killed a rabbit.fl
(3.76) a. the: fе
3sg clothes wash
ЖHe is washing clothes.fl
b. the: s
3sg firewood chop
ЖHe is chopping firewood.fl
(3.77) a. umt®i khumtsi42 topu. Xumt®i Khumtsi like ЖXumt®i likes Khumtsi.fl
b. qе khumtsi 1sg Khumtsi ЖI like Khumtsi.fl
topu-е. like-1sg
78 The noun phrase
c. ч~u khumtsi topu-n. 2sg Khumtsi like-2sg ЖYou like Khumtsi.fl (3.78) qе the:-t°-Вwе me-°t°a. 1sg 3sg-GEN-word NEG-believe:1sg ЖI donflt believe what he says.fl (3.79) the: isu p. 3sg sneeze do ЖHe sneezed.fl
(< °t°e)
There is an agentive marking postposition /-wu/, but generally only when there is marked word order, or when there is a need to emphasize the agentivity of the actor, is the agentive marker used after the noun phrase representing the actor, as in the following example:
(3.80) the:-t° pi:-xs-lе sum-wu de-l-ji
3sg-GEN pen-three-CL teacher-AGT DIR-give-CSM COP
ЖThe teacher gave him three pens.fl
In this example, because the noun phrase representing the actor is not in the clause-initial topic position, in order to avoid ambiguity in the assignment of actor status (especially as the actor and recipient are both third-person singular referents, so person marking on the verb is of no assistance in identifying the actor), the agentive marker /-wu/ must appear after /sum/ Жteacherfl. Consider the following two clauses:
(3.81) a. umt®i-(wu)
umt®i-(AGT) khumtsi
Жumt®i hit Khumtsi.fl
z-d-u. DIR-hit-VIS
(< dete)
b. khumtsi umt®i-wu khumtsi umt®i-AGT ЖKhumtsi was hit by umt®i.fl
z-de-u. DIR-hit-VIS
(< dete)
Nominal relational morphology 79
In (3.81a), it is not necessary to have the agentive marker after the noun phrase representing the actor. If it is used, it is to emphasize that umt®i, and not someone else, is the actor. In (3.81b), as the noun phrase representing the actor is not in initial position, the agentive marker must be used. (This is not a passive clause, but the English passive translation comes closest to approximating the pragmatics of the word order difference.) This agentive marker can only be used on the actor of transitive clauses; it cannot be used in intransitive clauses. As there has been no grammaticalization of a passive construction in Qiang (in the sense of a construction in which the actor of the verb does not appear as a direct argument and the verb is intransitve), in order to take the undergoerfls perspective in presenting an action, generally the noun phrase representing the undergoer will be put in the clause-initial topic position, and possibly take the topic-marking postposition.43 In this case the noun phrase representing the actor must take the agentive marking, otherwise the meaning might be unclear. In this regard, compare the following three clauses:
(3.82) a. the: qе dete. 3sg 1sg hit ЖHe is hitting me.fl
b. qе the:-wu z-de. 1sg 3sg-AGT DIR-hit ЖI was hit by him.fl
(< dete)
c. the: qе-wu
3sg 1sg-AGT DIR-hit:1sg
ЖHe was hit by me.fl
(< dete)
In some cases, even when the word order is actor-undergoer, if the flow of action is marked (e.g. a third person referent is acting on a first person referent), or if the actor is inanimate, then agent marking is often used for clarity, as in the following examples:
(3.83) mi-wu

ЖSomebody hit me.fl
z-di. DIR-hit
80 The noun phrase
(3.84) moЩu-wu
qе dе-tu-В-(®е).
1sg DIR-fall.over-CAUS-1sgU
ЖThe wind knocked me over.fl
(3.85) tshmе-wu qе-doquq-tе thorn-AGT 1sg-foot-LOC ЖA thorn pierced my foot.fl
-t®-(®е). DIR-pierce-1sgU
These last two examples are evidence that non-animate actors can take the agentive marker /-wu/, so the condition on the use of /-wu/ is not related to volitionality. (In these two examples there is no need to mark the number or definiteness of the actor, and the 1sg non-actor marking is not obligatory; it would be used only for emphasizing onefls affectedness.) If on the other hand the semantic relations are clear given the nature of the referents and the action involved, then even with marked word order the agent marking is not necessary, as in the following example:
(3.86) khu-le:
qе z-p-ji
dog-DEF:CL 1sg DIR-buy-CSM
ЖThe dog was bought by me. / It was me who bought the dog.fl
People buy dogs, dogs do not buy people, so even with marked word order and no agentive marking, the relationship between the two referents is still clear. In many cases it is possible to omit the noun phrase representing the actor, particularly when the person and number of the actor and/or a non-actor animate argument are reflected on the verb (see §4.3.2). Following are some examples where there is no noun phrase representing an actor, but there is non-actor marking:
(3.87) a. qе de-®е 1sg hit-1sgU ЖI was hit (by him).fl
b. ч~u de-sеn 2sg hit-2sgU ЖYou were hit (by him).fl
c. the: de-w 3sg hit-3sgU ЖHe was hit (by him).fl
Nominal relational morphology 81
3.2.4. Topic of a copula clause
The nature of the initial noun phrase of an equational (identifying) or attributive copula clause is quite different from the direct argument of an intransitive verb or the actor of a transitive verb, in that it has no semantic role, only a pragmatic role, that of topic, but the formal treatment of this argument in Qiang does not differ from that of the direct argument of an intransitive verb. The noun phrase representing this referent must appear in clause-initial position, and no semanticallybased postpositions can be used after the noun phrase. Only the topic marker can be used, as in (3.88) (see also (3.129) below).
(3.88) the:-ui ®pe
3sg-TOP Tibetan COP
ЖHe is a Tibetan.fl
(3.89) qе
1sg teacher
ЖI am a teacher.fl
uе. COP:1sg
(< u)
(3.90) l©z-tse-pen
ЖThis book is mine.fl
There is no formal difference between identificational and attributive copula clauses other than the addition of the definite marking in the case of the former. Compare (3.89) above (an attributive) with the following identificational clause:
(3.91) qе
`I am the teacher.'
uе. COP:1sg
(< u)
3.2.5. Undergoer of a transitive verb The undergoer of a transitive verb is often within the focus of the information structure, and so the noun phrase representing the
82 The noun phrase
undergoer often appears in the immediately preverbal focus position, following the noun phrases representing the actor and any locative and temporal adverbs. Less commonly it appears in the clause-initial topic position. In this case the noun phrase may be followed by the topic marker. Other than this, the noun phrase representing the undergoer of a transitive verb, whether it is a topic or part of the focus, is definite or indefinite, whether it is a pre-existing referent or one created by the action of the verb, generally does not take any marking of its undergoer status. (In the following examples the noun phrase representing the undergoer is underlined.)
(3.92) the: ts-p
3sg this-year three-years
ЖHe is three years old this year.fl
(lit.: ЖHe (now) has three years.fl)
le-ji. exist-CSM
(3.93) the: qhеl-xs-zi 3sg steamed.bun-three-CL ЖHe ate three steamed buns.fl
s-dz-ji. DIR-eat-CSM
(3.94) the: l©z-j-pen i-tsi-ji. 3sg book-two-CL DIR-look.at/read-CSM ЖHe read two books.fl
(< tse44)
(3.95) the: l©z-th-j-pen 3sg book-that-two-CL ЖHe read those two books.fl
i-tsi-ji. DIR-look.at/read-CSM
(3.96) the: l©z-th-j-pen lefiwu i-tsi-ji. 3sg book-that-two-CL all DIR-look.at/read-CSM ЖHe read both of those two books.fl
(3.97) l©z-th-j-pen
ЖThose two books he read.fl
i-tsi-ji. DIR-look.at/read-CSM
Nominal relational morphology 83
(3.98) qе
1sg child-GEN-voice
ЖI heard a/the childfls voice.fl
-mе. DIR-hear:1sg
(< m)
(3.99) umt®i
3sg-GEN-child-DEF:CL DIR-take-ADV
uncle-GEN-house-LOC go
Жumt®i took his son to (his) unclefls house.fl
(lit.: ЖTaking his son (he) went to unclefls house.fl)
(3.100) the:-t°-doqu-le:
3sg-GEN-pants-DEF:CL hole-one-CL
ЖThere is now a hole in his pants.fl
de-w. (< we) DIR-exist
Non-referential/non-specific object:
(3.101) the: gue:fi-pienе-lе bi
3sg road-side-LOC urine release
ЖHefls urinating on the side of the road.fl
Stimulus of a cognitive verb (T3:90-91):
(3.102) p-maha-ui
orangutan-DEF:CL NEG-be.afraid-1sg
ЖTonight (I) am not afraid of the orangutan.fl
The one exception to the lack of marking of the undergoer of a transitive verb is when the undergoer is animate and the noun phrase representing the actor does not have agentive marking, so there might be confusion of which referent is the actor and which is the undergoer. In this case the dative/allative marker /-tе/ can be used after the noun phrase representing the undergoer to disambiguate the actor from the undergoer or emphasize the undergoer, as in the following examples:
(3.103) the: qе-tе
3sg 1sg-DAT hit
ЖHe is hitting me!fl
84 The noun phrase
(3.104) khu-le:
ЖThe dog bit me.fl
їa-ЩdВe-®е. DIR-bite-1sgU
(3.105) x®e-le:
ЖThe bull gored you.fl
-t-sеn. DIR-gore-2sgU
In example (3.102) above about being afraid of the orangutan, no undergoer marking was necessary, as there is no possibility (in the story) of the orangutan being afraid of the young boy (the orphan). There is no change in the transitivity of the clause with the use of this marking (even though it is often used to mark peripheral arguments), as its use here is purely to distinguish semantic roles. While generally it is used when the agentive marking is not used, the two markers can appear in the same clause. For example, (3.103) could also have the agentive marker /-wu/ after the noun phrase representing the actor. We can see the locative origins of this marking in examples that straddle the line between a purely locative sense and a non-actor direct argument sense, such as the following example:
bullet dog-DEF:CL-DAT DIR-exist
Ж(The) bullet hit the dog!fl (as opposed to the intended target;
lit.: Ж. . . came to be at the dog.fl)
The noun phrase representing the undergoer of a ditransitive verb also takes no marking other than the topic marker (and this only if it is in clause-initial position). Its position in the clause also depends on the information structure of the clause, appearing most often in the position immediately before the verb, following the noun phrases representing the actor, any locative and temporal adverbs, and the recipient/goal. Unlike the noun phrase representing the undergoer of a mono-transitive verb, though, the noun phrase representing the undergoer of a ditransitive verb has a third possibility in terms of position: if the undergoer is neither the topic nor the focus of the information structure, the noun phrase representing it can appear before the noun phrase in the
Nominal relational morphology 85
focus position but following any other noun phrases in the clause. Following are some examples; see also the examples in §3.2.6.
(3.107) a. sum
pi:-xs-lе de-l.
teacher 3sg-GEN pen-three-CL DIR-give
ЖThe teacher gave him three pens.fl
b. qе the:-tе Щz-xs-lе 1sg 3sg-LOC fish-three-CL ЖI bought three fish from him.fl
z-pе. DIR-buy:1sg
(< p)
c. qе Щz-xs-lе
the:-tе z-pе.
(< p)
1sg fish-three-CL 3sg-LOC DIR-buy:1sg
ЖI bought three fish from him.fl
3.2.6. Goal or recipient of a ditransitive verb Qiang formally distinguishes between two types of argument that we will call goal and recipient. The goal of an action is the referent at which an action is directed, such as a person being told something. The verb involved may be a transitive or a ditransitive verb. The recipient of an action is the referent who receives some object as a result of the action. The verb expressing such an action must be ditransitive. These two types of argument are marked by different postpositions in Qiang. The positions in the clause in which noun phrases representing these arguments can appear are the same, though. The unmarked position is between the noun phrases representing the actor and the undergoer, but it is also possible to have the noun phrase representing the goal or recipient appear in the immediately preverbal focus position or the clause-initial topic position (see examples below). The postposition used after a noun phrase which represents a goal argument is /-tе/, the same form as one of the locative postpositions. We saw above (§3.2.5) that this form is also used in some cases for the undergoer of a transitive verb. Following are examples of its use in ditransitive clauses and of the different positions in the clause in which the noun phrase representing the goal (here underlined) can appear.
86 The noun phrase
(3.108) the: qе-tе
3sg 1sg-LOC
ЖHe sold me three fish.fl
t-uе-(®е). DIR-sell-1sgU
(3.109) t®hets-В-ui
qе the:-tе
1sg 3sg-LOC
ЖI told him about the car.fl
(< ji)
(3.110) qе the:-(tе) Вme-В 1sg 3sg-LOC Qiang-language ЖI teach him Qiang.fl
su-е. teach-1sg
In these clauses, the only postposition that can be used after the noun phrase representing the goal is /-tе/, it is not possible to use /-t°/, the postposition used for marking a recipient. For example, were (3.108) to have /-t°/ instead of /-tе/, then the meaning would be either ЖHe sold fish for mefl or ЖHe sold my fishfl (see Sections 2.2.10 and 2.2.15). What is possible, at least in (3.110), is to not use any postposition after the relevant noun phrase, as the fact that the first person is the actor is clearly marked on the verb, so there would be no ambiguity even if the postposition marking the goal were to be omitted. It would even be possible to omit the noun phrase representing the actor without any problem of ambiguity, as the person and number of the actor are recoverable from the person marking. Even so, if there is a marked word order, where the noun phrase representing the goal appears in topic position with only the topic marker following, then the noun phrase representing the actor would take the agentive marker /-wu/ (see §3.2.3), as in (3.111).
(3.111) the:-ui qе-wu
ЖI teach him Qiang.fl
Qiang-language teach-1sg
As mentioned above, the postposition used to mark a noun phrase representing a recipient argument is /-t°/, the same form as the genitive postposition. Consider the clause in (3.112):
Nominal relational morphology 87
(3.112) sum
teacher 3sg-GEN pen-three-CL
ЖThe teacher gave him three pens.fl
de-l. DIR-give
While the recipient marker has the same form as the genitive marker, in this example [the:-t°] and [pi:-xs-lе] are two noun phrases (the word order could be changed with [pi:-xs-lе] appearing in topic position, and native speakers feel they are two separate arguments, not one possessed entity). In this clause, the noun phrase representing the recipient argument can only take the postposition /-t°/, it cannot take /-tе/. Comparing (3.108) and (3.112), we can see that even though the person to whom something is sold is often treated in grammatical theories as a semantic recipient, the formal treatment of this argument in the grammar of Qiang is not the same as the recipient of the verb Жto givefl. Yet there are some situations where the relevant referent can be profiled (presented) in the clause as either a goal or as a recipient, and therefore either /-tе/ or /-t°/ can be used, but the meanings of the resulting two clauses will differ somewhat. Compare (3.113a) and (3.113b).
(3.113) a. umt®i-wu tsi-le:
lis-tе t-©В.
umt®i-AGT daughter-DEF:CL Li.Si-LOC DIR-marry.off
ЖXumt®i married off his daughter to Li Si.fl
b. umt®i-wu tsi-le:
lis-t° t-©В.
umt®i-AGT daughter-DEF:CL Li.Si-GEN DIR-marry.off
ЖXumt®i gave his daughter in marriage to Li Si.fl
In (3.113a), the emphasis is on Li Si as the goal of the action, not as recipient of an object, whereas (3.113b) emphasizes the nature of Li Si as "recipient" of the woman in marriage. If a true genitive phrase occurs in a clause with a recipient, then there can be two tokens of the same marker, but with different meanings, as in (3.114).
(3.114) qе the:-t°-fе-le:
1sg 3sg-GEN-cothing-DEF:CL 3sg-GEN
ЖI gave him his clothes.fl
de-l-е. DIR-give-1sg
88 The noun phrase
3.2.7. Standard of a comparative construction
In a comparative construction, the usual word order is as follows: [NPentity being compared | NPstandard of comparison-COMP | Predicate]. The noun phrase representing the standard of comparison in a comparative construction follows the clause-initial topic noun phrase, and is followed by the comparative marker. In positive clauses, the comparative marker is /-s/, while in negative clauses it is /-iki/. The clause initial noun phrase can take the topic marker, and actor person marking on the verb, if there is any, reflects the person and number of this topic. It is also possible to have non-actor person marking reflecting a salient standard of comparison, as in (3.115). (In the examples below, the standard of comparison is underlined.)
(3.115) the:-ui qе-s
ЖHe is bigger than me.fl
ba-(®е). big-1sgU
(3.116) qе ч~u-iki
1sg 2sg-COMP NEG-big:1sg
ЖI am not as big as you are.fl
(< ba)
(3.117) qе the:-s
1sg 3sg-COMP CON-white:1sg
ЖI am lighter (in color) than him (a lot lighter).fl
(< phi)
It is not possible, as it is in some other Tibeto-Burman languages, to change the order of the two noun phrases in a comparative construction, even if the topic marker is used after the fronted standard of comparison:
(3.118) *the:-s-ui 3sg-COMP-TOP
qе t°e-fia. 1sg CON-white:1sg
Where long phrases or clauses are compared, only the referent(s) that differs between the two things or actions being compared need be mentioned in the standard of comparison:
Nominal relational morphology 89
(3.119) ч~u-t°-t°iЩе-le:
2sg-GEN-house-DEF:CL 3sg-COMP
ЖYour house is bigger than his.fl
t°a-wa. CON-big
(< ba)
3sg-COMP CON-early
ЖI went earlier than him.fl
(lit.: ЖWhen I went was earlier than (when) he (went.fl)
3.2.8. Standard of an equative comparative construction
In Qiang there is no way to say one referent is 'the same as' some other referent, but the same meaning can be expressed by saying that one referent and another are 'the same' in respect to some quality. If there are two noun phrases representing the two referents, they are joined by the comitative/conjunction marker /-е/ (which comes between them; see §3.2.13), to form a single large noun phrase, and so the person marking on the verb, if there is any, is plural.45 This larger noun phrase is the topic of the construction, so can be followed by the topic marker.
(3.121) ч~u-е-qе
(< ba)
2sg-and-1sg one-form big:1pl
ЖYou are as big as me.fl (lit.: ЖYou and I are the same big.fl)
(3.122) ч~u-е-the:-t°-t°iЩuе
one-form big-3pl
ЖYour house is as big as his.fl
(lit.: ЖYour house and his house are the same big.fl)
It is also possible to have one plural noun phrase representing the two referents:
(3.123) a. t°izzi Вuaha a-qs
height one-form exist:1pl
ЖThe two of us are of the same height.fl
(< we)
90 The noun phrase
b. thizzi Вuaha a-qs
height one-form exist-3pl
ЖThose two persons are of the same height.fl
If, instead of the comitative/conjunction marker coming between the two noun phrases, it follows the second noun phrase, then the meaning is somewhat different, as there are then two arguments (one direct, one oblique) instead of one, and the person marking, which reflects the singular topic, is singular. Compare the following two examples:
(3.124) the:-е-ile-ku:
a-qs me-w-(t°i). (< we)
3sg-COM-3plREFL-brother one-form NEG-exist
ЖHe is different from his brother.fl (person marking is optional
(3.125) the: ile-tеt-е
3sg 3plREFL-father-COM one-form
ЖHe is very much like his father.fl
In (3.124) the two referents form one plural topic. The literal meaning of the clause is ЖHe and his brother do not have the same formfl. In (3.125) the topic is the single third person referent, and the literal meaning is ЖHe has the same form as his fatherfl (see §3.2.13 for more on the use of the comitative/conjunction marker).
3.2.9. Predicate noun phrases Predicate noun phrases in some cases can appear without a following verb, as in (3.126) and (3.127), though in most cases the predicate noun phrase is followed by the copula, /u/, the verb /Вm/ Жbe calledfl, or the verb /pe/ Жbecomefl, as in (3.128) to (3.131). If the predicate noun phrase is attributive, it is often followed by the indefinite marker /ke/ plus a classifier (or the classifier is represented as a lengthened vowel on the indefinite marker: /ke:/). If it is identificational (equational), then it can be followed by the definite marker (/le/ or /te/; see discussion in §3.1.4) plus a classifier or lengthened vowel. There is no other formal difference between attributive and identifying copula clauses. The
Nominal relational morphology 91
initial noun phrase in this construction is a topic, and can take the topic marker (see §3.2.4).
(3.126) ps
today three-month-GEN-five-beginning
ЖToday (is) March fifth.fl
(3.127) khumtsi
ЖKhumtsi is Uncle Wut°infls wife.fl
(3.128) the: mi
3sg person
ЖHe is a person (man).fl
(3.129) the:-ui khumtsi u / Вm.
Khumtsi COP / be.called
ЖShe is (is called) Khumtsi.fl
(3.130) the: sum-(ke:) 3sg teacher-INDEF:CL ЖHe became a teacher.fl
pe. become
(3.131) but®qhе
caterpillar butterfly-INDEF:CL
ЖThe caterpillar became a butterfly.fl
pe. become
3.2.10. Benefactive The benefactive is the referent for whose benefit an action is performed. The noun phrase representing this referent is generally marked with the postposition /-t°/, the same form as the genitive marker and recipient marker. As the form of the clause involving a benefactive argument with this marking is sometimes the same as the genitive construction, out of context there is the possibility of ambiguity, as in (3.133) and (3.134).
92 The noun phrase
(3.132) ч~u
2sg 1sg-GEN(BEN)
ЖOpen the door for me!fl
dy de-Вge-n-pе! door DIR-open-2sg-HORT
qе mе:-t°
1sg Mom-GEN(BEN) vegetable DIR-fry-REQU:1sg
ЖLet me fry Momfls vegetables.fl / ЖLet me fry vegetables for
(3.134) mе: qе-t°

Mom 1sg-GEN(BEN) clothing sew
ЖMom is sewing my clothes,fl / ЖMom is sewing clothes for me.fl
As with the use of this marker for the recipient sense (see §3.2.6), native speakers feel, for example in (3.132), with a benefactive meaning, that the speaker and the door are two separate arguments, and not one argument with a possessor. The order of the noun phrases can also be reversed, such as if the door were made a topic. Aside from the use of /-t°/, it is also possible to mark a benefactive with the postposition /uе-i/ Жin order to, in place of, for, for the sake offl. (/uе/ can be used by itself, but generally the adverbial marker /i/ is used together with it.)
(3.135) the: qе-uе-i
3sg 1sg-BEN-ADV firewood
ЖHe went to chop wood for me.fl
gue-k. chop-go
(3.136) t°ile t°y:mi-le:-uе-i
Вbot°u-s u-`u`. (< wе)
1pl child-DEF:CL-BENADV think-NOM COP-EMPH
ЖWe should think about the child(fls benefit).fl
3.2.11. Source The type of marking that appears on a noun phrase representing a semantic source can be of three types, depending on the semantic nature of the source. If the source referent is a person, then the marking is the
Nominal relational morphology 93
locative postposition /-tе/. (In the following examples, the noun phrase representing the source is underlined.)
(3.137) qе-ui the:-tе
ЖI heard it from him. fl
-mе. DIR-hear:1sg
(< m)
(3.138) qе
1sg 3sg-LOC fish-three-CL
ЖI bought three fish from him.fl
(< p)
If the source is the origin in time or location of an action, or is the object out of which something is made, then the marking used is the ablative postposition /-wu/.
(3.139) steke lе-s-Ще,
behind DEF:one-day-LOC everywhere-LOC-ABL smoke
mi lu-ji.
DIR-come-HS like.this-after
people come-CSM
ЖThe next day, smoke could be seen coming up out of
everywhere, and from that time on there were people.fl
(3.140) the-®e-te:-wu
that-side-DEF:CL-ABL DIR-hear:1sg
Ж(I) heard (it) from there.fl
(< m)
(3.141) tsaq-(tе)-wu
Spring/Summer-LOC-ABL Fall/Winter DIR-arrive-go
Жfrom tsaq (Spring/Summer) up to suq (Fall/Winter)fl46
(3.142) wtshi-le:
sparrow-DEF:CL stone-INST DIR-carve-CSM COP
ЖThe sparrow was carved out of a stone.fl
(3.143) the: Веw-wu wtshi-e-ze 3sg stone-INST sparrow-one-CL ЖS/he carved a stone into a sparrow.fl47
t-qua. DIR-carve
94 The noun phrase
If the source is some sort of containment out of which a referent comes, then the marking is the locative postposition /-Ще/.
(3.144) tshef`u-ui
sheep-LOC come-CSM COP
ЖWool comes from sheep.fl
(3.145) me:fi-ui zdеm-Ще lu-ji
cloud-LOC come-CSM COP
ЖRain comes out from clouds.fl
3.2.12. Instrument
The noun phrase representing an instrumental referent usually appears just before the noun phrase representing the undergoer, and after the noun phrase representing the actor, unless the instrumental noun phrase is the topic and therefore in clause-initial position. It is also possible for the instrumental noun phrase to follow the undergoer noun phrase, so that the instrumental noun phrase is in the immediately preverbal focus position. The instrumental noun phrase is marked by the postposition /wu/, the same form as the agentive and ablative markers.48 Very often the definite marker appears between the noun and the instrumental marker if the referent is identifiable.
(3.146) a. qе Щduе®-te:-wu
the: deta.
1sg hammer-DEF:CL-INST 3sg hit:1sg
ЖI use the hammer to hit it.fl
(< dete)
b. qе-ui the: Щduе®-te:-wu 1sg-TOP 3sg hammer-DEF:CL-INST ЖI use the hammer to hit it.fl
deta. hit:1sg
c. qе Щduе®-te:-wu
the: z-me-da. (< dete)
1sg hammer-DEF:CL-INST 3sg DIR-NEG-hit:1sg
ЖI didnflt use the hammer to hit it.fl
Nominal relational morphology 95
qе Веw-le:-wu
Щduе® hе-`u`-В-i
1sg stone-DEF:CL-INST hammer DIR-COP-CAUS-ADV
tints Вeta.
(< Вete)
nail pound:1sg
ЖI used the stone as a hammer to pound in the nail.fl
(3.148) fе-tsе-qi-ui
qе Щosu-pi-wu z-p-ji
clothing-this:one-CL-TOP 1sg fifty-CL-INST DIR-buy-CSM COP
ЖThis item of clothing I bought with fifty dollars.fl
3.2.13. Comitative, conjunction
A referent in a comitative relation with another referent is represented using one of two constructions: either the two noun phrases representing the two referents are conjoined together in a single large noun phrase with the comitative/conjunction marker /-е/ between them, or one noun phrase is made the topic, and the second noun phrase is made an oblique argument followed by the comitative/conjunction marker. These two constructions express slightly different meanings: in the first case, the meaning is that the two referents are doing something together ((3.149)-(3.150)), whereas in the second the meaning is that one referent (the referent represented by the noun phrase in topic position) does something Жwithfl, or Жfollowsfl, the second referent in doing something, similar to the difference between John and Mary went to the store and John went to the store with Mary ((3.151)).
brother-COM-sister-two-CL-TOP cypress-tree-one-CL-LOC
DIR-hide-because-ADV DIR-NEG-burn-INF:HS
ЖBecause the brother and sister hid in a cypress tree, they did
not get burned.fl
(3.150) mutsit®u-е-tugant®u zpq-tе їo-lu-е:-ji. (T2:1) Mutsit®u-COM-Tugant®u earth-LOC DIR-come-PRS-CSM ЖMutsit®u and Tugant®u wanted to come to earth.fl
96 The noun phrase
(3.151) qе
tiеnts-Ще kе:.
1sg Khumtsi-COM store-LOC go:PRS:1sg
ЖI am going to go to the store with Khumtsi.fl
Compare these structures with the equational clauses presented in §3.2.8, repeated below.
(3.152) a. the:-е-themle-tеt
one-form exist-3pl
ЖHe and his father are the same.fl
b. the: themle-tеt-е a-qs we. 3sg 3pl-father-COM one-form exist ЖHe is a lot like his father.fl
The marker /е/ is also used for certain arguments of certain verbs (e.g. the stimuli of some cognition verbs), such as in the examples below:
(3.153) чiчi-е
ЖDonflt be mad at yourself.fl
. . . a-le:-е
ЖThe orphan . . . met (with) a needle.fl
(3.155) ч~u-е їе-s-i
°t°i-k`u` nе-wa.
2sg-COM DIR-know-ADV heart-base good-very
ЖI am very happy to know (meet) you.fl
While /е/ can be used for the comitative sense of English with, there is no use of this marker with, for example, a negative prefix for the privative sense of English without. A possessive structure with a negated possessive verb (see §3.2.14 below) must be used to express a privative meaning. See also §5.4 for more examples of coordination.
Nominal relational morphology 97
3.2.14. Possessor in a possessive clause
In a clause in which the predication expresses possession, the form that the possessor noun phrase takes depends on the type of relationship involved (temporary possession or ownership) and on the nature of the possessed referent. The verb involved in all cases is one of the existential verbs (see §4.2.4). If the relationship is inalienable possession and the referent is something that does not normally exist apart from the possessor, such as a body part, then the clause takes the form of a simple existential clause, and the possessor appears as a genitive possessor of the body part in a single noun phrase with the body part, and the verb is intransitive (with that one noun phrase as its sole argument), as in (3.156a). The person marking on the verb reflects the person and number of the possessor, not the possessed. If instead the relationship is one of temporary physical possession, and not ownership, and the referent is able to exist independently of the possessor, then the noun phrase representing the (temporary) possessor takes the locative/dative marker /-tе/, as in (3.156b). Here again the verb is intransitive, with the noun phrase representing the possessed referent as the single direct argument in an existential clause, but with the noun phrase representing the possessor appearing as an oblique argument and the person marking reflecting the person and number of the possessed referent rather than those of the possessor (inanimates are unmarked).
(3.156) a. qе-doqu-ji-tuе wa.
(< we)
1sg-leg-two-CL exist:1sg (connected to main entity)
ЖI have two legs.fl (lit.: ЖMy two legs exist.fl)
b. ч~u-doЩu-le:
qе-tе ®.
1sg-LOC exist
ЖYour key is at my place.fl / ЖI have your key.fl
If the situation involves ownership of an object which is not part of the person (i.e. is not physically inalienable, including other people, such as in kinship relations), then the causative suffix (see §4.2.2) is used with the verb of possession to make it transitive. The noun phrases representing the possessor and the possessed referent then are both
98 The noun phrase
direct arguments of the verb, and so the possessor does not take any semantic case marking, as in (3.157)-(3.159).
(3.157) khumtsi dzg`u kn е-hе ®-В. Khumtsi money very one-pl exist-CAUS ЖKhumtsi has a lot of money. fl
(3.158) khumtsi tut®-©В-zi
Khumtsi younger.brother-four-CL exist-CAUS
ЖKhumtsi has four younger brothers.fl
(3.159) the: sf-е-hе we-В. 3sg tree-one-pl exist-CAUS ЖHe has some trees.fl
(connected to main entity)
Verbs of possession/existence differ with the type of noun possessed (see §4.2.4; the type of possessed noun is given at the right margin of each example). There is no difference between present and past possession, and there are no nouns that are obligatorily possessed. There is also no difference in the construction based on whether the possessor is represented by a pronoun, a proper noun or common noun. Aside from the verbs given above, which are inherently intransitive and have both existential and possessive uses, there is one verb, /qqe/, which is inherently transitive and used only for possession, and particularly for personal ownership of some important or valuable entity, as in (3.160a-c). With this verb the noun phrase representing the possessor always is a direct argument, and does not take any semantic case marking.
(3.160) a. ч~u ®ku
2sg gold much
ЖYou have a lot of gold.fl
qqe-n. have-2sg
b. qupu t°ymi Щuе-t®
child five-CL
ЖS/he has five children.fl
qqe. have
Nominal relational morphology 99
c. qе tshe
1sg sheep
ЖI have a flock of sheep.fl
qqa. have:1sg
(< qqe)
There is no preposition that can be used with the possessive sense of English Жwithfl, as in ЖThe man with the knifefl, or Жthe man without the knifefl; instead a relative clause using a possessive verb must be used.
(3.161) a. xt®epi ®-В-m knife exist-CAUS-NOM Ж(the) person with (the) knifefl
b. xt®epi mе-®-В-m knife NEG-exist-CAUS-NOM Ж(the) person without (the) knifefl
Possession of a quality involves the same structure as possession of an object; the use of a relative clause structure (see §5.2) is also possible ((3.162c)).
(3.162) a. the: qhu-s
3sg hate-NOM exist
ЖS/he is very mischievous.fl
(connected to main entity)
b. the: qpеt® le.
(inside vessel)
3sg head exist
ЖS/he is very brainy.fl (cf. English Shefls got a head on her
c. °t°imi nе-t°
heart good-GEN person
Ж(a) good hearted personfl
3.2.15. Genitive A genitive noun phrase appears before the noun it modifies, and can be followed by the genitive marker /-t°()/. When the relationship between
100 The noun phrase
two nouns in a genitive relationship is clear, as in most cases of inalienable possession, the genitive marker is not needed. Generally the closer the relationship between the possessor and the thing possessed, the less likely the genitive marker will be used. With kinship relations, usually the plural pronoun of the possessor is used (to be more polite; see §3.1.2), and no genitive marker is used, but if the singular is used, then the genitive marker is often used.
(3.163) a. °iеut®е-t°
puu b. the:-t° pi:
Little.Zhang-GEN cat
3sg-GEN pen
ЖLittle Zhangfls catfl
Жhis/her penfl
(3.164) a. qе-t° l©z 1sg-GEN book Жmy bookfl
b. ч~u-t° t°iЩе 2sg GEN house Жyour housefl
(3.165) a. khu sikue dog tail Ж(a) dogfls tailfl
b. sf q-stе tree head-place Жtop half of a treefl
Where the noun modified by the genitive phrase is a common noun (not a pronoun or proper name), and the noun phrase is identifiable, the noun phrase can take definite marking, as in the following example:
(3.166) °iеut®е-t°-puu-le:
Little.Zhang-GEN-cat-DEF:CL DIR-sick
Little Zhangfls cat is sick.
The genitive postposition is also used for some temporal phrases that modify nouns:
(3.167) tse: np-t°-pеut®
this:CL last.year-GEN-newspaper COP
ЖThis is last yearfls newspaper.fl
We have seen that the genitive marker is used for recipient (§3.2.6) and benefactive (§3.2.10) arguments, and for some nominalizations/relative
Nominal relational morphology 101 clauses (e.g. exx. (3.2) and (3.4)--see §5.2 for more on relative clauses).
3.2.16. Whole-part relations
Aside from the whole-part relationships discussed in Section 3.2.15, above, such as Жdogfls tailfl, etc., there are no expressions for Жamongfl, Жoffl (as in Жtwo of (some set)fl or Жa part of (some set)fl or Жnone of (some set)fl). If the whole of the whole-part relation is mentioned, it usually is in topic position and takes the locative postposition meaning Жlocation within some sort of containmentfl ((3.168a-b)), unless the part is all of the whole, as in (3.169). If the whole is not mentioned, the relevant part can be made the topic, as in (3.170a-b). A nominalized structure is often used when the part equals zero ((3.171)).
(3.168) a. themle-Ще xs-zi k-s
3pl-LOC three-CL go-NOM COP
ЖFrom among them, three people must go.fl
b. qhеl-Щuе-zi-Ще
qе ji-zi s-dza. (< dz)
steamed.bun-five-CL-LOC 1sg two-CL DIR-eat:1sg
ЖI ate two of the five steamed buns.fl
(3.169) themle wu stuеhе
all rice/food
ЖThey have all eaten.fl
s-t°-jy-(t°i). DIR-eat-ASP-3pl
(< t°h)
(3.170) a. t®i-ji-t®-ui u-t°u-s
boy-two-CL-TOP DIR-see-NOM NEG-exist-CSM-3pl
ЖTwo of the boys (among them) have disappeared.fl
b. t®i-е-hе-ui u-t°u-s
boy-one-pl-TOP DIR-see-NOM NEG-exist-CSM-3pl
ЖSome of the boys have disappeared.fl
102 The noun phrase
(3.171) stuеhе
rice/food DIR-eat-NOM
ЖNo one has eaten.fl
me-Вi. NEG-exist
(< t°h)
3.2.17. Price, value
When a noun phrase representing the price/value of a referent is added to a clause as an oblique argument, if it is marking the amount of money used to buy an item, it can be marked by the instrumental postposition /-wu/, as in ( 3 .172), below, or it can take the locative marker /-Ще/. If it is marking how much something sold for, it may not take any postposition, or it may take the locative postposition, as in (3.173). There seems to be a relationship between the completion or not of the action and the marking on the noun phrase representing the price/value involved, in that when it is completed, /-wu/ or /-Ще/ can be used, but if the action is not completed, then no marking is used. In (3.174) no marking is possible because the auxiliary verb marks it as a state rather than a completed action. Without the auxiliary verb, /-wu/ or /-Ще/ could be used.
(3.172) fе-tsе-qi-ui
qе Щosu-pi-wu z-p-ji
clothes-this:one-CL-TOP 1sg fifty-CL-INST DIR-buy-CSM COP
ЖI bought this piece of clothing for 50 dollars.fl
(3.173) fе-thе-qi-ui
qupu Щosu-pi-(Ще) uе.
clothes-that:one-CL-TOP 3sg fifty-CL-LOC sell
ЖS/he is selling that piece of clothing for fifty dollars.fl
(3.174) pi-tsе-lе
pen-this:one-CL one-hundred-CL exchange can
ЖThis pen is worth one hundred dollars.fl
If the price/value is a direct argument of the verb, then it does not take any postpositional marking, as in (3.175).
Nominal relational morphology 103
(3.175) fе-thе-qi-ui
Щosu-pi lu.
clothes-that:one-CL-TOP fifty-CL worth
ЖThat piece of clothing is worth fifty dollars.fl
3.2.18. Extent, distance
The extent of an action, or the distance covered by an action, is generally expressed by a preverbal adverbial with no adverbial or temporal/locative marking.
(3.176) qе
wu the:
1sg lunch-before all 3sg
ЖI was chasing him/her all morning.fl
dzе. chase:1sg
(3.177) hot°u-t®еn-ti-wi-t°-sf ten-zh\ang(CL)-DIR-tall-GEN-tree Жa ten-zhang50 tall treefl
(3.178) Щuе-stu-li-dВ-t°-gue:fi five-thousand-l«о(CL)-long-GEN-road Жa distance (road) of five thousand lifl
3.2.19. Inclusion, exclusion, addition To express the idea Жnot only/aside from X but also Yfl, [me-t°hi] Жnot onlyfl is used after the X argument, which is the topic of the sentence, as in the following example: (3.179) khumtsi me-t°hi e-©lefiwu lu-ji-(t°i). Khumtsi NEG-only one-pl:all come-CSM-3pl ЖNot just Khumtsi, but everyone came.fl If this sentence has a negative predicate phrase, then it means Жall the people, including Khumtsi, didnflt comefl:
104 The noun phrase
(3.180) khumtsi me-t°hi e-©lefiwu mo-lu-ji-(t°i). Khumtsi NEG-only one-pl:all NEG-come-CSM-3pl ЖNone of the people, not even Khumtsi, came.fl
To express the concept Жexcept for Xfl, then [mе-`u`-t°i] (Жnotfl + COP + exception marker) or the exception marker [t°i ± ji ± j] alone is used after the noun phrase, and the verb is not negated. The same structure, but with the verb negated, is used to express Жonly Xfl (i.e. Жexcept for X, there is nothing elsefl; cf. Japanese X sika nai [X aside.from not.have/exist] Жthere is only Xfl). Compare the following two examples:
(3.181) khumtsi mе-`u`-ji
e-©lefiwu lu-ji-(t°i).
Khumtsi NEG-COP-EXC one-pl:all come-CSM-3pl
ЖExcept for Khumtsi, everyone came.fl
(3.182) khumtsi mе-`u`-ji
e-©lefiwu mo-lu-ji-(t°i).
Khumtsi NEG-COP-EXC one-pl:all NEG-come-CSM-3pl
ЖNo one came except Khumtsi / Only Khumtsi came.fl
Following are more examples of the Жonly Xfl usage:
(3.183) qе ©lu-o-u-t°i
me-Вi.51(3sg person marking)
1sg younger.sister-one-CL-EXC NEG-exist
ЖI only have one younger sister.fl
(lit.: ЖAside from my younger sister, there is no one.fl)
qе dytе:
1sg Chengdu:LOC NEG-COP-EXC NEG-go:1sg
ЖI only go to Chengdu.fl
(lit.: ЖI donflt go anyplace that is not Chengdu.fl)
(< k)
Either [mе`u`-t°i] or [t°i ± ji ± j]52 alone are possible, but the former is more emphatic. Compare the following two examples:
(3.185) a. qе fе-a-qi-t°i
(< В)
1sg clothes-one-CL-EXC NEG-exist-CAUS:1sg
ЖI only have one piece of clothing.fl
Nominal relational morphology 105
b. qе fе-a-qi
mе-`u`-t°i mе-®-Ве. (< В)
1sg clothes-one-CL NEG-COP-EXC NEG-exist-CAUS:1sg
ЖI only have one piece of clothing.fl
If the noun phrase that precedes the exception marker is a time phrase, then the expression can have the meaning Жonly thenfl or Жuntilfl:
(3.186) tp-i-j
dВ me-we. (no reference to person)
tomorrow-ADV-EXC thing NEG-exist
ЖIflm free (there is nothing) until tomorrow.fl
This same structure, when used with the phrase [me-t°hi] Жnot wantfl, has the meaning Жcan, be able tofl.
(3.187) mutu su-ji-(wе),
t°ile k-j me-t°hi-ji.
sky bright-CSM-RCA 1pl go-EXC NEG-want-CSM
ЖItfls daybreak; we can go.fl
There is also a somewhat metaphorical use of this construction to mean Жjust Xfl as in English Iflm just a kid. In Qiang we have the following example from the story "An Orphan":
qе ep l me-Вi,
w l me-Вi,
1sg father also NEG-exist mother also NEG-exist
orphan-INDEF:one:CL-EXC NEG-COP:1sg
ЖI have no father and no mother, I am just an orphan.fl
To express ЖX, in addition to Yfl, then a comitative structure (see §3.2.13) is used, as in the following example:
(3.189) mi-xs-t®-е-khumtsi
people-three-CL-and-Khumtsi come-CSM-3pl
ЖIn addition to Khumtsi, three people came.fl
106 The noun phrase
3.2.20. Locative, directional phrases
A noun phrase representing a locative referent may be marked in a number of ways. Noun phrases representing some large locations, such as cities, and some locational nouns, can appear without a locative postposition for unmarked location in that city or place. Most noun phrases representing locative referents require one of four types of locative postposition. The unmarked locative postpositions are /-tе/ and /-lе/. Both of these postpositions also can have the meaning of an allative postposition, depending on the context. In the case of allative meaning, then the use of the locative postposition with the names of cities, etc. is not optional. Both these locative postpositions can be (though are not necessarily) used with the ablative postposition /-wu/ to form a more specific ablative (e.g. (3.191b)). The difference between /-lе/ and /tе/ is that /-lе/ is more often used with bisyllabic place names or locational nouns, while /-tе/ is more often used with monosyllabic place names or locational nouns, though there are many common exceptions to this generalization, such as /t°u-lе/ Жat homefl.53 It is also possible in some cases for the locative postposition to appear as a lengthened vowel on the noun representing the location, e.g. /dytе-lе ± dytе:/ Жin/to Chengdufl. The locational nouns also take the locative markers; /mq/ Жtopfl and /Вek`u/ Жbetweenfl take /-tе/, while the others all take /-lе/ (see also below). The locative postpositions are also used for non-direct arguments of certain verbs, as in (3.194b) and (3.202c), below. Following are some examples of the use of /-lе/ and /-tе/:
(3.190) a. pet°in-(lе) Вi
b. pet°in-lе
Beijing-LOC exist
Beijing-LOC go
Ж(someone) is in Beijingfl
Жgo to Beijingfl
(3.191) a. t°u-lе home-LOC Жat homefl
b. t°u-lе-wu family-LOC-ABL Жfrom homefl
(3.192) the: t°iЩuе-le:-tе
3sg house-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-go:1sg
ЖI went to his/her house.fl
Nominal relational morphology 107
(3.193) a. bia t®uеts-le:-mq-tе
housefly table-DEF:CL-above-LOC fly
ЖA fly is flying above the table.fl
b. bia
table-DEF:CL-under-LOC exist
ЖA fly is under the table.fl
(3.194) a. pi-le:
pen-DEF:CL table-DEF:CL-LOC exist
ЖThe pen is on the table.fl
b. the: zе Ще bl-s-tе
3sg land LOC do/work-NOM-LOC DIR-capable-very
ЖShe is very good at working in the fields.fl
It is also possible for noun phrases representing human referents to take the locative marker /tе/. Depending on the context, the meaning is either that of an undergoer or dative argument (see Sections 3.2.5 and 3.2.6), or that of a location associated with the human referent(s), as in the following example:
(3.195) qе themle-tе ja. 1sg 3pl-LOC live/stay:1sg ЖI live at (am staying at) their place.fl
(< je)
The locational nouns /steke/ Жbehindfl, /mq/ Жtop, abovefl, /Вek`u/ Жbetween, centerfl, /®ql/ Жbelowfl, /pienе/ Жnear, (be)sidefl, and /q:fi/ Жbeforefl do not require the genitive marker when in a genitive relation with a noun (e.g. /t°iЩuе-le:-pienе/ Жbeside the housefl, lit.: Жthe housefls sidefl). Use of the locative postposition with bisyllabic locational nouns is optional, but monosyllabic locational nouns must take a locative marker.
(3.196) a. ®ql-lе k under-LOC go Жgo underfl
b. Вek`u-tе between-LOC Жbetween (two things)fl
108 The noun phrase
(3.197) a. Щuе-lе Вi out-LOC exist Ж(a person) is outsidefl
b. t°iЩuе-le:-pienе Вi house-DEF:CL-near exist Ж(a person) is near the housefl
(3.198) t°iЩuе-le:-pienе-lе
house-DEF:CL-nearby-LOC go
Жgo to the area near the housefl
(3.199) a. t®hets-le:-qe:fi-lе
car-DEF:CL-before-LOC exist
Ж(a person) is in front of the carfl
b. t®hets-le:-steke-lе Вi car-DEF:CL-behind-LOC exist Ж(a person) is in back of the carfl
(3.200) a. t®uеts-le:-pienе-lе
table-DEF:CL-nearby-LOC exist
Ж(a person) is beside the tablefl
b. Щopu-le:-tе
mountain-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-go
Жgo over the mountainfl
(3.201) a. the-x®-tе that-side-LOC Жon that sidefl
b. the:-x®-tе that-side-LOC Жon that side (farther away)fl
The locative postposition /-Ще/ generally has an inessive, illative or elative meaning, i.e. it marks containment in some sort of vessel or container or movement in or out of one. This postposition can also be used together with the ablative postposition /-wu/ to make the elative sense more explicit (see ex. (3.206a)). (3.202) a. panko®-Ще Вi office-LOC exist Ж(a person) is in the officefl
Nominal relational morphology 109
b. panko®-Ще -qе office-LOC DIR-go Жenter the officefl
c. the: l©z su-Ще
3sg book study-LOC smart-very
ЖShe is very good at her studies.fl
(lit.: ЖShe is smart in her studies.fl)
The ablative postposition is the same form as the agentive and instrumental postposition, /-wu/. It can be used alone, or with one of the other locative postpositions introduced above.
(3.203) a. t°iЩuе-le:-pienе-wu
house-DEF:CL-nearby-ABL come
Жcome from nearby the housefl
b. pet°in-wu Beijing-ABL Жfrom Beijingfl
(3.204) a. mq-tе-wu

above-LOC-ABL fly
Жfly from abovefl
b. tse-x®e-wu dе-qе this-side-ABL DIR-go Жgo this wayfl
(3.205) a. the-x®e-wu z-lе that-side-ABL DIR-come Жcame from that directionfl
b. ®ql-lе-wu
below-LOC-ABL come
Жcoming from belowfl
110 The noun phrase
(3.206) a. panko®-Ще-wu hе-lе office-LOC-ABL DIR-come Жcame out of the officefl b. tse-x®e-wu dе-qе this-side-ABL DIR-go Жcross over (go over from here)fl
The postposition /-wu/ can also be used with a perlative meaning, Жalongfl:
(3.207) ts-le:-pienе-wu
water-DEF:CL-nearby-ABL go
Жgoing along the riverfl
3.2.21. Temporal phrases
A noun phrase representing a temporal referent in some cases can be unmarked, but if it takes a postposition, it takes one of the same postpositions as are used for the locative meanings, except for /-lе/, or it takes the adverbial marker /-i/. The form /-tе/ is used for some large time periods, such as seasons. The locative postposition /-Ще/ is used for the meaning Жwithin/at a time periodfl, but not for large time periods, where /-tе/ is used. The ablative postposition /-wu/ is used for temporal Жfromfl. The adverbial marker /-i/ (see §4.4) can be used for some adverbial time phrases. For shorter periods, /-Ще/ and /-i/ are both possible, but not /-tе/. To express the meaning Жonly thenfl, the exception construction is used (see §3.2.19).
(3.208) qе a-i
1sg one-time become-ADV
ЖI'll come in a minute.fl
lu-е:. come-PRS:1sg
(3.209) qе
1sg one-year exist:PRS:1sg
ЖIflm going to stay one year.fl (not there yet)
(< Вi)
Nominal relational morphology 111
(3.210) a. е-s-mqе one-day-each Жeach dayfl
b. е-p-mqе one-year-each Жeach yearfl
c. n-s last-day Жyesterdayfl
(3.211) a. °int°hiji54-Ще Monday-LOC Жon Mondayfl
b. thе-s-Ще that:one-day-LOC Ж(on) that dayfl
(3.212) a. j-°-Ще two-month-LOC Жin Februaryfl
b. j-°-t°-ju-t°u-Ще two-month-GEN-two-first-LOC Жon the second of Februaryfl
(3.213) a. °t°i-tian-Ще seven-o'clock-LOC Жat sevenfl
b. Вme-de-Ще Qiang-festival-LOC Жat the Qiang Festivalfl
(3.214) a. jit°uwupеian-Ще 1958-LOC Жin 1958fl
b. suq-tе autumn/winter-LOC Жin autumn/winterfl
(3.215) a. tsaq-i spring/summer-ADV Жin spring/summerfl
b. dza:-t°ik`u-i lunch-before-ADV Жin the morningfl
(3.216) a. j-p
two-years become-CSM
Жtwo years ago (two years have passed)fl
b. j-s
two-days become-after
Жafter two daysfl
(3.217) eii-ike

tsе Вa:.
(< Вi)
1sg here exist:PRS:1sg
ЖAfter next year I am going to be here.fl
112 The noun phrase
As mentioned in the discussion of the marking of source arguments (§3.2.11), the postpositions /-Ще/ and /-tе/ can be optionally used with /-wu/ after a temporal expression to mean Жstarting from that timefl:
(3.218) tsaq-(tе)-wu
autumn/winter DIR-arrive-go
Жfrom spring/summer to autumn/winter.fl
(3.219) °int°hiji-wu Monday-ABL Жstarting Mondayfl
Temporal adverbials also often take the topic marker /ui/. This is true even if the actor or some other constituent in the clause is also marked by /ui/.
(3.220) е-s-Ще-ui
ЖIn one day five people came.fl
i-p-l. DIR-arrive-come
pеn-t°in-wu pеn-t°in t-t®h-i . . .
one-day half-kilo-INST half-catty DIR-weigh-ADV
Each day Mom (takes) half a catty of wool and weighs it (to
make yarn balls).
Whether the temporal expression is adverbial or predicative, it often takes the adverbial marker /-i/, though when the temporal phrase directly modifies a noun, it often takes the genitive marker.
(3.222) Вme-de-ui
ЖThe Qiang festival is in autumn.fl
(3.223) tse: np-t°-pеut®
this:CL last.year-GEN-newspaper
ЖThis is last yearfls newspaper.fl
Nominal relational morphology 113
(3.224) tse: tep-i-bl-s
this:CL tomorrow-ADV-make-NOM COP
ЖThis is tomorrowfls work.fl
In (3.224), the genitive cannot be used, as the temporal phrase is modifying the verb of the nominalized clause (/bl/ Жmake, dofl), not a noun phrase. Some of the locational nouns are also used in a temporal sense, such as /steke/ Жbehindfl, which is used for the meaning Жafter (that time)fl, and /q:fi/ Жbeforefl, which is used for the meaning Жbefore (that time)fl. The latter is often used at the beginning of stories with the meaning Жlong long ago . . .fl (see ex. (3.45), above).
(3.225) steke-tе
u-uе-i, . . .
person raise-NOM COP-because-ADV
ЖLater, in order to propagate descendants, . . .fl
(3.226) q:fi
before man.eating.devil (proper name)
Жthe one who had before become the man-eating devil Demifl
The ablative postposition /-wu/ is also used with the distal demonstrative to mean Жaside from thatfl, Жfrom thatfl or Жafter thatfl (T6:284 and T6:242 respectively):
t°ile-t° jеut°hiu t°iu-®, iuuеn-ui е-t°,
1pl-GEN demand just-is55 bezoar-TOP one-catty
the-wu, mudu-ui е-w ph
that-ABL charcoal-TOP one-pile burn(blow) want-DTV
ЖOur demand is that we want one catty of bezoar (a kind of
medicine), and after that a pile of charcoal should be burned.fl
t®i pe-tu,
boy become-LNK seven-year
DIR:INDTV-study-DTV that-ABL
exist-ADV book
hat®i-p le-i
eleven-year exist-ADV
114 The noun phrase qе ta:-mefiВ-wе. 1sg DIR:INDTV-look for-DTV ЖIf it is a boy, (when the boy) is seven years old, have him study, after that, (when) he is eleven years old, have him come look for me.fl
3.2.22. Form-function summary of relational marking
In the previous sections we looked at how various functions are coded in Qiang. In this section we will illustrate the functions that the different types of postpositions have. Following are the postpositions and the types of roles they mark. Two numbers are given after each function name: the first refers to an example of this type of usage given below (the relevant marker is given in bold in the examples); the second is the section of this chapter where that usage is discussed in detail.
ui wu t°() lе tе Ще t°i ± ji е s iki i uе-(i)
Topic (3.229), §3.2.1 Agentive (3.230a), § 3 . 2 . 3 ; Instrumental (3.230b), §3.2.12; Ablative (3.230c), §3.2.20; Perlative (3.230d) §3.2.20 Genitive (3.231a), § 3 . 2 . 1 5 ; Benefactive/Recipient (3.231b), §3.2.6, §3.2.10 Locative (3.232a), §3.2.20; Allative (3.232b) §3.2.20 Locative (3.233a) (see also (3.235)), §3.2.20; Allative (3.233b), §3.2.20; Temporal (3.233c), §3.2.21; Goal (3.233d) §3.2.6 Inessive/Illative/Elative (3.234a), §3.2.20; Temporal (3.234b) (see also (3.232)) §3.2.21 Exception (3.235), §3.2.19 Conjunction (3.236a) (see also (3.229)), Comitative, (3.236b) §3.2.13 Comparative (positive) (3.237a), §3.2.7 Comparative (negative) (3.237b), §3.2.7 Adverbial (3.238), §3.2.21, §4.4 Benefactive (3.239), §3.2.10
Nominal relational morphology 115
older.brother COM younger.sister two-CL-TOP
zuеm-u o-Вgu-tе i-pi-uе-i,
cypress-tree one-CL-LOC DIR-hide-because-ADV
ЖThe brother and sister, because (they) hid in a cypress tree,
they didnflt burn (up).fl
(3.230) a. "®kup-te:-wu
maha qе dz lе:"
orangutan-DEF:CL-AGT night 1sg eat come-PRS
j-®, . . .
Ж"The orangutan is going to come and eat me", he said, . . .fl
b. m-le:
t-khueq, duеЩl-le:-wu
older.brother-DEF:CL DIR-angry scythe-DEF:CL-INST
sxte-i . . .
ЖThe brother got angry and chopped (it) with a scythe . . .fl
c. Щu-q-tе-wu
mountain-peak(head)-LOC-ABL DIR-roll
Ж(They) rolled it down from the mountain top.fl
d. ts-le:-pienе-wu
water-DEF:CL-nearby-ABL go
Жgoing along the riverfl
(3.231) a. "qе-t°-t®i, i©i pns u-su-n-е?"
1sg-GEN-son what ability DIR-learn-2sg-Q say-INF:HS
Ж"My son, what ability did you learn?", she said.fl (T5:47)
b. mе:-le:-t°-ui
°i-ui . . . pеnt°in
ЖFor his mom (he) would bring back half a catty of liquor.fl
116 The noun phrase
(3.232) a. qefilot®u-Ще, mutu-lе mujuq`u Вgu-zi we-i.
the.past-LOC heaven-LOC sun nine-CL exist-HS
ЖIn the past there were nine suns in the sky.fl
b. mutu-lе
heaven-LOC NEG.IMP-look-DTV
ЖDo not look towards the heavens.fl
(3.233) a. buzd-le:-ku-tе
їе-n-kui-t°u. (T3:115-16)
plank.stairs-DEF:CL-foot-LOC DIR-sleep-INF:HS-PART
Ж(The stone mortar) slept at the foot of the stairs.fl
b. themle zpq-tе i-p-l-ike, . . .
world-LOC DIR-arrive-come-after
ЖAfter they returned to the world, . . .fl
c. steke-tе mi pefiВ-s
u-uе-i, . . .
later-LOC people raise(child)-NOM COP-because-ADV
ЖLater, in order to propagate descendants, . . .fl (T1:4-5)
d. t®huеts-le:
ЖTo whom are you going to sell the table?fl
(3.234) a.
uncle-snake-DEF:CL stone.pile-DEF:one:CL-LOC
ЖUncle Snake went into a stone pilefl
b. xs-s-Ще
three-day-LOC DIR-NEG-CON-arrive-come
ЖOn the third day (they) had not yet come.fl
qе t°u-lе
(< Вi)
1sg home-LOC one:CL-EXC NEG-exist:1sg-EMPH
ЖI am the only one at homefl
(lit.: ЖExcept for me there is no one at home.fl)
Nominal relational morphology 117
(3.236) a. m
е ©lu
l-zi i-dВi-t°i.
older.brother COM younger.sister DEF-CL DIR-discuss-3pl
ЖThe brother and sister talked (it) over.fl
b. чile-ep-te:
l tsoqpi е
2pl-father-DEF:CL also this.family COM
ququе-s-tе-ui die-®e-j-ka:-ji.
ЖWhen your father also fought with this person he perhaps
(3.237) a. the: qе-s
3sg 1sg-COMP
one-CL DIR-tall
ЖS/he is a bit taller than I am.fl (from Huang 1998:62)
b. qе
чu~ -iki
1sg 2sg-COMP
ЖI am not as big as you are.fl
(< ba)
(3.238) maha-i
Ж(He) comes at night.fl
(3.239) the: qе-uе-i
3sg 1sg-BEN-ADV firewood
ЖHe went to chop wood for me.fl
gue-k. chop-go
118 The noun phrase
Chapter 4 The verb complex For the purposes of this discussion, the verb complex is defined as the predicating part of the clause, not including the sentence final mood particles. The end of the verb complex is marked by the person marking; the last element of the verb complex takes the person marking suffix, and anything after that is considered to be outside the verb complex. This is done because the person marking is enclitic, and immediately follows the verb if there is no causative or aspect marking, but appears after the causative suffix if there is one, or after the aspect if there is any, but not after other particles that follow the verb complex. The beginning of the verb complex is the adverbials which modify the verb. No nominal arguments (all of which were discussed above) are included in the verb complex. Nominal predicates were discussed in §3.2.9. In this section we will focus on verbal predicates. In Section 4.1 we will discuss the structure of the verb complex, in Section 4.2 we will discuss the different types of verbs and derivational morphology, in Section 4.3 we will discuss the relational and other non-derivational morphology in the verb complex, and in Section 4.4 we will discuss adverbial modification. 4.1. Structure The verb complex in its most expanded form has an adverbial (including manner adverbials, certain adverbs covered in §4.4, and the verbal action classifiers discussed in §3.1.6), a directional prefix, a negative prefix (either unmarked negative or prohibitive negative), a continuative aspect (Жyet, stillfl) prefix, the verb, causative marking, prospective aspect marking, change of state aspect marking, and person marking. There are three other particles that can follow the verb inside the verb complex. One ([j], glossed ЖREPfl) has the meaning Жagainfl. The meaning of this particle prevents it from occurring together with both
120 The verb complex
the negative and continuative aspect prefixes, as the meaning would be Жnot yet again Vfl. The second particle marks a first person indirect directive, and does not appear with prospective aspect marking. The third particle marks inferentially derived information (see §4.3.7), and also generally does not appear with prospective aspect marking. The full list of possible elements of a single-verb verb complex can be represented as in Figure 3 (not all of these affixes can occur together):
1. intensifying adverb
2. direction/orientation prefix or 3rd person indirect directive
marking prefix (or the two combined as one syllable)
3. simple negation /m-/ or prohibitive /t°-/ prefix
4. continuative aspect marking prefix /t°i-/
5. causative marking suffix /-В/
6. prospective aspect marking suffix /-е:/
7. auxiliary directional verb /k/ Жgofl or /l/ Жcomefl
8. repetition marking suffix /-j/
9. change of state aspect marking suffix /-ji/
10. 1st person indirect directive marking suffix /-l-/
11. inferential evidential and mirative marking suffix /-k/
12. visual evidential marking suffix /-u/
13. non-actor person marking (1sg /-®е/, 2sg /-sеn/, 1pl /-®fi/, 2pl /-sеi/,
3sg/pl [-wu/ ± -u])
14. actor person marking (1sg /-е/, 2sg /-n/, 1pl /-fi/, 2pl /-i/, 3pl /-t°i/)
15. hearsay evidential marking suffix /-i/
Figure 3. The structure of the Qiang verb complex
A minimal verb complex would be just the verb and third person singular (zero) person marking. In some cases the prospective aspect marking will appear on the person marking suffix, e.g. [sum the: xewе:] [teacher 3sg scold-PRS:3sgU] ЖThe teacher will scold himfl, where /е:/ + /w/ > [wе:]. There is also a 3rd person indirect directive prefix (/°е:-/) that can appear in the same slot as the directional prefixes, either instead of a directional prefix or merged with it (see § for examples). If there is an auxiliary verb in the clause, then it follows the (semantically) main verb. In the case of Жcomefl / Жgofl and Жlikefl, when they follow another verb (e.g. /Щoi-k/ [call-go] Жgo callfl, [i©i dz topu-
Verb types 121 n-е] [what eat like-2sg-Q] Жwhat do/would you like to eatfl), generally nothing comes between the two verbs. Person marking always appears on the last element of the verb complex, regardless of whether it is a main verb, an auxiliary, or an aspect marker. Prospective aspect marking may appear on the main verb even if there is an auxiliary verb. In the case of intransitive stative verbs, there are also some adverbs that follow the verb. Examples of the different combinations possible can be found in the discussions of the individual items that go into the verb complex in Sections 4.2 and 4.3. 4.2. Verb types The verb in Qiang can be defined as an element that can take the directional prefixes, the negative prefix, and the causative suffix. Below we discuss the different types of verbs, both derived and underived, that can appear in the verb complex. 4.2.1. Intransitive, transitive, reciprocal Intransitive verbs take only one direct argument, and any other participants added to the clause must take some sort of semantic case marking (see §3.2.22 for a summary and examples). With transitive verbs there are two unmarked arguments. While most verbs in Qiang fall into these two classes, a number of verbs are ambitransitive, that is, they can be used either intransitively or transitively, such as /©lu/ Жrollfl and /dz/ Жeatfl. As there is no applicative construction that has the function of adding an undergoer or benefactive argument, for most of the verbs where the single argument of the intransitive use corresponds to the actor of the transitive use, such as Жeatfl (e.g. ЖI eatfl vs. ЖI eat somethingfl), the transtive and intransitive uses differ only in terms of whether an undergoer argument appears in the clause or context. That is, the single argument of the intransitive use corresponds to the actor of the transitive use. Where the single argument of the intransitive is semantically an undergoer, the transitive is generally formed using the causative suffix (see below), but for a few verbs the transitive can be formed by simply adding an actor, such as with /©lu/ Жrollfl, as in (4.1a-
122 The verb complex
b). With these verbs use of the causative is also a possibility, as in (4.1c), but the meaning is slightly different: in (4.1b) the actor must be involved in the rolling, whereas in (4.1c) the actor may have just done something that caused the stone to roll.
(4.1) a. Веwе їo-©lu. stone DIR-roll ЖThe stone rolled down.fl
b. qе Веwе їo-©lu-е. 1sg stone DIR-roll-1sg ЖI rolled the stone down.fl
c. qе Веwе їo-©lu-В-е. 1sg stone DIR-roll-CAUS-1sg ЖI caused the stone to roll down.fl
It is not possible to form an intransitive from a transitive simply by dropping the noun phrase representing the actor (at least in the case of first and second person actors) because of the person marking on the verb reflecting the person and number of the actor. In general there is no formal difference between telic and non-telic verbs other than use of a directional prefix to mark the fact that the logical conclusion of the telic situation has been reached. In general there is no special citation form for verbs other than the unmodified root, but there are a few verbs that seem to have a final syllable /te/ or /tu/ (depending on harmony with the preceding vowel) in citation form that generally does not appear when the verbs are used in context. Following is a complete list of those we have found:
(4.2) sutu Жjumpfl qhutu Жspread, sprinklefl Вgutu Жthrowfl ete Жlickfl dete Жhitfl tshuate Жstamp the feetfl ©liete Жrub between the handsfl tshuеte Жchop (e.g. meat)fl wte Жstirfl
°ete phte tshuete Вete lete phete khfite Щute
Жsmell (v.)fl Жspitfl Жpeckfl Жpound, knockfl Жspin (yarn)fl Жwag, shake, patfl Жhit (people)fl Жthrowfl
It is possible to derive verbs from nouns by putting the verb /p/ Жto dofl after the noun. We saw examples of this in the discussion of
Verb types 123
Chinese loan words in §3.1.1. Other than this there is no way to derive verbs from nouns. With some verbs intransitives can be formed by reduplicating the verb to make a reciprocal, as in the following examples:
(4.3) a. Щu Жcursefl b. zd Жconnectfl c. Щua Жhelpfl
> ЩuЩu > zdzd > ЩuЩua
Жcurse each otherfl Жmutually connectfl Жhelp each otherfl
The verb in this construction can either take one plural argument (which is possibly comprised of two conjoined noun phrases) or two arguments, one of which is marked as an oblique argument by the comitative/conjunction marker /-е/. In the first of these two situations, the verb would take plural person marking, in the second, the verb would take singular person marking. In the case of certain verbs that involve some other referent than the two human referents that are mutually involved, or have only one human referent, the verb remains transitive with reduplication, and the meaning of reduplication can be iteration, such as with the verbs in (4.4).and (4.5).
(4.4) a. mе Жplaster (a wall)fl > mmе Жbe plasteringfl
b. stue Жpull (weeds)fl > stuistue Жbe pulling (weeds)fl
c. di Жclimbfl
> didi Жbe climbing (a tree)fl
(4.5) the: s
firewood chopping
ЖHe is chopping firewood.fl
(< qhi)
Some verbs have a reduplicated form as their base form. In these cases, no further reduplication is necessary to express the reciprocal (e.g. /®que®que/ Жpullfl, /lle/ Жinsertfl). Reciprocal verbs can be nominalized, e.g. /llе-s/ (Жexchangefl + nominalizer > Жthat which is exchangedfl); the nominalized form expresses the goal of the action. Reciprocal meaning can also be emphasized by use of the adverbial expression /e:-wu e:-tе/ (one:CL-AGT one:CL-DAT) Жeach otherfl. Following are some examples of the use of reciprocals.
124 The verb complex
(4.6) a. khumtsi-е-umt®i
ЖKhumtsi and Xumt®i are fighting.fl
(< quе)
b. thizzi e:-wu

3dl one:CL-AGT one:CL-DAT clothing tear:RECIP-3pl
ЖThe two of them tore each otherfls clothes.fl
In the negative, verbs do not require reduplication to be reciprocal, such as /s/ Жto know (a person)fl in (4.7). In the positive this would be [ss:fi].
(4.7) t°ile
ЖWe donflt know each other.fl (or ЖWe donflt know it/him/herfl)
While there is marking of the reciprocal on the verb, and there are some verbs with an inherently reciprocal meaning, there is no marking of reflexives on the verb, and there are no verbs with an inherently reflexive sense. Instead, reflexive pronouns are used to express a reflexive meaning (see §3.1.2). There are also no middle voice56 or passive constructions. Transitive verbs can be formed from intransitives using the causative construction (see §4.2.2, below). It is also possible to add an oblique argument to a transitive or ditransitive verb by using the benefactive postposition /uе-i/ (see §3.2.10).
4.2.2. Causatives There are three types of causative marking in Qiang, though only one of these is productive. This is the causative suffix /-В()/, which increases the valency of intransitive, transitive, and ditransitive verbs. There is no difference in the causative marking of these three types of verbs. Causatives derived using this suffix can be permissive or causative, and either direct or indirect causatives. The actor person marking on the verb (§4.3.2, Table 8) reflects the person and number of the causer only, and the marking is added to (follows) the causative suffix, using the
Verb types 125
same forms as for non-causativized verbs. Non-actor person marking (§4.3.2, Table 9), if there is any, marks the person and number of the causee, not the undergoer (only animates are marked). Prospective aspect marking, if there is any, also appears after the causative suffix. In terms of the marking of the noun phrases representing the causer, there is no formal difference which depends on the agentivity and/or intentionality of the causer, but there is a difference which depends on the animacy of the causer; the noun phrase representing the causer of a derived monotransitive clause generally does not take the agentive marker /-wu/ unless it is inanimate, e.g. Жwindfl in the following example:
(4.8) moЩu-wu qе
wind-AGT 1sg
ЖThe wind knocked me down.fl
This clause is a causative of an intransitive, so the resulting form is a monotransitive clause, in this case with an inanimate actor/causer and animate undergoer/causee. The noun phrase representing the causee can take agentive marking, though, if the basic clause from which it is formed is transitive, as in (4.9).57 The use of the agentive marker is not related to the willingness of the causee to perform the action; s/he may be willing or not.
(4.9) qе the:-wu pits-e-ze 1sg 3sg-AGT cup-one-CL ЖI made him/her buy a cup.fl
(< В)
The noun phrase representing the causer can often be omitted, as the person marking on the verb reflects the person and number of the causer, but the noun phrase representing the causee cannot be omitted. Following are some examples of causatives formed from different base types:
126 The verb complex
Unmarked intransitive:
(4.10) ts
water DIR-boil-CSM
ЖThe water has come to a boil.fl
Causativized intransitive:
(4.11) a. qе ts
1sg water DIR-boil-CAUS-CSM:1sg
ЖI brought the water to a boil.fl
(< ji + е)
b. qе the: dytе:
l©z su-k`u-Ве:.
(< В)
1sg 3sg Chengdu:LOC book study-go-CAUS:PRS
ЖI am going to make him/her go to Chengdu to study (attend
Causativized transitive:
(4.12) a. xs-hеn thunt® tu-p-В.
three-kind notify DIR-do-CAUS
Ж(These) three things you must proclaim (to the people).fl
(lit.: cause someone to notify themfl)
b. qе the:-wu l©z е-f їe-Вi-Ве.
(< В)
1sg 3sg-AGT book one-CL DIR-write-CAUS:1sg
ЖI made him write a letter.fl
c. umt®i
ЖXumt®i made me hit you.fl
z-d-В.58 DIR-hit-CAUS
(< В)
Causativized ditransitive:
(4.13) qе umt®i-wu l©z-te-pen khumtsi-tе 1sg Xumt®i-AGT book-DEF-CL Khumtsi-LOC
Verb types 127
t-uе-Ве:. DIR-buy-CAUS:PRS:1sg ЖIflm going to make Xumt®i buy the book for Khumtsi.fl
(< В)
The copula can also take the causative suffix, as in translative constructions:
(4.14) a.
dog-DEF:CL cat
ЖMake the dog replace/become the cat.fl (Treat the dog as a
b. t°ile the: їе-stеq-i
linthеu u-Ве:.
(< В)
1pl 3sg DIR-choose-ADV leader COP-CAUS:PRS
ЖWe chose him to be leader.fl
In (4.14b), the verb /stеq/ Жchoosefl appears in a manner adverbial phrase modifying the main verb of the clause, the causativized copula, to express how the causee became the leader.59 Causatives can also be used with reciprocals:
(4.15) qе
thizzi llе-Ве:.
ЖI had the two of them exchange with each other.fl
(< В)
(4.16) qе thizzi ququе-Ве:. 1sg 3dl hit:REFL-CAUS:PRS:1sg ЖI had the two of them hit each other.fl
(< В)
Of the two types of non-productive causative marking, one derives from the Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s- prefix (LaPolla 2003a:22 and references therein). Only one example of this has been found to date: /°t°/ Жfeed (vt.)fl, from /t°he/ Жeat (rice)/drinkfl (with assimilation of the prefix to point of articulation of the initial). While this is the only such example found in Qiang, it matches well with forms found in closely related languages and dialects; the lack of examples may simply be due to lack of data or the obscuring of the prefix by assimilatory processes.
128 The verb complex
The second type of non-productive causative marking is a voicedvoiceless (aspirated) contrast in simplex-causative or intrasitivetransitive pairs (also a feature of Proto-Sino-Tibeto--LaPolla 2003a:23). There is also a concomitant difference in the directional prefix used with each type (see §4.3.3 for more on this difference).
(4.17) simplex a. de-pe b. da-Щe c. da-Щli
causative їe-phe їa-qhe їa-¬i
Жtear (of clothes)fl Жbreak (of bowls, etc.)fl Жbreak (in two) (of tree limbs, etc.)fl
These are the only three forms we have found so far in the Ronghong subdialect, but there are quite a few more in the Mawo dialect (see Sun 1981a:192-3). This type has more of a sense of direct causation, and not permission, than the productive causative. These causative forms cannot take a further productive causative suffix.
4.2.3. Intransitive state predicate verbs (adjectives) In this section we will be discussing the nature of intransitive state predicate verbs, i.e. stative verbs with only one argument. (See also Huang Chenglong 1994, LaPolla & Huang 2002.) Intransitive state predicate verbs form a separate sub-class of verb distinct from other transitive and intransitive verbs, and since they are words for dimension, age, value, color, quality, and shape, we can use the term Жadjectivesfl for this sub-class of verbs (they are morphosyntactically unlike English adjectives, though). They can be predicates without the use of the copula, as can verbs, and take the same person marking (agreement) forms, orientation/directional marking, causative marking, evidential marking, and most aspect and negation marking as non-stative intransitive verbs, but unlike non-stative verbs, they can be nominalized using the definite and indefinite markers (see §3.1.4--existential verbs can also be nominalized in this way), many can act as adverbials (taking the adverbial marker /-i/), and many can take the postpositive adverb /-wa/ Жveryfl.60 Non-stative verbs can only modify a noun in the form of a pre-head relative clause construction, while adjectives can modify a noun directly in post-head position (as
Verb types 129 well as appear in relative clause constructions), as in [mi nе] (person good) Ж(a) good personfl. The meaning of reduplication for most verbs is reciprocity (see §4.2.1), while the meaning of reduplication for adjectives is intensification or plurality.61 There is no morphology for deriving adjectives from non-adjectival verbs, although adjectives can take causative marking and become transitive verbs. There is no nounadjective overlap, and no way to derive an adjective from a noun except by use of the auxiliaries /-thе/ and /-p/ mentioned in §3.1.1 in the discussion of loan words above. This is done only with borrowed words, not with native words. The class of adjectives is an open class with many members, although the majority of new members are loan-words from Chinese (see §3.1.1 on loan words). The class includes items related to dimension, age, value, color, physical property, human propensity, speed, difficulty, qualification, and quantification. Some meanings that are expressed by adjectives in other languages are not expressed by adjectives in Qiang. For example, words expressing the semantic field of position are (locational) nouns (/steke/ Жbehindfl, /mq/ Жtop, abovefl, /Вek'u/ Жbetween, centerfl, /®ql/ Жbelowfl, /pienе/ Жnear, (be)sidefl, and /q:fi/ Жbeforefl), numbers form a separate word class (they must appear with a classifier when used as modifier or predicate), and there are no words for similarity. Within some of the semantic types that are generally expressed by adjectives in Qiang there are some words that are not adjectives. For example, within the quantification type, the meanings Жallfl and Жonlyfl are represented by adverbs, and the meaning Жsome, a fewfl is represented by the numeral for Жonefl plus the plural marker ([е-hе]), or Жonefl + Жtwofl plus a classifier (e.g. [-j-u]). Some concepts are not represented by basic words, but by negation of basic words, e.g. in qualification, Жcorrectfl is a basic word, /pe/, but there is no basic native word for Жincorrectfl, only the negation of Жcorrectfl, /me-pe/. Adjectives and certain other verbs which represent gradient concepts can appear as the predicate in a comparative construction (see §3.2.7 for examples), but adjectives can be comparative even without overt marking of comparison ((4.18a)). Addition of an adverbial meaning Жveryfl can clarify that a non-comparative sense is intended ((4.18b)). To specify a comparative sense, an adverbial such as [е-zе] (Жonefl-CL) Жa littlefl can be added before the adjective ((4.18c)).
130 The verb complex
(4.18) a. the: ti-wi. 3sg DIR-tall ЖHe is tall/taller.fl c. the: е-zе ti-wi. 3sg one-CL DIR-tall ЖHe is a bit taller.fl
b. the: ti-wi-wa. 3sg DIR-tall-very ЖHe is very tall.fl
There are only three types of reduplication of adjectives: AA, Au:A, AAu: (/u:/ is a syllable added to the reduplicated form--this type is only possible with adjectives); there is no ABB, ABAB, or AABB reduplication. Reduplicated forms are nominalized even without the (in)definite marking. The meaning of AA reduplication is plurality; the meaning of Au:A reduplication is intensification; the meaning of AAu: reduplication is plurality plus intensification. With AAu: and Au:A reduplication, the phonetic stress is on /u:/ (the stress is marked with an acute accent in the examples in (4.19)). Following are examples:
(4.19) a. AA b. Au:A c. AAu:
pеt®pеt® pеt®|u:pеt® pеt®pеt®|u:
Жsome round thingsfl Жvery round thingsfl Жsome very round thingsfl
Reduplicated adjectives can appear together with a common noun, and are generally followed by the indefinite marker /-ke/. They are then noun phrases in their own right in apposition to the common noun, clarifying the nature of the referent of the common noun. In this structure the nominalized adjective can precede or follow the common noun. (See §3.1 on the modifiers of the noun phrase.) Following are examples:
(4.20) a. qhеl
steamed.bun round.round-INDEF:CL
Жround steamed bunsfl (lit.: Жsteamed buns, round onesfl)
b. fе
clothing black.black-INDEF:CL
Жvery black clothingfl (lit.: Жclothing, black onesfl)
Verb types 131
c. pat®u:pat® pana lе-hе
round.round thing DEF:one-pl where-LOC exist
ЖWhere are the very round things?fl
In most cases reduplicated forms do not modify a noun, but instead are simply nominalized by /-ke/ and used with the copula (e.g. [qhеl pеt®pеt®-ke: u] Жqhеl (steamed buns) are round thingsfl). Adjectives are generally only nominalized by the definite and indefinite markers or reduplication, although, as mentioned in Section 3.1, in certain situations they can also be nominalized by /-m/ and /-t°/ (see §5.2 on these nominalizers). In the case of /-m/ nominalization, the referent is generally a person, as in the following examples:
(4.21) a. mi ba-m person big-NOM Ж(a) big personfl
b. mi
person DIR-tall-NOM
Ж(a) tall personfl
In these particular examples, there are two noun phrases in apposition to each other, something like Жa person, a big onefl. This contrasts with the usual form of the adjective without nominalization, e.g. mi ba [person big] Жbig personfl. In the case of nominalization by /-m/ or /-t°/, the form would generally be followed by the indefinite or definite marker, as in the following example:
(4.22) fе
clothing red-GEN-INDEF:CL
ЖThere is an item of red clothing.fl
Although this form looks similar to a single noun phrase which has both a post-head adjective and indefinite marking (i.e. [fе-°upu-ke:] (clothing-red-INDEF:CL)), it is clearly two noun phrases, as the order of the two noun phrases could be reversed. This structure is used for emphasizing the quality of the referent in question, such as in a contrastive context. Some adjectives are formed from noun + verb combinations with metaphorical meanings. Following are some examples using the noun /°t°i:(mi)/ Жheartfl:
132 The verb complex
(4.23) a. °t°i:mi-di b. °t°i:mi-ba c. °t°i-k`u`-nе
Жsadfl Жbravefl Жhappyfl
< Жheartfl + Жpainfulfl < Жheartfl + °t°i-k`u`-nе < Жheartfl + Жbasefl + Жgoodfl
If a prepositional adverb modifies the verb, it appears after the noun and before the verb, e.g. [°t°i-k`u` kn nе] Жvery happyfl. With adjectives, the expression of change of state requires a directional prefix (see §4.3.3), e.g. /ba/ Жbigfl, /twa/ Жbecome bigfl (here with change of initial, see §1.3.1). Following are some examples of the use of adjectives in modifying nouns, as deverbal noun phrases, and as predicates, with prospective aspect marking and with person marking:
Modifying a noun:
(4.24) qе
1sg clothes-new
ЖI like new clothes.fl
tupu-е. like-1sg
(4.25) qе phi®-le:
1sg white-DEF:CL wear:PRS:1sg
ЖI want to wear the white one.fl
(< gu)
With prospective aspect marking:62
(4.26) m t°a-qa:. sky CON-clear:PRS ЖThe sky is still going to be clear.fl
(< qa)
With person marking:
(4.27) a. qе
1sg DIR-tall:1sg
ЖI am tall/taller.fl
b. t°ile ti-wifi.
(< tiwi)
1pl DIR-tall:1pl
ЖWe are tall/taller.fl
Verb types 133
c. ч~u
ЖYou are tall/taller.fl
d. чile ti-wi-i. 2pl DIR-tall-2pl ЖYou(pl) are tall/taller. fl
Some adjectives can appear in a serial verb structure where they modify another verb, e.g. /tse-nе/ (Жlookfl + Жgoodfl) Жgood lookingfl, /dzu nе/ (Жsitfl + Жgoodfl) Жgood to sit, there is room to sitfl (see also examples (4.269)-(4.272) in §4.4.3 below). In this structure, while the adverb semantically seems to function as an adverbial, it is syntactically the main verb, and so if the clause is negated or is in the continuative aspect, the negative and/or continuative aspect prefix is affixed to the adjective, not the verb, e.g. /tse-mе-nе/ (Жlookfl + NEG + Жgoodfl) Жnot good lookingfl, /tse-t°е-nе/ (Жlookfl + CON + Жgoodfl) Жstill good lookingfl. The adjective can also take the adverb /-wa/, e.g. /tse-nе-wa/ (Жlookfl + Жgoodfl + Жveryfl) Жvery good lookingfl.
4.2.4. Existential/locative verbs
There are five existential/locative verbs, the use of which depends on the semantics of the referent being located or shown to exist, or on the nature of its location: /®/ and /xu/ for inanimate referents that are not in containers or immovable or inalienably connected to some larger entity, /le/ for a referent located in a containment of some type, /Вi/ for animate referents, and /we/ for immovable referents, referents inalienably connected to a larger entity, and happenings. This last form is also used to express the possession of qualities. (See also Section 3.2.14 on possession.) Following are examples of the various types:
(4.28) t®uеts-mq-tе
ЖThere is a book on the table.fl
(4.29) ku-tе
floor-LOC pen-one-CL
ЖThere is a pen on the floor.fl
134 The verb complex
(4.30) z-Ще
jеj`u le.63
potato exist
ЖThere are potatoes in the ground.fl
(inside vessel)
(4.31) sf-tho-Вgu-tе
tree-that:one-CL-LOC sparrow-one-CL exist
ЖThere is a sparrow in that tree.fl
(4.32) a. ql-lе
sf-o-Вgu we.
below-LOC tree-one-CL exist
ЖThere is a tree below.fl
(immovable, connected to major entity)
b. qе doqu-ji-tuе wa. 1sg leg-two-CL exist:1sg ЖI have two legs.fl
(< we + е) (immovable, connected to major entity)
c. the: t®heuo
3sg car.accident DIR-exist
ЖHe had a car accident.fl
Use of a particular verb in some cases can be a matter of perspective. For example, compare the following two clauses, the first of which presents the situation from the point of view of the fish being in the containment of the water, the second from the point of view of the fish as animate beings.
(4.33) a. ts-Ще
Щz le.
fish exist
ЖThere are fish in the water.fl
(inside vessel)
b. ts-Ще
Щz Вi.
fish water
ЖThere are fish in the water.fl
The existential verbs /®/ and /xu/ are often used together with /tu/ Жiffl after nominalized verbs. Here the possible existence of a referent is being predicated, but the whole meaning of the construction is more like Жif there is such a situationfl. Following are some examples:
Verb types 135
dz-s ®-tu
qе-t° е-z
eat-NOM exist-LNK 1sg-DAT one-CL DIR-take
ЖIf there is something to eat, bring me a little.fl
bl-s xu-tu the: tе:-bl-k. do-NOM exist-LNK 3sg DIR:INDTV-do-go ЖIf there is something to be done, have him/her go do it.fl
Because the nominalized verb refers to an inanimate referent or situation, only the /-s/ nominalizer can be used; the /-m/ and /-t°/ nominalizers cannot be used in the /xu tu/ construction (see §§5.2-5.3). An existential verb can also be used in an imperative with an adverb, to tell someone, for example, to be quiet, as in (4.36).
(4.35) (е-z)
hama he-Вi-(n).
one-little quiet DIR-exist-2sg
Ж(Please) be quiet.fl
The existential/locative verbs have many of the definitional properties of adjectives (see §4. 2.3 and LaPolla & Huang, in press, on adjectives), in that they are intranstive stative verbs that can be nominalized by the (in)definite markers, as in example (3.45), above, and can take the intensifying adverbs [gn ± kn], /wa/, and /qusu/, and in the negative can take the adverb /tsan/ 'too', as in examples (4.36a-b), but differ from adjectives in that they cannot directly modify a noun and the meaning of reduplication is different. With adjectives, reduplication has the sense of intensification, but with existential verbs, reduplication can transitivize the verb, at least in some cases, as in (4.36c-d).
(4.36) a. tsе mi
here person exist-very
'There are many people here.'
b. tsе mi tsan me-Вi. here person too NEG-exist 'There are not too many people here.'
c. le 'exist (inside)'
> lle 'put inside'
136 The verb complex d. ® 'exist (inanimate)' > ®® 'put (someplace)' Unlike in some other Tibeto-Burman languages (e.g. Tibetan), the existential/locative verbs have not grammaticalized into any sort of construction marking tense, aspect, or evidentials. 4.2.5. `Come' and `go' ЖComefl and Жgofl are somewhat irregular verbs. ЖGofl has the following third person forms: /-qе/ prefixed perfective (e.g. /їеqе/ Жwent downfl), /k/ unprefixed,64 /-Щ/ prefixed imperfective or prospective (e.g. /dеЩ/ Жgo outfl). ЖComefl has the following forms: /lu/ imperfective, /-lе/ prefixed perfective, /lu-е:/ prospective aspect. (See §4.3.3 for discussion of the directional prefixes.) Both these verbs function as main verbs, and as directional auxiliary verbs, following other verbs. When used as auxiliary verbs, they form a single nucleus with the preceding verb, and so do not take prefixes separately. For example, in [stuеhе °е:-t° k] (food/rice INDTV:3sg-eat go) ЖLet (him/her) go eat!fl, the indirect directive prefix appears on the verb meaning Жeatfl, not on Жgofl. With certain verbs Жcomefl and Жgofl appear very regularly as auxiliaries, and this has led to the situation where the vowel of Жcomefl and Жgofl has been lost, and the initial has fused with the preceding verb, forming a new verb, e.g. /pl/ Жcome backfl < /p/ Жarrivefl + /lu/ Жcomefl; /pk/ Жgo backfl < /p/ Жarrivefl + /k/ Жgofl. In the case of these compound verbs and some others like this, they have lexicalized to the point that they are no longer seen as including the verbs Жcomefl and Жgofl by the Qiang speakers. 4.2.6. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs follow the (semantically) main verb, often in a complement-matrix structure (see §5.3 for the structure), generally with no nominalizing, adverbial or other marking between the two verbs. If there is person marking, the marking appears on the auxiliary or final particle of the verb complex, though aspect marking may appear on the embedded (main) verb. If there is negation of the auxiliary, the negative prefix appears on the auxiliary verb. There is no requirement that the
Verb types 137
two verbs agree in transitivity (such as is found, for example, in Rawang [LaPolla 2000a]). The potential to perform an action is expressed by use of the auxiliary verbs /©В/ for learned ability, /dВ/ or /qe/ for natural (physical) ability, and /gu/ for ability to fit into something else. See Section for examples of their use. Willingness to perform an action or to allow others to perform an action is expressed by using the auxiliary verb /Щu/. This verb can also be used for possibility, either directly following a verb or in a construction with a nominalized verb.
(4.37) a. the: thе-Вi k Щu. 3sg there-exist thus willing/allow ЖS/he might be there.fl
b. ps m ma-qa, tshi
t-i Щu.
today weather NEG-clear prickly.ash.peel DIR-black will
ЖToday the weather is not good, the prickly ash peel will
become black.fl
The auxiliary verb /x®u/ is used to express the idea Жto darefl to do an action.
(4.38) the: e-ze stu n
3sg one-CL alone sleep NEG-dare
ЖS/he doesnflt dare sleep alone.fl
In some expressions, /x®u/ can be used alone:
(4.39) khu-tе
NEG-dare pig-DAT
ЖBully the weak and fear the strong.fl
(lit.: ЖDoesnflt dare X to a dog, but will to a pig.fl)
The auxiliary verb /Щze/ Жought tofl can be used in some contexts to express obligation (physical or moral) to perform an action. There is no person marking when using this auxiliary verb, so even if a first or second person pronoun were added to, for example, (4.40a) or (4.40b),
138 The verb complex
specifying who must or must not go, there would be no change in the verb.
(4.40) a. k Щze-ji! go must-CSM ЖItfls time to go!fl (ЖI/we/you must go!fl)
b. k ma-t°i-Щze!65 go NEG-CON-must Ж(You/we) neednflt / shouldnflt go yet!fl
(4.41) a. stuеhе t°h Щze-ji. rice/food eat must-CSM ЖItfls time to eat!fl (ЖI/you/we must eat!fl)
b. stuеhе t°h ma-t°i-Щze. rice/food eat NEG-CON-must ЖI/we/you shouldnflt eat!fl
The auxiliary verb /se/ is used to express permission or lack of it:
(4.42) °o°еu-Ще
de їe-se.
school-LOC Qiang-language speak DIR-allow
ЖSpeaking Qiang is permitted in school.fl
See also Section for examples of the auxiliary verbs /°t°еq-lu/ Жthink of, wantfl, and /zulu/ Жwaitfl, used in optative constructions, and Section on the auxiliary verb /de/, which is used to mark the experiential aspect.
4.2.7. The copula There is only one copula, /u/, which is used in identificational, attributive, and cleft constructions, and after nominalized verbs (see for example §, §5.2). The copula can take person marking in some contexts, but often does not take aspect marking, unless it is causativized or appears with the particle /-®/ (see §4.4).
Verb types 139
In some < NP NP > type equational clauses, most noticeably statements of the date or of the age of a person, the copula is optional, as in the following example:
(4.43) ps
today three-month-GEN-five-beginning
ЖToday is March fifth.fl
Following are examples of the copula with first and second person marking (see §5.3 on the structure of these examples):
(4.44) a. qе-wu
the: z-di
3sg DIR-hit
ЖI hit him (emphatic) / I am the one who hit him.fl
(< u)
b. ч~u-wu
the: z-di
ЖYou hit him (emphatic) / You are the one who hit him.fl
4.3. Verbal morphology This section presents the most complex aspect of Qiang grammar, the verbal morphology. It begins with a look at how a speaker can take different perspectives in profiling an event or situation using differences of word order (§4.3.1), then covers the different morphological systems for marking person (§4.3.2), the direction or orientation of the action (§4.3.3), aspect (§4.3.4), illocutionary force (§4.3.5), mood (§4.3.6), and evidentials (§4.3.7).
4.3.1. Perspective There is no voice opposition in the verb, though the perspective taken in expressing an action can differ due to changes in word order because of topicalization or the use of a cleft construction. The noun phrase representing the undergoer can be simply fronted to make it the topic, though the noun phrase representing the recipient generally must appear
140 The verb complex
in a cleft construction to be a topic. See also the section on transitive actors (§3.2.3). Compare the following three examples:
(4.45) a. qе
1sg dog-one-CL
ЖI bought a dog.fl
z-pе. DIR-buy:1sg
(< p)
b. khu-le: qе-wu pе:
dog-DEF:CL 1sg-AGT buy:1sg:PRS will
ЖI will buy the dog.fl (ЖThe dog I will buy.fl)
c. khu-le: qе-(wu) z-p-ji
dog-DEF:CL 1sg-AGT DIR-buy-CSM COP
ЖIt was I who bought the dog.fl (ЖThe dog was bought by me.fl)
The clause in (4.45a) is an unmarked clause structure; most often the actor is the topic, and so the word order is Actor-Undergoer-Verb, but the word order does not determine grammatical or semantic relations and is not determined by grammatical or semantic relations. The clause in (4.45b) has the noun phrase representing the undergoer in topic position, while the one in (4.45c) has the undergoer as topic of a cleft construction. Because this last example has a third person referent as the first argument of the copula, there is no first person marking on the copula. Of the following two examples, (4.46a) has the undergoer in topic position, and the reference to the non-specific actor is optional. In (4.46b) there is more emphasis on the non-specific actor, as the noun phrase used to refer to it is in topic position.
(4.46) a. qе (mi-wu) z-di. 1sg person-AGT DIR-hit ЖI was hit.fl (lit.: ЖSomeone hit me.fl)
b. mi-wu
qе z-di.
person-AGT 1sg DIR-hit
ЖSomeone hit me.fl
Verbal morphology 141
It is also possible in many cases to omit reference to a referential actor, as in the following example. The identity of the referent is often still recoverable from the person marking on the verb, but omitting such reference puts more emphasis on the undergoer.
(4.47) pеn-le:
thing-DEF:CL DIR-bad-INF-2sg
ЖIt seems the thing was broken (by you).fl
(lit.: ЖIt seems you broke the thing.fl)
Following is an example of the noun phrase representing the undergoer of a ditransitive clause in topic position (in a cleft construction):
(4.48) t®hets-le: qе the: de-l-ji
car-DEF:CL 1sg 3sg DIR-give-CSM COP
ЖThe car was given to him by me.fl
The non-actor person marking on the verb has the sense in some contexts of an adversative passive. See the next section (§4.3.2) for examples.
4.3.2. Person marking
In general, the verb in a non-nominalized Qiang clause has marking which reflects the person and number of the actor of a transitive clause and the single direct argument of an intransitive clause. The marking takes the form of suffixes, which are added to the last element in the verb complex. The forms are given in Table 8.
Table 8. The Qiang person marking suffixes for intransitive verbs


All verbs can take person marking, including adjectives (intransitive stative predicate verbs; see §4.2.3 for examples of person marking on
142 The verb complex adjectives), but only animate arguments are reflected in the person marking. In some contexts, such as nominalizations, no person marking is used, while in other contexts, such as with some third-person plural actors, the person marking is optional. The use of the person marking also has meaning within the system of evidentials (see §4.3.7). The suffix for first-person actor is /-е/ (possibly < Proto-Qiangic *-е), but if the final vowel of the verb complex is /e/ or in some cases /i/, the first-person actor marking combines with the final vowel of the root to become [a] (e.g. /tse/ Жlook atfl > [tsa] ЖI look atfl; /Вi/ Жlocative/existential verb for animatesfl > [Вa] ЖI am [at some location]fl), or, if the vowel is /y/ or in some cases /i/, the first-person actor marking becomes [a] and is added after the final vowel (e.g. /jy/ Жpostverbal aspect particlefl > [jya]; /tiwi/ Жtallfl > [tiwia] ЖIflm tall(er)fl). If the final vowel of the verb complex is a schwa, then this vowel drops completely when /-е/ is added (e.g. /p/ Жbuyfl > [pе] ЖI am buyingfl); otherwise the suffix is added after the final vowel (e.g. /zulu/ Жwaitfl > [zuluе] ЖI am waitingfl). When combined with prospective aspect marking, the vowel is lengthened (e.g. /p/ Жbuyfl, [pе] ЖI am buyingfl, [pе:] ЖI'm going to buyfl). The second person singular form possibly derives from a ProtoQiangic *-na, which itself (as well as the Proto-Qiangic first person singular form) would have been a grammaticalization of the free pronoun into person marking on the verb (cf. the discussion of the Tangut forms in LaPolla 1992b, 1994). The origin of the plural first and second person forms is unknown. The third person plural form seems, from comparative evidence, to derive from number rather than person marking: in the Mawo dialect (Sun 1981a; Liu 1999), the form /-t°i/ is used for both second and third person plural forms, and is distinct from the person marking (/-n/ and /-ji/ respectively). In the Mawo dialect the prospective aspect marker (/-е:/) can appear between the number and person marking, e.g. [dzut°a:n] (< /dzu + t°i + е: + n/) Жyou(pl) will sitfl (cf. Liu 1998b), which shows they were originally two distinct grammatical categories, but in the Ronghong dialect this distinction has been lost. Following are full examples of the three singular markings:
Verbal morphology 143
(4.49) qе
1sg fifty-CL-INST clothes-one-CL DIR-buy:1sg
ЖI bought one item of clothing for fifty dollars.fl
(4.50) ч~u
Щosu-pi-wu fе-е-qi
2sg fifty-CL-INST clothing-one-CL DIR-buy-2sg
ЖYou bought an item of clothing for fifty dollars.fl
(4.51) the: Щosu-pi-wu
3sg fifty-CL-INST clothing-one-CL DIR-buy
ЖS/he bought an item of clothing for fifty dollars.fl
There is another set of suffixes which can be used to mark the undergoer of a transitive verb, the goal/recipient of a ditransitive verb (the undergoer of a ditransitive verb is not reflected in the person marking), or even a genitive or benefactive argument.66 These forms are given in Table 9:
Table 9. The Qiang non-actor person marking suffixes
3 -w ± -u -w ± -u
The first and second person forms clearly incorporate the first and second person actor forms /-е/, /-fi/ and /-n/, /-i/ respectively, but the origins of the initial of the first person forms and /sе/ of the second person forms are unclear.67 As mentioned above, the non-actor person marking also helps to show perspective, as it is generally used only when the topic is a nonactor human referent. Contrast (4.52a), which has a 1st person actor/topic and (4.52b), which has a third person non-actor/topic.
(4.52) a. qе-(wu) the: l©z 1sg-AGT 3sg book ЖI gave him a book.fl
e-pen one-CL
de-l-е. DIR-give-1sg
144 The verb complex
b. the: qе-wu l©z e-pen de-l-wе. (< w + е) 3sg 1sg-AGT book one-CL DIR-give-3sg:1sg ЖHim I gave a book to.fl
The non-actor marking is optional in most contexts, and when used it sometimes has the feeling of an adversative passive, as in (4.53a-b):
(4.53) a. eii ч~u mo-lu-n-tu
the: mi-tе
next.year 2sg NEG-come-2sg-LNK 3sg other.person-LOC
ЖIf you donflt come back next year, she will marry someone
b. ч~u tsе t°е-lеu-thе,
tеt t-khua:-sеn.
2sg here NEG.IMP-be.noisy-AUX father DIR-angry:PRS-2sgU
ЖDonflt be noisy here or your father will be angry (at you).fl
Here the use of the non-actor marking is not marking an argument of the verb, but a referent who will be affected by the action (in a negative way). The forms for first and second person non-actor are generally used only when there is a third person actor. The entire set of possible suffixes for the transitive verb are given in Table 10.
Table 10. The Qiang person marking suffixes for transitive verbs
A 1sg

c 1pl
t 2sg
o 2pl
r 3sg
-t°i-®е -t°i-®е -t°i-sеn -t°i-sеi -w-t°i
3pl -wе -wfi -wn -wi -w-t°i -w-t°i
Following are examples of the non-actor person marking that would be used in imperfective, prospective and perfective situations. The first person forms are generally not used in situations were the clause refers to some future event, and so the examples in (4.57a-b) do not have this marking, and instead have the marking usually used for first person
Verbal morphology 145
actors. This is quite exceptional in the overall system, which is generally clearly based on an actor/non-actor contrast.
(4.54) a. lеus qе
teacher 1sg
ЖThe teacher is scolding me.fl
b. lеus t°ile xe-®afi.
teacher 1pl
ЖThe teacher is scolding us.fl
(4.55) a. lеus ч~u xe-sеn. teacher 2sg scold-2sgU ЖThe teacher is scolding you(sg).fl
b. lеus чile xe-sеi. teacher 2pl scold-2plU ЖThe teacher is scolding you(pl).fl
(4.56) a. lеus the: xe-w. teacher 3sg scold-3U ЖThe teacher is scolding him/her.fl
b. lеus themle xe-w-t°i. teacher 3pl scold-3U-3pl ЖThe teachers are scolding them.fl
Prospective aspect:
(4.57) a. lеus qе xa:. teacher 1sg scold:PRS:1sg ЖThe teacher will scold me.fl
b. lеus t°ile xa:fi. teacher 1pl scold:PRS:1pl ЖThe teacher will scold us.fl
146 The verb complex
(4.58) a. lеus ч~u xa:-sеn. teacher 2sg scold:PRS-2sgU ЖThe teacher will scold you(sg).fl b. lеus чile xa:-sеi. teacher 2pl scold:PRS-2plU ЖThe teacher will scold you(pl).fl (4.59) a. lеus the: xe-wе:. teacher 3sg scold-PRS:3U ЖThe teacher will scold him/her.fl b. lеus themle xe-wе:-t°i. teacher 3pl scold-PRS:3U-3pl ЖThe teacher will scold them.fl
(4.60) a. the: n-xe-w. 3sg DIR-scold-3U Ж(The teacher) scolded him/her.fl
b. themle n-xe-w-t°i. 3sg DIR-scold-3U-3pl Ж(The teachers) scolded them.fl
(4.61) a. qе
1sg DIR-scold-1sgU
ЖThe teacher scolded me.fl
b. t°ile n-xe-®afi.
ЖThe teacher scolded us.fl
(4.62) a. ч~u
2sg DIR-scold-2sgU
ЖThe teacher scolded you(sg).fl
Verbal morphology 147
b. чile ne-xe-sеi.
ЖThe teacher scolded you(pl).fl
Following is an example with third plural actor marking and first singular non-actor marking:
(4.63) themle qе xe-t°i-®е.
1sg scold-3pl-1plU
ЖThey are scolding me.fl
In the next two examples there is a first or second person actor and a third person undergoer, and so the verb exhibits first or second person actor marking and third person non-actor marking. In the case of ditransitives, such as these examples, the non-actor person marking reflects the person of the goal or recipient, not the undergoer.
(4.64) dВ-ui qе the:-tе k-ji-wе.
(< w + е)
thing-TOP 1sg 3sg-LOC thus-say-3sgU:1sg
ЖI told him/her about something concerning him/her.fl
(4.65) dВ-ui ч~u the:-tе k-ji-w-n. thing-TOP 2sg 3sg-LOC thus-say-3sgU-2sg ЖYou told him/her something concerning him/her.fl
The following two examples show one situation in which plural marking is not necessary, that where two referents are conjoined into a single plural argument by the conjunction /е/:
(4.66) qе-е-the:
1sg-COM-3sg together go:PRS
ЖS/he and I will go together.fl
(4.67) x®e-е-tshe zе-Ще
cow-COM-sheep field-LOC grass eat
ЖThe cow and sheep eat grass in the field.fl
148 The verb complex
The following three examples show person marking reflecting a possessor, a benefactive marked with /uе-i/ and a benefactive marked with /-t°/, respectively:
(4.68) ч~u-pеn-lе-hе
2sg-thing-DEF:one-pl here
ЖYour things are here.fl
®-sеn. exist-2sgU
(4.69) ч~u-uе-(i)
qupu i°t°imеqе hе-Щ-i
ЖFor your sake, s/he often goes to dig medicine.fl
(4.70) the:
ЖS/he bought it for me.fl
Following are the full paradigms for intransitive and transitive verbs with different types of finals, in their imperfective, prospective aspect and prefixed (perfective) forms:68
n Жto sleepfl
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg sleep

2sg sleep
3sg sleep
1pl sleep
2pl sleep
3pl sleep
zei Жto cryfl
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg cry
2sg cry
3sg cry
1pl cry
2pl cry
Verbal morphology 149
3pl cry
phu Жto fleefl
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg flee
2sg flee
3sg flee
1pl flee
2pl flee
3pl flee
®ue Жto shinefl
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg shine
2sg shine
3sg shine
1pl shine
2pl shine
3pl shine
sе Жunderstandfl Prospective Imperfective Prefixed
1sg understand sе:

2sg understand sе:n
3sg understand sе:

1pl understand sе:fi
2pl understand sе:i
3pl understand sе:t°i
xe Жto scold/cursefl Prospective
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg scold 2sg
1sg scold 3sg
xa: (xewa:)
xa (xewa)69 nxewa
1sg scold 2pl
1sg scold 3pl
2sg scold 1sg
2sg scold 3sg
2sg scold 1pl
150 The verb complex
2sg scold 3pl 3sg scold 1sg 3sg scold 2sg 3sg scold 3sg 3sg scold 1pl 3sg scold 2pl 3sg scold 3pl 1pl scold 2sg 1pl scold 3sg 1pl scold 2pl 1pl scold 3pl 2pl scold 1sg 2pl scold 3sg 2pl scold 1pl 2pl scold 3pl 3pl scold 1sg 3pl scold 2sg 3pl scold 3sg 3pl scold 1pl 3pl scold 2pl 3pl scold 3pl
xewa:n xa: xa:sеn xewе: xa: xa:sеi xewе: xa:fi xa:fi xa:fi xa:fi xa:i xewa:i xa:i xewa:i xewa:t°i xa:sеn xewе:t°i xa:t°i xa:sеi xewе:t°i
xewen xe xesеn xew xe xesеi xew xefi xefi xefi xefi xei xewei xei xewei xet°i xesеn xewt°i xet°i xesеi xewt°i
nxewen nxe nxesеn nxew nxe nxesеi nxw nxefi nxefi nxefi nxefi nxei nxewei nxei nxewei nxet°i nxesеn nxewt°i nxet°i nxesеi nxewt°i
bie Жcarry (on back)fl Prospective
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg carry 2sg
1sg carry 3sg
1sg carry 2pl
1sg carry 3pl
2sg carry 1sg
2sg carry 3sg
2sg carry 1pl
2sg carry 3pl
3sg carry 1sg
3sg carry 2sg
3sg carry 3sg
3sg carry 1pl
3sg carry 2pl
3sg carry 3pl
Verbal morphology 151
1pl carry 2sg 1pl carry 3sg 1pl carry 2pl 1pl carry 3pl 2pl carry 1sg 2pl carry 3sg 2pl carry 1pl 2pl carry 3pl 3pl carry 1sg 3pl carry 2sg 3pl carry 3sg 3pl carry 1pl 3pl carry 2pl 3pl carry 3pl
bia:fi bia:fi bia:fi bia:fi bia:i biewa:i bia:i biewa:i bia:it°i bia:sеn biewa:it°i bia:it°i bia:sеi biewa:t°i
biefi biefi biefi biefi biei biewei biei biewei biet°i biesеn biewt°i biet°i biesеi biewt°i
їeibiefi їeibiefi їeibiefi їeibiefi їeibii їeibiwei їeibii їeibiwei їeibit°i їeibisеn їeibiwt°i їeibit°i їeibisеi їeibiwt°i
mefiВ Жsearch forfl Prospective
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg search for 2sg mefiВе:
1sg search for 3sg mefiВе:
1sg search for 2pl mefiВе:
1sg search for 3pl mefiВе:
2sg search for 1sg mefiВе:n
2sg search for 3sg mefiВwе:n
2sg search for 1pl mefiВе:n
2sg search for 3pl mefiВwе:n
3sg search for 1sg mefiВе:i
3sg search for 2sg mefiВе:sеn
3sg search for 3sg mefiВwе:
3sg search for 1pl mefiВе:i
3sg search for 2pl mefiВе:sеi
3sg search for 3pl mefiВwе:
1pl search for 2sg mefiВе:
1pl search for 3sg mefiВе:
1pl search for 2pl mefiВе:
1pl search for 3pl mefiВе:
2pl search for 1sg mefiВе:i
2pl search for 3sg mefiВwa:i
2pl search for 1pl mefiВе:i
152 The verb complex
2pl search for 3pl 3pl search for 1sg 3pl search for 2sg 3pl search for 3sg 3sg search for 1pl 3sg search for 2pl 3sg search for 3pl
mefiВwa:i mefiВе:it°i mefiВе:sеn mefiВwе: mefiВе:it°i mefiВе:sеi mefiВwе:t°i
mefiВwei mefiВt°i mefiВsеn mefiВw mefiВt°i mefiВsеi mefiВwt°i
tmefiВwei tmefiВt°i tmefiВsеn tmefiВw tmefiВt°i tmefiВsеi tmefiВwt°i
zulu Жto wait forfl Prospective
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg wait for 2sg zuluе:
1sg wait for 3sg zuluе:
1sg wait for 2pl zuluе:
1sg wait for 3pl zuluе:
2sg wait for 1sg zuluе:n
2sg wait for 3sg zul`uwе:n
2sg wait for 1pl zuluе:n
2sg wait for 3pl zul`uwе:n
3sg wait for 1sg zuluе:i
3sg wait for 2sg zuluе:sеn
3sg wait for 3sg zul`uwе:
3sg wait for 1pl zuluе:i
3sg wait for 2pl zuluе:sеi
3sg wait for 3pl zul`uwе:
1pl wait for 2sg zuluе:fi
1pl wait for 3sg zuluе:fi
1pl wait for 2pl zuluе:fi
1pl wait for 3pl zuluе:fi
2pl wait for 1sg zuluе:i
2pl wait for 3sg zul`uwa:i
2pl wait for 1pl zuluе:i
2pl wait for 3pl zul`uwa:i
3pl wait for 1sg zuluе:it°i
3pl wait for 2sg zuluе:sеn
3pl wait for 3sg zul`uwе:
3pl wait for 1pl zuluе:it°i
3pl wait for 2pl zuluе:sеi
3pl wait for 3pl zul`uwе:t°i
Verbal morphology 153
dete Жto hitfl
Imperfective Prefixed
1sg hit 2sg
1sg hit 3sg
1sg hit 2pl
1sg hit 3pl
2sg hit 1sg
2sg hit 3sg
2sg hit 1pl
2sg hit 3pl
3sg hit 1sg
3sg hit 2sg
3sg hit 3sg
3sg hit 1pl
3sg hit 2pl
3sg hit 3pl
1pl hit 2sg
1pl hit 3sg
1pl hit 2pl
1pl hit 3pl
2pl hit 1sg
2pl hit 3sg
2pl hit 1pl
2pl hit 3pl
3pl hit 1sg
3pl hit 2sg
3pl hit 3sg
3pl hit 1pl
3pl hit 2pl
3pl hit 3pl
del Жto givefl
Prospective 70 Imperfective Prefixed
1sg give 2sg
1sg give 3sg
1sg give 2pl
1sg give 3pl
2sg give 1sg
154 The verb complex
2sg give 3sg 2sg give 1pl 2sg give 3pl 3sg give 1sg 3sg give 2sg 3sg give 3sg 3sg give 1pl 3sg give 2pl 3sg give 3pl 1pl give 2sg 1pl give 3sg 1pl give 2pl 1pl give 3pl 2pl give 1sg 2pl give 3sg 2pl give 1pl 2pl give 3pl 3pl give 1sg 3pl give 2sg 3pl give 3sg 3pl give 1pl 3pl give 2pl 3pl give 3pl
delwе:n dela:n delwе:n dela: dela:sеn delwе: dela: dela:sеi delwе: dela:fi dela:fi dela:fi dela:fi dela:i delwa:i dela:i delwa:i dela:t°i dela:sеn delwa:it°i dela:t°i dela:sеi delwе:t°i
delwn deln delwn del delsеn delw del delsеi delw delfi delfi delfi delfi deli delwei deli delwei delt°i delsеn delwt°i delt°i delsеi delwt°i
delwn deln delwn del delsеn delw del delsеi delw delfi delfi delfi delfi deli delwei deli delwei delt°i delsеn delwt°i delt°i delsеi delwt°i
4.3.3. Direction marking There is a set of verbal prefixes in Qiang which mark the direction of the action. There are eight different prefixes, but not all verbs can take all eight prefixes; some, such as /tse/ Жlook atfl can only take one prefix. This restriction seems to be in some cases lexical rather than semantic (in some cases it is clearly semantic), as there is another verb, /l/ Жlook atfl which has roughly the same semantics as /tse/, but can take all eight of the directional prefixes (see below). Out of a study of 400 verbs, Huang (1997:71) found that 104 of them (26%) took only one of the prefixes, 116 (29%) took two prefixes, 88 (22%) took all eight prefixes, and the rest took between three and seven of the prefixes. Of the prefixes that the verbs could take, the two marking Жupfl and Жdownfl (see
Verbal morphology 155
below) were the most common, being used on 243 and 234 verbs respectively, while the rest were used on 123 to 199 verbs of the set. Huang explains this as being related to the fact that the Qiang people live on steep mountain sides. Another factor could be the many metaphorical uses of Жupfl and Жdownfl (see the list of metaphorical pairs below). While the systems of direction marking prefixes are generally similar among Qiang dialects (and is found in other Qiangic languages), the Ronghong dialect system differs from the Mawo dialect system discussed in Sun 1981a and Sun 1981b, in that it does not include the two forms referring to action towards or away from a stream in a mountain valley, and it also does not have a form for backward motion. Instead it has two other prefixes that mark the direction of action into some container or out of some container (distinct from the two prefixes marking direction towards the center and outward from the center). This system is then more similar to that in the southern Qiang dialect of Taoping, also discussed in Sun 1981a.71 The form of the prefix follows the rules of vowel harmony: with a stressed root vowel, the prefix harmonizes with it (see §2.4.3); with an unstressed root vowel, the vowel of the prefix is usually [-], [-a], or [-е]. In a few cases, the vowel can become a diphthong: [їei-bi] < /bie/ Жcarry on backfl; [de-®e ± die-®e] < /®e/ Жdiefl; [da-qthi ± dia-qthi ± dieqthi] Жtake (clothes, backpack) off from onefls backfl; [de-mi ± die-mi] Жgo outfl. Following are examples of the use of the prefixes with different verbs.
lu Жcomefl ---------------------- tulu Жcome vertically upfl їolu Жcome vertically downfl nulu Жcome upstreamfl sulu Жcome downstreamfl zulu Жcome towards the centerfl (no form) ulu Жcome infl holu Жcome outfl
Щute Жthrowfl ----------------------tЩ`u Жthrow vertically upfl їaЩ`u Жthrow vertically downfl nЩ`u Жthrow upstreamfl sЩ`u Жthrow downstreamfl zЩ`u Жthrow towards centerfl daЩ`u Жthrow out from centerfl Щ`u Жthrow infl haЩ`u Жthrow outfl
156 The verb complex
l Жlookfl ----------------------tl Жlook upwardfl їеl Жlook downwardfl nl Жlook upstreamfl sl Жlook downstreamfl zl Жlook toward centerfl dеl Жlook outward from centerfl l Жlook infl hеl Жlook outfl
t®hu Жstretchfl ---------------------tut®hu Жstretch upwardfl їot®hu Жstretch downwardfl nut®hu Жstretch upstreamfl sut®hu Жstretch downstreamfl zut®hu Жstretch toward centerfl dot®hu Жstretch out from centerfl ut®hu Жstretch infl hot®hu Жstretch outfl
Which prefix is used of course reflects where the person performing the action is relative to the goal. For example, in (4.71), we can guess that the addressee (not necessarily the speaker) is or will be in the Chibusu District, as the prefix marking movement down-river is used with the verb, and the Mao County county seat is down-river from Chibusu District:
(4.71) ч~u ®qui
2sg Mao.County
ЖAre you going (down-river) to the county seat?fl
Repeating a verb with different prefixes can express a certain kind of repetition of an action by one or more people. (The /z/ prefix marks movement towards the center, while /d/ marks movement away from the center; the vocalic prefix marks movement in, while the /h/ prefix marks movement out.)
(4.72) a. llе Жchangefl z-lе dе-lе
Жchange back and forthfl
b. ЩuЩu Жcursefl zu-Щu do-Щu
Жcurse back and forthfl
c. pi Жhidefl i-pi he-pi
Жhide in and outfl
d. uasi Жborrowfl zi-uasi de-uasi Жborrow back and forthfl
e. kefil Жaskfl zi-kefil de-kefil Жask back and forthfl
f. Щoi Жtreatfl zu-Щoi do-Щoi Жtreat each other (to a meal)fl
Aside from marking the actual direction of the action, the directional prefixes also are used to mark a change in the Aktionsart (inherent verbal aspect) of the verb, from state or activity to achievement or
Verbal morphology 157
accomplishment, or from an absolute state to a contingent (temporary/abnormal) state. Let us first introduce some of the concepts to be employed here. If we look at the types of verbs found in the worldfls languages, we find the following semantic types (From Van Valin & LaPolla 1997, Ch 3, based on Vendler 1967):
a. States: be sick, be tall, be dead, love, know, believe, have b. Achievements: pop, explode, collapse, shatter (all intransitive) c. Accomplishments: melt, freeze, dry (the intransitive versions); recover from illness, learn d. Activities: march, walk, roll (the intransitive versions); swim, think, rain, read, eat
These four types can be distinguished using the three characteristics [± dynamic], [± telic], and [± punctual], as in the following chart:72
a. State: b. Activity: c. Accomplishment: d. Achievement:
[­ dynamic], [­ telic], [­ punctual] [+ dynamic], [­ telic], [­ punctual] [+ dynamic], [+ telic], [­ punctual] [+ dynamic], [+ telic], [+ punctual]
Each of these four types also has a causative form:
a. State:
The boy is afraid.
aґ. Causative state:
The dog frightens/scares the boy.
b. Achievement:
The balloon popped.
bґ. Causative achievement: The cat popped the balloon.
c. Accomplishment:
The ice melted.
cґ. Causative accomplishment: The hot water melted the ice.
d. Activity:
The ball rolled around the room.
dґ. Causative activity:
The girl rolled the ball around the
Using a form of lexical decomposition, we can represent these verbs types using the following form of notation:
158 The verb complex
Verb Class
Logical Structure
predicateґ (x) or (x,y)
doґ (x, [predicateґ (x) or (x, y)])
INGR predicateґ (x) or (x,y), or
INGR doґ (x, [predicateґ (x) or (x, y)])
ACCOMPLISHMENT BECOME predicateґ (x) or (x,y), or
BECOME doґ (x, [predicateґ (x) or (x, y)])
CAUSE , where , are LSs of any type
Following is an example of this type of representation for the English sentence Max broke the window.
(4.73) [doґ (Max, Ш)] CAUSE [BECOME brokenґ (window)]
In Qiang, the form of most verbs directly reflects the elements of the lexical decomposition, as the basic form of the verb is usually a state or activity, which becomes an achievement or accomplishment with the addition of the directional prefix, and becomes a causative with the addition of the causative suffix (see §4.2.2).7 3 Following are some examples of this phenomenon:
(4.74) a. ba b. twa c. twaВ
bigґ (x)
BECOME bigґ (x)
[doґ (y, Ш)] CAUSE [BECOME bigґ (x)]
Causative Accomplishment
(4.75) a. t®е b. їеt®е c. їеt®еВ
smallґ (x)
BECOME smallґ (x)
[doґ (y, Ш)] CAUSE [BECOME smallґ (x)]
Causative Accomplishment
(4.76) a. t°h
doґ (x, [eatґ (x) or (x, y)])
b. st°
BECOME doґ (x, [eatґ (x) or (x, y)])
c. st°В
[doґ (x, Ш)] CAUSE [BECOME doґ (x,[eatґ (x) or (x, y)])]
Causative Accomplishment
Verbal morphology 159
(4.77) a. ©lu
doґ (x, [rollґ (x) or (x, y)])
b. do©lu INGR doґ (x, [rollґ (x) or (x, y)]) Achievement
c. do©luВ
[doґ (x, Ш)] CAUSE [INGR doґ (x, [rollґ (x) or (x, y)])]
Causative Achievement
This change is often used to affect something like a perfective sense (analyzed as past tense in Sun 1981a and Huang 1993). For this usage usually only one of the eight prefixes is regularly used, but which prefix is used differs between verbs, as can be seen from the examples just given. Because of this, the directional prefixes in some cases help to differentiate different verbs, as roots with the same form may take different prefixes. For example, /su/ can be Жlearnfl or Жdizzyfl, but Жlearnfl only takes the vocalic prefix ([usu]), while Жdizzyfl only takes the prefix /ї-/ ([їosu]). In the case of Жbecome bigfl and Жbecome smallfl there is a semantic basis for the choice of prefix, as /t-/ is for upward direction, and /ї-/ is for downward direction. This is also true for Жbecome fatfl vs. Жbecome thinfl. These two prefixes are the most commonly used with adjectives. Following are examples of prefixed forms of some adjectives where addition of one of these two prefixes gives the sense of an accomplishment verb:
(4.78) twa Жbecome bigfl
tphе Жbecome fatfl
tphi(i) Жbecome whitefl
tu°upu Жbecome redfl
tuxku°t°u Жbecome hardfl
t®ue Жbecome lightfl
Жbecome goodfl
tphе Жbecome swollenfl
tuj'uku Жbecome dryfl
Жbecome hotfl
ttshimpe Жbecome smartfl
їеt®е Жbecome smallfl
їaЩi Жbecome thinfl
tiq Жbecome blackfl
їеxt®p Жbecome darkfl
їеmt®е Жbecome softfl
їеt®hе Жbecome deepfl
їaЩi Жbecome badfl
їe®e Жbecome less swollenfl
Жbecome wetfl
zmpе Жbecome coldfl
(no corresponding antonym)
We can see from these examples that metaphorically becoming good or light is movement upwards, while becoming dark or bad is movement downwards (except in the case of Жbecome blackfl--colors all take the Жupwardsfl prefix; with Жbecome softfl either prefix is acceptable). The
160 The verb complex
antonyms of Жbecome dryfl and Жbecome hotfl are given in the lower right of this set of forms for the sake of completeness. These forms do not take the Жupfl or Жdownfl prefixes; the form for Жbecome wetfl takes the Жinfl prefix, /-/, presumably because the water seeps into something to make it wet, and the form for Жbecome cold (feel cold)fl takes the Жtowards the centerfl prefix /z-/ (though [tmpе] is also possible), possibly like in English when we say the cold gets into your bones. Some of these metaphoric associations are found in English as well, such as smarten up vs. dumb down. Also heat up, lighten up, soften up, and dry up. Use of a different directional prefix can also affect the agentivity of the argument of some intransitive verbs, or can be part of the causativization (see Section 4.2.2 on causatives) or transitivization of some verbs. Following are some examples of this difference in agentivity (cf. Huang 1997:73):75
(4.79) dе-¬е Жslipfl do-tshu Жfall (e.g. of fruit from a tree)fl de-phe Жbreak open (of bundle)fl da-qhua Жcollapse (of house)fl da-Щa Жsmash (bowl; vi.)fl da-Щli Жbreak (tree branch; vi.)fl
їе-¬е Жslidefl їo-tshu Жpick (fruit from a tree)fl їe-phe Жbreak open (a bundle)fl їa-qhua Жknock down (a house)fl їa-qhe Жsmash (bowl; vt.) їa-li Жbreak (tree branch; vt.)fl
In these examples, the prefixes involved are /d/, which marks movement away from the center, and /ї/ which marks movement downward. In the first set, Жslipfl is non-agentive, while Жslidefl is the same action, but purposely carried out, i.e. agentive slipping. In the second set, the difference is whether the fruit falls out of the tree of its own accord, or is picked out of the tree. There are some instances where use of different prefixes reflects different meanings or facets of the actions involved:
(4.80) hе-qutsu Жlift the headfl
їе-qutsu Жlower the headfl
е-quе Жturn off (a light)fl
hе-quе Жclose (a door)fl
tu-qu Жbe victorious (in battle)fl ho-qu Жlose (in battle)fl
Verbal morphology 161 In some of these cases (e.g. /qu/) the root form is never used alone, and so it is difficult to give it a distinct gloss. When the habitual-marking verb suffix /-kp/ appears after a prefixed adjective, it has the meaning Жhas the ability/tendency to become the state represented by the adjectivefl e.g. [t-wa-kp] Жwill become bigfl. This meaning is not possible without the prefix. The directional prefixes are also the main means of marking an imperative (see Section
4.3.4. Aspect Qiang does not have grammaticalized tense marking, but it has several types of aspect marking, including prospective aspect marking, the use of the directional prefixes to mark perfective aspect,76 change of state marking, experiential aspect marking, marking of repetition of an action, continuative aspect marking, habitual aspect marking, marking of a resultant state, and simultaneous action marking. Prospective aspect
Prospective aspect is the sense of English going to, as in It is going to rain. In Qiang it patterns most of the time very much like a future tense, and has been analyzed as such in the past (e.g. Sun 1981a, Huang Bufan 1991), but can be used in certain constructions involving past situations (see (4.83) below). It is marked by adding the suffix /-е:/ to the verb, before the person marking, in some cases replacing the root vowel of the verb, when that vowel is /е/ or //, as in (4.81a), where /mpе/ becomes [mpе:] in the second clause, and (4.81b), where /p/ becomes [pе:].
(4.81) a.
ps mpе wa, tp-i
today cold very tomorrow-ADV this-COMP
t°е-mpе: lu.
CON-cold:PRS will
ЖToday is very cold; tomorrow is going to be even colder
than this.fl
162 The verb complex
b. qе fе °upu-е-thеu pе:. 1sg clothes red-one-CL buy:PRS:1sg ЖI am going to buy a suit of red clothes.fl
(< p)
In cases where the root vowel (or the last part of a diphthong) is a front vowel, the prospective aspect suffix merges with that vowel, forming [a:].
(4.82) a. me:fi °a:. rain fall:PRS ЖItfls going to rain.fl
(< °e)
b. the: z phia:. 3sg land till:PRS ЖS/he is going to till the land.fl
(< phie)
The key examples for the determination of this marking as aspect rather than tense are those given in (4.83), where the marking appears in a clause representing an action that was Жgoing tofl be carried out at some time in the past, which in some cases turned out not to have been done.
(4.83) a. qе thе-s-Ще
the: mefiВе:-i
the: lu-ji.
1sg that:one-day-LOC 3sg look.for:PRS-ADV 3sg come-CSM
ЖJust when I was going to (go) look for him, he came.fl
b. qupu nmaha l©z tsa:-lai,
(< tse)
3sg last.night book read:PRS-DEF:one:time
muwu die-mi.
lamp DIR-go.out
ЖJust when he was going to read last night, the lamp went
c. it°i khumtsi °i qu-е:-i t°hou mе-®-ji, aunt khumtsi liquor boil-PRS-LNK yeast NEG-exist-CSM
Verbal morphology 163
їo-mu-qu. DIR-NEG-boil ЖAunt Khumtsi was going to boil liquor, but there was no distillerfls yeast, (so she) didnflt boil (any).fl
Prospective aspect marking is generally not used in the negative clauses of polarity verb-not-verb question forms (i.e. where the question is formed by coordinating a positive and negative form of the verb), as in (4.84a) below, and often is not used with negatives in other types of constructions, such as the conditional phrase in the (4.84b) below, but there are some situations where the prospective aspect marking and the negative prefix can appear on the same verb, as in (4.84c).
(4.84) a. ч~u stuеhе t°hе:-n-е 2sg food eat-PRS-2sg-Q ЖAre you going to eat?fl
mе-t°h-n-е? NEG-eat-2sg-Q
b. eii
ч~u mo-lu-n-tu
the: mi-tе
next year 2sg NEG-come-2sg-if 3sg other.person-LOC
ЖIf you donflt return next year, she is going to marry someone
c. the: tp-i
ps kе:-ji.
3sg tomorrow-ADV NEG-go:PRS-HS today go:PRS-HS
Ж(I heard) he is not going to go tomorrow (but) will go
In (4.84a), the verb in the first part of the question (a polarity verb-notverb question; see § is in the prospective aspect, asking the intention of the addressee, while the verb in the second clause is not in the prospective aspect, as it has the negative prefix. In (4.84c) the use of the prospective aspect marking is made necessary by the fact that the word for Жtomorrowfl appears in the clause. The relevant factor in (4.84a) and (4.84c) seems to be intention. That is, in (4.84a) the speaker is asking about the addresseefls intention to eat (not his or her intention to
164 The verb complex not eat), whereas in (4.84c) the speaker is talking about the personfls intention to not go on a certain day. Perfective and imperfective aspect
Aside from marking pure direction, the directional prefixes also mark perfective action, while the unprefixed form of the verb is used for imperfective actions. Compare the two clauses in (4.85):
(4.85) ns
qе -qе-lai
the: stuеhе t°h.
yesterday 1sg DIR-go:1sg-DEF:one:time 3sg food/rice eat
ЖYesterday when I entered the room, s/he was eating.fl
The first clause expresses a completed action, while the second clause expresses an action that was ongoing at the time referred to in the first clause. Now compare the two clauses of the following example:
(4.86) the: s-t°-ike,
Щuеt® ulе-k.
3sg DIR-eat-after
bowl wash-go
ЖS/he finished eating and went to wash the bowl.fl
In the first clause the action is expressed as completed, and so there is a directional prefix on the verb, while the action of washing the dishes expressed in the second clause had not been completed (or it was not relevant to mark it as completed), and so the verb does not have the directional prefix. If neither clause has a completed action, as in certain types of habitual action or simultaneous action, then neither verb has the directional prefix, as in the following examples:
(4.87) a. the: k-lai
3sg go-DEF:one:time think
ЖS/he thinks while walking.fl
b. qе stuеhе t°h-lai,
the: jan
1sg food/rice eat-DEF:one:time 3sg cigarette smoke
ЖWhen I am eating, s/he is smoking.fl
Verbal morphology 165 Change of state aspect
The most common aspect marking is /-ji/, which marks a recent change of state or situation.
(4.88) a. me:fi °i-ji. rain fall-CSM ЖItfls started raining.fl
b. me:fi de-°i-ji. rain DIR-fall-CSM ЖIt has already rained (and stopped).fl
(4.89) a. the: z phie-ji. 3sg land till-CSM ЖS/he has begun to till the land.fl
b. the: z i-fi-ji. 3sg land DIR-till-CSM ЖS/he has already tilled the land.fl
(< phie)
As /-ji/ expresses a recent change of state, it can have the sense of an inchoative aspect marker (see also §4.3.3 on the use of the directional prefixes in marking an inchoative aspect).
(4.90) the: dz-ji. 3sg eat-CSM ЖS/he has just begun to eat.fl
Compare the following two sentences in terms of the interaction of the directional prefix and the aspect marking:
(4.91) np, qе t°u-lе k-s-tе,
the: l©z su-ji.
last.year 1sg home-LOC go-NOM-LOC 3sg book study-CSM
ЖLast year when I came home, s/he was already studying.fl
(4.92) ns
qе qupu-t°u-lе k-s-tе,
yesterday 1sg 3sg-home-LOC go-NOM-LOC 3sg
166 The verb complex
dytе: їе-q-ji. Chengdu DIR-go-CSM ЖYesterday when I got to her/his home, s/he had gone to Chengdu.fl
In (4.91), the action of studying had begun, so is marked with the change of state marker /-ji/, but there is no directional prefix on the verb, as the action was still in progress at the time expressed by the first clause. In the second example the action was already completed at the time referred to in the first clause, and so the verb has both the directional prefix (which here has double duty, showing actual direction plus completion) and the change of state marker. The change of state suffix can also be used together with prospective aspect marking to express the idea Жabout to Vfl, giving it a more immediate sense.
(4.93) me:fi °a:-ji. rain fall:PRS-CSM ЖItfls about to rain.fl
(< °e)
The change of state marker can be used after the auxiliary verb /dе-s/ Жfinishfl to express the completion of an action.
(4.94) the: pie °t°
3sg pig feed
ЖS/he finished feeding the pig.fl
(4.95) the: dz dе-s-е:-ji. 3sg eat DIR-finish-PRS-CSM ЖS/he is going to finish eating soon.fl
In many cases the change of state marker has the form /-jy/, and is often translated as meaning the action had Жalreadyfl begun or been carried out. It may be that this form is a combination of the usual form of the change of state marker /-ji/ plus the visual evidential /-u/ or the third person non-actor marker [-u ± w]. For this reason it is glossed as ASP instead of CSM. Following are some examples:
Verbal morphology 167
(4.96) qе е-tian
1sg one-hour DIR-wait-ASP:1sg
ЖI have already waited for one hour. fl
(4.97) me:fi de-°i-jy. rain DIR-fall-ASP ЖItfls already raining.fl (Just begun and still raining)
(4.98) the: stuеhе
3sg food/rice DIR-eat-ASP
ЖS/he has already eaten. fl
(4.99) the: z
3sg land
ЖS/he has already tilled the land.fl (just completed)
( < jy + е) (< phie)
This form also can be (and often is) used with the auxiliary verb /dеs/ Жfinishfl: (4.100) the: dz dе-s-jy. 3sg eat DIR-finish-ASP ЖS/he has already finished eating.fl Experiential aspect
Use of the auxiliary verb /-de/ after the main verb marks the action represented by the verb as having been experienced by the actor of the clause:
(4.101) qе dytе:
1sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-EXP:1sg
I have been to Chengdu.
(< de)
(4.102) qе l©z-tse-pen i-tsi-da. 1sg book-this-CL DIR-read-EXP:1sg ЖI have read this book.fl
(< de)
168 The verb complex
(4.103) (pеn)-tsе-hеn themle z-p-de-t°i.
thing-this:one-kind 3pl
ЖThey have bought this kind of thing. fl
If the assertion is of having not yet experienced an action, the negative and contiuative aspect prefixes are prefixed to the auxiliary verb:
(4.104) qе l©z-tse-pen i-tsi-me-t°i-da.
(< de)
1sg book-this-CL DIR-read-NEG-CON-EXP:1sg
ЖI have not yet read this book.fl Repetition
Repetition of an action (though not iterative in the sense of, e.g. tapping onefls fingers on the table; by repetition here is meant doing an action Жagainfl) is expressed by the suffix /-j/, which precedes the other aspect suffixes and person marking.77 It can also be used with prospective aspect marking and the change of state marker.
(4.105) a. me:fi de-°i-j-ji. rain DIR-fall/release-REP-CSM ЖItfls raining again.fl
b. the: dz-j-ji. 3sg eat-REP-CSM ЖHe is eating again.fl
(4.106) t-wa-j-ji-ji
DIR-big-REP-CSM-2pl say
ЖHe said you(pl) have gotten big again.fl
This suffix is often used together in the same clause as a free morpheme /xs/ Жagainfl (actually the word for Жnewfl), as in the following example:
Verbal morphology 169
xs mefiВ-l-m
again look.for-come-NOM DIR-arrive-come-REP-INF:HS
ЖAgain someone came looking (for him).fl
(lit.: Жone who was looking for him came again.fl) Continuative aspect
The prefix [t°e- ± t°i- ± t°е- ± t°o-] Жstill, yetfl is used to express continued actions or states, much like 'still' and 'yet' in English. In some cases this prefix has the same form as the prohibitive (negative imperative) prefix (see §, but as the two prefixes appear in different types of contexts (and the negative imperative is not used with prospective aspect marking) there usually is no problem of ambiguity.78
(4.108) a. me:fi t°e-°i. rain CON-fall ЖItfls still raining (has been raining all along).fl
b. qе ns
tsе z-lе-lai,
me:fi t°e-°i.
1sg yesterday here DIR-come-DEF:one:time rain CON-fall
ЖWhen I came here yesterday, it was still raining.fl
(4.109) the: z t°e-fi.
(< phie)
3sg land CON-till
ЖS/hefls still ploughing (has been ploughing all along).fl
This prefix can also be used with the prospective aspect to mean Жstill wants to/is going to Vfl (that is, actions that have stopped but there is intention to continue or possibility that something will continue) ((4.110)-(4.112)), or with the negative prefix to mean Жnot yetfl ((4.113)(4.114)).
(4.110) (qе) t°е-nе:.
(< n)
1sg CON-sleep:PRS
ЖIflm still going to sleep.fl (ЖI want to sleep some morefl)
170 The verb complex
(4.111) me:fi t°e-°a:. rain CON-fall:PRS ЖItfls still going to rain.fl
(< °e)
(4.112) the: z t°e-fia:. 3sg land CON-till:PRS ЖS/he is still going to till the land.fl
(< phie)
(4.113) їе-m-t°i-qе DIR-NEG-CON-go:1sg ЖI havenflt gone yet.fl
(< k)
(4.114) ns
qе k kant°hi-lai,
yesterday 1sg go want-DEF:one:time 3sg
ЖYesterday when I wanted to go, s/he hadnflt returned yet.fl
It can also be used with a prefixed verb to mean ЖV a little longerfl or Жcontinue to Vfl, as in the following example: (4.115) чile е-zе е-t°i-t°-i. 2pl one-CL DIR-CON-wait-2pl ЖDonflt go now!fl (lit.: ЖWait a while longer.fl)
This prefix sometimes also has the meaning of Жagain (yet one more time)fl or Жalsofl, as in the following examples:
tse-tsi xsusu-е-Вgu-еu-е-pan, ч~u е-® this-pair thirty-COM-nine-size-COM-half 2sg one-time i-t°i-tsi-n. DIR-CON-see-2sg (trying on shoes) ЖThis pair (is a) size 39 1/2, you try once againfl (lit.: Жsee yet one (more) timefl)
(4.117) Щz-pies
ЖAlso bring (give me) a portion of fish.fl
Verbal morphology 171 Habitual aspect
The habitual aspect is expressed by adding the suffix /-kp/ or /-p/ after a verb.79 If the verb is a prefixed adjective (intransitive stative verb), then /-kp/ has the meaning that the subject Жhas the ability/tendency to becomefl the state represented by the adjective, e.g. /t-wa-kp/ (directional prefix + Жbig (< /ba/)fl + /-kp/) Жwill/can become bigfl. This meaning is not possible without the directional prefix.
(qеqi)-t°u-lе i-p-k-s
q:fi, qе
1sgREFL-home-LOC DIR-arrive-go-NOM before 1sg
i°t°imеqе -j-sе
(< kp)
one-two-sentences call-HABIT:1sg
ЖBefore returning to my own home, I often call out a few
(4.119) q:fi-tе,
qе i°t°imеqе pies dz-pе.
(< p)
before-LOC 1sg often
meat eat-HABIT:1sg
ЖIn the past I often ate meat.fl
Habitual actions can also sometimes be expressed using simple unprefixed forms, as mentioned in the discussion of (4.87a-b), above. See also (4.174), below. Resulting state
An on-going state resulting from a change of state or action can be expressed using the prefixed (achievement or accomplishment) form of the verb, the change of state marker, plus the copula. In this case the copula is the main verb, so if there is any person marking, then the person marking appears on the copula.
(4.120) dy-le:
door-DEF:CL DIR-open-CSM COP
ЖThe door is open.fl (ЖThe door remains open.fl)
172 The verb complex Simultaneous actions
For two actions occurring simultaneously, the adverbial marker /i/, sometimes combined with /i°t°i/ Жtogetherfl, is used after the expression of the first action:
(4.121) a. the: stuеhе t°h-i°t°i
tian® tse.
3sg food/rice eat-ADV:together television watch
ЖS/he eats while watching television.fl
b. їe-zei-i dе-q-j-ki. DIR-cry-ADV DIR-go-REP-INF:HS Ж(He) went along again crying (as he went).fl
4.3.5. Illocutionary force
Illocutionary force is the type of speech act, such as question, statement, order, warning, etc. performed by an expression. Here we are interested in the formal expressions most commonly used for performing these speech acts, such as the declarative (§, the imperative and prohibitive (§, and interrogative constructions (§ The forms discussed here involve marking both within and outside the verb complex, but as they are functionally similar, they are being discussed together. We will discuss each type in turn. Declarative
The declarative is the unmarked form of the verb, used mainly for making statements. Almost all of the examples up to this point have been declarative clauses. In declarative clauses, it is possible to add the particle /-ja/ (said with falling intonation) to the end of the clause to make a stronger statement. Following is an example:
(4.122) ч~u lu-s
2sg come-NOM COP-PART
ЖYou definitely must come!fl
Verbal morphology 173 Imperative and prohibitive
The marking of an imperative clause involves the same prefixes used for direction marking, so in many cases has the same form as a normal declarative clause, and it is only the intonation and context that mark it as an imperative. In imperatives the prefix, which may be any one of the directionals, is stressed, unlike non-imperative directional prefixes.81 A secondary characteristic of the imperative is that person marking is optional, though the imperative sense is stronger if person marking is used. In order to make an imperative more polite, it is possible to add the polite imperative particle /-nе/, which appears outside the verb complex, i.e. after the person marking.82 There are various other particles that can be used with the imperative form (see examples further below). Following are examples showing the different prefixes used with different verbs, and their different forms with and without person marking, and with second person singular and plural person marking (the dual takes the same person marking as plural, so dual forms are not listed separately):
(4.123) a. -z-(nе)! DIR-eat-IMP ЖEat!fl
b. -z-n-(nе)! DIR-eat-2sg-IMP ЖYou(sg) eat!fl
c. -z-i-(nе)! DIR-eat-2pl-IMP ЖYou(pl) eat!fl
(4.124) a. їе-qut-(nе)! DIR-kneel-IMP ЖKneel down!fl
b. їе-qut-n-(nе)! DIR-kneel-2sg-IMP You(sg) kneel down!fl
c. їе-qut-i-(nе)! DIR-kneel-2pl-IMP ЖYou(pl) kneel down!fl
(4.125) a. tu-ju-(nе)! DIR-stand-IMP ЖStand up!fl
b. tu-ju-n-(nе)! DIR-stand-2sg-IMP ЖYou(sg) stand up!fl
174 The verb complex
c. tu-ju-i-(nе)! DIR-stand-2pl-IMP ЖYou(pl) stand up!fl (4.126) a. hе-f`u! DIR-spit ЖSpit it out!fl c. hе-fu-i-(nе)! DIR-spit-2pl-IMP ЖYou(pl) spit it out!fl
b. hе-fu-n-(nе)! DIR-spit-2sg-IMP ЖYou(sg) spit it out!fl
In some cases of verb concatenation, the prefix and person marking are split between different verbs, as the person marking is added to the last element of the verb complex:
(4.127) ч~u ts-e-pei
2sg water-one-CL DIR-drink-go-2sg
ЖGo drink a glass of water.fl
It is also possible in imperatives to have free pronouns representing the actor appear before the verb. A noun phrase representing an undergoer, goal, or recipient may also appear in the clause. Following are some examples:
(4.128) a. ч~u -z`u`! 2sg DIR-sit ЖYou sit!fl
b. ч~u їo-lu-n! 2sg DIR-come-2sg ЖYou come down here!fl
(4.129) a. qе de-l! 1sg DIR-give ЖGive me (it)!fl
b. dy-le:
door-DEF:CL DIR-open-2sg
ЖOpen the door!fl
(4.130) a. Щuеt®е-lе-hе
bowl-DEF:one-pl DIR-gather-2sg
ЖGather the bowls together.fl
Verbal morphology 175
b. the: z-l-(n)! 3sg DIR-move-2sg ЖBring it (here)!fl
The prohibitive (negative imperative) is expressed by the prefix [t°е± t°- ± t°o- ± t°e-] (from Proto-Tibeto-Burman *tе-), which appears in the same position as the normal negative prefix, just before the verb, after the directional prefix, if there is one (the directional prefix is not obligatory in negative imperatives).
(4.131) a. t°o-lu-n-(nе)! NEG.IMP-come-2sg-IMP ЖDonflt come!fl
b. t°е-k-n! NEG.IMP-go-2sg ЖDonflt leave!fl
(4.132) a. hе-t°-Щ! DIR-NEG.IMP-go ЖDonflt go out!fl
b. їе-t°-Щ`u! DIR-NEG.IMP-throw ЖDonflt throw it down!fl
(4.133) ч~u tsе t°е-lеu-thе,
tеt t-khua:-sеn.
2sg here NEG.IMP-be.noisy-AUX father DIR-angry:PRS-2sgU
ЖDonflt be noisy here or your father will be angry (at you).fl
A more polite prohibitive is expressed by adding the phrase /ma-qe/ Жcanfltfl or /me-t°hi/ Жnot wantfl after the main verb. It is also possible to use the hortative particles (discussed below) with the prohibitive construction.
(4.134) me:fi de-°i-wе,
rain DIR-fall-RCA 1pl
ЖItfls raining, so letfls not go!fl
k-ma-qe-®afi! go-NEG-able-HORT:1pl
There is a set of clause-final hortative particles for expressing the idea that the speaker is directing or requesting the addressee to perform an action. These particles can be used with either prefixed (i.e. imperative) or unprefixed verbs. In the case of first person plural, the form is /®е/ if there is only the speaker and one or two other people. If there are a large number of people involved, then the form takes the plural marking, becoming [®afi], as in the example just given above.
176 The verb complex
(4.135) stuеhе t°h-®е! food/rice drink/eat-HORT:1sg ЖLetfls eat!fl
(4.136) t°izzi it°i 1dl together ЖLetfls eat together!fl
dz-®е! eat-HORT:1sg
(4.137) t°ile the: Щua ®afi. 1pl 3sg help HORT:1pl ЖLetfls help him/her!fl
(4.138) t°ile tsai tianjin tse-k-®afi. 1pl now movie watch-go-HORT:1pl ЖLetfls go watch a movie now!fl
There is also a particle /wu/ which can be added after the first person hortative /®е/ or the indirect directive form /lе/ (see below for /lе/) to make the expression much more polite, and more of a request. Though the form /wu/ is the same form as the agentive/ablative/ instrumental postposition, which is also used on clauses in correlative comparative constructions (see §4.4.3) and to show the cause of some state of affairs (see §5.5), this form seems to be a separate morpheme.
(4.139) mе:, k-®е-wu? mom go-HORT:1sg-REQU ЖMom, Letfls go, O.K.?fl
(4.140) t°ile bl-®afi-wu? 1pl do-HORT:1pl-REQU ЖLetfls do it, O.K.?fl
(4.141) qе t-Щua
1sg DIR-help INDTV:1sg-REQU
ЖLet me help you, O.K.?fl
Verbal morphology 177
(4.142) oitshu е-z a-Щ`u
hot.pepper one-CL DIR-put INDTV:1sg-REQU
ЖLet me put in a little hot pepper.fl
For second person directives, the forms [pе ± bе ± wе] or /®u/ are used. The latter form has a somewhat stronger directive meaning. These forms contrast with the imperative marker /nе/, as [pе ± bе ± wе] is more polite than the imperative marker, and /®u/ has a stronger directive sense than the imperative marker.
(4.143) -t°h-n-bе! DIR-drink/eat-2sg-DTV ЖPlease eat!fl
(4.144) nе-ji
good-ADV DIR-teach/study-2sg-DTV
ЖStudy hard!fl
(4.145) ч~u Вme-В
u-su-n-®u. (emphatic)
2sg Qiang-language good-ADV DIR-teach/study-2sg-DTV
ЖLearn Qiang well!fl
The form /pu/ can also be used for requesting the addressee to do a certain action. This is the most polite of the particles discussed.
(4.146) ч~u t°h-dе-s-i
2sg drink/eat-DIR-finish-ADV DIR-go-2sg-IMP
ЖFinish eating before you go!fl
(4.147) ч~u t°h-dе-s-i
2sg drink/eat-DIR-finish-ADV DIR-go-2sg-DTV
ЖWhy donflt you finish eating before you go!fl
(4.148) ч~u Вo:kum-le:
de-Вge-n-pu. (request)
2sg window-DEF:CL one-time DIR-open-2sg-DTV
ЖCould you open the window a bit?fl
178 The verb complex
ч~u qе-t° dy de-Вge-n-pе.
ч~u qе-t° dy de-Вge-n-pu. (request; more polite)
2sg 1sg-BEN door DIR-open-2sg-DTV
ЖOpen the door for me, would you?fl
There is also a kind of indirect directive marking, the form of which differs with the person of the referent being directed or allowed to perform an action. For first person referents, the form is the verbphrase-final particle /lе/, which when added to a clause has the meaning Жlet me . . .fl. This form can also take plural marking, becoming /lafi/,83 and, as mentioned above, can be followed by the polite request particle /-wu/ (this latter particle is outside the verb complex, as defined here, because it follows the person marking).
(4.150) qе dz lе! 1sg eat INDTV:1sg ЖLet me eat!fl
(4.151) qе ч~u t®еuku tu-p`u lе.84 1sg 2sg look.after DIR-do INDTV:1sg ЖLet me look after you.fl
(4.152) qе t-Щua 1sg DIR-help ЖLet me help!fl
lе-wu. INDTV:1sg-REQU
(4.153) t°ile t-Щua
ЖLet us help!fl
lfi-wu. INDTV:1pl-REQU
(4.154) qе dy
1sg door DIR-open
ЖLet me open the door!fl
lе-wu. INDTV:1sg-REQU
There is no second person form of indirect directive marking. For third person referents, the form is the prefix /°е:-/. There is no negative form of this; the phrase /me-t°hi/ Жnot wantfl is used after the verb instead.
Verbal morphology 179 (4.155) stuеhе °е:-t°-k. food/rice INDTV-eat-go ЖLet (him/her) go eat!fl If the verb taking the third person form also could take one of the directional prefixes (see §4.3.3) in a particular context, it is possible to either replace the prefix with /°е:-/, or simply change the vowel of the prefix to /е:/, as in the following examples: (4.156) a. p Жbuyfl > zе:-p ± °е:-p Жallow 3sg to buyfl b. t°h Жdrinkfl > sе:-t° ± °е:-t° Жallow 3sg to drinkfl c. t® Жkillfl > їе:-t® ± °е:-t® Жallow 3sg to killfl d. lu Жcomefl > tе:-lu ± °е:-lu Жallow 3sg to comefl e. tse Жlookfl > a:-tse ± °a:-tse Жallow 3sg to lookfl f. phe Жdig (horizontally)fl > їa:-e ± °a:-e Жallow 3sg to digfl The form with /°е:/ is more emphatic than the form where the initial of the prefix is retained. For plural referents the plural marker /-t°i/ is added after the verb. Interrogatives Yes-no questions are marked by rising intonation and by the addition of the clause-final syllable /-nе/ for second person singular actors/topics, or /-uе/ (often pronounced [wе]) for all actors/topics of all other persons and numbers. The question particle that is part of these forms is outside the verb complex, and so follows aspect and person/number marking, but is discussed here with the other illocutionary force markings. The form /-nе/ is comprised of the second person singular person marking /-n/ plus the question particle /-е/, though the nonsecond person singular question particle /-uе/ does not seem to derive from the copula /u/ plus /-е/, as /uе/ often follows the copula. It also does not seem to be a form of the third person non-actor marking (as is the case with the debitive construction; see § plus /-е/, as the aspect and person marking suffixes appear on the element preceding /uе/.
180 The verb complex
(4.157) ч~u
Вme u-n-е?
2sg Qiang COP-2sg-Q
ЖAre you(sg) Qiang (a Qiang person)?fl
(4.158) the: Вme u-uе? 3sg Qiang COP-Q ЖIs s/he Qiang?fl
(4.159) чile Вme u-i-uе? 2pl Qiang COP-2pl-Q ЖAre you(pl) Qiang?fl
(4.160) themle Вme u-t°i-uе? 3pl Qiang COP-3pl-Q ЖAre they Qiang?fl
(4.161) ч~u dytе:
2sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-2sg-Q
ЖDid you go to Chengdu?fl
(4.162) the: dytе:
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-Q
ЖDid s/he go to Chengdu?fl
Rhetorical questions are marked by /-ja/ (the same form as for statements, but with different intonation) or /-t°е/ or /-ui/. The form /ui/ is only for first person imperfective actions (often used together with prospective aspect marking), and can be used after regular polarity verb-not-verb type question formations.
(4.163) t°ile wu Вme 1pl all Qiang ЖAre we all Qiang?fl
ufi-ja? COP:1pl-Q
(4.164) qе Вme mе-uе-ja? 1sg Qiang NEG-COP:1sg-Q ЖAm I not Qiang?fl (ЖArenflt I Qiang?fl)
Verbal morphology 181
(4.165) qе i©i blе:-ui? 1sg what do:PRS:1sg-Q ЖWhat am I going to do?fl
(4.166) qе tp-i
1sg tomorrow-ADV go:PRS-Q
ЖAm I going tomorrow or not? fl
mе-kе:-ui? NEG-go:PRS:1sg-Q
Guesses, either positive or negative, involving a request for confirmation, can be marked by the clause final particle /-luЩuе/. (4.167) a. the: Вme u-luЩuе? 3sg Qiang COP-(guess) ЖS/hefls Qiang, isnflt s/he?fl b. the: Вme mе-`u`-luЩuе? 3sg Qiang NEG-COP-(guess) ЖS/hefls not Qiang, is s/he?fl c. the: -qе-luЩuе? 3sg DIR-go-(guess) ЖS/he went in, didnflt s/he?fl
The form [luЩuе], when used alone, marks a type of tag question, but when used with the inferential evidential marker /-k/, as in (4.168), or the [tеn/lеhеn] `possibility' construction in (4.169) (see § for this construction), it simply marks the clause as less certain.
(4.168) the: tshinpi-wa-k
3sg intelligent-very-INF Q
ЖShe is intelligent.fl (guessing)
(4.169) the: tshinpi wa-m-tеn
u luЩuе.
3sg intelligent very-NOM-appearance COP Q
She possibly is intelligent.
The form /luЩuе/ seems to involve two morphemes, /lu/ Жcomefl, which can be used alone to express possibility and is used in the
182 The verb complex
compound /°t°еq-lu/ Жthink of, wantfl, and a second morpheme /Щuе/, though the meaning of this second morpheme is not clear. Following is an example of /lu/ used alone:
ps mpе wa, tp-i
today cold very tomorrow-ADV this-COMP
CON-cold:PRS will
ЖToday is very cold, tomorrow is going to be even colder than
A post-nominal or post-clausal adverb, /luo/, can also be used to express possibility:
ч~u hе-Щ-i
i-tsi-k, z-Ще
2sg DIR-go-ADV one-time DIR-look-go field-LOC
wtshi poqu®-luo
Вi Щu.
livestock-perhaps exist allow
ЖYou go out and take a look, perhaps there are livestock or
birds in the field.fl
The form /-wе/ (distinct from the alternate form of /uе/) can be used as a reaffirmation question particle (e.g., ЖDo you really want to go?fl).
(4.172) ч~u dytе:
2sg Chengdu:LOC go:PRS-Q
ЖAre you really going to Chengdu?fl
Polarity (Жyes-nofl) questions can be formed by repeating the entire verb complex, with the first token in the positive and the second token in the negative (sometimes called ЖA-not-Afl or Жverb-not-verbfl questions), and the question particle on both tokens, as in (4.166) and the following examples:
(4.173) a. ч~u dytе:
їе-q-n-е їе-m-qе-n-е?
2sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-2sg-Q DIR-NEG-go-2sg-Q
ЖDid you go to Chengdu?fl
Verbal morphology 183
b. the: dytе:
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-Q
ЖDid he go to Chengdu?fl
їе-m-qе-uе? DIR-NEG-go-Q
There is sometimes a difference in meaning between a polarity question with prospective aspect marking in the first clause and one without prospective aspect marking in the first clause. Compare the following two examples:
(4.174) ч~u jan
2sg cigarette smoke-2sg-Q
ЖDo you smoke?fl
me-t®he-n-е? NEG-smoke-2sg-Q
(4.175) ч~u jan
2sg cigarette smoke:PRS-2sg-Q NEG-smoke-2sg-Q
ЖWill you smoke?fl
The first example does not have prospective aspect marking on the verb of the first clause, and so expresses the question of whether or not the addressee smokes as a habit; the second example has prospective aspect making on the verb in the first clause, and so is asking if the addressee intends or wants to smoke now. Question particles are used even if interrogative pronouns are used in the clause. Interrogative pronouns can appear in initial position, second position, or immediately preverbal position, depending on the overall context (e.g. the difference between (4.176) and (4.177) is whether the table is topical (4.176) or not (4.177)), and can take the same case markers as lexical nouns and other pronouns (see §3.1.2).
(4.176) t®uеts-le: s-wu z-p-wе? table-DEF:CL who-AGT DIR-buy-Q ЖWho bought the table?fl
(4.177) s-wu
t®uеts-le: z-p-wе?
who-AGT table-DEF:CL DIR-buy-Q
ЖWho bought the table?fl
184 The verb complex
(4.178) a. pi:-tsе-lе
s-wu ч~u-(t°)
pen-this:one-CL who-AGT 2sg-GEN
ЖWho gave you this pen?fl
b. ч~u-t° pi:-tsе-lе
2sg-GEN pen-this:one-CL who-AGT
ЖWho was it that gave you this pen?fl
de-l-uе? DIR-give-Q de-l-uе? DIR-give-Q
Just about any type of argument can be questioned using interrogative pronouns. Examples (4.176)-(4.178) are examples of interrogative pronouns representing actor arguments; following are examples of interrogative pronouns representing benefactive (4.179), recipient (4.180), genitive (4.181), and adverbial (4.182) arguments:
(4.179) t®huеts-le: s-t° z-pе:-n-е? table-DEF:CL who-GEN DIR-buy:PRS-2sg-Q ЖFor whom are you going to buy the table?fl
(4.180) t®huеts-le: s-tе t-uе:-n-е? table-DEF:CL who-LOC DIR-sell:PRS-2sg-Q ЖTo whom are you going to sell the table?fl
(4.181) s-t°-t®hets-le:
who-GEN-car-DEF:CL DIR-bad/broken-Q
ЖWhose car has broken down?fl
(4.182) t®hets-le: i-ke:
ЖWhat did you do to the car?fl
The order of words in the question is generally reflected in the answer, e.g. if the interrogative pronoun is in initial position, then the answer also appears in initial position. The answer to a question involving an interrogative pronoun can be a whole clause, or may simply be the noun phrase representing the information completing the open proposition (i.e. the question), with or without case marking. Compare the three different responses given below to the following question:
Verbal morphology 185
(4.183) Question:
pen-this:one-CL who-AGT
ЖWho gave you this pen?fl
ч~u de-l-uе? 2sg DIR-give-Q
Answer: a. khumtsi-wu de-l. khumtsi-AGT DIR-give ЖKhumtsi gave it (to me).fl b. khumtsi-wu. khumtsi-AGT ЖKhumtsi (did)fl c. khumtsi. ЖKhumtsi (did).fl
Echo questions take the same form as regular questions, though it is possible to use /-ja/ at the end of yes-no echo questions. More than one element of the clause can be subject to echo-questioning. Leading questions can be asked using either the form /-ja/ or /-nе/. Following are two sets of question and answer (both positive and negative answers; no person marking appears in the confirmatory questions, and it is optional in the answers):
(4.184) Question: ч~u k °t°еq-mo-lu-ja? 2sg go heart-NEG-come-Q ЖDonflt you want to go? fl
Answers: a. u, (qе) k °t°еq-mo-lu. COP (1sg) go heart-NEG-come ЖNo, I donflt want to gofl. (lit.: ЖYes, I donflt want to go.fl)
b. ч~h~,85 (qе) k °t°еq-lu. NEG 1sg go heart-come ЖYes, I want to go.fl (lit.: ЖNo, I want to go.fl)
186 The verb complex
(4.185) Question:
ч~u stuеhе
2sg food/rice DIR-eat-ASP-Q
ЖHave you already eaten? fl
Answers: a. ч~, (s-t°ya). Yes, (DIR-eat:ASP:1sg) ЖYes, I have. fl
b. ч~h~, (s-m-t°i-t°ha). NEG, (DIR-NEG-CON-eat:1sg) ЖNo, I havenflt eaten yet. fl
c. s-t°ya / s-m-t°i-t°ha DIR-eat:ASP:1sg / DIR-NEG-CON-eat:1sg ЖI have eatenfl / ЖI have not yet eatenfl
There are no tag-question constructions in Qiang except for guesses marked by /luЩuе/ (see above); the unmarked question form is used instead:
(4.186) ч~u-t° °i е-z їo-jy-lе-uе? 2sg-GEN wine one-CL DIR-pour-INDTV:1sg-Q ЖWill you let me pour you a little wine?fl
4.3.6. Mood Optative The desire to do an action is expressed by the addition of the auxiliary verbs /°t°еq-lu/ Жthink of,wantfl (Жheartfl + Жdesirefl (< Жcomefl) (/lu/ can also be used alone), /kеnt°hi/ Жthink/wantfl, or /zulu/ Жwaitfl after the main verb, which is not overtly nominalized. First, second, and third person actors can all appear in this construction. First person marking on /°t°еq-lu/ is optional, but /zulu/ inflects normally: [zuluе, zulun, zul`u]. The person marking reflects the actor of the matrix clause, i.e. the actor of /°t°еq-lu/ or /zulu/, not of the subordinate clause. There is no person
Verbal morphology 187
marking of the subordinate (inner) verb, as only one verb in a sentence can take person marking (see §4.3.2), and that is the last (the matrix [outer]) verb, though aspect can be marked on the subordinate (inner) verb in these constructions. The construction with /zulu/ often has the verb before /zulu/ marked with prospective aspect.
(4.188) the: t°u k °t°еq-lu. 3sg home go heart-come ЖS/he wants to go home.fl
(4.189) a. qе t°u k °t°еq-lu-е. 1sg home go heart-come-1sg ЖI want to go home.fl
b. ч~u t°u k °t°еq-lu-n. 2sg home go heart-come-2sg ЖYou want to go home.fl
(4.190) khu-le: qе-wu pе:
dog-DEF:CL 1sg-AGT buy:PRS will
ЖI am going to buy the dog.fl (ЖThe dog will be bought by me.fl)
(4.191) a. qе the: i-p-la: 1sg 3sg DIR-arrive-come:PRS ЖI hope s/he is going to return.fl
zulu-е. wait-1sg
b. ч~u the: i-p-la: 2sg 3sg DIR-arrive-come:PRS ЖYou hope s/he is going to return.fl
zulu-n. wait-2sg
c. the: the: i-p-la: 3sg 3sg DIR-arrive-come:PRS ЖS/he hopes s/he is going to return.fl
zul`u. wait
Another method for expressing the optative mood is to nominalize the verb with the instrumental nominalizer /-s/ and add /u-i/ (copula + ADV), or /mе-u-t°i/ (Жnotfl + copula + ADV). The form /u-i/ is used for positive clauses, and either /mе-u-i/ or /mе-u-t°i/ is used
188 The verb complex
for negatives. No aspect or person contrasts are marked in sentences with /mе-u-t°i/ or /u-i/.86
(4.192) tp-i
me:fi °e-s
tomorrow-ADV rain release-NOM NEG-COP- ADV
ЖI hope it wonflt rain tomorrow.fl
(4.193) a. qе t®hets-le: їa--s
1sg car-DEF:CL DIR-bad/broken-NOM NEG-COP- ADV
ЖI hope my car hasnflt broken down.fl
b. the: t®hets-le: їе--s
3sg car-DEF:CL DIR-bad/broken-NOM COP-ADV
ЖI hope his/her car has broken down.fl
(4.194) a. tp-i
tianjin °e-s
tomorrow-ADV movie release-NOM COP-ADV
ЖI hope a movie is showing tomorrow.fl
b. tp-i
tianjin °e-s
tomorrow-ADV movie release-NOM NEG-COP-PART
ЖI hope no movie is showing tomorrow.fl
In some cases the second person directive particle /-®u/ can be used as a strong expression of desire for the addressee to perform a particular action.
(4.195) a. ч~u t°o-lu-n-®u. 2sg NEG.IMP-come-2sg-DTV ЖI hope you wonflt come.fl
b. ч~u t°е-k-n-®u. 2sg NEG.IMP-go-2sg-DTV ЖI hope you wonflt leave.fl
(4.196) tp-i
t®u-tian-Ще i-p-l-n-®u.
tomorrow-ADV six-oflclock-LOC DIR-arrive-come-2sg-DTV
ЖI hope you will come tomorrow at six oflclock.fl
Verbal morphology 189 Intentional
To express the intention to carry out a particular action, the prospective aspect form of the verb can be used alone, or a nominalized verb form followed by /u-i/ can be used. The construction with nominalized verb plus /u-i/ was introduced above as a way of expressing the optative mood, and it has this use, but its main meaning is one of obligation (cf. English I must have that piece of cake!). It can also be used in some contexts to express intention. Between these two forms, the use of the prospective aspect marking has a stronger sense of intention than the use of /u-i/.
(4.197) qе fе
°upu-е-thеu pе:.
1sg clothes red-one-CL buy:PRS:1sg
ЖI am going to buy a set of red clothes.fl
(< p)
(4.198) a. qе Вme-В
1sg Qiang-language well-ADV learn-PRS:1sg
ЖI am going to learn Qiang well.fl
b. the: Вme-В
3sg Qiang-language well-ADV learn-PRS-HS
ЖI heard s/he is going to learn Qiang well.fl
(4.199) a. qе Щu-q-tе
1sg mountain-peak(head)-LOC DIR-go:PRS:1sg
ЖI am going to go up to the mountain top.fl
b. qе Щu-q-tе
hе-Щ-s u-i.
1sg mountain-peak(head)-LOC DIR-go-NOM COP-ADV
ЖI am going to go up to the mountain top.fl
The construction involving /°t°еq-lu/ Жthink of, wantfl, also introduced as a way of expressing optatives, can be used to express intention as well.87
190 The verb complex (4.200) qе t°iЩuе-le: x¬ie °t°еq-lu. 1sg house-DEF:CL build heart-come ЖI want (plan) to build the house.fl Debitive (Obligation)
The construction used to express obligation to perform an action involves a nominalized verb followed by the copula /u/,88 and this is followed optionally by /®е/ in the first person, /sеn/ in the second person, or /`u`/ in the third person. These forms are the non-actor person marking suffixes (see §4.3.2). (The form /`u`/ is an alternate form of the third person non-actor marker /w/, which by assimilation to /u/ becomes /u` ` /.) ЖMustfl and Жought tofl use the same construction. No formal distinction is made between moral and physical obligation. No distinction of degrees of obligation is marked. Epistemic and root modality are expressed using the same structures. Person marking on the verb is optional in this construction, but if it appears it is the nonactor marking that is used.
(4.201) the: t°u-lе lu-s 3sg home-LOC come-NOM ЖS/he must come home!fl
u-`u`. COP-3sgU
(< w)
(4.202) a. qе Вme-В
nе-ji su-s
1sg Qiang-language well-ADV learn-NOM COP-1sgU
b. ч~u Вme-В
nе-ji su-s
2sg Qiang-language well-ADV learn-NOM COP-2sgU
c. the: Вme-В
nе-ji su-s
3sg Qiang-language well-ADV learn-NOM COP-3sgU
ЖI / you / s/he must learn Qiang well.fl
(4.203) a. qе 1sg b. ч~u 2sg
stuеhе food/rice stuеhе food/rice
bl-s make-NOM bl-s make-NOM
u-ji-(®е). COP-CSM u-ji-sеn. COP-CSM -2sgU
Verbal morphology 191
c. the: stuеhе bl-s
3sg food/rice make-NOM COP-CSM-3sgU
ЖI / you / s/he must make the meal.fl (prepare to begin)
The construction with nominalized verb plus /u-i/, discussed above as having a sense of intention similar to the use of the prospective aspect marking, is also a way of expressing a kind of obligation or necessity. Contrast the following two examples, where the prospective aspect marking or nominalized verb plus /u-i/ can be used in the same context, but the latter has more of a sense of necessity.
(4.204) a. qе mеusе kе:.
1sg toilet
ЖIflm going to go to the bathroom.fl
b. qе mеusе k-s u-i. 1sg toilet go-NOM COP-ADV ЖI have to go to the bathroom.fl
An interesting feature of this construction is that if there is only one human referent referred to in the clause, as in the examples above, then the person marking on the verb reflects the person and number of that referent, but if there are two human referents referred to in the clause, then the person marking reflects the non-actor argument. The initial noun phrase of this construction is the topic of an identificational structure, and so normally we would expect argreement with that argument, particularly as the other referent mentioned is mentioned within a nominalized clause, but instead we get agreement with the embedded argument. This is a clear example of how use of the nonactor person marking is not limited to specific semantic or grammatical roles. Following are examples where two human referents are referred to:
(4.205) a. the: ч~u-(tе) Щua-s
3sg 2sg-DAT help-NOM COP-2sgU
ЖS/he should help you.fl
192 The verb complex
b. t°ile the: Щua-s
1pl 3sg help-NOM COP-3sg
ЖWe ought to help him/her.fl
c. t°ile t°y:mi-le:-uе-i
1pl child-DEF:CL-BEN-ADV consider-NOM COP-3sg
ЖWe must consider the interests of the child.fl
In two of the traditional stories that were recorded, the
nominalization part of this structure appears in a non-final clause
without the copula, but the sense of obligation or determination is the
same. In (4.206), from "The Creation of the World", the structure
appears twice, in the first line with the copula, followed by /uе-i/
Жbecausefl, and in line four, as simply a nominalization, but with the
sense Ж(they) should (become a family)fl. In (4.207), from "The Story of
a Lazy Man" three nominalized clauses are subordinated to one copula.
(4.206) steke-tе mi pefiВ-s
u-uе-i, . . .
after-LOC people raise(child)-NOM COP-because-ADV
ut°uku dzuеЩl e-x®e їei-bi-i,
stone.mill one-CL DIR-carry.on.back-ADV
їo-©lu, dzuеЩl j-x®e
mountain-head-LOC-ABL DIR-roll stone.mill two-CL
izzi oqpi
DIR-bump-LNK 3dl one.family become-NOM
j-x®e їo-©lu-s-tе,
stone.mill two-CL DIR-roll-NOM-LOC
as.it.happens DIR-bump.into-INF:HS INT-this.manner-after
е ©lu
l-zi oqpi
older.brother COM younger.sister DEF-CL one.family
ЖLater, in order to propagate descendants, (the brother and
sister decided that) each would carry a stone mill on his or her
back and roll it down from the mountain peak. If the two stone
mills joined together, the two should get married. As it
happened, when the two stone mills rolled down (to the river
Verbal morphology 193
bank) they joined together, and so the brother and sister married (became a family).fl
(4.207) 2 3 4 5
emperor-DEF:CL-GEN daughter-DEF:CL-TOP
uеn-t°hiеnmefi-tе ©В-s,
Huang-Qianmen-DAT marry-NOM
uеn-t°hiеnmefi-ui Вmt®i dzu-s,
Huang-Qianmen-TOP emperor sit-NOM
emperor-DEF:CL daughter-DEF:CL-TOP INT-there
їе-k u-ku-tu, . . .
Ж(Because the emperor had said he would marry his daughter
to whoever found the parrot,) the emperor had to marry his
daughter to Huang Qianmen, and Huang Qianmen became the
emperor, (he had to) give (him) the daughter.fl
In the following example from the story "An Orphan", the sense of the nominalization construction is of obligation in terms of the best thing to do in that situation. We can see in the fourth line of this example that even the copula can be nominalized and subordinated to the copula.
(4.208) 2 3 4 5
the-maha-ui (t°iu) ®®e:fiwu
that-night-TOP (INT) exist:REDUP:all together
arrange-DIR-do-INF:HS-PART needle-DEF:CL-TOP where-LOC
u, t°е-l
live/stay-NOM COP where-LOC where-LOC sleep-NOM
u, t°е-l
i©i u-s
COP where-LOC where-LOC what COP-NOM COP
INT-this:manner arrange-DIR-do-INF:HS-PART
ЖThat night everybody made a plan together, where the needle
should stay, where (each of them) should sleep and what not
and it was all settled.fl
194 The verb complex
Another form of this construction is where the continuative aspect prefix appears on the copula, i.e. [t°е-`u`] (C O N + COP). The combination [t°е-`u`] can also take the negative prefix. (Without the continuative aspect prefix, the form would express an action that had been agreed upon or set beforehand.)
(4.209) a. qе k-s t°е-`u`. 1sg go-NOM CON-COP ЖI (still) must go.fl
b. qе k-s mе-t°-u. 1sg go-NOM NEG-CON-COP ЖI (still) shouldnflt go.fl
(4.210) a. the: l©z zd-s 3sg book read/study-NOM ЖI (still) must study.fl
t°е-u. CON-COP
b. the: l©z zd-s 3sg book read/study-NOM ЖI (still) donflt need to study.fl
mе-t°-u. NEG-CON-COP
Obligation can also be expressed using the auxiliary verb /Щze/ Жought tofl. If this auxiliary verb is negated (Жmust notfl) and/or takes the continuative aspect prefix [t°i ± t°е ± t°e ± t°o], the negative or other prefix appears between the main verb and the auxiliary (i.e. is prefixed to the auxiliary verb).
(4.211) a. stuеhе t°h-Щze-ji. food/rice eat-must-CSM Ж(We/You/One) ought to eat!fl (i.e., ЖTime to eat!fl)
b. stuеhе t°h-ma-t°i-Щze. food/rice eat-NEG-CON-must Ж(We/You/One) ought not to eat yet!fl
Verbal morphology 195 Potential
The potential to perform an action is expressed by the use of auxiliary verbs, with the choice of auxiliary verb depending on the type of potentiality. Person marking is added to the auxiliary verb. Following are examples of each type:
/©В/ for learned ability:
(4.212) a. the: Вme-В
de ©В.
3sg Qiang-language speak can
ЖS/he can speak Qiang.fl
b. ч~u
2sg Qiang-language speak
ЖYou can speak Qiang.fl
©В-n. can-2sg
c. qе
1sg Qiang-language speak
ЖI can speak Qiang.fl
©Ве. can:1sg
(< ©В)
/dВ/ or /qe/ for natural (physical) ability:89
(4.213) a. mi
lе mе-l, w lе dВ.
person fly NEG-able bird fly able
ЖPeople cannot fly, but birds can.fl
(< m + dВ)
b. misaq-wu qе quaha t-i-В
sun-AGT 1sg face DIR-black-CAUS able
ЖThe sun can make my face become black.fl
c. qе u-t°u mе-lе. 1sg DIR-see NEG-able:1sg ЖI canflt see.fl
(< m + dВ + е)
(4.214) the: Веwе-le: t-tsi qe-uе? (dВ also possible here) 3sg rock-DEF:CL DIR-lift able-Q ЖCan s/he lift the rock?fl
196 The verb complex
Comparing (4.215) and (4.216), below, we can see that while the forms /©В/ and /dВ/ are phonetically similar, the meanings are somewhat different and /©В/ does not undergo phonetic reduction when it is prefixed.
(4.215) tsi°i sei
infant walk NEG-can
ЖAn infant cannot walk.fl (not yet learned)
(4.216) the:-doqu-le: dak-wu, pit° sei mе-l-jy. (< dВ) 3sg-foot-DEF:CL break-INST now walk NEG-able-ASP ЖHis/her foot is broken so he/she cannot walk now.fl
/gu/ for ability to fit into something else:
(4.217) t®uwa-le-tsi s-le
shoe-DEF-CL DIR-pack able.to-Q
ЖCan this pair of shoes fit in?fl
/Щu/ or /se/ for the sense of Жwillingfl or Ж(be) allowedfl:
(4.218) a. °o°еu-Ще Вme-В
school-LOC Qiang-language speak-CAUS allow
ЖSpeaking Qiang is allowed in the school.fl
b. °o°еu-Ще Вme-В
school-LOC Qiang-language speak-CAUS DIR-allow
ЖSpeaking Qiang is allowed in school.fl
/je/ Жgood to eatfl (an adjective) for the sense of Жpossiblefl:
(4.219) tsе Вe-s
here write-NOM NEG-possible
Ж(You) can't write here.fl
A construction involving the exclusion particle on the main verb and the expression /me-t°hi/ Жnot wantfl following the main verb can also be
Verbal morphology 197
used to express the ability (either physical or learned) or permission to do something.
(4.220) a. °o°еu-Ще Вme-В
school-LOC Qiang-language speak-EXC NEG-want
ЖIt is all right to speak Qiang in school.fl
b. ts tu-su-ji-wе,
t°ile quaha ulе-j
water DIR-boil-CSM-RCA 1pl face wash-EXC
ЖThe waterfls boiled, so we can wash our faces.fl
4.3.7. Evidentials, degree of certainty/authority The evidential system in Qiang basically has three terms, visual (§, inferred/mirative (§, and reported marking (§ (this is the B1 type of system discussed in Aikhenvald 2003), but it does not necessarily involve marking of the evidential category on all clauses, and there are complications related to verb types and combinations of forms. The inferential can appear together with the hearsay or visual marker, therefore it may be seen as two systems rather than three paradigmatically related items in one system. The actor person marking, when used without the inferential/mirative marker, also is involved in expressing an evidential meaning, in that it implies direct observation, and cannot be used with the hearsay marker. In general, an unmarked clause is assumed to represent knowledge that the speaker is sure of, most probably, but not necessarily, from having seen the situation or event first-hand, and so, for witnessed events, there is no obligatory marking of the events as witnessed. If the speaker wants to emphasize that he or she saw the event or that the statement represents incontrovertible common knowledge, then it is possible to use an overt marker, [-u ± -wu], as in (4.221a) below. This marker is actually rarely used, and difficult to elicit from linguistically naive speakers. It is generally only used when the actor(s) of the clause is animate, and it is necessary to emphasize that the speaker actually saw the other person(s) carry out the action. This form is used together
198 The verb complex
with the actor person marking suffixes, but use of the person marking suffixes alone can also imply visual observation, as in (4.221b).
(4.221) a. the: dytе:
3sg Chengdu:LOC
ЖHe went to Chengdu.fl (used in a situation where the
speaker saw the person leave and that person has not yet
b. ч~u t°eun tu-pu-ji-n. 2sg marry DIR-do-ASP-2sg ЖYou got married.fl (I saw you get married)
If the speaker is not completely sure of the information being presented in the utterance, which generally means s/he did not witness it, then it is necessary to use one of two non-visual markers. In reporting second-hand or third-hand knowledge of some situation or event the speaker is unsure of, the hearsay marking suffix /-i/ is used after the verb. Only one token of the hearsay marker is used in a clause; it cannot be repeated to show the number of sources between the speaker and the event, as in Tsafiki (Dickinson 2000:408). Statements that represent "just discovered" information (mirative) or information based on inference derived from some physical or other non-visual evidence take the suffix /-k/ after the change of state marker, if there is one, but before the prospective aspect and person marking (if there is any--3sg animate and inanimates are unmarked), a different position in the verb complex from the narrative evidential marking. This marker in some contexts, and particularly in combination with the hearsay marker, can be used to mark simple uncertainty (not necessarily inference). Direct evidential The unmarked verb form can be used for visual evidence, and for generally known facts and for observations that lead to a strong conclusion, such as if you say ЖHe is a strong manfl when you see him do
Verbal morphology 199
something that makes that obvious. In this latter case, use of the inferential marker would be optional, and would imply less certainty. The visual evidential marker can be used for past events (as in exx. (4.221a-b)) or ongoing events, but not future events. When it is used, the visual marker is used together with the actor person marking. In most cases the person marking reflects the person and number of the actor of the clause, the usual situation with the person marking, as in (4.222a), but in the case of a 3sg actor, which would normally have zero person marking, it is possible to add 1sg person marking in order to particularly emphasize that the speaker saw the person do the action, as in (4.222b) (the resulting form, [wе], is to be distinguished from the clause-final emphatic particle /wе/, which appears in (4.222a)).
(4.222) a. themle jimi
fertilizer DIR-spread-CSM-VIS-3pl-EMPH
ЖThey spread the fertilizer.fl (I saw them do it.)
b. the: jimi
ЖShe spread the fertilizer.fl (I saw her spread it.)
This same form is also used when the actor is 1sg, but then the meaning is one of unintentional action, as in (4.223).
(4.223) qе the:-tе de-we-В-u-е. 1sg 3sg-LOC DIR-hit-CAUS-VIS-1sg ЖI hit him (accidentally).fl (The context for this was the speaker having hit the person while leaning back and stretching his arms back without looking behind him.)
The visual marker [-u ± -wu] is only used for visual sensory information, not other types of sensory information. If you hear some noise, such as the sound of drums in the next room, and you want to say ЖSomeone is playing drums next doorfl, you would use the inferential marker, as in (4.224). Even if you feel something in your hand but cannot see it, the inferential marker, not the visual marker, would be used.
200 The verb complex
(4.224) mi
Вb Вete-k!
person drum beat-INF ЖSomeone is playing drums.fl (It seems to me from hearing a
noise that sounds like drums.) Inferential/mirative marking
The suffix /-k/ has both an inferential sense and a mirative sense. The inferential sense is primary when the action involved is an activity, as in (4.224) and (4.225a). The inference may be based on evidence obtained visually or by some other sense. If what is reported is a state or the resulting state of some action, as in (4.225b-c), then the meaning is mirativity (Жjust discoveredfl).90
(4.225) a. the: dytе:
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-INF
ЖHe went to Chengdu.fl (Used in a situation where the
speaker knew the person was supposed to go to Chengdu,
but wasnflt sure when, and then saw the personfls luggage
gone, so assumed he had left for Chengdu. /-k/ could not
be used if the speaker saw the person leave.)
b. the: °t°imi di-k! 3sg heart sick-INF ЖHefls unhappy!fl (just discovered; relatively sure, not guess)
c. dy
door DIR-open-CSM-INF
ЖThe door is open!fl (just discovered; see that the door was
opened, but donflt know who opened it)
If the speaker needs to express an inferential sense in talking about a state or perfective situation, then the speaker would use the adverbial phrase /su-i/ Жseemsfl or the construction with [-tеn] or [-lеhеn] for marking possibility (both discussed in § below), not the inferential marker. For example, if the speaker feels wind on her back and makes the assumption that the door is open, she could say (4.226).
Verbal morphology 201
(4.226) dy Вge-m-tеn
door open-NOM-appearance
ЖIt appears the door is open.fl / ЖApparently the door is open.fl
Generally the inference marker is used for single instances of an event, such as if someone was supposed to quit smoking, but then the speaker sees cigarette butts in an ashtray, the speaker could use the inference marker to comment that (it seems) the person had smoked. If it was discussed as a habitual action, then again generally the construction with [tеn] or [lеhеn] would be used.
(4.227) a. the: jan
3sg cigarettes smoke-NOM-appearance COP
ЖS/he might smoke (It seems s/he smokes).fl
(lit.: ЖS/he is s smokerfls appearance.fl)
b. the: jan
3sg cigarettes smoke-NOM-DEF:one-kind COP
ЖS/he might smoke (might be a smoker).fl
(lit.: ЖS/he is a smoking kind of person.)
The inferential/mirative marker is also used together with the person marking, with the person marking always reflecting the person and number of the actor, as in (4.228a-b), but with first person actors the interpretation is not only that the action was just discovered, but also that it was unintentional or originally unknown, as in (4.228c-d)
(4.228) a. pеn-le:
thing-DEF:CL DIR-broken-INF-2sg
ЖYou broke the thing.fl (inference from seeing the broken
pieces in the personfls hands)
b. themle
DIR-eat-CSM-INF -3pl
ЖThey have already eaten.fl (inference from seeing used
202 The verb complex
c. qе dzig`u t°y-k-е-i! 1sg money bring-INF-1sg-ADV ЖI have money!fl (Used when the speaker originally thought she didnflt have money, but then opened her wallet and found she did have money.) d. (qе) dy їе-m-suе-k-е! 1sg door DIR-NEG-lock-INF-1sg ЖI didnflt lock the door!fl (Used in a situation where the speaker had thought he had locked the door.)
The suffix /-k/ can appear alone with a mirative sense (e.g. (4.225bc)), but often in these cases the particle /-i/ or /-wе/ is added at the end of the clause, as in (4.228c). The particle /-i/ is an adverbial marker used also to mark surprise and/or disbelief; /-wе/ is an emphatic marker. Itfls use with /-k/ gives the construction a stronger mirative sense. Examples (4.229a-b) show the use of the suffix /-k/ together with /-wе/ and /-i/ respectively.
(4.229) a. me:fi de-°i-k-wе! rain DIR-release-INF-EMPH ЖItfls raining!fl (just discovered; this clause could also mean Жit has rainedfl, with the statement based on inference from having seen the ground wet)
b. the: dytе:
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-INF-ADV
ЖHe went to Chengdu!fl (just discovered)
The suffix /-k/ is used with 1st, 2nd, or 3rd person actors, though with first and second person actors, /wе/ is not used to emphasize the sense of Жjust discoveredfl; instead /-i/, /-®/ or /iеu/ is used for first person actors (of these three, the latter is stronger) and /-i/ is used for second person actors (/-i/ can be used for other persons, but if the clause has a second person actor, then /-i/ must be used). The combination [-k-wе] is stronger (more certain) than /-k/ alone, but weaker than [-k-i], which can have the sense that you canflt believe your own inference, that it is totally unexpected. The auxiliary verb /Щu/
Verbal morphology 203
Жwilling, allowfl can also be added after /-k/ to weaken (make less certain) the force of the statement. Following are examples of first and second person actors ((4.230a-b) respectively).
(4.230) a. qе da-m-k-е-®!
(if plural, then [k-fi-®])
1sg DIR-forget-INF-1sg-EMPH
ЖI (just realized I) forgot!fl
b. ч~u s i-t°hi-k-n-i! (if plural, then [k-i-i]) 2sg wood DIR-bring.in-INF-2sg-ADV Ж(I see) you brought the wood in!fl (just discovered) The inferential marker, the visual marker, and the person marking can all be used together for ongoing or past events. This would be possible given a situation such as the following: after having guessed someone was playing drums next door the speaker went next door and saw the person standing there holding a drum or drumsticks. When commenting that ЖHe WAS playing drumsfl, adding (/-k/ + /-u/ > [ku]) after the verb (see ex. (4.231a)) adds the sense of Жas I had guessed and now pretty-well confirmfl. This interpretation holds when the clause has a 2nd person actor ([k-u-n] 2sg, as in (4.231b), [k-u-i] 2pl) or 3rd person plural actor ([k-u-t°i]). If upon opening the door in that situation the person was still playing drums, the speaker could say (4.231c). Adding the 1sg person marking where the actor is 3sg marks the clause as representing information obtained by direct visual observation. The forms with [-k-] and the visual and person marking contrast with forms without [-k-] in that with the latter do not imply a previous supposition.
(4.231) a. oh, the: Вb Вete-k-u! oh 3sg drum beat-INF-VIS ЖOh, he WAS playing drums!fl
b. ч~u dytе: їе-q-k-u-n. 2sg Chengdu DIR-go-INF-VIS-2sg ЖYou went to Chengdu.fl
204 The verb complex
c. oh, the: Вb Вete-k-u-е! oh 3sg drum beat-INF-VIS-1sg ЖOh, he IS playing a drum!fl
If the actor is 1st person, use of the inferential, visual and person marking together involves an implication not only that the action was done unintentionally and just discovered, as with use of the inferential and person marking alone, but also that the action was a mistake of some kind, as in (4.232) (if the actor was 1pl, then the suffixes would be [k-u-fi]).
(4.232) qе еp-t°-iantu-le:
tsе t°y-k-u-е.
1sg grandfather-GEN-pipe-DEF:CL here bring-INF-VIS-1sg
ЖI mistakenly brought Grandfatherfls pipe here.fl
Usually no marking of evidentials is necessary in retelling dreams, as long as the speaker remembers the dream clearly, but if not, then the speaker would use the adverbial phrase /su-i/ Жseemsfl or the construction with [-tеn] or [-lеhеn] for marking possibility (both discussed below), not the inferential or hearsay markers. When retelling some event witnessed on TV the unmarked form can also be used, but often the hearsay marker would be used (the visual marker cannot be used), as when retelling something heard on the radio. There is no special marking for information that is not to be taken literally, such as metaphors or sarcasm. Hearsay marking
The hearsay marking suffix /-i/, derived from the verb [j ± ji ] Жto sayfl, is used to mark hearsay of future or presently ongoing events (e.g. ЖI heard hefls leavingfl) or relatively recent past events, as in (4.233) (could be up to 40-50 years, but generally not ancient history, though there are exceptions).
(4.233) the: dytе:
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-HS
ЖHe went to Chengdu.fl (I heard)
Verbal morphology 205
The hearsay marker is used only for hearsay, and not for simple
uncertainty, when it is used alone. It can also appear in narratives
recounting distant past events (e.g., ex. (4.234a), the first line in the
traditional creation story (T1:1)), but generally in distant past narratives
(story-telling) it is used together with the inferential marker, to show a
greater degree of uncertainty, as in ex. (4.234b), the first line of another
traditional story.91 The hearsay marking is not used together with
second person marking (e.g. (4.234c)). Unlike in Jarawara (Dixon
2003), the hearsay particle is not used in clauses with a 2nd person actor
to remind the person of what they said.
(4.234) a. qe:filot®u-Ще, mutu-lе mujuq`u Вgu-zi we-i.
before-LOC heaven-LOC sun
nine-CL exist-HS
Ж(It is said) in the past there were nine suns in the sky.fl
b. qe:fi-qe:fi-tu
їеlе kеpt® kou
before-before-LNK INT orphan INDEF:one:CL
Ж(It is said) in the past there was an orphan.fl
c. ч~u t°eun tu-pu-ji-i-i! 2sg marry DIR-do-ASP-HS-ADV Ж(I heard) you got married!fl
Generally there is no difference between second-hand and third-hand reported information, but if the hearsay marker is used in a clause with 1sg marking on the verb, as in (4.235), the utterance must be interpreted as similar to a direct quote (even though the representation of the speaker quoted is 3rd person), with the assumption being that, for example in (4.235), that the referent mentioned in (4.235) himself told the speaker of (4.235) that he (the referent mentioned in (4.235)) is unhappy.92 If instead the verb root is the third person form plus the hearsay marker (i.e. would be [di-i] in (4.235)), then the implication is that someone else told the speaker the other person was unhappy.
(4.235) the: °t°imi da-i. 3sg heart sick:1sg-HS ЖHefls unhappy.fl (he told me)
(< di-е-i)
206 The verb complex Evidential strategies
Two other types of marking might be considered evidential strategies rather than evidential marking. The adverbial particle /su-i/ can be added to the end of the clause, after the verb complex (and so does not take person marking), to show uncertainty about some information. This adverbial functions something like English Жseemfl, taking the whole clause in its scope. The (semantically) main clause may or may not take the hearsay evidential marker /-i/ (compare (4.236a) and (4.236b)).
(4.236) a. the: dytе:
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-HS seem-ADV
ЖIt seems s/he went to Chengdu.fl (guessing, unsure if true)
b. dytе:
le su-i.
Chengdu:LOC exist seem-ADV
ЖIt seems (s/he) lives in Chengdu.fl
For expressing contingent (Жit is possible thatfl, Жperhapsfl) situations, often a construction involving a clause nominalized by /-m/, plus [lеhеn ± lе-hn] (definite marker + Жonefl + Жkindfl), [kе-hеn ± kе-hn] (indefinite marker + Жonefl + Жkindfl), or /tеn/ (Жappearancefl), and the copula is used. This is structurally similar to the Japanese yoo-da and soo-da constructions (see Aoki 1986). Following are examples of a direct evidential ((4.237a)) and a construction using the nominalizer /-m/ plus /tеn/ ((4.237b)).
(4.237) a. the: thе Вi. 3sg there exist ЖS/he is there.fl
b. the: thе-Вi-m-tеn
3sg there-exist-NOM-appearance COP
ЖS/he might be there.fl
(lit.: ЖS/he is the appearance of one who is there.fl)
An expression with [-m-tеn] is more of a certainty than one with [su(i)] Жseemsfl. The former can also be used for non-past events.
Verbal morphology 207
To make a strong statement of certainty, or of information that was not recently discovered, but known for some time, then a clause nominalized by /-s/ and followed by the copula is used without /tеn/ or /lе-hn/ (this construction was also discussed in §4.3.6). This form cannot be used for past/perfective actions.
(4.238) a. ps Вmu tsu-s
today meeting hold-NOM COP
ЖThere is a meeting today.fl (set and known about
b. the: thе-Вi-s
3sg there-exist-NOM COP
ЖS/he is definitely there.fl Correlations with other grammatical categories
Use of evidential marking in a question is not obligatory, as long as no assumptions about the source of the addresseefls information are made, but if it is used, in the case of the visual or hearsay marking it would imply the assumption that the hearer saw (visual, as in (4.239a)), or heard about (hearsay, as in (4.239b)), the action being questioned. It is the action that is questioned, not the source of the information.
(4.239) a. the: їе-q-u uе? 3sg DIR-go-VIS Q ЖDid he go?fl
b. the: їе-q-i 3sg DIR-go-HS ЖDid he go?fl
uе? Q
If the speaker of a question assumes the addressee of the question also does not have visual evidence of information about the situation being asked about (though knows more about the situation than the speaker), the inferential particle can be used in the question, as in (4.240):
208 The verb complex
(4.240) the: hе-q-k 3sg DIR-go-INF ЖDid he go?fl
uе? Q
The form used by the one responding to the question would then depend on the source of that personfls information, visual, inference or hearsay. If the speaker is asking the addressee about his or her own actions, then the inferential marker can still be used, but in this case would not represent a presupposition that the addressee is also not clear about the situation. Instead it would represent a guess about some aspect of the question, for example in (4.241), the guess that Chengdu is the place that the person went to. (The question marker used in this example also differs from the usual second person question marker /-е/, in that it represents more of a guess about the situation.)
(4.241) ч~u dytе:
2sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-INF-2sg Q
ЖDid you go down to Chengdu?fl
Other examples of the use of the inferential marker in questions are given in (4.242a-b). (Ex. (4.242b) is actually a rhetorical question, from a traditional story, "The Old Man of the Chen Family".)
(4.242) a. the: dytе:
Chengdu:LOC DIR-go-INF Q
ЖDid he go down to Chengdu?fl
b. ч~u е qе a-qs
2sg COM 1sg one-form exist-INF-PRS:1pl Q
Ж(Could it be) yours and mine are the same?fl (T6:137-138)
The evidential markers can be used with causatives, just as with simplex clauses (see (4.223) and (4.243)). (4.243) the: їе-q-В-i. 3sg DIR-go-CAUS-HS ЖHe was made to go.fl (I heard)
Verbal morphology 209
It is possible to use the evidential markers in some embedded clauses, with the acceptability of the marker depending somewhat on the matrix verb (contrast (4.244a) and (4.244b)).
(4.244) a. the: pieye tu-pu-ji-(u)
qе dВuk`u la.
3sg graduate DIR-do-CSM-VIS 1sg knowledge exist:1sg
ЖI know he graduated.fl
b. the: pieye tu-pu-ji-i 3sg graduate DIR-do-CSM-HS ЖI heard he graduated.fl
qе -mе. 1sg DIR-hear:1sg
With direct quotes, as in (4.245), different evidential marking can appear on the matrix and quoted clauses, e.g. in (4.245) the inferential marker appears in the quote, and the narrative marker appears on the verb of saying (from a traditional narrative).
"ta, qе чile ep u-k-е," ik j-kui. INT 1sg 2pl father COP-INF-1sg thus say-INF:HS ЖHe said, "Then, I am your father." (based on inference from what they had just said; T6:254-255))
In other types of complex sentences, evidential marking can appear either on only the final clause, when the initial clause has a hypotactic relation to the second clause, or on both clauses:
(4.246) a. the: dytе:
їе-qе me-t°hi, peit°in-lе
3sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go NEG-want Beijing-LOC
ЖIt seems he not only went to Chengdu, he also went to
Beijing.fl (I heard, not too sure)
b. the: Щu-q-tе
3sg mountain-top-LOC DIR-go-INF:HS-LNK
210 The verb complex
ЖWhen he went up on the mountain, he ran into a bear.fl (I
heard but Iflm not too sure).
c. the: doqu-le: da-g-k-(i),
pit° sei
3sg leg-DEF:CL DIR-break-INF-HS now walk
ЖIt seems he broke his leg and now canflt walk.fl (I heard but
Iflm not too sure.)
There is no marking of evidentials in relative clauses (4.247a), or conditional clauses (4.247b), or imperatives (4.248a), though the verb of saying can be added to an imperative to show that someone told the speaker to order the person to do something, as in a direct quote (4.248b).
(4.247) a. qе-wu-pеn-de-le-m
1sg-AGT-thing-DIR-give-NOM person
Жthe person to whom I gave somethingfl
b. the: mo-lu-tu,
qе-qi kе:. (< k + е: + е)
3sg NEG-come-LNK 1sg-self go:PRS:1sg
ЖIf s/he doesnflt come, Iflm going to go myself.fl
(4.248) a. ч~u -zu-n. 2sg DIR-sit-2sg ЖYou sit!fl
b. ч~u -zu-n
2sg DIR-sit-2sg say
ЖYou sit!fl (someone else told me to say that)
If the visual evidential marker is used in the negative, such as to say ЖHe didnflt comefl, or ЖIt didnflt rainfl, there is a presupposition that the speaker has visual evidence of the person not coming, that is, the speaker was in the place all day, and so would have seen the person if
Verbal morphology 211
he had come, or the speaker was outside all day, and so would have seen it had it rained. When the inferential or hearsay markers are used with a negative clause (e.g. [mе-t°i-k-k] [NEG-CON-go-INF] Ж(He) didnflt go yetfl [inferred from seeing his baggage still in the hallway]), the implication is that the negative proposition is an inference or hearsay, the same as with positive propositions. Unlike in Akha (Hansson 2003), the evidential particles cannot be negated to express the idea that the speaker doesnflt know the reason for what is happening. Generally actions performed by oneself do not need to be overtly marked with evidentials, but the visual evidential can be used with inadvertent actions, as mentioned above. In the case of onefls mental or physical states, if one is not sure about some particular state, for example, whether one has caught a cold or not, usually the construction with [-tеn] or [lеhеn] Жseemsfl would be used, e.g. ЖIt seems like I caught a coldfl, as in (4.249).
qе t-liеn-thе-m-lе-hеn
1sg DIR-catch.cold-AUX-NOM-DEF:one-kind COP
ЖI might have caught a cold.fl (cf. English ЖItfls kind of like I
caught a coldfl)
4.4. Adverbials The adverbials to be discussed here are the elements that modify adjectives (intransitive state predicate verbs) and verbs, not the clause as a whole. We saw examples of locative and temporal adverbs which modify the whole clause in Sections 3.2.20 and 3.2.21, and examples of another type of adverb that takes the clause in its scope in Section 4.3.7.
4.4.1. Degree marking adverbs There is some difference between the adverbs that adjectives and other verbs can take. Most adjectives, when they act as predicates, can take the postverbal adverb /-wa/ Жveryfl (e.g. /nе-wa/ (good + very) Жvery goodfl), whereas verbs, except for /topu/ Жlikefl, cannot take this adverb. Some adjectives also cannot take this adverb, but there does not seem to
212 The verb complex
be a semantic reason for this, as the adjectives that can take /-wa/ and those that cannot are often in the same semantic field, e.g. /phi-wa/ Жvery whitefl, but not */iq-wa/ Жvery blackfl. For the adjectives that cannot take /-wa/, the preverbal adverb [ken ± kn] Жveryfl (possibly a loan of Chinese g--eng) can be used. Following are some other examples of these two adverbs:
(4.250) a. bеstе-wa slow/late-very Жvery slow/latefl
b. ba-wa big-very Жvery bigfl
c. kn iq very black Жvery blackfl
d. kn stе very wide Жvery widefl
Some adjectives can only take /-wa/, while some can only take /kn/, though some other adjectives can take either of the two adverbs, e.g. /°upu-wa/ ± /kn °upu/ Жvery redfl. Some loan words can also take /-wa/, even when the loan word is followed by the auxiliary loan word particle (see §3.1.1). In this case /-wa/ follows the auxiliary particle, e.g. /khuaithе/ (Жfastfl < Chinese ku\ai + auxiliary loan word particle) > [khuai-thеwa] Жvery fastfl. The adverb /-wa/ can be used with the negative prefix, though the negative prefix appears before the adjective, with /-wa/ modifying the whole negative plus adjective combination, e.g. [mе-nе-wa] (negative + Жgoodfl + Жveryfl) Жvery not goodfl (this cannot have the meaning Жnot very goodfl). The adverb /ken/ can be used with some verbs, e.g. /ken topu/ (Жveryfl + Жlikefl) Жlike very muchfl. An adjective modified by /ken/ can directly modify a noun (e.g. /fе-ken-iq/ (Жclothingfl + Жveryfl + Жblackfl) Жvery black clothingfl), but this is not possible with /-wa/. The adverb /wa/ can also be followed by a nominalizer, as in the following relative clause:
(4.251) ®ku-wa-m-le-ze lovely-very-NOM-DEF-CL Жthe very lovely personfl (lit.: Жthe person who is very lovelyfl)
Adverbials 213
There is another postverbal adverb, /qula/ Жveryfl, used to modify adjectives and at least one auxiliary verb, e.g. /nе qula/ Жvery goodfl, /°upu qula/ Жvery redfl, /dВ qula/ (Жablefl + Жveryfl) Жvery capablefl. Adjectives can also be reduplicated for expressing greater intensity (see §4.2.3). For expressing the meaning Жtoo much, excessivelyfl, either a preverbal adverb, /tsan/, or a postverbal adverb, /-®/, can be used with most adjectives. The former is used only before the negative or prohibitive prefix.
(4.252) a. iq-® black-too Жtoo blackfl
b. bеstе-® slow/late-too Жtoo slow/latefl
c. ba-® big-too Жtoo bigfl
d. mo-po-® NEG-thick-too Жnot too thickfl
(4.253) a. tsan-mе-n too-NEG-good Жnot too goodfl
b. tsan-mе-iq too-NEG-black Жnot too blackfl
c. tsan-me-®ue too-NEG-bright Жnot too brightfl
d. tsan-me-tsue too-NEG-sour Жnot too sourfl
(4.254) е-z t®е-kе:
a-Щ`u, tsan-t°е-©z-В. (< Щue)
one-CL small-INDEF:CL DIR-put too-NEG.IMP-spicy-CAUS
ЖPut a little (hot pepper), donflt make it too spicy.fl
The continuative aspect marker /t°е/ ([t°е ± t°i ± t°a ± t°o]) is used generally to mean Жstill, yetfl (see §4.3.4), but when used in the comparative construction (see §3.2.7), it has the effect of a relative degree marking adverb with the sense of 'relatively adjective' or 'even more adjective'. When this adverb appears with the negative and a directional prefix, the word order is [prefix-negative-/t°е/-verb], as in (4.256b).
214 The verb complex
(4.255) a. t°е-wa
(< ba)
Жrelatively bigfl
c. t°е-bеstе CON-slow/late Жrelatively slow/latefl
(4.256) a. mе-t°е-t®е NEG-CON-small Жnot so smallfl
b. t°a-iq CON-black Жrelatively blackfl d. t°o-po CON-thick Жrelatively thickfl b. їе-m-t°е-t®е DIR-NEG-CON-small Жnot so reducedfl
The superlative of adjectives and some stative verbs is marked by the prefix /t°i/:
(4.257) a. t°i-wa-lе-l
b. t°i-topu
Жthe biggest (stick-like object)fl Жlike (something) mostfl
c. t°i-fi most-white Жwhitestfl
d. t°i-t®е most-small Жsmallestfl
The form of the superlative is similar to one of the harmony forms of the preverbal adverb for marking a relative degree, but the superlative does not undergo vowel harmony.
4.4.2. Negation The negative adverbial prefix /m/ ([mе ± me ± mi ± m ± mo]) and the prohibitive prefix /t°/ ([t°е ± t°e ± t° ± t°o]) (the forms of both are affected by vowel harmony and stress) appear in the same position in the verb complex, following the directional prefix, so cannot be used together in the same verb complex, e.g., /hе-t°-Щ/ (directional prefix + prohibitive + Жgofl) Жdonflt go out!fl93 vs. /hе-mе-qе/ (directional prefix + negative + Жgofl) Жdidnflt go outfl (see §4.2.5 on changes in the root form of Жgofl). It is possible to have double negation in a single clause if there
Adverbials 215
is an auxiliary verb. The resulting meaning is a positive one, e.g., /mе-q їe-m-se/ (Жnotfl + Жgofl + directional prefix + Жnotfl + Жallowfl) Жto not go would not be allowedfl = Ж(He) must gofl. The same negative adverbial prefix is used for all types of negation except the prohibitive.
(4.258) a. mе-nе b. mе-® c. V-mе-l d. m-t°i-V e. V-me-t°hi
Жnot goodfl Жnot havefl Жneed not Vfl or Жcannot Vfl Жnot yet Vfl Жneed not Vfl
(4.259) qе u-t°u mе-lе. 1sg DIR-see NEG-able:1sg ЖI canflt see.fl
(< dВ)
Other examples of the use of the negative and prohibitive adverbial prefixes can be found throughout Chapter 4. See especially § on the prohibitive prefix.
4.4.3. Adverbial phrases
Adverbial expressions that modify non-adjective verbs as manner adverbs generally precede the verbs, and can sometimes be marked by /-i/ or /-ji ± t°i/. Generally manner adverbs take /-i/, though if reduplicated, then /-i/ is not used:
(4.260) a. akha-kha -t°
Жeat slowlyfl
b. akha-i -t° (< t°h) slow-ADV DIR-eat Жeat slowlyfl
c. hama-i
d. ata-i dz
stealthy-ADV eat
fast-ADV eat
Жeat stealthily (on the sly)fl Жeat quicklyfl
The words most frequently used in adverbial expressions are similar to adjectives, but differ slightly from adjectives. They mainly appear in adverbial phrases, but can also modify nouns (in the form of
216 The verb complex
appositional structures), and can act as head of a noun phrase themselves when nominalized by the definite or indefinite markers. Semantically they seem like adjectives, but they are unlike adjectives and verbs in that they cannot act as predicates and cannot take negation, and they are also unlike other adverbs in the language, in that they can modify nouns and take the (in)definite markers, as in (4.261a-b).
(4.261) a. the: hama-le:
3sg stealthy-DEF:CL COP
'He is the evasive one.'
b. mi
person stealthy-DEF:CL
'the evasive person'
This class of forms can generally take the intensifying adverbs /kn/ and /-wa/, and the superlative /t°i-/, but not the adverbs /tsan/ and /-®/. They can appear before the noun as a modifier of the noun (e.g. hamale: mi] 'the evasive person'), but this is rather rare. More than one manner adverb can appear in a clause, with no change in marking, and no marking of coordination, and each conjunct may or may not have adverbial marking:
(4.262) the: hama-i akhakha -qе. 3sg stealthy-ADV slowly DIR-go 'S/he slowly and quietly goes/went in.'
Some adjectives can act as manner adverbs in adverbial expressions, usually followed by the adverbial marker [-ji ± t°i] or /-i/:
(4.263) a. the: nе-ji
3sg good-ADV NEG-study
ЖS/he doesnflt study well.fl
b. ч~u tp-i
dal-i tu-ju.
2sg tomorrow-ADV early-ADV DIR-rise
ЖGet up early tomorrow.fl
Adverbials 217
In some cases the manner adverb is a whole clause or verb complex:
(4.264) qе kuiphеts-le:
(< ji)
1sg walking.stick-DEF:CL DIR-poke-ADV walk/run-CSM:1sg
ЖI (now) walk leaning on the walking stick.fl
(4.265) t°ile the: їе-stеq-i
linthеu u-Ве:. (< В)
1pl 3sg DIR-choose-ADV leader COP-CAUS:PRS
ЖWe choose him/her to be leader.fl
qе Веw-le:-wu
Щduе® hе-`u`-В-i
1sg rock-DEF:CL-INST hammer DIR-COP-CAUS-ADV
tints Вeta.
(< Вete)
nail(n.) nail(v.):1sg
ЖI hammer nails using the rock as a hammer.fl
Ideophonic manner adverbs follow the usual phonotactics of the language. They are used for natural sounds, and not abstract concepts.
(4.267) qhuе:
ts uе uе-ke:
river.velley water huahua-INDEF:CL make.sound
ЖThe river water makes a "huahua" sound.fl
(4.268) moЩu bu bu (wu wu)-ke: Щu. wind wu wu-INDEF:CL blow ЖThe wind blows "wu wu".fl
Adverbial expressions that are comparative in nature, rather than being simple manner adverbials, often follow the verb being modified. Following are examples of adverbial expressions of equality, and comparative and superlative adverbs.
(4.269) thizzi a-qs
one-form walk/run able
ЖThe two of them can run equally fast.fl
218 The verb complex
(4.270) the: qе-s
t°е-l. (comparative; < dВ)
3sg 1sg-COMP walk/run CON-able
ЖS/he runs faster than I do.fl
(4.271) the: stuеhе t°h khuai-thе-wa. 3sg food/rice eat fast-AUX-very ЖS/he eats very quickly.fl
(4.272) the:
walk/run most able
ЖS/he can run the fastest.fl
The correlative comparative is marked by [е-z] (one-CL) Жa littlefl or [lewu] Жthe morefl; the clause linker /-wu/ (= the agentive and instrumental marker) appears at the end of the first clause.
(4.273) the: е-z s-dzi-wu, е-z tsha 3sg one-CL DIR-eat-LNK one-CL meat ЖThe more s/he eats, the fatter s/he gets.fl
hе-lе. DIR-come
(4.274) the: е-z t-wa-wu, mi Вwе mo-x®u°t°. 3sg one-CL DIR-big-LNK person talk NEG-listen ЖThe bigger s/he gets, the more s/he doesnflt listen/behave.fl
(4.275) zp lewu t®е-wu, mi lewu wu qs we.94 place more small-LNK person more many form exist ЖThe smaller the place, the more people it seems like there are.fl
It is also possible to use the comparative construction (see §3.2.7) to express the sense of a correlative comparative.
(the:) ts-s
person-AGT thus-say-LNK-LNK (3sg) this-COMP
ЖThe more other people scold him/her, the more spirited
(mischievous) he/she gets.fl
Adverbials 219
The sense of Жalmostfl, as in Жalmost have something happenfl, can be expressed using /е-z t°е-u-®/ (Жone-CLfl CON-COP-LNK) Ж(except for) a little still is . . .fl as a single clause, with the event that almost happened expressed in the following clause, as in the following example:
е-z t°е-uе:-®, one-CL CON-COP:PRS-LNK mе-l-jya. NEG-able-ASP:1sg ЖI almost couldnflt return.fl
qе i-p-l 1sg DIR-arrive-come
(< jy)
To express the sense of Жalmostfl, as in Жalmost everyone camefl, the same clause-final particle /-®/ is used at the end of the first clause, which is subordinated to the copula by the adverbial particle /-t°i/, as in the following example:
(4.278) e©le wu i-p-lе:-®-t°i
whole all DIR-arrive-come:PRS-LNK-ADV COP
ЖAlmost all the people have come.fl
The same clause-final particle /-®/ can be used in a similar structure to express the idea of Жa little . . .fl, e.g. in the following example, meaning Жa little bit alikefl:
(4.279) thizzi a-qs wa:-® 3dl one-form exist:PRS-LNK ЖThe two of them are a little alike.fl
There is another use of this same clause-final particle /®/ to mark the first clause of a two-clause structure as expressing a hypothetical or counter-factual situation, which if realized would bring about or would have brought about the situation expressed in the second clause.95 This is clear in the examples below. (For other examples see Huang Chenglong 2000:16.)
(4.280) a. qе j-s
k uе:-®
1sg say-NOM thus COP:PRS-LNK 3sg
220 The verb complex
de-me-tshi-wu. DIR-NEG-wrong-3sgU ЖIf you ask me, he was not wrong.fl
b. qе ns
1sg yesterday
Chibusu DIR-go:1sg:PRS-LNK
qе fе-a-qai
1sg clothing-one-CL
ЖIf I had gone to Chibusu yesterday, I would have bought a
piece of clothing.fl
c. qе dzig`u` qqa:-®,
qе l©z su-k-jya.
1sg money have:PRS:1sg-LNK 1sg book study-go-ASP:1sg
ЖIf I had money, I would go to school.fl
This seems to be the sense underlying the other uses of /-®/ discussed above as well. That is, the sense of Жalmostfl in the example above is from Жhad it remained that way a bit more, then . . .fl; the sense of Жalmost allfl in (4.278) is from Жas if all . . .fl; and the sense of Жa little alikefl in (4.279) is from Жas if they are the samefl.
Chapter 5 The clause and complex structures In Chapters 3-4 we discussed the various elements within the clause, and have seen many clause types in the examples given. Here we will discuss the various combinations of elements possible in a clause (§5.1), nominalizations and their use in relative clauses (§5.2), complement clause structures (§5.3), coordination and disjunction (§5.4), complex structures made up of multiple clauses (§5.5) and the structure of narratives (§5.6). 5.1. Structure The structure of the clause is to some extent affected by pragmatic factors, but this only applies to the order of noun phrases in the clause. The utterance-initial position is the unmarked topic position (though secondary topics can follow the primary topic), while the position immediately before the verb is the unmarked focus position, and so the focused element will generally appear there (see also §4.3.1). The verb always appears in final position; there is no possibility for the actor of a clause to appear in postverbal position, even if it is focal. The only exception to this is the occasional afterthought clarification of a noun phrase that was omitted or expressed as a pronoun in the clause (see T4:20-22 for an example). The clause may include a temporal phrase (TEMP); a locative phrase (LOC); the NPs representing the actor, the goal or recipient, and/or the undergoer (UG); an adverbial phrase (ADV); the verb complex (VC); and possibly a clause-final particle (PART). The most unmarked word order in the clause is given in Figure 4: (TEMP) (LOC) (ACTOR) (GOAL/RECIPIENT) (ADV) (UG) VC (PART) Figure 4. The structure of the Qiang clause
222 The clause and complex structures
The verb complex is the only necessary element for an utterance to be considered a clause, and the verb complex may be simply a predicate noun. As discussed in §4.2, the verb complex may also include an adverbial. While there are quite a few loan words in Qiang, and Qiang speakers will often code-mix, adding Chinese phrases when speaking Qiang, there does not seem to have been a lot of influence from Chinese on the grammar of Qiang. When Chinese phrases are treated as loans into Qiang, the order of elements is changed to fit the normal Qiang order. We saw examples of the this in forms such as /phit°hi fе-p/ (temper release-do) Жget angryfl, from Chinese f--a p|оq\о (release temper) Жget angryfl. When Chinese is used in a code-mixing sense rather than a loan sense, the expressions follow Chinese word order. Code mixing is frequent, particularly among the younger people. During the recording of the stories given in the Texts the speakers tried not to use Chinese at all, but at least one speaker used several code-mixed expressions and often interspersed Qiang text with the Chinese filler h|aish\о Жstill isfl (see in particular Text 5 for examples). Examples of code mixing can be seen in the following two segments:
(5.1) a. ps-ui Вmt®i-stsim-le: t°iut°in ®
today-TOP emperor-wife-DEF:CL (after.all be)
person-DEF:CL COP-Q
ЖToday, is the emperorfls wife a human?fl
b. t®e-k-Вn-la
(this-CL-person-TOP) person-this-CL-TOP
t®e-k pefuts mfi ke guo zuo
white.beard (this-CL white.beard cat give 1sg do
еu s,flfl j-i-stu.
good thing) say-HS-PART
ЖThis person, this person said, ЖЖHey, White Beard, this white
beard cat did something good for meflfl.fl
In (5.1a) the words /t°iut°in/ and /®/ are code-mixed Chinese, and the order of that phrase (Жemperorfls wife after all is humanfl) is verb-medial, even though /mi-le/ Жhumanfl is a Qiang word, and the larger, containing
Nominalization and relativization 223 structure is in the normal Qiang verb-final order and includes the Qiang copula. In (5.1b) there are two code-mixed segments, one of which is quite long. The speaker starts with a Chinese phrase meaning Жthis personfl, but then repeats the same meaning in Qiang. The order within the two phrases is different: in the Chinese phrase the demonstrative and classifier precede the noun, while in the Qiang phrase they follow it. In the long segment beginning in the second line, the word order is completely that of the standard Mandarin Chinese equivalent, with the recipient in post-verbal position: zhe\ -ge ba| ihu| zi ma-- o ge« i wo« zu\ o ha« o shо\ [this-CL white.beard cat give 1sg do good thing]. The speaker then finishes off the segment with the usual Qiang form for ending a quote. 5.2. Nominalization and relativization As mentioned in earlier sections (§§3.1.1, 3.1.4, 4.2.3), nominalization in Qiang is achieved either by the use of one of three nominalizing clitics, /-s/, /-m/ or /-t°/, or by the use of a definite (/le/, /te/) or indefinite (/ke/) marker. The latter is generally possible only with adjectives and existential verbs. The nominalized forms created using the clitics reflect what were originally relative clause constructions where the relative clause (or simply a verb) modified a very general head noun.96 The form /-m/ is derived from the word /mi/ Жmanfl, and /s/ may be derived from a word meaning Жearthfl or location (cf. Tibetan /sa/ Жground, placefl, also used as a nominalizer97), while /-t°/ is a palatalization of an original velar initial form (cf. Mawo dialect Qiang /-k/) that may be related to the Tibetan genitive (/kyi/). Unlike in some other Tibeto-Burman languages (e.g. Chantyal, Noonan 1997; Lahu, Matisoff 1973), nominalized forms are not used as citation forms of verbs. The creation of lexicalized deverbal nouns by adding the nominalizing suffixes /-s/ and /-m/ (e.g. [ns] Жbedfl and [Щuam] Жservantfl) and the nominalization of adjectives by the use of a definite or indefinite marker (e.g. [iq-le] Жthe black onefl) were discussed in §3.1.1. Aside from the lexicalized deverbal nouns formed with the clitic nominalizers, nonce collocations can also be formed as needed from clauses to refer to particular objects or individuals, such as in the
224 The clause and complex structures
examples in (5.2). Here the original function as a relative clause is most clear.
(5.2) a. tеw-tе-m le-ze hat-wear-NOM DEF-CL Жthe person wearing a hatfl
b. gеnts uе-m thе Вi. saddle sell-NOM there exist ЖThere is (a) saddle seller there.fl
c. qе Щoi-k-m kn
he-°a-i, . . .
1sg call-go-NOM very(many) DIR-send:1sg-LNK
ЖI have sent many to call you, . . .fl (sent many who go to call
d. wut°upu die-®e-m husband DIR-die-NOM Жone whose husband had diedfl
It is possible in this structure to have a pronoun that is coreferential with the head noun (now a nominalizer) retained when needed for clarity, as in (5.3), where the pronoun is needed to be able to add the genitive marker to explicitly mark the benefactive relationship:
(5.3) qе the:-t°
l©z de-le-m
1sg 3sg-GEN book DIR-give-NOM
Жthe person to whom I gave a bookfl
le: DEF:CL
If the referent the nominalized clause represents is a location, or in some cases the time of an event, then the clause is nominalized by /-s/ and can be followed by the locative marker /-tе/, as in (5.4).98
(5.4) qе-lu-s-tе 1sg-come-NOM-LOC Жthe place that I came fromfl
Nominalization and relativization 225
Clauses involving existential verbs can be nominalized by simply adding one of the definite markers or the indefinite marker after the verb:
(5.5) a. ep
l me-Вi
father also NEG-exist mother also
Ж(He was an orphan), one who didnflt have a father or mother.fl
b. the: thе-Вi-k
3sg there-exist-INF willing
ЖS/he might be there.fl (lit.: ЖShe might be one who is there.fl)
The nominalized constructions involving the nominalizers /-s/ and /-m/, and also another type formed with the genitive marker /-t°/, can be used to modify another noun or noun phrase, forming a NP + N(P) structure where the first NP modifies the second. That is, what was historically a relative clause plus head noun structure (at least in the case of /-s/ and /-m/) has been reanalyzed as simply a nominalized clause and is now used to modify another noun. This is now the main form of relative clause structure used in Qiang. It is also used for noun complement structures (such as in ex. (4.118) above (repeated below as (5.74)) and the /-tеn/ structure discussed in § There are no relative pronouns in Qiang. Definite marking may follow the head noun, as in (5.9). The type of nominalizer such a modifier (relative clause) takes depends on the semantics and animacy of the head noun. If the head noun is an undergoer or other noninstrument, including an inanimate actor, then the genitive marker /-t°/ is used:
(5.6) ptsa-i-t-bl-jy-t° just.now-ADV-DIR-make-ASP-GEN Жthe table just madefl
t®uеts table
(5.7) ptsa-i-z-p-jy-t°

just.now-ADV-DIR-buy-ASP-GEN clothes
Жthe clothes just boughtfl
226 The clause and complex structures
(5.8) qе-doqu-de-we-t°
Жthe rock which crushed (lit.: came to be on) my footfl
If the head noun is an instrument (even if animate, as in (5.9)), then the nominalizer /-s/ is used:
(5.9) do-qu-В-s
DIR-afraid-CAUS-NOM dog-DEF:CL
Жthe dog used to frighten peoplefl
(5.10) stuеhе-t°h-s
food/rice-eat-NOM table
Жthe table used for eating foodfl
(5.11) t°euen-pе:-Ще-gu-s

marry-do:PRS-LOC-wear-NOM clothes
Жclothes worn when one is going to get marriedfl
(5.12) lеupin-t®hopu-s
tuberculosis-treat-NOM medicine
Жmedicine used to treat tuberculosisfl
If the head noun has an animate referent, then the nominalizer /-m/ is used. As mentioned above, this form derives from the word /mi/ Жpersonfl, but it has fully grammaticalized into a nominalizer, to the point that it can be used together with /mi/ as the head noun, as in (5.14) and (5.15) (though it can be omitted, as in (5.16)). Notice also how the use of the agentive marking within the relative clause in (5.15) changes the interpretation of the semantic role of the head noun phrase relative to that in (5.14). Here the agentive marking is performing a disambiguating function, particularly necessary here because of the lack of person marking in nominalizations. (5.13) qе-їa-ЩdВe-m khu 1sg-DIR-bite-NOM dog Жthe dog which bit mefl
Nominalization and relativization 227
(5.14) qе-pеn-dele-m
1sg-thing-give-NOM person
Жthe person who gave me somethingfl
(5.15) qе-wu-pеn-dele-m
1sg-AGT-thing-give-NOM person
Жthe person to whom I gave somethingfl
(5.16) qupu i©i-bl-m
what-do-NOM COP-Q
ЖWhat kind of work does he do?fl
(lit.: ЖHe is a person who does what?fl)
(5.17) mutu-lе-fie-m w sky-LOC-fly-NOM bird Жa bird flying in the skyfl
(5.18) pit°
phu-Ще В-m
phu-x®u pe-wei.
nowadays forest-LOC exist-NOM wild.animals become-HS
Ж(They) became the wild animals who now live in the forests.fl
Relative clauses can be quite complex, involving a modifier with several clauses, as in (5.19), or a head noun that is a nominalized expression itself, as in (5.20):
(5.19) [soqhu-s-laЩu-i,
gun-DIR-carry.on.back-ADV hat-DIR-wear-ADV exist-NOM
Жthe person carrying a rifle on his back and wearing a hatfl
(5.20) tеw-tе-m ®ku-wa-m-le-ze hat-wear-NOM lovely-very-NOM-DEF-CL Жthe lovely person wearing a hatfl
It is possible to have a pronoun as the head noun of a relative clause:
228 The clause and complex structures
(5.21) n-dВ-m
the: t°е-n.
sleep-able-NOM 3sg CON-sleep
ЖS/he who likes to sleep late is still sleeping.fl
A second type of relative clause in Qiang is a post-head restrictive relative clause, which is used only in some cases when the head noun is the name of a person. The relative clause is nominalized in the same way as the prehead relative. This is in fact a case of apposition rather than being a true relative, but it has the function of a restrictive relative. Following are two examples:
(5.22) upu °i-t°h-topu-m-le:
t°u-lе Вi.
uncle wine-drink-like/love-NOM-DEF:CL home-LOC exist
ЖThe uncle who likes drinking liquor is at home.fl
(5.23) tsi
older.sister flower-embroider-able-NOM-DEF:CL today
t®uwе-lеmp-e-tse -®е.
shoe-flower-one-CL DIR-embroider
ЖThe older sister who embroiders flowers well embroidered a
pair of flowery shoes today.fl
Another type of apposition structure that functions like a restrictive relative clause is when a locative phrase follows the head noun:
(5.24) mi
person middle-DEF-CL
Жthe person in the middlefl
This structure is similar to the normal [head noun-adjective-definite marker] structure, but as the post-head element is a noun and not an adjective, I am assuming it is an appositional structure (generally if one noun modifiers another, it precedes it), while the following is a simple noun phrase structure: (5.25) mi-t°i-wa-le-zi person-most-big-DEF-CL Жthe biggest personfl
Nominalization and relativization 229 See also Section 3.1 for more examples of relative clauses. 5.3. Complementation There are two basic complement types in Qiang, one that has no overt nominalization and one that has a clitic nominalizer. Both of these are of the Жsentence-like complementfl type discussed in Noonan 1985. The nominalized form is not like what Noonan calls a Жnominalized complementfl, where the internal structure of the clause is that of a noun phrase (e.g. English gerunds). The nominalized type can be distinguished into three types based on the particular nominalizer used. Qiang does not exhibit the type of complex, massive verb concatenation found, for example, in Jinghpaw and Lahu (see Matisoff 1969, 1973, 1974); there are only a few auxiliary verbs that form a single nucleus with the main verb (see for example §4.2.5). In other cases either what would be expressed in two verbs in some languages would be expressed with a single verb plus a directional prefix, or the secondary verb would appear in an adverbial phrase marked by /-i/. One complex structure where the complement does not require overt nominalization is where there is a topic-comment structure with a complement clause as the topic, such as with the use of the verbs /Щu/ or /se/ for the sense of Ж(be) allowedfl (discussed above in §4.2.6 and § These are what Dixon (1991, 1995) calls Secondary verbs, verbs which only take clausal complements as arguments. There is no person marking on the matrix verb in this type of clause, as the topic is the clause, not the human referent mentioned in the complement clause (it would be possible to have the topic marker /ui/ at the end of the topic clause). There is no overt marking on the complement clause to distinguish it from an independent clause. In (5.26a) brackets have been put around the complement clause to mark it off. (5.26) a. [ч~u ps mе-k] їe-m-se. 2sg today NEG-go DIR-NEG-allow ЖYou must go today.fl/ ЖYour not going today is not allowed.fl
230 The clause and complex structures
b. °o°еu-Ще
school-LOC Qiang-language speak-CAUS allow
ЖSpeaking Qiang is allowed in school.fl
c. °o°еu-Ще
school-LOC Qiang-language speak-CAUS DIR-allow
ЖSpeaking Qiang is allowed in school.fl
It is also possible that there is an understood impersonal third person actor, but it is not expressed overtly, and the complement clause can take the topic marker. The verb /Щze/ Жought tofl, which expresses physical or moral obligation to perform an action (see §4.2.6), seems to pattern this way, as there is no first-person or second-person marking on the verb, even when the expression refers to a first or second person actor.
(5.27) a. k Щze-ji! go must-CSM Ж(I/we/you) must go.fl (ЖItfls time to go!fl)
b. k ma-t°i-Щze! go NEG-CON-must Ж(You/we) neednflt/ shouldnflt go yet!fl
In the case of the construction involving the expression /me-t°hi/ Жnot wantfl to express the ability or permission to do something (discussed in §, the non-nominalized complement clause takes the exclusion particle (treating it as a noun phrase), and there is no agreement with the actor of the complement clause.
(5.28) a. °o°еu-Ще
school-LOC Qiang-language speak-EXC NEG-want
ЖIt is all right to speak Qiang in school.fl
b. ts
t°ile quaha ulе-j
water DIR-boil-CSM-RCA 1pl face wash-EXC
ЖThe waterfls boiled, so we can wash our faces.fl
Complementation 231
Without the exclusion particle, the complement plus /me-t°hi/ Жnot wantfl can be used in a complex structure to express the idea Жnot only X, but Yfl:
(5.29) qе dytе:
k me-t°hi, peit°in-lе t°е-kе:. (< k)
1sg Chengdu:LOC go NEG-want Beijing-LOC CON-go:PRS:1sg
ЖNot only am I going to Chengdu, but I am also going to Beijing.fl
With another group of verbs, including what Dixon (1991, 1995) calls Primary B verbs, those that can take either a noun argument or a clause complement, such as Жlikefl and Жknowfl, and Secondary verbs, the complement clause is either a complete clause or, when the actor of both clauses is the same, a reduced clause. The person marking on the Primary B or Secondary verb reflects the person of the actor of the matrix clause. For example, the verbs /°t°еq-lu/ Жthink of, wantfl (Жheartfl + Жcomefl); /lu/ can also be used alone), /kеnt°hi/ Жthink/wantfl, or /zulu/ Жwaitfl, can be used to express the desire to do an action or the hope for some situation to happen. In (5.30a) the actor of the matrix and the complement clause are the same, while in (5.30b) the actors of the matrix and the complement clauses are different. In (5.30b) the person marking is of the actor of Жwaitfl, not Жarrivefl.
(5.30) a. the: t°u k °t°еq-lu. 3sg home go heart-come ЖS/he wants to go home.fl
b. qе the: i-p-la:
1sg 3sg DIR-arrive-come:PRS wait-1sg
ЖI hope s/he is going to return.fl
For many verbs, such as /x®u/ Жto darefl, /de/ (experiential aspect), /©В/ (potential for a learned ability), /dВ/ and /qe/ (potential for a natural (physical) ability), only the pattern in (5.30a), with the actors of both verbs being the same, is found, probably because of the semantics of these particular verbs. Following are some examples:
232 The clause and complex structures
(5.31) the: e-ze
3sg one-CL alone sleep
ЖS/he doesnflt dare sleep alone.fl
mo-x®u. NEG-dare
(5.32) a. qе dytе:
1sg Chengdu:LOC DIR-go
ЖI have been to Chengdu.fl
da. EXP:1sg
b. qе l©z-tse-pen i-tsi
1sg book-this-CL DIR-read NEG-EXP:1sg
ЖI have not read this book.fl
(5.33) qе Вme-В
1sg Qiang-language speak
ЖI can speak Qiang.fl
©Ве. can:1sg
(5.34) mi
lе mе-l,
w lе dВ.
person fly NEG-able bird fly able
ЖPeople cannot fly, but birds can.fl
(5.35) the: Веwе-le: t-tsi 3sg rock-DEF:CL DIR-lift ЖCan s/he lift up this rock?fl
qe-uе? able-Q
(< de) (< de) (< ©В)
Speech act verbs also take non-nominalized complements. In quoting anotherfls speech, the quoted speech generally follows the noun phrases representing the speaker and addressee, and is followed by the verb /j/ ([j ± ji]) Жto sayfl. Both direct and indirect quotation are possible. The structure for both types is the same; they differ only in the pronoun used. Compare the following three examples:
(5.36) a. qе qupu-tе "(ч~u) lu-me-t°hi"
1sg 3sg-DAT 2sg come-NEG-want speak-3sgU:1sg
ЖI told him/her, "Donflt come."fl
b. qе qupui-tе qupui lu-me-t°hi 1sg 3sg-DAT 3sg come-NEG-want ЖI told him/her not to come.fl
ji-wе. speak-3sgU:1sg
Complementation 233
c. qе qupui-tе the:j lu-me-t°hi
1sg 3sg-DAT 3sg come-NEG-want speak-3sgU:1sg
ЖI told him/her that he/she (a different person) shouldnflt
come.fl / ЖI told him/her, "S/he shouldnflt come".fl
In example (5.36a), the second person pronoun marks the embedded clause as a direct quote. The person marking is of a first person referent acting on a third person referent. In (5.36b) the two tokens of /qupu/ refer to the same referent, and so it is an indirect quote. Example (5.36c) is ambiguous out of context, as the pronoun /the:/ must refer to someone other than the referent of /qupu/, and so it could be either a direct or indirect quote. If there is a more specific verb of asking or replying, then this verb may precede the quoted speech, though the verb /j/ Жto sayfl still follows the quote, as in the two tokens of this structure in the following section of the story "An Orphan" involving Жaskfl and Жanswerfl:
(5.37) sutsqhе-le:-wu
"ha! ч~u
stomach-DEF:CL-AGT DIR-ask-INF:HS EXCL 2sg
k-zei-n-е" j-kui, "iuеi
WH-because-ADV DIR-cry-2sg-Q say-INF:HS why
j-kui -tu,
DIR-cry-2sg-Q say-INF:HS-LNK orphan-DEF:one:CL
ep l
DIR-answer-INF:HS 1sg-TOP
father also
w l me-В-i,
mother also NEG-exist-CSM
gs-i їе-xt®p-iеufu

night-ADV DIR-dark-LNK(as.soon.as) orangutan-DEF:CL 1sg
j-kp-®, . . .
ЖThe stomach asked him, "Why are you crying?", he said, "Why
are you crying?" The orphan answered, "I have neither father
nor mother. As soon as it gets dark, the orangutan is going to
come eat me."fl
Aside from these verbs which normally take non-nominalized complements, the copula can also take a non-nominalized complement.
234 The clause and complex structures
This has an emphatic sense, somewhat similar to a cleft construction, as in (5.38).
(5.38) pеn-tse:
thing-this:CL 1sg-AGT DIR-buy-CSM COP
ЖThis thing was bought by me.fl
This form is often used for achieving the affect of clefting for highlighting adverbials:
(5.39) the: hama-i
3sg secretly-ADV transport-ASP COP
ЖS/he was transported secretly.fl
This construction differs from another construction with almost the same structure, but with a nominalized complement clause, used for making strong assertions. This is in fact pragmatically also like a cleft, in that a particular noun phrase is the focus constituent.
(5.40) the:-(ui) t°ile topu-s u.
1pl like-NOM COP
ЖThe ones s/he likes are us.fl (ЖWe are the ones s/he likes.fl)
The position of the focused element is variable: the focus noun phrase can precede or follow the nominalized verb. Compare the following two examples:
(5.41) a. t°ile-(ui) p-s
buy-NOM meat
ЖWhat we need (to buy) is meat.fl
b. t°ile-(ui) pies
ЖWhat we need (to buy) is meat.fl
A variant of this construction has something of an epistemic sense. As we saw in the discussion of evidentials in §4.3.7, to make a strong statement of certainty, or of information that was not recently
Complementation 235
discovered, but known for some time, then a complement clause nominalized by /-s/ is used, as in (5.42).
(5.42) ps Вmu
today meeting hold-NOM COP
ЖThere is a meeting today.fl (set beforehand)
Another use of this structure is expressing the optative mood (§ In this structure the complement is nominalized by /-s/ and the copula takes the particle /-i/ in the positive or /-t°i/ in the negative (both particles normally mark adverbial phrases). No aspect or person contrasts are marked in clauses with /mе-u-t°i/ or /u-i/.
(5.43) a. tp-i
me:fi °e-s mе-u-t°i.
tomorrow-ADV rain fall-NOM NEG-COP-PART
ЖI hope it wonflt rain tomorrow.fl
b. the: t®hets-le: їе--s
3sg car-DEF:CL DIR-bad/broken-NOM COP-ADV
ЖI hope his/her car has broken down.fl
This same structure, but with the copula followed optionally by /®е/ in the first person, /sеn/ in the second person, or [`u` ± w] in the third person, is used to express obligation to perform an action (debitive; see § for more examples).
(5.44) the: t°u-lе
3sg home-LOC come-NOM
ЖS/he must come home!fl
u-`u`. COP-3sgU
We saw in §4.3.7 that there is a copula construction with a
nominalized complement, or in some cases a complement that is a
relative clause with [lе-hеn ± lе-hn] (definite marker + Жkindfl), [kе-hеn
± kе-hn] (indefinite marker + Жkindfl), or /tеn/ (Жappearancefl) as the
head noun, used to express contingent situations, as in (5.45) and (5.46).
(5.45) the: thе-Вi-m-tеn
3sg there-exist-NOM-appearance COP
ЖS/he might be there.fl
236 The clause and complex structures
(5.46) me:fi °i-m-lе-hn
rain fall-NOM-DEF:one-kind COP
ЖIt might rain.fl
This then brings us to what might be considered a pseudo-cleft construction, where the sort of relative clause plus noun construction discussed above is used as a complement of a copula clause. The topic marker can optionally be used after this complement, as it is the topic of the construction, while the noun phrase in immediate preverbal (focus) position identifies the referent represented by the head of the relative clause, as in (5.47)-(5.49).
(5.47) qе-z-p-t°-pеn
1sg-DIR-buy-GEN-thing this:CL COP
ЖThe thing that I bought is thisfl
(5.48) pеn-tse:-z-p-m
thing-this:CL-DIR-buy-NOM 1sg-AGT
ЖI am the one who bought this thing.fl
uе. COP:1sg
(5.49) kefil-m l i:
ask-NOM also 3sgREFL COP-INF:HS
ЖThe one who asked was himself, the one who answered was
Another verb that takes nominalized complements is the existential verb /xu/, discussed in Section 4.2.4. Here is another example of its use:
(5.50) ts-s
е-z-ui °i-lе:
this-COMP one-CL-TOP small-DEF:CL fast-ADV
е99 u-t°u-s-le:
xu-tu, . . .
ЖIf you can dream of it a little faster, see or hear it, . . .fl
Complementation 237 Section 5.5 discusses other uses of nominalized clauses, but first we will discuss coordination and disjunction.
5.4. Coordination and disjunction
In coordinating nouns in Qiang, the following structures are possible, where X, Y, and Z are three different nouns, and /е/ is the comitative/conjunction marker discussed in §3.2.13: XY, X-е-Y, XYе, XYZ, X-е-YZ, X-е-Y-е-Z, XY-е-Z, XYZ-е. Example (5.51) is of the X-е-Y-е-Z type, and (5.52) and (5.53), with only two nouns, are of the X-е-Y type:
(5.51) qе-е-ч~u-е-the: 1sg-COM-2sg-COM-3sg ЖI and you and s/hefl
(5.52) ut®uqu
all.together four-CL-COM-seven-CL(1/10 of a dollar)
ЖAll together four dollars and seventy cents.fl
(5.53) qе qpеt®-е-®u wu їе-`u`lе. 1sg head-COM-teeth all DIR-wash ЖI washed my hair and (brushed) my teeth, too.fl
See the discussion in Section 3.2.13 on the differences in meaning between the X-е-Y and XY-е types. It is also possible to coordinate adverbial nouns, either with the conjunction marker (e.g. [ps-е-tp-i] Жtoday and tomorrowfl) or without it (e.g. [ps-tp-i] Жtoday and tomorrowfl). Nominalized verbs can also be coordinated:
(5.54) t°h-s-е-dz-s-е-gu-s drink-NOM-and-eat-NOM-and-wear-NOM Жdrink, food, and clothingfl
In this case it would also be possible to just use a pause between the items instead of using the conjunction marker.
238 The clause and complex structures
In coordinating clauses, they can be simply juxtaposed, with only the particle /l/ Жalsofl appearing before each verb to show the relationship between the two clauses, as in (5.55a), or the clause-final linking particle /wu/ (= the ablative/instrumental postposition) can be used at the end of the first clause, as in (5.55b).
(5.55) a.
qе o:ts l їe-qhua,
quaha le
1sg beard also DIR-shave:1sg face also
ЖI washed my face and also shaved.fl
(ji + е)
b. ч~u mo-lu-n-wu,
tianuе l d-mu-Щoi-n.
2sg NEG-come-2sg-LNK telephone also DIR-NEG-call-2sg
ЖYou didnflt come and didnflt call either. fl
Where two clauses have the same verb and only the referent(s) affected changes, verb ellipsis is not possible in the second clause, even if the verb form is the same.
(5.56) peimt®i dytе:
їе-q, khefit®i l їе-qе.100
Peimt®i Chengdu:LOC DIR-go Kert®i also DIR-go
ЖPeimt®i went to Chengdu and Khert®i did also.fl
That is, it is not possible to say the equivalent of ЖJohn left, and Mary (did) too.fl The verb must be repeated. The coordination of adjectives can be done with the adverbial marker /i/ ((5.57)) or with some of the other particles used for conjoining verbs, such as /me-t°hi/ Жnot onlyfl, as in (5.58).
(5.57) a. bе-i iq old-ADV black Жboth old and blackfl
b. nе-i mo-`ulu good-ADV NEG-expensive Жgood and inexpensivefl
(5.58) bе-me-t°hi iq-ke:
old-NEG-only black-INDEF:CL CON-COP
Ж(It) is not only old but black as well.fl
Coordination and disjunction 239
To express an Жeither-orfl (disjunction) relation, the expression /uеi/ Жorfl (distinct from the topic marker) is used, as in (5.59), below,101 or, if it is a question, then the polarity verb-not-verb interrogative construction can be used, either with /uеi/, as in (5.60), or without it, as in (5.61) and (5.62) (see also Section on verbnot-verb interrogatives). In a two-clause structure, such as in (5.60), the particle either appears in its own intonation unit or in the intonation unit of the second clause.
(5.59) ч~u uеi the: e-ze ®ps-(tе) s-Щ-i.
2sg or
3sg one-CL Chibusu-LOC DIR-go-2pl
ЖYou or she (one of you) go to Chibusu (district).fl
(5.60) ч~u qhfi t°hе:-n-е,
uеi °pies t°hе:-n-е?
2sg rice eat:PRS-2sg-Q or
noodles eat:PRS-2sg-Q
ЖWill you eat rice or noodles?fl
(5.61) iq-ke:
u-uе, °upu-ke:
ЖIs it a red one or a black one?fl
(5.62) ч~u dza:-t°ik`u kе:-n-е,
dza:-khui kе:-n-е?
2sg lunch-before go:PRS-2sg-Q lunch-after go:PRS-2sg-Q
ЖAre you going in the morning or the afternoon?fl
5.5. Other complex structures Aside from the embedding of complements discussed above, clauses, either nominalized or not, also appear in non-embedded hypotactic structures. In some cases there is no obvious nominalization by /-s/, /-m/ or /-t°/, but the clause takes one of the postpositions used for marking the relationship between a verb and its arguments (aside from the genitive; use of semantic role-marking postpositions for marking clause relations is a common strategy in Tibeto-Burman; see Genetti 1986, 1991). For example, the use of the ablative/instrumental marker /-wu/ after a clause marks a cause-effect relation with the following clause.
240 The clause and complex structures
(5.63) the:-doqu-le: da-g-wu,
pit° sei mе-l-jy. (< dВ)
3sg-foot-DEF:CL DIR-break-INST now walk NEG-able-ASP
ЖBecause his foot is broken he cannot walk now. Ж
(5.64) o-z`u-wu
doqu-pе t-©z-®е.102
DIR-sit-INST foot-palm DIR-numb-1sgU
ЖBecause of sitting, my feet were numb.fl
(5.65) їе-n-wu
DIR-sleep-INST head
ЖI felt dizzy from sleeping.fl
їo-su-В-®е. DIR-dizzy-CAUS-1sgU
A cause-effect relation can also be marked by adding the manner adverbial marker /i/ to the first clause:
(5.66) the: diq їе-q-i
3sg cliff DIR-go-ADV DIR-die
ЖS/he died (from) falling off the cliff.fl
To mark the purpose of an action, the postposition /uе-(i)/ (discussed in §3.2.10 as a benefactive postposition), can be used, either after a noun, a clause, or a nominalized clause:
(5.67) the: stuеhе t°h-(s u)-uе-i,
3sg food/rice eat-NOM COP-because-ADV 3sg
ЖIn order to live, s/he seeks to earn more money.fl
dzig`u money
(5.68) the: dzig`u-uе-i
hе-q-i kotsuo-p-k.
3sg money-because-ADV DIR-go-ADV work-do-go
ЖFor the sake of money, s/he goes out to (go to) work.fl
(5.69) Ве lu-В-uе-i,
z-Ще the: jimi se.
crops come-CAUS-because-ADV field-LOC 3sg fertilizer spread
ЖS/he spreads fertilizer in the field in order to make the crops
grow well.fl
Other complex structures 241
The cause of an action or situation can also be marked by /uе-i/:
(5.70) the: z-m-lе-uе-i,
qеqi kе:.
(< k)
3sg DIR-NEG-come-because-ADV 1sgREFL go:PRS:1sg
ЖBecause s/he hasnflt come, Iflm going to go myself. fl
The particle /-le/ can be used instead used instead of /uе-i/ or /-®/ to mark a condition or cause:
(5.71) . . . quеha-upi
l u-mu-t°u-le,
t°ile qti
face-appearance also DIR-NEG-see-because 1pl kill
ЖBecause we havenflt even seen (her) face, you canflt kill us.fl
Many hypotactic clauses are nominalized using /-s/ or /-t°/. For example, if the action expressed by the second clause is said to precede the action expressed by the first clause, then the structure /mе-t°i-Verb/ (NEG-CON-Verb) Жhad not yet Verb; before Verbfl is used in the first clause and it is nominalized by /-t°/.
(5.72) ns,
qе mе-t°i-k-t°,
the: qе simi de-l.
yesterday 1sg NEG-CON-go-GEN 3sg 1sg fruit DIR-give
ЖYesterday before I left, s/he gave me (a package of) fruit.fl
(5.73) tp-i
tomorrow-ADV DIR-NEG-CON-black-GEN
tsе i-p-l-n-pе.
2sg here DIR-arrive-come-2sg-DTV
ЖCome here tomorrow before it gets dark.fl
(5.74) qе
rice/food NEG-CON-eat-GEN hand
ЖBefore I eat, I wash my hands.fl
ulе. wash
The initial clause may instead be nominalized by /-s/ and followed by /qe:fi/ Жbeforefl, i.e. the structure becomes that of a noun complement clause.
242 The clause and complex structures
(5.75) (qеqi)-t°u-lе
qe:fi, qе
1sgREFL-home-LOC DIR-arrive-go-NOM before 1sg
ЖBefore returning to my own home, I often call out a few
The form given above in (5.4) (a clause nominalized by /-s/ and followed by the locative marker /-tе/) is also used in some cases to express a temporal adverbial phrase, as in (5.75a-b).
(5.76) a. np,
qе t°u-lе k-s-tе,
the: l©z
last.year 1sg home-LOC go-NOM-LOC 3sg book
ЖLast year when I went home, s/he was already studying.fl
b. t®haq-tе kuеntsе Вi-s-tе
market-LOC restaurant exist-NOM-LOC
ЖI heard (it) when I was in the restaurant at the market.fl
For other types of clausal relation, there are different particles that can be used to show the particular relation between the clauses. If the action expressed by the second clause is said to follow the action of the first clause (whether or not the first action was completed), then the particle /ike/ or /iеnt°i/ Жfollowingfl can be used at the end of the first clause:
(5.77) qе stuеhе s-t°-ike, 1sg food/rice DIR-eat-after ЖAfter I eat a meal, I brush my teeth.fl
®u ulе. teeth wash
(5.78) tp-i tomorrow-ADV
їе-xt®p-ike, DIR-black-after
ч~u tsе 2sg here
Other complex structures 243
i-p-l-n-pе. DIR-arrive-come-2sg-DTV ЖCome here tomorrow after dark. fl
(5.79) qе
1sg DIR-get.up-after
breakfast DIR-eat-ADV
ЖAfter I get up and eat breakfast, I go out to go to work.fl
(5.80) the: qе u-t°u-ike,
3sg 1sg DIR-see-after
ЖAfter s/he saw me, s/he went away.fl
(5.81) the: pie °t° dе-s-ike,
w dВudВ`u.
3sg pig feed DIR-finish-after
horse feed
ЖS/he finished feeding the pig and then went to feed the horse.fl
(5.82) t-quеt® iеnt°i, mq-tе
tutu Вo:puе-lе
above-LOC cave cave-LOC
. . . їе-dy-i
DIR-tether-ADV DIR-put-INF:HS
ЖAfter stealing (the yaks) he tethered them in a cave.fl
To make explicit the idea that an action immediately followed another, the particle /iеufu/ is used instead of /ike/ or /iеnt°i/:
(5.83) -qе-iеufu
DIR-go-LNK(as.soon.as) orphan-DEF:one:CL bed-DEF:CL-LOC
ЖAs soon as (the orangutan) went in, he groped again for the
orphan in the bed.fl
To express the conditional (Жiffl), then the particle /tu/ or /ta/ is added to the end of the first clause. No difference has been found in the degree of hypotheticality in conditional clauses.103
244 The clause and complex structures
(5.84) me:fi me-°i-tu, t°ile k-ji me-t°hi. rain NEG-fall-if 1pl go-EXC NEG-want ЖIf it doesnflt rain, we can go.fl
(5.85) the: mo-lu-tu,
3sg NEG-come-if 1sgREFL go:PRS:1sg
ЖIf s/he doesnflt come, Iflm going to go myself.fl
(< k)
(5.86) the: mе-k-tu, qе k-s pa:-ji.
(< pe)
3sg NEG-go-if 1sg go-NOM become:PRS:1sg-PART
ЖIf s/he doesnflt go, then I have to go.fl
In (5.86) the particle /-ji/ expresses a lack of willingness to go, that is, that the speaker is going only because he or she has to. The form /tu/ is also often used with a negative copula to express the meaning Жonly iffl. In these cases the main verb appears as an adverbial element marked by /i/.
(5.87) чile dz-i-i mе-`u`-tu, (nai) dz-m me-Вi. 2pl eat-2pl-ADV NEG-COP-LNK other eat-NOM NEG-exist ЖOnly if you eat will other people eatfl (lit.: If you(pl) donflt eat, then there is no one (else) who will eat.)
(5.88) the: lu-i
mе-`u`-tu, qе mе-kе.
(< k)
3sg come-ADV NEG-COP-LNK 1sg NEG-go:1sg
ЖOnly if s/he comes, will I go.fl / ЖI wonflt go unless she comes.fl
(5.89) dytе:
k-i mе-`u`-tu, p-s
Chengdu:LOC go-ADV NEG-COP-LNK buy-NOM NEG-exist
ЖYou cannot buy it unless you go to Chengdu.fl / ЖOnly if you go
to Chengdu can you buy it.fl
There are also two examples in the Texts where the particles /-wu/ and /-Ще/ (which are used after noun phrases as postpositions) are used with the sense of a conditional. In the case of /-wu/, this use occurs only after nominalized verb complexes, as in (5.90a) and (5.90b), both from the story "Uncle Snake".
Other complex structures 245
(5.90) a. "ч~u tsi-lе-hеn
qе e:
2sg daugher-DEF:one-kind 1sg one:CL
qе-wu ч~u jеp-le:
DIR-NEG-give-NOM-DEF:CL-if 1sg-AGT 2sg hand-DEF:CL
Ж(Uncle Snake said,) "If you donflt give one of your
daughters to me, I will chop off your hand"fl
b. "t-m-sе-n-Ще,
qе phusuluq-te:
DIR-NEG-understand-2sg-if 1sg clothing-DEF:CL
їe-ge-n-bе, . . .
Ж(The old mother-in-law said,) "If you didnflt understand,
hold on to my clothes, . . ."fl
To express a concessive (Жalthough X, Yfl), the phrase /hе-`u`-lu/ (DIR-COP-Жcomefl) is added to the end of the first clause: (5.91) a. qе quaha їе-ulе-hе`u`lu, o:ts їe-me-qhua. 1sg face DIR-wash-although beard DIR-NEG-shave:1sg ЖAlthough I washed my face, I didnflt shave.fl
b. fе-tsa-qi
bе-hе`u`lu, -l
clothes-this:one-CL old-although DIR-look CON-good-very
ЖAlthough this piece of clothing is old, it still looks very
In terms of cross-clause coreference, there do not seem to be either accusative or ergative syntactic restrictions on control of the zero anaphor of the second clause. Compare the following two examples:
(5.92) a.
khu-le: їе-q-ike
dog-DEF:CL DIR-go-after
ЖWhen the dog went down, that person saw (it).fl
246 The clause and complex structures
b. mi-the:
khu-le: u-t°u.
person-that:CL DIR-go-after
dog-DEF:CL DIR-see
ЖWhen that person went down, (s/he) saw the dog.fl
In the first example, the noun phrase representing the single direct argument of the first clause is coreferential with the zero pronoun representing the undergoer of the second clause. This would not be possible in a language with an accusative syntactic pivot for this construction unless the second verb was passivized. In the second example, the noun phrase representing the single direct argument of the first clause is coreferential with the zero pronoun representing the actor of the second clause. This would not be possible in a language with an ergative syntactic pivot for this construction unless the second verb was anti-passivized. (See LaPolla 1993, Van Valin & LaPolla 1997, Ch. 6 for the concepts used here and for evidence of a parallel situation in Chinese.)
5.6. The structure of narratives
In the stories recorded there is a clear pattern found where certain particles, such as /-t°u/ and /-stun/ regularly appear at the end of a segment of text, and then a marker of summary, result, or change of scene, such as /tu/ starts a new segment, as in the following, from the story "An Orphan", where two verticle bars mark the new segment:
(5.93) "ha qu me-t°hi-wе,
maha-i-ui qе
EXCL afraid NEG-want-DTV night-ADV-TOP 1sg
ч~u gul
2sg companion DIR-come-1sg:PRS-EMPH
| | tu
їеlе їe-zei, їe-zei-i
The structure of narratives 247
`"Ha, don't be afraid, at night I will come be your companion",
(he) said. | | Then/later/after that (the boy) went on his way,
crying, crying.'
The particle /tu/ or /їе-tu/ is very frequent in the texts other than in this construction as well, marking a sort of transition. It is glossed as RESULT because the action described in the clause that follows it is often the result of the action or situation described in the clause that precedes it (and it was translated as `result' in Chinese), but it can mark other types of transition as well. For example, in the following text segment, from "The Orphan", it is marking a transition similar to a change of paragraph:
(5.94) kеpt® tou-ui
orphan DEF:one:CL-TOP INT-this.manner
NEG-afraid-INDEF:CL exist-NAR
| | tu
the-maha-ui t°iu ®®e:fiwu
RESULT that-night-TOP (then) exist:REDUP:all together
`In this way the orphan was not afraid (lit.: `There was the
orphan who was not afraid'). That night they all got together and
arranged what to do.'
Another pattern, the "tail-head" construction commonly found in Tibeto-Burman languages, is for a verb to end a segment, either with the evidential marking or with the evidential marking followed by one of the segment-final particles mentioned above, and then be repeated at the beginning of the next segment, followed by the linker /-tu/ (not the same function as the independent segment-initial particle /tu/), as in (5.94), from the story "Uncle Snake". (5.95) ". . . qе the: stsim hе-`u`-lе," 1sg 3sg wife DIR-COP-INDTV:1sg
248 The clause and complex structures
| | їе-k j-ki-tu,
їеlе qhеl
INT-thus say-INF:HS-LNK INT momo(a.kind.of.bread)
u-lu-kui, . . .
one-basketful DIR-give.as.gift-INF:HS
`"I will become his wife", she said. | | Having said that, she
was given a basketful of momo, and . . .'
We also find markers of discourse deixis in the Texts, using the demonstrative pronouns, as in the following two segments:
(5.96) t®i
male/son become-LNK seven-year exist-ADV
l©z е:-su-wе.
the-wu hat®i-p
book DIR:INDTV-study-DTV that-ABL eleven-year

exist-ADV 1sg
`If it is a son, send him to school when he is seven years old.
After that, when he is eleven, have him come look for me.'
(5.97) t-sе
mе-©В-ki-®, їеlе t°e-zei-ki-st~u.
DIR-understand NEG-able-NAR-LNK there CON-cry-NAR-PART
tsu-ui, pie-le: hе-l-j-kui-st~u. (T4:36-8)
`(She) was not able to understand, and so continued to cry.
Therefore, here (= at this point in the story) the pig came out.'
In ( 5 .96) the distal demonstrative pronoun is used without a classifier, the only time this can be done, and is followed by the ablative marker, marking a temporal relation between two parts of the story, where the demonstrative is referring to the previous action, parallel to English after that. In (5.97) the locative proximal deictic pronoun is used to mark a point in the story, much like the use of English here, as in Here I would like to mention ... Much more work needs to be done on Discourse structure and other aspects of the grammar; these few comments are only a first step.
Text 1
The Creation of the World
earth-DEF:CL WH-INDEF:CL become-CSM
qefilot®u-Ще, mutu-lе mujuq'u Вgu-zi we-i,
in.the.past-LOC heaven-LOC sun nine-CL exist-HS
2 zp-le:
-t°hqhе-В-i. m
е ©lu
earth-DEF:CL DIR-burn-CAUS-HS older.brother COM younger.sister
3 j-t®-ui, zuеm-u o-Вgu-tе i-pi-uе-i, two-CL-TOP cypress-tree one-CL-LOC DIR-hide-because-ADV
4 їo-mu-xt°u-wei. steke-tе mi pefiВ-s DIR-NEG-burn-HS later-LOC people raise(child)-NOM
5 u-uе-i,
е ©lu
COP-because-ADV older.brother COM younger.sister DEF-CL
6 i-dВi-t°i,
ut°uku dzuеЩl e-x®e їei-bi-i,
DIR-discuss-3pl each stone.mill one-CL DIR-carry.on.back-ADV
7 Щu-q-tе-wu
їo-©lu, dzuеЩl j-x®e
mountain-head-LOC-ABL DIR-roll stone.mill two-CL
8 e-t®etup-tu,
izzi oqpi
DIR-bump.into-LNK 3dl
one:family do-NOM
dzuеЩl stone.mill
9 j-x®e two-CL
їo-©lu-s-tе, DIR-roll-NOM-LOC
qhuеt as.it.happens
10 e-t®etup-wei,
DIR-bump.into-HS INT-this.manner-after older.brother COM
11 ©lu
l-zi oqpi
younger.sister DEF-CL one:family DIR-do-HS
12 -j-p
one-two-year become-ADV younger.sister-DEF:CL people form
252 Texts
13 mе-`u` ke:
NEG-COP INDEF:CL DIR-release older.brother-DEF:CL DIR-angry
14 duеЩl-le:-wu
scythe-DEF:CL-INST DIR-chop-LNK everywhere-LOC DIR-throw(away)
15 steke lе-s-Ще,
muf'u t-lе-ji,
later DEF:one-day-LOC everywhere-LOC-ABL smoke DIR-come-CSM
16 їе-tsi-ike, INT-this.manner-after
people come-CSM
Narrator: Huang Chenglong I Born 1968 Recorded 1994
The Creation of the World Long, long ago, there were nine suns in the heaven which burned the earth. Because a brother and younger sister hid in a great cypress (that honored the gods), they were not burned to death. Later, in order to propagate descendants, the brother and sister talked it over and decided that each would carry a stone mill on his or her back and roll it down from the mountain peak. If the two stone mills joined together, the two could get married. As it happened, when the two stone mills rolled down (to the river bank) they joined together, and so the brother and sister married. After a few years, the younger sister gave birth to a monster not of human form. The older brother was so angry he used a curved knife/scythe to chop it into pieces and scattered them wildly everywhere. The next day when they got up, they saw the smoke of cooking fires everywhere. And henceforth there was humankind.
Text 2 The Legend of the Origin of All Things Mutsit®u е Tugant®u
mutsit®u е tugant®u zpq-tе їo-lu-е:-ji.
Mutsit®u COM Tugant®u earth-LOC DIR-come-PRS-CSM
2 еp
mupithе-ui, thzzi-tе k-ji, ЖЖчizzi zpq-tе
father(god) Mupitha-TOP 3dl-LOC thus-say 2dl earth-LOC
3 їa-Щa-i-ta
їе-Щ-i.flfl thizzi k Щza-Щa, еp-xs-ui
DIR-go-2pl-if DIR-go-2pl 3dl go time-LOC father-god-TOP
4 themle lu-zu
3pl China.fir-seed three-bushel DIR-give-HS DIR-go-ADV
5 Щopu
mountain DIR-low(short)-NOM-LOC
DIR-plant-NAR other
6 tshmе we-t° thorn exist-GEN
s-zu xs-quеt de-t°i-le-wei, tree-seed three-bushel DIR-CON-give-HS
7 Щopu
mountain DIR-high-NOM-LOC DIR-plant-NAR other livestock
8 e-khe-an
thizzi t-wеЩ,
one-hundred-kind DIR-CON-give 3dl DIR-drive.ahead
9 е-stu-еn
one-thousand-kind wild.creatures-TOP 3pl-behind
10 е-dzе-В-i. DIR-follow-CAUS-ADV
qala-Щa, separate/divide/leave-LOC
11 thizzi-tе 3dl-LOC
k-ji-wei, ЖЖчile gue:fi-tе-ui hе-l-i thus-say-HS 2pl road-LOC-TOP DIR-look-ADV
12 mutu-lе heaven-LOC
t°e-tse-®u.flfl NEG.IMP-look-DTV
mutsit®u е tugant®u-ui °t°i-k'u
Mutsit®u COM Tugant®u-TOP heart/mind-inside
254 Texts
14 t-nе-wei, gue:fi-tе k Щza-Ще zm їе-tshu-i, DIR-good-HS road-LOC go time-LOC song DIR-sing-ADV
15 zm song
tu-su-i DIR-jump/dance-LNK
lu-ji. come-CSM
16 thizzi-ui qe:fi-tе
еp mupithе thizzi oqpi
3dl-TOP before-LOC god Mupitha 3dl
17 p-В
do-CAUS NEG-willing-because-ADV DIR-look-ADV heaven-LOC
18 t-l-i
DIR-look-LNK see-HS
thpеktе, ile-steke as.a.result 3plREFL-behind
19 е-stu-еn
one-thousand-kind wild.animals
doqu-В-k frighten-CAUS-INF
20 t°et°i-lе everywhere-LOC
du-fu-wei, DIR-flee-HS
21 їе-tsi-i,
forest-LOC exist-NOM
22 phux®u
pe-wei. themle zpq-tе i-p-l-ike,
wild.animals become-HS 3pl earth-LOC DIR-arrive-come-after
23 e-t®equе
DIR-remember DIR-wrong-ADV China.fir-seed-DEF:one-pl mountain
24 ti-wi-s-tе
tshmе we-t°
DIR-high-NOM-LOC DIR-sow-NAR thorn exist-GEN
25 s-zu-lе-hе-ui
tree-seed-DEF:one-pl-TOP mountain DIR-short-NOM-LOC
26 de-se-ku, DIR-sow-NAR
INT-this.manner COP-because-ADV
27 їe-gi-s-tе-ui DIR-short-NOM-LOC-TOP
tshmе t-®-jy
thorn DIR-grow-ASP COP
Text 2: The Legend of the Origin of All Things 255
28 thizzi 3dl
zе-Щ earth-LOC
do-able-very-because-ADV China.fir
29 te-x-i104
t°iЩuе t-¬i,
tshmе їa-xte-i
DIR-cut-ADV house DIR-build thorn DIR-cut.down-ADV
30 z t-Вge, Вm
t°he-t° Вgu i-i-ji.
land DIR-open humankind want-GEN grain DIR-plant-CSM
Narrator: Huang Chenglong I Born 1968 Recorded 1994
The Legend of the Origin of All Things Mutsit®u and Tugant®u (The goddess) Mutsit®u and (the mortal man) Tugant®u wanted to come down to the earth. The god Mupitha said to them, ЖЖIf you want to go down to the earth, then go.flfl Just before Mutsit®u and Tugant®u left, Mupitha gave them three bushels of China fir seeds and instructed them to plant them on low mountains. He also gave them three bushels of seeds for thorned bushes, and instructed them to plant them on high mountains. He also gave them a hundred kinds of livestock, which they drove before them, and a thousand kinds of birds and beasts, which followed behind them. When they parted, Mupitha said to them, ЖЖWhen you are on the road, do not look back at heaven.flfl Mutsit®u and Tugant®u were extremely happy. The whole way they sang and danced as they walked. Because the god Mupitha had opposed them becoming one family before, they deliberately looked back at heaven, and the result was that they frightened the thousand kinds of birds and beasts following them, causing them to flee everywhere. In this way these animals became the wild animals now dwelling in the forests. After Mutsit®u and Tugant®u arrived on the earth, they misremembered (what Mupitha had told them to do) and sowed the China fir seeds on high mountains and the thorny bushes on low mountains. As a result, the low areas grew full of brambles and thorns. (However,) because they were very able, they cut down the China firs and built houses, and they hacked through the brambles and thorns, opening up wilderness land, and planted the grain needed by humankind.
Text 3 An Orphan kеpt® kou orphan INDEF:one:CL
їеlе kеpt® kou
before-before-LNK INT orphan INDEF:one:CL COP-NAR-PART
2 ep l me-Вi father also NEG-exist
ew l me-Вi mother also NEG-exist
3 u-ki-t°u, COP-NAR -PART
®kup-le:-ui orangutan-DEF:CL-TOP
4 їе-tsu INT-here
kеpt® tou orphan DEF:one:CL
dz kеnt°hi-kui-t°u, eat think/want-NAR-PART
5 kеpt® lou
dz kеnt°i:-tu,
їеlе, kеpt®
orphan DEF:one:CL eat think/want-LNK INT orphan
6 tou
DEF:one:CL night-LOC
їе-xt®-pе:-j-tu DIR-get.dark-become:PRS-REP-LNK
7 qu-kp-ki-®,
k Щza-Ще, zei
їe-afraid-HABIT-NAR-LNK home-LOC go when-LOC cry
8 їe-zei-i
їеlе dе-qе
9 dе-qе-tu DIR-go-LNK
gue:fi-tе road-LOC
їе-qе, DIR-go
10 a-le:-е
needle-DEF:CL-COM DIR-encounter-NAR-PART needle-DEF:CL-AGT
11 t-kefil-kui-t°u, DIR-ask-NAR-PART
ЖЖha, i:-pe-wе,105 EXCL WH-become-Q
i:-pe-wе,flfl WH-become-Q
12 j-tu. їе kеpt® tou
say-LNK INT orphan DEF:one:CL DIR-make.sound-NAR-LNK
13 ЖЖhi! EXCL
maha qе dz lе:,flfl
orangutan-DEF:CL-AGT night 1sg eat come:PRS
Text 3: An Orphan 257
14 j-®, ЖЖqе t°u-lе say-LNK 1sg home-LOC
qе ou-stu
DIR-sit-ADV 1sg one:CL-alone
15 je
live/stay afraid-1sg-EMPH say-NAR-PART
16 a-le:-ui,
ЖЖha qu me-t°hi-wе, maha-i-ui
needle-DEF:CL-TOP EXCL afraid NEG-want-DTV night-ADV-TOP
17 qе ч~u-gul
1sg 2sg-companion DIR-come-1sg:PRS-EMPH say-NAR-PART
їеlе їe-zei, їe-zei-i
19 dе-q-ki-tu,
qusеp-te:-е scissors-DEF:CL-COM
20 e-t®epe-ki-t°u, DIR-encounter-NAR-PART
qusеp-te:-wu scissors-DEF:CL-AGT
21 ЖЖa
ч~u i©i-pe-wе? i-uе-i
EXCL 2sg what-become-Q WH-because-ADV thus-cry-2sg-Q
22 j-kui-t°u. say-NAR-PART
ЖЖqе t°u-lе
1sg home-LOC one:CL-EXC
23 me-Вa-wе,
qе dzе:,flfl
NEG-exist:1sg-EMPH orangutan-DEF:CL 1sg eat:PRS
24 j-kp-®,
ЖЖmaha-i їo-lu-kp-wе,flfl
25 j-kui-t°u. say-NAR-PART
26 mе-`u`-ta NEG-COP-if
matter NEG-exist
maha qе ч~u night 1sg 2sg
27 gul
j-kui-t°u, ЖЖч~u-gul
companion DIR-come-1sg:PRS-EMPH say-NAR-PART 2sg-friend
28 zu-lu-е:-wе,flfl
DIR-come-1sg:PRS-EMPH say-NAR-LNK
258 Texts
їе-the-wu ai® їe-zei їe-zei-i
INT-that-ABL (still.is) DIR-cry DIR-cry-ADV
30 dе-q-j
їe-zei їe-zei-i
31 ai®
°t°i°t°iеq tou-е
(still.is) new(again) magpie DEF:one:CL-COM
32 e-t®epe-k-j-kei-t°u, DIR-encounter-go-REP-NAR-PART
°t°i°t°еq magpie
33 tou-е DEF:one:CL-COM
e-t®epe-ki-tu, DIR-encounter-NAR-LNK
34 ЖЖa:
EXCL 2sg
WH-because-ADV thus-cry-2sg-Q say-NAR
35 ЖЖqе-ui 1sg-TOP
home-LOC one:CL-EXC
me-Вa-wе, NEG-exist:1sg-EMPH
36 tеt l me-Вi, father also NEG-exist

l me-Вi,
mother also NEG-exist
37 ep-ew
father-mother NEG-exist
38 t°u-lе їе-xt®p-ike, ®kup-le:-wu
qе dzе:,flfl
home-LOC DIR-get.dark-after orangutan-DEF:CL-AGT 1sg eat:PRS
39 j-kp-®, say-HABIT-LNK
ЖЖqе t°u-lе je
1sg home-LOC live/stay afraid-1sg-EMPH
40 j-kui-t°u. say-NAR-PART
ЖЖhi! qu me-t°hi-wе,
EXCL afraid NEG-want-EMPH night-ADV
41 qе ч~u-gul
1sg 2sg-companion DIR-come-1sg:PRS-EMPH say-NAR-PART
new(again) DIR-go DIR-go-REP-NAR DIR-go
43 dе-q-j-ki-tu,
noЩu-le:-е crow-DEF:CL-COM
Text 3: An Orphan 259
44 e-t®epe-ki-t°u, DIR-encounter-NAR-PART
noЩu-le:-е crow-DEF:CL-COM
45 e-t®epe-ki-tu, DIR-encounter-NAR-LNK
ЖЖha! ч~u i-uе-i EXCL 2sg WH-because-ADV
46 k-zei-n-е?flfl
thus-cry-2sg-Q say-NAR RESULT (still.is) 1sg INT
47 ep l me-Вi father also NEG-exist
w l me-Вi, mother also NEG-exist
48 kеpt® kou-j orphan DEF:one:CL-EXC
mе-uе-®, NEG-COP:1sg-LNK
49 їеlе INT
gs-tе-ui night-LOC-TOP
50 je
qе dzе:-wе,flfl
live/stay afraid-1sg-EMPH orangutan-DEF:CL-TOP 1sg eat:PRS-EMPH
51 j-kui-t°u.
ЖЖha, ta ke:
u-ta, В me-w,
say-NAR-PART EXCL if INDEF:CL COP-if matter NEG-exist
52 qе-ui maha zu-l'u-i,
1sg-TOP night DIR-come-ADV 2sg-companion
53 i-j-lе-wе,flfl DIR-live-INDTV:1sg-EMPH
j-kui-t°u. say-NAR-PART
55 dе-q-ki-tu,
e-t®epe-ki, DIR-encounter-NAR
56 sutsqhе-le:-е
stomach-DEF:CL-COM DIR-encounter-NAR-LNK stomach-DEF:CL-AGT
57 t-kefil-kui, ЖЖha! ч~u i-uе-i
DIR-ask-NAR EXCL 2sg WH-because-ADV thus-cry-2sg-Q
58 j-kui, ЖЖi-uе-i
k-zei-n-е?flfl j-kui-tu.
say-NAR WH-because-ADV thus-cry-2sg-Q say-NAR-LNK
260 Texts
59 kеpt® tou orphan DEF:one:CL
he-Вgue-ki, ЖЖqе-ui DIR-answer-NAR 1sg-TOP
60 ep l me-В-i father also NEG-exist-CSM
mother also
61 me-В-i, NEG-exist-CSM
gs-i night-ADV
їе-xt®p-iеufu DIR-get.dark-LNK(as.soon.as)
62 ®kup-le:
qе dz-lе:,flfl
orangutan-DEF:CL 1sg eat-come:PRS say-HABIT-LNK 1sg
63 qu-е-wе,flfl afraid-1sg-EMPH
j-kui. ЖЖha! ke:-ji say-NAR EXCL INDEF:CL-EXC
64 mе-`u`-ta, NEG-COP-if
matter NEG-exist-EMPH
65 qе-ui 1sg-TOP
ч~u-gul 2sg-companion
hе-`u`-lе-wе, DIR-COP-INDTV:1sg-EMPH
66 maha-ui qе ч~u-gul
night-TOP 1sg 2sg-companion DIR-come-1sg:PRS-EMPH say-NAR
u-tu, їеlе їe-zei їe-zei-i
INT-this:one-time COP-LNK INT DIR-cry DIR-cry-ADV
68 dе-q-j-ki,
dе-qе dе-qе-tu
69 thl-le:-е
stone.pestle-DEF:CL-COM DIR-encounter-NAR-PART
70 thl-le:-е
stone.pestle-DEF:CL-COM DIR-encounter-NAR-LNK
71 ЖЖha! ч~u i-uе-i
EXCL 2sg WH-because-ADV thus-cry-2sg-Q
j-kui, say-NAR
72 t-kefil-kui. ЖЖїa, qе-ui ep l me-В-i DIR-ask-NAR EXCL 1sg-TOP father also NEG-exist-CSM
73 w
mother also
me-В-i, NEG-exist-CSM
їе-xt®pе: DIR-get.dark:PRS
Text 3: An Orphan 261
74 ququ, ps l їе-xt®p-ja,
afraid today also DIR-get.dark-REP orangutan-DEF:CL-TOP
75 maha qе dz-lе:,flfl
night 1sg eat-come:PRS say-HABIT-EMPH
j-kui. say-NAR
76 їе-tu-ui, ЖЖke:-ji
mе-`u`-ta, В me-w,
77 qе-ui ч~u-gul
maha-i qе
1sg-TOP 2sg-companion DIR-come-1sg:PRS night-ADV 1sg
78 ч~u-gul 2sg-companion
zu-l'u-lе-wе,flfl DIR-come-INDTV:1sg-EMPH
j-kui-t°u. say-NAR-PART
їе tsе-tеu-tu-ui,
kеpt® tou-ui
INT this:one-time-LNK-TOP orphan DEF:one:CL-TOP
80 їе-tsе-safiwu
INT-this:one-few:all companion DIR-make-NAR-PART
81 gul companion
їe-se-ki-tu, DIR-make(friends)-NAR-LNK
82 maha pe-k-kui,
night become-go-NAR this:one-time-LNK DIR-get.dark-CSM night
83 i-p-l-kui, DIR-arrive-come-NAR
qusеp l i-p-l-kui, scissors also DIR-arrive-come-NAR
84 °t°°t°еq tou
l i-p-l-kui,
magpie DEF:one:CL also DIR-arrive-come-NAR crow
85 l also
їе sutsqhе,
DIR-arrive-come-NAR INT stomach
86 thl,
jеnkhui ®®:fiwu
stone.pestle stone.mortar exist:REDUP:all DIR-arrive-come-NAR-PART
87 tsе-ui-tu, this:one-time-LNK
Вm meeting
е-lе one-CL
їo-tsu-ki, DIR-hold-NAR
88 kеpt® orphan
tou-ui DEF:one:CL-TOP
°t°i:-k'u kn їе-n-kui, heart-inside very DIR-good-NAR
262 Texts
89 ЖЖїa, pmaha-ui qе gul
EXCL tonight-TOP 1sg companion DEF:one-pl
90 i-p-l-jy, DIR-arrive-come-ASP
pmaha-ui ®kup-te: tonight-TOP orangutan-DEF:CL
91 mo-qu-е-wе, NEG-afraid-1sg-EMPH
їе-k INT-thus
92 mo-qu-ja-wе
NEG-afraid-CSM:1sg-EMPH thus
Вi-ki.flfl thе-sе exist-NAR that:one-few
93 i-p-l-ku-tu, DIR-arrive-come-NAR-LNK
ЖЖmaha t°o-qu-n-pе, night NEG.IMP-be.afraid-2sg-DTV
94 do-t°u-qu-n-pе,
t°ile tsе-sfiwu
DIR-NEG.IMP-be.afraid-2sg-DTV 1pl this:one-few:all
95 gul-pе-®,
companion-do-LNK orangutan-DEF:CL DIR-NEG-arrive-come-ADV
96 mе-`u`-t°i. NEG-COP-EXC
i-p-l-tu, DIR-arrive-come-LNK
97 t°ile pmaha tse:
2pl tonight this:CL beat.to.death:PRS-EMPH say-NAR-PART
l mo-qu-ke:
RESULT orangutan-DEF:CL also NEG-afraid-INDEF:CL
99 їе-l-ki, DIR-come-NAR
kеpt® tou-ui orphan DEF:one:CL-TOP
їе-tsi INT-this.manner
100 mo-qu-ke: NEG-afraid-INDEF:CL
Вi-ki. exist-NAR
the-maha-ui t°iu
®®e:fiwu iеnt°i
RESULT that-night-TOP (then) exist:REDUP:all together
102 gеnphai-tu-p'u-ki-stu, arrange-DIR-do-NAR-PART
needle-DEF:CL-TOP where-LOC
103 je-s
live/stay-NOM COP
t°е-l where-LOC
t°е-l where-LOC
Text 3: An Orphan 263
104 n-s
sleep-NOM COP
t°е-l where-LOC
t°е-l where-LOC
105 i©i u-s
їе-tsi INT-this:manner
106 gеnphai-tu-p'u-ki-t°u. arrange-DIR-do-NAR-PART
107 dy-le:-Ще door-DEF:CL-LOC
108 dy-le:-Ще
door-DEF:CL-LOC exist-NAR
qusеp-tou-ui scissors-DEF:one:CL-TOP
109 їеlе INT
orphan-DEF:one:CL-beside-LOC bed-DEF:CL-beside
110 thе there
їе-n-ki, DIR-sleep-NAR
111 m-lеw-Веuе fire-DEF:one:pile-inside
їе-n-kui-t°u, DIR-sleep-NAR-PART
112 noЩu-le:-ui їеlе ®ut®huе crow-DEF:CL-TOP INT water.jar
Веuе їе-n-kui, inside DIR-sleep-NAR
113 їе tsi-ui,
INT this.manner-TOP stomach-DEF:CL-TOP
114 buzd-te:-qpеt®е:
plank.stairs-DEF:CL-head:LOC DIR-sleep-NAR-PART
115 jankhui-le:-ui
stone.mortar-DEF:CL-TOP plank.stairs-DEF:CL-base-LOC
116 їе-n-kui-t°u,
thl-le:-ui stone.pestle-DEF:CL-TOP
117 buzd-le:-qpеt®е:
plank.stairs-DEF:CL-head:LOC DIR-live/stay-NAR-PART
hi, їе-xt®p ®kup-te:
EXCL DIR-get.dark orangutan-DEF:CL DIR-come-REP-NAR
264 Texts
119 tsou
this:one:CL child-DEF:one:CL-DAT
z-lе-kui-tu, DIR-come-NAR-LNK
120 dy-la:-Щa door-DEF:CL-LOC
qefi before
®pе®pе like/as
121 dy-le:-tе door-DEF:CL-LOC
dzeke (onomatopoeia)
i-°t°i-ki-t°u, DIR-push-NAR-PART
122 dy-le:
i-°t°i, a-lе-hе
thе Вi-kui-iеu,
door-DEF:CL DIR-push needle-DEF:one-pl there exist-NAR-PART
123 a-lе-hе
needle-DEF:one-pl hand-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-stab-LNK(as.soon.as)
124 sеq-phi-ke:
blood-flow-INDEF:CL DIR-put-NAR-PART RESULT (still.is)
125 t°u-lе

home-LOC DIR-go
°t°еq heart
t°o-lu-kui-®, CON-come-NAR -LNK
126 -qе-j-kui, DIR-go-REP-NAR
-qе-iеufu DIR-go-LNK(as.soon.as)
127 kеpt®-tou
orphan-DEF:one:CL bed-DEF:CL-LOC grope.for-AUX-REP-NAR
128 ai®
n mefiВ-ki, kеpt® tou
(still.is) where-LOC sleep seek-NAR orphan DEF:one:CL
129 n®-ta:-Щa-ui, kеpt®-tou bed-DEF:CL-LOC-TOP orphan-DEF:one:CL
mefiВ kеnt°hi seek think/want
130 qusеp-te:-wu
tu-tuе-kui, thе-ui
scissors-DEF:CL-AGT hand-DEF:CL-CL DIR-cut-NAR that:one-time
131 tu,
u-kui-iеu, qusеp-te:-wu
132 jеp-le:
tu-tuе, sе tuetue-ke:-t°i
hand-DEF:CL DIR-cut blood driping-INDEF:CL-ADV DIR-go-after
133 m-lеw
qhfiqhfi-ki, m-lеw
fire-DEF:one:pile open-NAR fire-DEF:one:pile DIR-set.fire-ADV
Text 3: An Orphan 265
134 i©i-lе-hе
tse kеnt°hi-ki,
what-DEF:one-pl thus-exist one-time see think/want-NAR
135 m-lеw
da-qhefi kеnt°hi me-pe-iеufu,
fire-DEF:one.pile DIR-open think/want NEG-correct-LNK(as.soon.as)
136 xs new(again)
°t°i°t°еq-lе-hе magpie-DEF:one-pl
137 da-®p-j-kui-stu, DIR-explode-REP-NAR-PART
t®hqt®hеqt®hqt®hеq-lе-hе (onomatopoeia)-DEF:one-pl
138 dе-®p-iеufu
mi: dе-q-kui, mi:
DIR-explode-LNK(as.soon.as) eyes DIR-go-NAR eyes
139 dе-q-kui,
tsе-ui-tu, this:one-time-LNK
140 mi: dе-qе, eyes DIR-go
mi: dе-q-tu,
eyes DIR-go-LNK water.jar-DEF:CL-LOC
141 s-l-iеnt°i, ts-lo-qu DIR-see-after water-DEF:one-CL
u-iant°i, quaha-lo-qu COP-after face-DEF:one-CL
142 ulе kеnt°hi-ki-wе, wash think/want-NAR-EMPH
quaha ulе face wash
kеnt°hi think/want
143 ®ut®huе-la:-Щa
water.jar-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-reach.out crow-DEF-CL
144 thе there
Вi-j-kui-stu, exist-REP-NAR-PART
noЩu-le-t°i-wu crow-DEF-CL-AGT
145 tshuеq peck
tshuеq peck
DIR-make.sound-CAUS eye-DEF:CL-LOC
146 i-tshuete-kui-stu. DIR-peck-NAR-PART
їе-tsе-ui-tu, INT-this:one-time-LNK
miеuЩdВue eye
147 l me-le-jy, also NEG-exist-ASP
jap e-x®e l me-w'e-jy. hand one-CL also NEG-exist-ASP
148 їеlе sеq tuetue-ke:-t°i
INT blood driping-INDEF:CL-ADV DIR-run.away-ADV
266 Texts
149 hе-Щ kеnt°hi-ki,
DIR-go think/want-NAR DIR-run.away-ADV plank.stairs-head-LOC
150 hе-Щ kеnt°hi-kei-tu,
s-qе, s-qе-iеufu,
DIR-go think/want-NAR-LNK DIR-go DIR-go-LNK(as.soon.as)
151 sutsqhе-la:-Щa
stomach-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-step.on
sutsqhе-la:-Щa stomach-DEF:CL-LOC
152 їe-t®hue, dе-¬е buzd-le:-tе
diq їе-q-i-stu.
DIR-step.on DIR-slip plank.stairs-DEF:CL-LOC floor DIR-go-HS-PART
153 diq їе-q-iеufu
floor DIR-go-LNK(as.soon.as) ground.floor-LOC plank.stair-foot-LOC
154 jеnkhui-le:-Веuе
їе-qе, xs
stone.mortar-DEF:CL-inside DIR-go new(again) stone.pestle-DEF:CL
155 qpеt®е: head:LOC
®, їе-lе,
exist DIR-come stone.pestle-DEF:CL-AGT
156 їe-t°ite їe-t°ite, їe-t°ite-iеufu,
DIR-pound DIR-pound DIR-pound-LNK(as.soon.as) INT-here
157 ®kup-te:-ui
orangutan-DEF:CL-TOP DIR-beat.to.death-ADV
158 da-Щu-kui-wе. DIR-throw-NAR-EMPH
Narrator: Wang Lin Born 1966 Recorded 1996
An Orphan Long ago, there was an orphan; he was one who had no father and no mother. There was an orangutan who wanted to eat this orphan. The orphan was always afraid when it got dark at night, and on his way home, he was crying and crying as he walked. He walked a while and met with a needle. The needle asked him, ЖЖWhatfls the matter?flfl The
Text 3: An Orphan 267 orphan answered, ЖЖAye! The orangutan is going to come eat me at night. Iflm afraid to be at home by myself.flfl The needle said, ЖЖHah! Donflt be afraid. At night Iflll come be your companion.flfl Later, again he was crying, crying as he walked. He walked a while and met some scissors. The scissors asked him, ЖЖAh, whatfls the matter with you? Why are you crying like this?flfl The orphan said, ЖЖAt my home, therefls only me alone. The orangutan is going to come down to eat me. He comes at night.flfl The scissors said, ЖЖAh, if that is all it is, no problem, at night Iflll come be your companion.flfl After that, the orphan still was crying and crying as he walked. He walked a while and met a magpie. The magpie asked him, ЖЖWhy are you crying like this?flfl The orphan answered, ЖЖAt home, therefls only me alone. I have neither father nor mother. I am one without parents. When it gets dark, the orangutan is going to eat me. Iflm afraid to be at home alone.flfl The magpie said, ЖЖAye! You need not be afraid. At night Iflll come be your companion.flfl Again he went on, and after walking a while he met a crow, and the crow said, ЖЖHah! Why are you crying?flfl The orphan said, ЖЖI have neither father nor mother. Iflm only an orphan. At night I am afraid (to be at home alone); the orangutan is going to eat me.flfl The crow said, ЖЖHah! If thatfls the case, therefls no problem, at night Iflll come be your companion.flfl Again, the orphan went on crying as he walked. He walked a while and came across a stomach, and the stomach asked him, ЖЖHah! Why are you crying like this?flfl The orphan answered, ЖЖI have neither father nor mother. At night, as soon as it gets dark, the orangutan is going to come eat me. Iflm afraid.flfl The stomach said, ЖЖHah! If thatfls all it is, therefls no problem, let me come be your companion at night. Iflll come be your companion.flfl The orphan still was crying, crying as he walked. He walked a while and also came across a stone mortar, the stone mortar asked, ЖЖHah! Why are you crying like this?flfl The orphan said, ЖЖAh, I have neither father nor mother. Iflm afraid of when it will get dark. When it gets dark again today, the orangutan is going to come eat me.flfl The stone mortar said, ЖЖIf thatfls all it is, no problem, Iflll come be your companion. Let me come be your companion.flfl At this time the orphan had made friends with these (things) mentioned. When night came, they all came. The needle came, and the scissors came, and the magpie came, and the crow came, and the stomach, the stone mortar and a stone pestle all came. After they came, they held a meeting. The orphan was extremely happy. ЖЖTonight my companions have come. Tonight Iflm not afraid of the orangutan.flfl After these [things] had all come, they told him, ЖЖDonflt be afraid tonight. If the orangutan comes, we will beat him to death.flfl
268 Texts The orangutan wasnflt afraid, and still came. The orphan was not afraid. That night everybody made a plan together, where the needle should stay, where (each of them) should sleep and what-not and it was all settled. The needle was above the door to stab (the orangutan) in the doorway, the scissors slept beside the orphan on the bed, the magpie slept in the fire pile, the crow slept in the water jar, the stomach slept at the head of the stairs, the stone mortar was at the foot of the stairs, and the stone pestle was at the head of the stairs. When it got dark, the orangutan came towards the orphan, the same as before. When he pushed the door with a creak, the needle was there, and as soon as the needle pricked his hand, his hand was all covered with blood, but he still wanted to go in the room. Once he was in the room and going to look for the orphan in the bed, the scissors cut off his hand. It was dark and the scissors had cut off his hand, and blood was dripping down. Then he went over to the fire pile, thinking to light it, to see what thing it was! As soon as the orangutan wanted to touch the fire pile, the magpie inside the fire pile burst out with a lot of noise and (the ashes) got into the orangutanfls eyes. The orangutan went to the water jar, wanting to get some water to wash his face. He looked around and saw the water jar and after a mouthful of water wanted to wash his face, but the crow was there and the crow came out and pecked his eyes. This time the orangutan had no eyes and no hand and was covered with blood. He wanted to escape covered with blood. As soon as he got to the head of the stairs he stepped on the stomach and slipped and rolled down the staircase and into the stone mortar at the foot of the stairs. Then the stone pestle pounded and pounded and pounded down on him, and in this way pounded the orangutan to death and then (they) threw him away.
Text 4 Uncle Snake upu bs uncle snake
ps-ui ЩoЩu
lеmp lie-tu,
DIR-look today-TOP ram's.horn flower carry-LNK bring
2 lie-tu,
carry-LNK carry-LNK
3 ЖЖч~u tsi-lе-hеn
qе e:
2sg daugher-DEF:one-kind 1sg one:CL DIR-NEG-give-NOM-DEF:CL-LNK
4 qе-wu 1sg-AGT
ч~u-jеp-le: 2sg-hand-DEF:CL
da-g-Ве-wе,flfl DIR-broken-CAUS:1sg-EMPH
5 ik thus
j-kui-t°u. say-NAR-PART
їе-k INT-thus
j-kui-tu, say-NAR-LNK
6 tsi
ЖЖha, tеt ke:
daugher most-small-DEF:CL-TOP EXCL father INDEF:CL
7 u-k-ta, qе i: u l °a:-`u`, ч~u-jеp-le: COP-INF-if 1sg what COP also INDTV-COP 2sg-hand-DEF:CL
8 da-g-В`-qstе,
qе the:-stsim
DIR-break-CAUS-not.as.good.as 1sg 3sg-wife
9 hе-`u`-lе,flfl DIR-COP-INDTV:1sg
j-kui-t°u. say-NAR-PART
їеlе qhеl
INT-thus say-NAR-LNK
INT momo(steamed.bread)
11 a-g`u`
ЖЖїa, upu-bs-te:-steke
one-basketful DIR-give.as.gift-NAR EXCL uncle-snake-DEF:CL-behind
12 dе-Щ-n-bе,flfl DIR-go-2sg-DTV
j-kui-t°u. say-NAR-PART
qhеl momo(steamed.bread)
270 Texts
13 a-g`u`
one-basketful DIR-carry.on.back-LNK uncle-snake-DEF:CL
14 t°iq:fi before
®ua:m-ke: very.long-INDEF:CL
15 sei-k-kui, walk-go-NAR
i:-ui 3sgREFL-TOP
їе steke steke INT behind behind
16 їe-zei їe-zei DIR-cry DIR-cry
їe-zei-ke: DIR-cry-INDEF:CL
tse:-steke this:CL-behind
17 dе-q-ki-st~u. DIR-go-NAR-PART
dе-qе, DIR-go
dе-qе, DIR-go
dе-qе-tu, DIR-go-LNK
18 upu-bs-te:
їе qhafiЩue-lеw-Ще
uncle-snake-DEF:CL INT stone.pile-DEF:one:CL-LOC DIR-arrive-go-
19 tu, u-t°u mе-l-jy-tu,
LNK DIR-see NEG-able-ASP-LNK stone.pile-DEF:one:CL crevice
20 їе-q-tu, їе-thu
DIR-go-LNK INT-there girl-DEF:one:CL-TOP INT
21 Щuее-lе courtyard-LOC
їe-zei DIR-cry
DIR-cry-ADV there
22 Вi-ki-st~u, exist-NAR-PART
qhafiЩue-lеw-pienе-lе. stone.pile-DEF:one:CL-beside-LOC
t°iquе-lе hе-l-i
INT-that:one-time-LNK inside-LOC DIR-come-ADV
24 їеlе INT
t°iquе-lе Щoi-k-m inside-LOC call-go-NOM
he-°i-kui-t°u. DIR-send-NAR-PART
25 upu-bs-te:
xs u-kui-i, mi
uncle-snake-DEF:CL god COP-NAR-ADV person inside-LOC-TOP
26 t°y-le:-ui
chicken-DEF:CL-TOP call-go-NOM
he-°i-kui-st~u. DIR-send-NAR-PART
Text 4: Uncle Snake 271
27 ЖЖent°i
uncle's.wife (sound.of.chicken) uncle's.wife (sound.of.chicken)
28 ent°i uncle's.wife
(sound.of.chicken) say-LNK
29 xs sе
three sound say-NAR-PART
xs sе j-kui-tu, three sound say-NAR-LNK
30 thou
that:one:CL DIR-understand
mе-©В-ki-®, NEG-able-NAR-LNK
31 їе: INT
t°e-zei-ki-st~u. CON-cry-NAR-PART
RESULT chicken-DEF:CL DIR-go-REP-NAR new(again)
33 khu-le: hе-l-j-kui-st~u. dog-DEF:CL DIR-come-REP-NAR-PART
khu-le: dog-DEF:CL
34 hе-l-j-kui-tu,
їеlе ЖЖїе'u їе'u
DIR-come-REP-LNK INT woof woof
35 ent°i
qutaq, їе'u їе'u ent°i
uncle's.wife cluck woof woof uncle's.wife cluck
36 j-j-kui-st~u. say-REP-NAR-PART
t-sе DIR-understand
mе-©В-ki-®, NEG-able-NAR-LNK
37 їеlе there
t°e-zei-ki-st~u. CON-cry-NAR-PART
tsu-ui, pie-le:
39 pie-le:
ЖЖї~fiї~fi ent°i
qutaq, ї~fiї~fi
pig-DEF:CL DIR-come-LNK oink.oink uncle's.wife cluck oink.oink
40 ent°i
qutaq, ї~fiї~fi ent°i
lеnt°i lu-е:-ji.flfl
uncle's.wife cluck oink.oink unclefls wife flower come-PRS-CSM
41 tu
їеlе t-m-sе-ki-®,
272 Texts
їе, t°iquе-lе qodu-le:
INT-that:one-time-LNK INT inside-LOC old.woman-DEF:CL
43 hе-l-kui-st~u.
44 їеlе, bs del-p-t°-mе:-le:
INT snake feast106-do-GEN-mama-DEF:CL DIR-come-NAR-PART
45 mе:-le: mama-DEF:CL
hе-l-tu, DIR-come-LNK
їе:, ЖЖqе-tsi
46 i:-le:
what-DEF:CL cry-2sg-Q

47 Щoi-k-m call-go-NOM
kn very(many)
DIR-send:1sg-LNK 2sg
48 -m-lе-n-®, DIR-NEG-come-2sg-LNK

49 j-kui-st~u.
їе tsi-lou-ui,
50 t-m-sе-wе,flfl DIR-NEG-understand-EMPH
51 ЖЖt-m-sе-n-Ще,
DIR-NEG-understand-2sg-if 1sg-clothing-DEF:CL DIR-hold-2sg-DTV
52 qе-phusuluq-te:
1sg-clothing-DEF:CL DIR-grab-ADV
mi: їе-t®-n-bе, eye DIR-close-2sg-DTV
53 qе-steke hе-В-n-bе,flfl
1sg-behind DIR-follow-2sg-DTV say-NAR-PART INT
54 tsе-tеu-ui -Щ-Щza:-Ще-ui ®kupu-е-tеu this:one-time-TOP DIR-go-time-LOC-TOP a.kind.of.thing-one-CL
55 de-le-kui-st~u. DIR-give-NAR-PART
Text 4: Uncle Snake 273
56 їеlе t°iquе -qе-ki-tu, INT inside DIR-go-NAR-LNK
ai® tsus-bl i-ke: (still.is) marry-do WH-INDEF:CL
57 u-kui-®, COP-NAR -LNK
t°iquе-lе upu-bs-lе-hе-ui inside-LOC uncle-snake-DEF:one-pl-TOP
58 °i t®he107-ki-st~u. qеp-lе-hе
wine suck-NAR-PART old.man-DEF:one-pl INT-this.manner-TOP
59 tsi-lou-ui
zaЩue (sitsm)
girl-DEF:one:CL-TOP uncle-snake-DEF:CL helpmate (wife)
60 pe-kui-wе. become-NAR-EMPH
Narrator: Wang Lin Born 1966 Recorded 1996
Uncle Snake Look, today the Snake (Uncle) is bringing ramfls horn flowers.108 He says (to the father), ЖЖIf you donflt give one of your daughters to me, I will chop off your hand.flfl After Snake (Uncle) said this, the youngest daughter said (to her father), ЖЖPapa, itfls better I do what I have to do and go become his (Snake's) wife, than for your hand to be cut off.flfl (The girlfls family) gave her a basketful of momo (a kind of bread) (and said to her), ЖЖYou go with Uncle Snake then.flfl Uncle Snake went in front of the girl. The girl carried the momo and was crying and crying as she followed behind Uncle Snake. They kept going until they came to a pile of rocks, and then Uncle Snake disappeared. He had gone into the pile through a crevice in the rocks. The girl continued to cry in the courtyard beside the pile of rocks. In fact, Uncle Snake was a god and he sent a chicken to call the girl. The chicken called, ЖЖAunt-in-lawflfl three times, but the girl didnflt understand and still cried there. Later, the chicken went in and a dog was sent out to call the girl to come inside. The dog also barked two times, but the girl still didnflt understand, and still cried there. In like manner a pig was sent to call her, and the girl still didnflt understand and so didnflt enter.
274 Texts Finally, an old woman came out to call her (Snakefls mother came out to call her), and said to the girl, ЖЖChild, what are you crying about? Donflt cry. Iflve sent many to call you, but you havenflt come in, so I came out myself.flfl The girl said, ЖЖI didnflt understand.flfl The old motherin-law said, ЖЖIf you didnflt understand, close your eyes and hold on to my clothes, and come with me.flfl When they went in, she gave the girl something (skupu), and she went back inside. Inside it was as if a wedding was being held, and Uncle Snake and others were drinking wine. In this way, the girl became Uncle Snakefls wife.
Text 5
The Story of a Lazy Man
lazy-AUX-NOM INDEF:CL story
u-tu, tsisat®'u j-zi
before-before COP-LNK sisters two-CL
2 u-ki-wе, COP-NAR -EMPH
tsisat®'u j-zi sisters two-CL
u-ki-tu, COP-NAR -LNK
3 sawu-le:-t°-te:-ui older.sister-DEF:CL-GEN-DEF:CL-TOP
t°iu®, (that.is)
4 sawu-le:
older.sister-DEF:CL husband-TOP
Вmt®i. emperor
5 (qe:fi u-tu, ЖЖjuеnЩuеiflfl ®p-k-t°i-wе, pit°i-ui before COP-LNK emperor call-INF-3pl-EMPH now-TOP
6 ЖЖВmt®iflfl ®pfi, qe:fi u-tu, juеnЩuеi.109) їе-tu
emperor call:1pl before COP-LNK emperor
7 sat®'u-te:-t°-t®i-le:-ui
t®i ou
younger.sister-DEF:CL-GEN-man-DEF:CL-TOP son one:CL
8 Вi-kui, їе-tu
kn lеn-thе-le:
9 lеn-th-le:
10 mе:-le:-wu Mama-DEF:CL-AGT
е-s-mqе-ui one-day-each-TOP
11 їеthе iu-ui
INT sheep.wool-TOP one-day half.catty-INST half.catty
12 t-t®h-i
de-lde-i110 iu
DIR-weigh-ADV INT-this.manner DIR-spin-ADV sheep.wool
13 pеt® ball
їеlе, iu
DIR-spin-ADV INT sheep.wool ball
276 Texts
14 de-lde-i DIR-spin-ADV
ai® (still.is)
їеlе-ui INT-TOP
15 їеlе t®i-le:
lеn-th-le:-ui, їеlе t®hеq-tе
16 s-Щ-i
°i topu-wa-le:
u-ki, °i topu-le:
DIR-go-ADV wine like-very-DEF:CL COP-NAR wine like-DEF:CL
17 u-ki-tu, COP-NAR -LNK
ai® їеl s-Щ-i
(still.is) INT DIR-go-ADV wine
18 s-t°-i
19 mе:-le:-t°-ui
ai® °i-ui ai®
mama-DEF:CL-BEN-TOP (still.is) wine-TOP (still.is)
20 їе-tsi INT-this.manner
pеnt°in half.catty
lie-kp-kui-wе. carry-HABIT-NAR-EMPH
t°iu a!
INT-RESULT older.sister-DEF:CL (then) EXCL INT
22 sat®'u-le:-tе
younger.sister-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-come-NAR younger.sister-DEF:CL-LOC
23 z-lе-ki-tu,
DIR-come-NAR-LNK (still.is) EXCL younger.sister-DEF:CL-LOC
24 z-lе-ki-tu, DIR-come-NAR-LNK
INDEF:one-kind COP-LNK
25 їе-tu
u-tu, sawu-le:-ui
INT-RESULT one-day-LOC COP-LNK older.sister-DEF:CL-TOP INT-there
26 pethеu-p-kui-wе, їе-tu
chat-do-NAR-EMPH INT-RESULT younger.sister-DEF:CL (then)
27 ЖЖqе-t°-t®i-le:
їе-k lеn-thе, lеn-th-le:
1sg-GEN-son-DEF:CL INT-thus lazy-AUX lazy-AUX-DEF:CL
28 u-®,flfl j-i
COP-LNK say-ADV INT-thus
pethiеu-pu-kui. їе-tu chat-do-NAR INT-RESULT
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 277
29 е-s-Ще-tu,
tse: sat®'u
one-day-LOC-LNK this:CL younger.sister son-DEF:CL-TOP
30 їеlе INT
t°iu-lе, home-LOC
one-day-LOC-LNK market-LOC
31 s-Щ ®paqtе-i їе-ke
DIR-go pretend-ADV INT-thus door-DEF:CL behind
32 he-Вi-kui-wе.
DIR-exist-NAR-EMPH INT-RESULT older.sister-DEF:CL
33 е sat®'u-le:
їеlе -dВ-i
COM younger.sister-DEF:CL INT DIR-face.to.face-ADV
34 pethiеu-p-ki, їеlе pethiеu-p-ki-tu, pethiеu-p-ki-tu їеlе chat-do-NAR INT chat-do-NAR-LNK chat-do-NAR-LNK INT
35 mefix, pitiful
їеlе pethiеu-p-ki-tu,
t®i-le:-ui, son-DEF:CL-TOP
36 sat®'u-le:
t®i-le:-ui їеlе dy-le:
younger.sister-DEF:CL son-DEF:CL-TOP INT door-DEF:CL behind
37 u-x®u°t°u-kui. DIR-listen-NAR
u-x®u°t°u-kui-tu, DIR-listen-NAR-LNK
їеlе t®i-le:
38 de-ki,
discuss-NAR son-DEF:CL say-NAR-LNK
39 t®i-le:-ui
son-DEF:CL-TOP market-LOC
s-m-qе-t°i DIR-NEG-go-NAR
40 ui INT
door-DEF:CL behind
x®u°t°u-kui. ЖЖqе
41 t®i-le:
lеn-thеflfl j-i, їе-thе-ui
son-DEF:CL laxy-AUX say-ADV INT-there-TOP
42 їе-thе-hеn INT-that:one-kind
de-kui. say-NAR
t®i-le:-ui, їе-tu
ЖЖps-ui, a!
278 Texts
44 mе:-ui qе ps-ui i-p-l-jy,
mama-TOP 1sg today-TOP DIR-arrive-come-ASP 1sg-TOP
45 ps-ui pns е-n u-su-е-wе,flfl
today-TOP ability one-kind DIR-learn-1sg-EMPH say-NAR
46 ЖЖha! pns е-n u-su-е-wе,flfl
EXCL ability one-kind DIR-learn-1sg-EMPH say-NAR
47 ЖЖha! qе-t°-t®i
i©i pns u-su-n-е?flfl
EXCL 1sg-GEN-son what ability DIR-learn-2sg-Q say-NAR
48 ЖЖha! чile ps t°u-lе i©i de-j-wе?flfl j-kui, EXCL 2pl today home-LOC what say-CSM-Q say-NAR
49 ЖЖqе їеlе t®h-Вek'u-tе
kuеnts їе-ka:-Ще,
1sg INT market-center-LOC restaurant INT-INDEF:one:CL-LOC
50 Вi-s-tе-ui
qе -mе-®,
exist-NOM-LOC-TOP 1sg DIR-hear:1sg-LNK INT-RESULT 2pl-TOP
51 їе-kе-hеn
de-ji, їе-k de-ji-tu,
їеtе qе
INT-INDEF:one-kind say-CSM INT-thus say-CSM-LNK INT 1sg
52 -mе-®,
qе їе-kе-hеn-ui pns їе-kе-hеn
DIR-hear:1sg-LNK 1sg INT-one-kind-TOP ability INT-one-kind
53 u-su-е-wе,
їе-k -m,
DIR-learn-1sg-EMPH INT-thus DIR-hear INT-thus 2pl-AGT
54 їe-de lе-hеn-nefiwu DIR-say DEF:one-kind-all
DIR-hear able-NOM
55 їе-kе-hеn
INT-INDEF:one-kind DIR-learn-1sg-EMPH say-NAR-PART INT-thus
56 j-kui-tu, їе-tu
ЖЖi©i i©i їe-de:fiflfl j-kui,
say-NAR-LNK INT-RESULT what what DIR-say:1pl say-NAR
57 sawu-le:
е sat®'u-le:,
їеtе ЖЖїе-k de
older.siser-DEF:CL COM younger.sister-DEF:CL INT INT-thus say
58 їе-k
de qе е-mе-wе,
t®haq-tе kuеntsе
INT-thus say 1sg DIR-hear:1sg-EMPH market-LOC restaurant
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 279
59 Вi-s-tе
exist-NOM-LOC DIR-hear:1sg-EMPH INT-thus say-NAR-LNK
60 ЖЖa! EXCL
Щеt u-k-i, truly COP-INF-ADV
qе-t°-t®i,flfl 1sg-GEN-son
j-kui. say-NAR
INT-RESULT oldr.sistr-DEF:CL-GEN oldr.sistr-DEF:CL husband-TOP
62 juanЩuai-ui їе-ke u-ki. їе-tu
pit°-ui Вmt®i,
emperor-TOP INT-thus COP-NAR INT-RESULT now-TOP emperor
63 qe:fi u-tu, Вmt®i lе
ЖЖjuеnЩuеiflfl ®p-x-®,
before COP-LNK emperor DEF:one:kind emperor call-INF-LNK
64 їе-ke u, їе-tu
ЖЖa! Щеt°hi qе-t°-t®i-le:
65 pns е-n u-su-k-i,
u-tu, В
ability one-kind DIR-learn-INF-ADV INDEF:CL COP-if thing
66 hе-sе,flfl
j-ki. їе-tu
DIR-make.sound say-NAR INT-RESULT thus-say-NAR-LNK INT
67 їе-tsе-ui,
INT-this:one-time older.sister-DEF:CL older.sister-DEF:CL husband-TOP
68 snВ bl-s pe-kui-wе,
snВ bl-s kе-hеn
birthday do-NOM become-NAR-EMPH birthday do-NOM INDEF:one-kind
69 u-kui-tu, COP-NAR -LNK
Вb-ui xs-zi z-p-i
yak-TOP three-CL DIR-buy-ADV cowpen-LOC
70 їе-dy-i
71 їе-dy-i
DIR-tether-ADV exist-CAUS-NAR-LNK that:one-kind INT-TOP
72 їе-tu
INT-RESULT younger-sister-DEF:CL-son-DEF:CL-AGT ability
73 u-su-е-®flfl
gs dе-qе-i
DIR-learn-1sg-LNK say-NOM-DEF:CL-AGT night DIR-go-ADV
280 Texts
74 t-quеt®-iеnt°i, mq-tе tutu Вo:puе-lе Щu DIR-steal-after above-LOC cave cave-LOC mountain
75 dе-lе-j-s-tе DIR-cross-CSM-NOM-LOC
їе-dy-i DIR-tether-ADV
76 i-°i-kui-wе. DIR-put-NAR-EMPH
mountain DIR-cross-CSM-NOM-LOC
77 їе-dy-i
їеlе ЖЖsnВ bl-ui
DIR-tether-LNK DIR-put-NAR-LNK INT birthday do-TOP
78 їe-me-seflfl
j-kui. їe-me-se
DIR-NEG-allow say-NAR DIR-NEG-allow INDEF:one-kind
79 u-kui-tu, COP-NAR -LNK
sawu-le:-ui older.sister-DEF:CL-TOP
80 їеlе INT
wut°upu-le:-tе-ui husband-DEF:CL-LOC-TOP
pethiеu-їo-p'u-k-kui, chat-DIR-do-go-NAR
81 ЖЖqе-sat®'u-te:-t®i-ui 1sg-younger.sister-DEF:CL-son-TOP
їе-k INT-thus
he-the, DIR-able
82 u-Вmu-i DIR-dream-ADV
i-t®i-В DIR-represent-CAUS
dВ, u-x®u°t°u able DIR-listen
83 -m
їе-k, INT-thus
їе-k ©В-wе,flfl INT-thus able-EMPH
84 ik thus
j-kui-st~u. say-NAR-PART
tse: juеnЩuеi-le:-ui guefi
INT-RESULT this:CL emperor-DEF:CL-TOP soldier
86 Вi-В-ki-®, exist-CAUS-NAR-LNK
guefi soldier
he-°i-i DIR-send-ADV
87 їе-tsi-ui
ЖЖmefiВ-k t°he,flfl
DIR-this.manner-TOP seek-go want
j-tu. say-LNK
88 t-mefiВ-i dе-t°-k-kui, dе-t°-k kе-hеn
DIR-seek-ADV DIR-find-go-NAR DIR-find-go INDEF:one-kind COP-LNK
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 281
89 ai®, dе-t°-k-ku-tu,
їе-tse:-ui, ai®
(still.is) DIR-find-go-NAR-LNK INT-this:CL-TOP (still.is)
90 i:-wu
їеlе їе-dy-i
3sgREFL-AGT INT DIR-tether-ADV DIR-steal-ADV
91 їеlе INT
їе-dy-i DIR-tether-ADV
Вo:puе i-°i
cliff.cave cave
92 u-ku-tu. ai® thе-ui
u-tu, i:
COP-NAR-LNK (still.is) that:one-time COP-LNK 3sgREFL also
93 dВuk'u-le:-k-®, knowledge-exist-INF-LNK
tеntе-ke: bold/daring-INDEF:CL
94 Вi-ki-wе, exist-NAR-EMPH
tеntе-ke: bold/daring-INDEF:CL
95 Вi-ki-tu. exist-NAR-LNK
їе-thu-ui DIR-there-TOP
ЖЖqhuе: river.valley
96 dе-Щ-ja,
їе-thu-ui °i-la:
ataВ-®е, a.
DIR-go-REP:1sg INT-there-TOP little-DEF:one:CL fast-HORT INT
97 qe:fi е-s
j-s-ui. kе-z
dе-t° їe-si-uе
before one-day two-day-TOP INDEF:one-CL DIR-find DIR-allow-Q
98 їe-me-si?flfl DIR-NEG-allow
j-i say-ADV
їе-k INT-thus
99 u-kui-wе.
100 t°y-ki-tu, carry-NAR-LNK
®puthu® bamboo.tube
lou-Ще DEF:one:CL-LOC
101 hе-s-m
DIR-make.sound-NOM also
i: 3sgREFL
102 u-ki-wе, COP-NAR -EMPH
kefil-m l i:
ask-NOM also 3sgREFL COP-NAR
103 he-Вgue-m DIR-answer-NOM
l i:
u-ki, їе-tu
282 Texts
104 i: 3sgREFL
DIR-make.sound-ADV 3sgREFL
105 he-Вgue
106 е-s-Ще
u-tu, їе-tu,
one-day-LOC COP-LNK INT-RESULT older.sister-DEF:CL
107 wut°upu-le:-ui, qe:fi u-tu, ЖЖjuеnЩuеiflfl, pit°-u-tu husband-DEF:CL-TOP before COP-LNK emperor now-COP-LNK
108 ЖЖВmt®iflfl ®pe:fi-®.
emperor call:1pl-LNK INT-RESULT, EXCL little-DEF:one:CL
109 ataВ t°he, їе-tu
we-tu,flfl j-iеnt°i,
fast want INT-RESULT INDTV-fast-AUX-LNK exist-LNK say-after
110 їе-k j-ku-tu,
ЖЖots'uquе-ui dе-Щ
INT-thus say-NAR-LNK morning-TOP DIR-go able-NOM
111 u¬u dВ-m:fiwu fast able-NOM:all
mefiВ-k t°he,flfl їе-k seek-go want INT-thus
112 j-kui-wе.
zt е-s
say-NAR-EMPH INT-RESULT date one-day DIR-put-NAR date
113 -®-ki-i DIR-put-NAR-ADV
ai®, їеlе t°et°i-le:
(still.is) INT everywhere-DEF:CL all
114 ph
message DIR-blow-NOM-LOC-after INT-RESULT-TOP DIR-go
115 dВ-m x®u°t°u dВ-m
able-NOM hear
able-NOM INT-DEF:one-kind-all here
116 zu-l'u,
t°ile-ui Вmu
DIR-come 1pl-TOP
meeting hold-PRS
117 zu-l'u
t°he-wе,flfl j-kui-wе.
DIR-come want-EMPH say-NAR-EMPH INT-RESULT this:CL
118 mi-tse:-ui
їе-thе t®hets-qu-tе s-l-i
person-this:CL-TOP INT-there cart-top-LOC DIR-look-ADV
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 283
119 ®puthu®
kefil-jy, t-kefil-jеnt°i,
bamboo.tube DEF:one:CL-LOC-TOP ask-ASP DIR-ask-after
120 їе-tu
t-kefil-i, t-kefil-jant°i,
INT-RESULT DIR-ask-ADV DIR-ask-after
121 ®puthu® tou-Ще-ui
mi їеlе Вmt®i-le:
bamboo.tube DEF:one:CL-LOC-TOP person INT emperor-DEF:CL
122 Вmu-tsu
їе-thе t®hets-qu-tе
meeeting-hold DEF:one-day-LOC-TOP INT-there cart-top-LOC
123 s-l-i DIR-look-ADV
їе-ke INT-thus
kefil-k-kui. ask-go-NAR
124 ЖЖpoqu®-ui do-©Вu-n-tu,
Вi? їеl Вi
livestock-TOP DIR-lose-2sg-LNK where-LOC exist there exist
125 їеl there
exist-EMPH thief-AGT DIR-steal-ADV
їеlе there
126 tutu
Вo:pе їе-dy-i
cliff.cave cave DIR-tether-ADV exist-CAUS
Щu mountain
127 ¬е-ji-wе,flfl cross-CSM-EMPH
say-ADV INT-thus
de-ku. їе-k say-NAR INT-thus
128 ®pthu®-ta:-Щa-ui
ii hе-s
bamboo.tube-DEF:one:CL-LOC-TOP 3sgREFL DIR-make.sound INT-thus
129 kefil-k-ku, їе-k kefil kе-hеn
ask-go-NAR INT-thus ask INDEF:one-kind COP-NAR-LNK
130 ЖЖе-®
one-time look-2sg-IMP-LNK
їе-the-wu, a, ®ku-wu INT-that-ABL INT thief-AGT
131 t-quеt®-k, їе-thе dе-¬е:
jsai-wе, їеlе-ui thе
DIR-steal-go INT-there DIR-cross:PRS fast-EMPH INT-TOP there
132 Вi-wе,flfl j-ku. їе-tu
tsoqpi phеwu-le:
exist-EMPH say-NAR INT-RESULT this:family older.sister-DEF:CL
133 t°ymi-le:,
thoqpi-ui hе-q-i
child-DEF:CL that:family-TOP DIR-go-ADV
i:-t° 3sgREFL-GEN
284 Texts
134 їеlе guefi-е thе-hеn
INT army-COM that:one-kind DIR-put-ADV DIR-seek-NOM-LOC
135 Щеt°hi truly
thе there
exist-NAR INT-this:one-time
136 tse:-ui,
this: CL-TOP
younger.sister-DEF:CL son-DEF:CL-TOP
137 minjy-t°iu-kеulе.
(reputation-then-higher) INT-RESULT older.sister-DEF:CL husband-COM
138 i©i dz-i
what eat-ADV what
drink-GEN INT-this.manner
139 -®-jy
u-i їе-tsi
DIR-put-ASP COP-ADV INT-this.manner provide.for-NAR-EMPH
140 їе-tsе-ui-tu,
DIR-this:one-time-LNK this:CL-GEN-LOC
t°iu (then
t°ait°yelе. solved)
-- 141
INT-RESULT later-DEF:one-time-LOC-LNK (that.is)
142 Вmt®i-le:-ui emperor-DEF:CL-TOP
їе-thе INT-there
143 nai-e-fn-Ще-t°-Вmt®i-ke:
other-one-place-LOC-GEN-emperor-INDEF:CL monk's.robe113-DEF:CL
144 do-©Вu-ki-hе, DIR-lose-NAR-PART
Вmt®i emperor
jn-le:, monk's.robe-DEF:CL
145 Вmt®i emperor
jn-le: monk's.robe-DEF:CL
do-©Вu DIR-lose
146 kе-hеn
їе-tse:-wu INT-this:CL-AGT
їе-thе, INT-there
147 їе-lе-hеn INT-DEF:one-kind
u-kuе-ji, е-l-wu
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 285
148 pethiеu-їo-pu-i chat-DIR-do-ADV
knowledge exist
kе-hеn INDEF:one-kind
149 u-kuе-ji, COP-NAR -HS
knowledge exist-NAR-LNK
150 dВuk'u de-l
u-ku. їе-tse:-ui
knowledge DIR-exist INDEF:one-kind COP-NAR INT-this:CL-TOP
151 ЖЖmefiВ-k seek-go
t°he, mefiВ-k t°he,flfl want seek-go want
j-ku. їе-tu say-NAR INT-RESULT
152 ЖЖt-mefiВ-i
DIR-seek-ADV INT-this:CL-TOP
DIR-dream 3sgREFL
153 s-t®i
їe-di-i -m
dВ-m їе-kе-hеn
DIR-represent DIR-say-ADV DIR-hear able-NOM INT-INDEF:one-kind
154 u-®, їе-tse:-ui їе-k he-the-le:
COP-LNK INT-this:CL-TOP INT-thus DIR-able-DEF:CL exist-EMPH
155 j-tu. say-LNK
INT-this:family-AGT message DIR-take-ADV
156 ph
he-kue-i їе-kе-hеn
message DIR-take-ADV INT-INDEF:one-kind DIR-do-NAR-EMPH
157 їе-tsе-ui-tu,
tsoqpi Вmt®i jn-le:
INT-this:one-time-LNK this:family emperor monk's.robe-DEF:CL
158 do-©Вu-m DIR-lose-NOM
tsoqpi-ui, tse:-ui, їе-tse:-ui this:family-TOP this:CL-TOP INT-this:CL-TOP
159 t®еutеulе (found)
dе-t°-ku-kui, DIR-find-go-NAR
їе-ts-tse: INT-here-this:CL
160 dе-t°-k.
DIR-find-go DIR-find-go INDEF:one-kind COP-LNK (still.is)
161 -pfiВ-kui-wе, DIR-provide.for-NAR-EMPH
®t°iеn time
-tin-thе-ki, DIR-set-AUX-NAR
162 -tin-thе-jant°i
їеlе °t°-s
DIR-set-AUX-after INT seven-day
-®-ki, DIR-put-NAR
286 Texts
163 ЖЖ°t°-s-Ще-ui seven-day-LOC-TOP
tse: this:CL
Вmt®i jin-ne: emperor monk's.robe-DEF:CL
164 е-z
qu їеt u-Вmu-i
one-little difficult INT DIR-dream-ADV DIR-sign-NOM-DEF:CL
165 u-®,
їеta, ke:
166 u-Вmu-i
Вmt®i jin-le:
DIR-dream-ADV DIR-sign-NOM emperor monk's.robe-DEF:CL COP-LNK
167 е-z
one-little difficult-LNK say-ADV
INT-thus say-REP-NAR
їе-k ®t°ian -®-ki-tu,
INT-thus time DIR-put-NAR-LNK seven-day COM
169 °t°-j
їеtе, їе-ts Вmt®i-le:-tе-ui
seven-night COP-ADV INT INT-this emperor-DEF:CL-DAT-TOP
170 s-dzi-ku-wе, DIR-eat-NAR-EMPH
s-dze-tu, DIR-eat-LNK
е-s-Ще one-day-LOC
171 Вmt®i-le:-ui, ЖЖa,
emperor-DEF:CL-TOP EXCL 1sg-monk's.robe-DEF:CL-TOP
172 e:-wu one:CL-AGT
other-one-place-LOC DIR-move
Щu-®,flfl willing-LNK
173 їе-tu
їе-k j-ku, їе-tu,
174 їе-tu,
ba k t°h-kp-k,
INT-RESULT rice/food (still.is) big thus eat-HABIT-INF
175 їе-tu,
mеutshе sei-j-k
INT-RESULT one-day-LOC-LNK toilet
176 hе-q-ki-tu.
mеutsh-le: dе-t°
DIR-go-NAR-LNK toilet-DEF:CL DIR-find
177 mе-l-ki, NEG-able-NAR
mеutsh-le: dе-t°
toilet-DEF:CL DIR-find NEG-able-NAR-LNK
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 287
178 їеlе mеutshе sei-ki-wе, INT toilet relieve.oneself-NAR-EMPH
179 puu-lеpе: lou-wu,
cat-flower DEF:one:CL-AGT INT
180 Ще-ui roof.tile-TOP
їе-thе INT-there
mеutsh-le:-qu-tе Ще toilet-DEF:CL-top-LOC roof.tile
181 s-dy la:-Ще
їе-thе Вi-kui-wе.
182 t®ekВnla
mi-tse-ze-ui, ЖЖhai! pefuts,
(this.person) person-this-CL-TOP INT white.beard(cat) (this
183 pefuts
mfi ke guo zuo еu s,flfl j-i-stu.
white.beard cat give 1sg do good thing) say-HS-PART
184 їе-tu
Вmt®i emperor
185 jin-le:-tе
їе-ЩdВe-jant°i їеlе
monk's.robe-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-bite-after there
186 u-zu-i DIR-wait-ADV
їеl u-zu-i
exist-NAR-PART there DIR-wait-ADV
187 Вi-kui-tu,
ЖЖa, Ве hе-sе,115
tse: puu-le:-wu
exist-NAR-LNK INT thing DIR-make.sound this:CL cat-DEF:CL-AGT
188 qе-t° Ве hе-sе,
1sg-GEN thing DIR-make.sound EXCL 1sg-GEN good.thing
189 t-bl-n-®,flfl DIR-do-2sg-LNK
u-jant°i, COP-after
190 їеlе there
cat-DEF:CL-DAT DIR-bring-after
191 їеlе INT
roof.tile-TOP seven-CL
t-®e. DIR-count
їе-the-wu, INT-that-ABL
192 Ще-ui
ui °t°-t®, nai e-i
roof.tile-TOP DIR-vertically TOP seven-row other one-CL
288 Texts
193 e-i one-CL
COP-LNK seven-CL
їеl-jеnt°i there-after
Вmt®i emperor
194 jin-le:
monk's.robe-DEF:CL INT-there
t-®u-ki-hе. DIR-hide-NAR-PART
196 їе-tsе-ui-tu, INT-this:one-time-LNK
Вmt®i-le:-ui, emperor-DEF:CL-TOP
197 е-z-ui
one-little-TOP difficult-too-2sg
qе nai-е-®pеq-tе 1sg other-one-place-LOC
198 do-quq DIR-move
willing-ADV what
u-ui?flfl COP-Q
199 їеtе INT
t-kefil-k-kui. DIR-ask-go-NAR
200 їе-thе t-kefil-k-kui-tu, INT-there DIR-ask-go-NAR-LNK
EXCL tomorrow-ADV-TOP
201 (ЖЖtp-iflfl
j l khuoji,
tomorrow-ADV say also (be.possible)
їe-se, DIR-allow
202 ЖЖsoqho-iflfl
j l khuoji),
ЖЖt°ile-tе, е-s е-s
tomorrow-ADV say also (be.possible) 1pl-LOC one-day one-day
203 lе-hеn-Ще,flfl
DEF:one-kind-LOC that.manner say-NAR-LNK EXCL
204 їe-se.flfl
tse:-ui, ai®
ЖЖqе pmaha i:-le:
DIR-allow this:CL-TOP (still.is) 1sg tonight what-DEF:CL
205 t-suе,
DIR-divine(v.) INT-RESULT little-DEF:one:CL DIR-sign-NOM-LOC-LNK
206 pmaha i-t®i-lе-wе.
tonight DIR-sign-INDTV:1sg-EMPH morning-TOP
207 thunt® notify
tu-pu-n-pе, DIR-do-2sg-DTV
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 289
208 dе-Щ
dВ-m, -m
dВ-m, sei dВ-mefiwu
DIR-go able-NOM DIR-hear able-NOM walk able-NOM:all
209 lu t°he, їе-tsе-hе-ui i-p-l
come want INT-this:one-pl-TOP DIR-arrive-come want-EMPH
210 j-kui.
Вmu t®u-s-ui
say-NAR meeting hold-NOM-TOP
Вmt®i-le:-tе-ui emperor-DEF:CL-DAT-TOP
211 їе-k
INT-thus say-NAR-EMPH
їеtе, ЖЖе, thunt®-tu-p'u-i INT EXCL notify-DIR-do-ADV
212 mi їеlе dе-Щ dВ-m, de-sei dВ-m-le:fiwu person INT DIR-go able-NOM DIR-walk able-NOM-all
213 lu-j-kui.flfl
їеtе mefi®-tе-s-Ще
come-REP-NAR INT next-DEF:one-day-LOC meeting DIR-hold
214 tu
їе-tsu ®puthu® tou-Ще,
RESULT INT-here bamboo.tube DEF:one:CL-LOC
215 їе-tsou-Ще
kefil-m l i:
INT-this:one:CL-LOC ask-NOM also 3sgREFL
216 hе-s-m
l i:-ui
DIR-make.sound-NOM also 3sgREFL-TOP
їе-ke INT-thus
217 Вi-ki-wе,
їеtе t°е-lе
®, t°е-l
exist-NAR-EMPH INT where-LOC exist where-LOC
218 mеutsh-le:-ui
Ще-ui roof.tile-TOP
219 a-t®,
WH:one-row INT-there
220 t-®e-iеnt°i, їе-thu DIR-count-after INT-there
®-wе, exist-EMPH
j-kui. say-NAR
221 їе-tse:-ui INT-this:CL-TOP
im notice(n.)
hе-q-stun, DIR-go-PART
222 im
hе-qе, їе-tsе-ui,
notice(n.) DIR-go INT-this:one-time DIR-find-go-PART this:one-time
290 Texts
223 u-tu, їе-tu
COP-LNK INT-RESULT this:CL-AGT notice(n.) DIR-make.sound
224 їе-tu
INT-RESULT emperor
tse:-ui this:CL-TOP
mi ai® INT (still.is)
225 k-j-ku, thus-say-NAR
ЖЖqе i©i dz-i 1sg what eat-ADV
i©i dz, what eat
226 qе o-z'u-i
o-z'u, qе tu-j'u-i
1sg DIR-sit-ADV DIR-sit 1sg DIR-stand-ADV DIR-stand
227 їе-tsi-ui, їе-thе, this.manner-TOP INT-there
INT-thus DIR- COP:1pl-EMPH
228 j-kui-®,
ais їе-tsi
say-NAR-LNK person (still) INT-this.manner INT-this:CL-TOP
229 kn®
їе-ke u-В-kui-hе.
even.more DIR-provide.for-ADV INT-thus COP-CAUS-NAR-PART
-- 230
nai u-tu, Вmt®i nai-e:
INT-RESULT other COP-LNK emperor other-one:CL COP-LNK
231 gnkuo wtshi-ui
parrot bird-TOP
expensive (still.is)
232 pеufu-le:
u-s kе-hеn
u-kuе-ji, їе-ke
retaliation-DEF:CL COP-NOM INDEF:one-kind COP-NAR-HS INT-thus
233 do-©Вu-ki-wе,
genkuo i® wtshi kе-hеn
DIR-lose-NAR-EMPH parrot (is) bird
234 Вi-ku-®,
exist-NAR-LNK INT-INDEF:one-kind exist-NAR-LNK
235 do-©Вu-ki. tu,
tse-x®epi Вmt®i this-side emperor
236 jin
їе-thе the-x®epi-Ще
monk's.robe DIR-lose-NOM-DEF:CL-AGT INT-that that-side-LOC
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 291
237 khu-ui thе
there DIR-look-CAUS-NAR INT-that:one-kind
238 do-©Вu-n-tu, DIR-lose-2sg-LNK
Вi-wе,flfl exist-EMPH
239 j-kui. їе-tu
е-tеu t-mefiВ-i
say-NAR INT-RESULT (still.is) one-time DIR-seek-ADV
240 mi-le:
thе i-p-l-i,
person-DEF:CL there DIR-arrive-come-ADV INT-RESULT
241 ®t°iеn -tin-thе-i
time DIR-agree.on-AUX-ADV INT-this.manner
242 -pfiВ-k-kui,
DIR-provide.for-go-NAR INT-RESULT DIR-provide.for-ADV
243 kе-hеn
u-tu, е,
INT-RESULT (still.is)
244 ЖЖa,
qе tse:
EXCL 1sg this:CL inanimate.treasure-DEF:CL NEG-COP-LNK
245 uopеu-le:
u. uopеu
live.treasure-DEF:CL COP live.treasure COP-LNK
246 їe-®ue-i
die-®e-k Щu.flfl
DIR-be.hungry-ADV one-place-LOC DIR-die-INF may
247 їе-th-ui ®t°iеn-ui DIR-that-TOP time-TOP
°t°-s-ui, seven-day-TOP
248 ts-s this-COMP
еz-ui one:CL-TOP
small-DEF:CL fast-ADV
249 u-Вmu DIR-dream
u-t°u-s-le: DIR-see-NOM-DEF:CL
250 -m-s DIR-hear-NOM
xu-tu, exist-LNK
251 qе-t°-ui °i-lе:
1sg-GEN-TOP small-DEF:CL fast-NOM-DEF:CL INDTV-COP:1sg
292 Texts
252 їе-tu,
a, t®ent®en qе tse:
INT-RESULT EXCL really 1sg this:CL
genkuo-le: parrot-DEF:CL
253 dе-t°-s
u-tu, їе-thе genkuo-le:
DIR-find-NOM INDEF:one-kind COP-LNK INT-there parrot-DEF:CL
254 dе-t°i-n-tu,
phin-t°hi-phin-tsuo, ai®
DIR-find-2sg-LNK 1sg-COM:thus (equal-stand-equal-sit) (still.is)
255 qе 1sg
i©i dz-i dz, їеtе qе tu-j'u-i what eat-ADV eat INT 1sg DIR-stand-ADV
256 tu-j'u, qе o-zu-i
o-zu, їеtе qе i©i dz-i
DIR-stand 1sg DIR-sit-ADV DIR-sit INT 1sg what eat-ADV
257 i©i dz ai® їе-tsi
what eat (still.is) INT-this.manner DIR-COP:1pl-EMPH
258 j-i u-kui-tu. mi ai® їе-tu
say-ADV COP-NAR-LNK person (still.is) INT-RESULT time-TOP
259 ai®
(still.is) INT-RESULT
t-mefiВ-lе-s-Ще-tu, DIR-seek-DEF:one-day-LOC-LNK
260 sei-k
relieve.oneself-go DIR-go-NAR-EMPH
sei-k relieve.oneself-go
261 hе-q-kei-tu,
DIR-go-NAR-LNK INT-RESULT one-day-LOC-LNK that:one-kind
262 sei-k relieve.oneself-go
hе-q-kei-tu. DIR-go-NAR-LNK
їеlе, INT
263 Щfi-tе-ui
Han.person-DAT-TOP street.edge-LOC bamboo
264 me-we-m NEG-exist-NOM
me-Вi, NEG-exist
265 їеtе, INT
street.edge-LOC bamboo
we-wu-®,117 exist-VIS-LNK
266 е-t® е-t® tе-hеn
one-row one-row DEF:one-kind exist-VIS-LNK
®p bamboo
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 293
267 i-phi-i
DIR-grow-ADV one-row
one-row DEF:one-kind
268 we-ku-tu, exist-NAR-LNK
їе-thе genkuo-le:-ui INT-there parrot-DEF:CL-TOP
269 ©zifе wing
q-tе-ui x®ul lou top-LOC-TOP rope DEF:one:CL
t-®-i DIR-tie-ADV
270 wet stick
lou DEF:one:CL
їе-ke INT-thus
t-t®he-le: DIR-support-DEF:CL
271 we-kui-wе,
їеlе x®ul-le:-ui ®p
exist-NAR-EMPH RESULT INT rope-DEF:CL-TOP bamboo
272 qa-lе among-LOC
hе-j-kui. DIR-stick/be.caught-NAR
hе-j-kui-tu, DIR-stick-NAR-LNK
273 їеlе, INT
mеutsh toilet
dе-t° DIR-find
mе-l-ki-tu. NEG-able-NAR-LNK
274 їеlе there
relieve.oneself-NAR-EMPH RESULT INT
275 sei-ki-tu,
genkuo-le: Веuе-lе °t°efip°t°efip-le:
relieve.oneself-NAR-LNK parrot-DEF:CL inside-LOC (birdcall)-DEF:CL
276 thе sе-kui-hе,
there make.sound-NAR-PART this:one-time this:CL parrot-DEF:CL
277 qе-t° Ве
j-i їеlе їе-ke
1sg-GEN matter/affair DIR-make.sound-LNK say-ADV INT INT-thus
278 В-ki. їе-tu,
їеlе, the: t-tsqе-jant°i,
exist-NAR INT-RESULT INT 3sg DIR-grab-after
279 genkuo-le: t-tsqе-jant°i, parrot-DEF:CL DIR-grab-after
їеtе, INT
®p-ui bamboo-TOP
280 е-t® е-t® one-row one.row
t-®-jant°i, DIR-count-after
їе-the-wu, INT-that-ABL
281 їе-tsi
INT-this.manner COP-after
INT-there DIR-put
294 Texts
282 їе-tsе-ui-tu,
a, їе-tu,
INT-this:one-time-LNK EXCL INT-RESULT emperor-DEF:CL-TOP
283 tu,
ЖЖе, qе-uopеu-le:-ui
RESULT EXCL 1sg-live.treasure-DEF:CL-TOP disaster-NEG-willing
284 uopеu-le:
u-® е-®pе-lе
die-®e-k Щu,
live.treasure-DEF:CL COP-LNK one-place-LOC DIR-die-go may
285 їe-®ue-i,flfl DIR-be.hungry-ADV
j-i, say-ADV
ataВ-s-lе: fast-NOM-DEF:CL
286 dz-i kе-hеn
u-®е, qе, ч~u ai® qе i©i
eat-ADV INDEF:one-kind COP-HORT 1sg 2sg (still.is) 1sg what
287 dz-i i©i dz-t°, їе-tsi-ui eat-ADV what eat-NOM INT-this.manner-TOP
i©i what
288 ®t°iеn time
їе-ts-ui INT-this-TOP
tu-wu-i DIR-discuss-ADV
289 їе-k INT-thus
-®-ki-hе.flfl DIR-put-NAR-PART
290 їе-tu
t®ekВnla ai®
INT-RESULT (this.person) (still.is) bamboo.tube DEF:one:CL
291 he-t°y-i,
292 stuеhе t°h-s
food eat-NOM INT-INDEF:one-kind
293 lez fate/destiny
t-Щ-s-le: DIR-go-NOM-DEF:CL
we-kuai. exist-NAR
294 їе-tu,
їе-ts uеn-t°hiеnmefi
INT-RESULT INT-this Huang Qianmen
їе-tse:-ui, INT-this:CL-TOP
295 ai® genkuo-le:, genkuo-le:
(still.is) parrot-DEF:CL parrot-DEF:CL DIR-find-go-NAR-PART
296 їе-tsu-ui INT-here-TOP
i ke guo (2sg give 1sg
sеn-jеn, three-kind)
їе-thu INT-there
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 295
297 xs-hеn three-kinds
thunt® tu-p-В-ku-®, notify DIR-do-CAUS-NAR-LNK
298 Вmt®i-le:
i©i dz-i
emperor-DEF:CL what eat-ADV
299 їе-tu
300 uеn-t°hiеnmefi-le:
їе-ke u-ku-wе.
Huang-Qianmen-DEF:CL that:one-kind INT-thus COP-NAR-EMPH
-- 301
INT-this:CL parrot-DEF:CL
302 dе-t°-m-ui DIR-find-NOM-TOP
їе-thе-ui, qе-tsi-le:-ui, INT-there-TOP 1sg-daughter-DEF:CL-TOP
303 qе-luq-te:-ui
o-zu-n,flfl DIR-sit-2sg
304 їе-k
INT-here Huang-Qianmen
305 їе-tsu qе-wu
kopu-le:-ui, qе
DIR-here 1sg-AGT say-NOM root-DEF:CL-TOP 1sg
306 t°iq de-s-tе-ui
inside say-NOM-LOC-TOP name-DEF:one-CL DIR-forget-1sg
307 їеlе uеn-t°hiеnmefi INT Huang-Qianmen
Вm-w-wе. call-VIS-EMPH
uеn-t°hiеnmefi Huang-Qianmen
308 Вm-w kе-hеn
call-VIS INDEF:one-kind COP-VIS-LNK
Вmt®i-le:-ui emperor-DEF:CL-TOP
309 t°i-steke-lе
u-tu, їеtе genkuo-le:
most-back-LOC COP-LNK INT parrot-DEF:CL DIR-find-ADV
310 їе-kе-hеn
u-w-tu, їе-tu
296 Texts
311 tsi-le:-ui
uеn-t°hiеnmefi-tе ©В-s,
daughter-DEF:CL-TOP Huang-Qianmen-DAT marry-NOM
312 uеn-t°hiеnmefi-ui Вmt®i Huang-Qianmen-TOP emperor
dzu-s, sit-NOM
Вmt®i-le: emperor-DEF:CL
313 tsi-le:-ui daughter-DEF:CL-TOP
ai® (still.is)
314 їе-thе INT-there
DIR-give-NOM INT-thus
u-ku-tu. COP-NAR -LNK
Narrator: Yu Zelong I Born 1960 Recorded 1996
The Story of a Lazy Man A long time ago there were two sisters. The husband of the older sister was the emperor (previously called /juеnЩuеi/, now called /Вmt®i/). The younger sister had a son who was very lazy. Every day the mother would weigh out half a catty of wool and spin yarn. The son liked to drink liquor and often went to a restaurant in town to drink. When he returned, he often brought back half a catty of liquor for his mother. One day the older sister went to her younger sisterfls home and chatted with her. The younger sister told the older one, ЖЖMy son is very lazy.flfl One day the younger sisterfls son pretended to go to town but hid behind the door. The older and younger sister chatted inside and the son of the younger sister listened from behind the door. The two sisters spoke of the younger sisterfls son. This son had not gone to town, but was behind the door secretly listening. They said things like ЖЖMy son is very lazy.flfl The younger sisterfls son then said to his mother, ЖЖIflm back. Today I learned an ability.flfl The younger sister asked, ЖЖSon, what ability did you learn?flfl The son said, ЖЖWhat were you saying today at home? When I was in the restaurant in the center of town, I heard what you said (what you said, I learned to be able to hear it all).flfl The two sisters said, ЖЖWhat did we say?flfl The son of the younger sister said, ЖЖWhen I was in the restaurant in town, I heard you say this and that.flfl The younger sister said, ЖЖThatfls really how it was, son.flfl
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 297 The older sisterfls husband was emperor. The younger sister then said, ЖЖIf my son has learned this kind of ability, it really is a good thing.flfl One day, the older sisterfls husband was preparing for his birthday. He bought three yak and tethered them inside a cowpen. The son of the younger sister, the one who said ЖЖI have learned an abilityflfl, at night stole the yaks and crossed the mountain and tethered them in a mountain cave. The emperor could not proceed with his birthday (celebration). The older sister said to her husband (the emperor), ЖЖMy younger sisterfls son has an ability. He can see in his dreams where something is. When he listens, he can hear.flfl This emperor had soldiers, and sent his soldiers to look for the lost yaks. After this person had stolen the yaks, he tied them in a cave on the mountain. He himself knew, and he was relaxed and carefree. Almost at the river embankment, the person searching said, a little faster. See if itfls possible to find [the yaks] a day or two ahead of time. [The one with an ability] brought a bamboo tube, and he himself asked on the bamboo tube and he himself answered (he asked himself and answered himself). One day, the older sisterfls husband (formerly called /juеnЩuеi/ [emperor], now called /Вmt®i/ [emperor]) said, ЖЖIf one is able to go faster, then go a little faster. Those who can go tomorrow and can go fast must all go search.flfl In this manner he selected a propitious day, and after the propitious day was selected, notified people everywhere. ЖЖThose who can go, and who can hear all come here. We will hold a meeting, and all must come here.flfl On a cart this person [with an ability] used the bamboo tube to ask [the whereabouts of the yaks] on the day the meeting was held. On the cart he used the bamboo tube to ask where the emperorfls livestock had been lost. There he said, ЖЖAfter a thief took the livestock, he drove them up on the mountain and tethered them in a mountain cave. Quickly now go over that mountain.flfl Through the bamboo tube he himself answered and he himself asked. After asking, he said, ЖЖYou see, that thief stole them. Quickly cross over that mountain. They are there!flfl This child of the older sisterfls family, this familyfls soldiers and the other people went to look, and when they went to look, the livestock really was there. At this time, as for this person, well! The younger sisterfls sonfls reputation went up greatly. Whatever the older sisterfls husband ate, he ate; whatever the emperor drank, he drank. It was discussed and agreed in advance to provide for him this way. Thus, this personfls problems were solved. --Later, that time, the emperor of another place lost a ЖЖdzinflfl (also called a ЖЖjin.flfl A monkfls robe or ЖЖHuang Ma Guaflfl). After the emperor had lost the dzin, he was chatting with another person and learned about
298 Texts (it). The emperor said, ЖЖ(I) must have this person go search. This person can dream or hear otherfls words. This person has much ability.flfl A person of this family took a message to him, and after taking him the message, he will find the emperorfls dzin. After this person finds the dzin, the emperor will provide for him. He set a time, he set a time of seven days. ЖЖWithin seven days he must find the emperorfls dzin in his dreams. The difficulty is great.flfl For seven days and seven nights this person ate and drank at the emperor's. After eating, one day, the emperor said to him, ЖЖAi! My dzin has been moved somewhere by someone.flfl One day, the son ate too much and went to the toilet to relieve himself. There was a cat which had moved some roof tiles on top of the toilet and hidden the emperorfls dzin among the tiles. When he went to look, he discovered the emperorfls dzin. He said, ЖЖThis brindled cat has done me a good deed,flfl and took the dzin from the cat. He counted seven tiles, and stood up seven rows vertically; he hid the emperorfls dzin there. At this time, the emperor said, ЖЖit will be a little difficult for you to find the dzin. I am willing to move to another place. How about that?flfl That person then said, ЖЖYou come tomorrowflfl (we say ЖЖsoqhuiflfl [tomorrow], and it can also be said ЖЖtpiflfl [tomorrow]). ЖЖTonight Iflll try to divine [its whereabouts], all right? Tomorrow Iflll notify you and notify those who can walk and who can hear to come. These people must all come.flfl To organize a meeting, this is how he spoke to the emperor. The next day, a meeting was held. He used the bamboo tube and asked himself and answered himself, where is the dzin. This person had them go look, counting out which roof tile in which row of tiles on which toilet. The emperorfls dzin was in fact there. After finding it, they notified the emperor, and the emperor said to him, ЖЖWhatever I eat, you eat; when I sit, you sit; when I stand, you stand.flfl In the end, he was even better provided for. -There was another emperor who lost (had stolen) a very expensive kind of parrot, perhaps for revenge. After losing it, this emperor who had lost the dzin told this person who had lost the parrot, ЖЖA dog barks in that direction. You have lost this kind of bird, and I have there (in my place) one of this kind of bird.flfl A person came here to search. When he went to search, those people set a time to feed this parrot. ЖЖThis parrot of mine isnflt a dead treasure, itfls a living treasure. It might starve to death someplace. If you can dream of it a little faster, see or hear it, do it a little faster for me. If you can find the parrot, you may rise and sit with me (as my equal) and like me eat what I eat, stand when I stand, sit when I sit.flfl The day he went to look for the parrot, he went to a place
Text 5: The Story of a Lazy Man 299 where Han people live and went to relieve himself. Where the Han people live, each family grew bamboo. By the roadside there was row after row of bamboo trees. There was a rope tied around a small stick attached to the parrotfls wing. The rope was wedged in the bamboo forest. This person couldnflt find a toilet, so he went to relieve himself beside the bamboo forest. While relieving himself, he heard the parrot calling in the bamboo forest. He said, ЖЖThis parrot has done a good thing for me,flfl and he caught the parrot. After catching it, he counted the rows of bamboo and put the parrot there. The emperor said, ЖЖMy living treasure might starve to death (it would be a disaster). Itfls a living treasure which may die someplace. If it could eat a little something as soon as possible, then like me, what I eat, you will eat.flfl After this, they set a time (came to an agreement on it), and this person brought up the bamboo tube. He used the tube to eat (earn his living). Perhaps he had this kind of luck. This person was called Huang Qianmen. Huang Qianmen brought the parrot back and said to the emperor, ЖЖYou must give me three things. These three things you must proclaim to the people.flfl In the end, Huang Qianmen lived just like the emperor. -This emperor said, ЖЖThe person who finds the parrot will marry my daughter and sit on my throne. (The Huang Qianmen I spoke of is the person I called ЖЖthis personflfl before. When I was talking before, I forgot his name. This personfls name is Huang Qianmen.) The emperor said, ЖЖTo the person who finds the parrot I will marry my daughter,flfl so Huang Qianmen married his daughter and became emperor.
Text 6
The Old Man of the Chen Family
Chen.family old.man
qеp е
long.ago COP-LNK Chen.family old.man COM
2 e:
khu °e-k,
one-day-LOC-ADV dog release-go
3 їе-tu
°e-ki-tu,118 release-NAR-LNK
4 khu °e-ki-tu,
khu t-°i-i
dog release-NAR-LNK one-day-each dog DIR-release-ADV
5 phеntsh-Ще
khu t-°i-i
stuеhе t°h-m,
traveling.expenses-LOC dog DIR-release-ADV food eat-NOM
6 їе-tu,
i©i anything
7 de-me-zde-ki, DIR-NEG-hit-NAR
de-me-zde-kui-tu, DIR-NEG-hit-NAR-LNK
8 Вo:pu-le: cave-DEF:CL
®ql-lе-ui bs-le: below-LOC-TOP snake-DEF:CL
9 u-t°u-ki-wе. DIR-see-NAR-EMPH
ЖЖhе, ps-ui EXCL today-TOP
anything also
10 de-me-zde. DIR-NEG-hit
їе-ke INT-thus
k-Щza-i, go-ought:1sg-ADV
їе-k INT-thus
11 x®u°t°u-le:
empty.handed-DEF:CL go-not.as.good.as DIR-see-CSM:1sg-ADV
12 е-phеu one-shot
qhu-®е.flfl shoot-HORT
j-ki. say-NAR
13 е-phеu u-qhu-ki-tu,
one-shot DIR-shoot-NAR-LNK INT-RESULT man.eating.demon-DEF:CL
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 301
14 u-ki, jеutsan-le:
15 е-phеu one-shot
qhu-ki-tu, shoot-NAR-LNK
jеutsan-le:-ui man.eating.demon-DEF:CL-TOP
16 gz
n-qti-kui. gz
n-qti-kui-tu. the:-ui
strangle(n.) DIR-kill-NAR strangle(n.) DIR-kill-NAR-LNK 3sg-TOP
17 juеnЩuеi, (pit°-ui ЖЖВmt®iflfl ®pi-®
emperor now-TOP
emperor call-LNK before-TOP
18 ЖЖjuеnЩuеiflfl Вm, Вmt®i lе-Ще
emperor call
emperor DEF:one:kind-LOC emperor
19 ®pu-ku-wе), їе-tu,
call-NAR-EMPH INT-RESULT man.eating.demon-DEF:CL-TOP
20 t-pian-thе-ji
u-kui-wе. ...... ...... Вmt®i-le:-ui
21 ЖЖmefiВ k t°he,flfl j-i seek go want say-ADV
he-°i-kui. ...... ...... ЖЖiuе
22 u-i
(hеtu) t-di?flfl ®pеqtе їo-p'u-ki, ЖЖi©i
COP-ADV INT DIR-sick pretend DIR-do-NAR what
23 t-di-n?flfl j-i, ЖЖdi їo-t®hup-i di u-x®u DIR-sick-2sg say-ADV sick DIR-cure-ADV sick DIR-recover
24 mе-l, їе-tu,
di u-x®u
mе-l kе-hеn
NEG-able INT-RESULT sick DIR-recover NEG-able INDEF:one-kind
25 u-tu, ч~u i©i u-s u-uе?flfl їе-tu,
26 t-kefil-k-kui, Вmt®i-le:-wu,
DIR-ask-go-NAR emperor-DEF:CL-AGT emperor-DEF:CL-AGT
27 t-kefil kе-hеn
u-kui-tu, ЖЖїa, qе tshnt°е
DIR-ask INDEF:one-kind COP-NAR-LNK EXCL 1sg Chen.family
302 Texts
28 qеp-t°
®pl е
old.man-GEN kidney COM
°t°i:mi heart
s-dza-tu, DIR-eat:1sg-LNK
29 dВ-wе,flfl j-kui. їе-tu,
30 guefi army
he-°i-i DIR-send-ADV
tshnt°е Chen.family
qеp old.man
31 mefiВ he-°i-kui-st~u. seek DIR-send-NAR-PART
he-°i-kui jе-tu,
33 tshnt°е
Chen.family old.man save-AUX-GEN(goal) Chen.family
34 qеp-t° t®i-ui
old.man male/son-TOP Chen.Diqing
35 їе-tu
qеp-ui susuе
INT-RESULT Chen.family old.man-TOP divine(the.future)
36 ©В-jy, їеlе able-ASP INT
DIR-divine-ADV knowledge DIR-exist
37 їе-k susuе ©В-i ЖЖqе їе-k mefiВ, їеt-ui, INT-thus divine able-ADV 1sg INT-thus seek INT-TOP
38 a,
EXCL 1sg-son
ч~u-ui dе-©z-n, 2sg-TOP DIR-set.out-2sg
qе-ui 1sg-TOP
39 fеnt®n® Вmt®i (anyway.is) emperor
this:family hand-top-LOC-TOP
40 do-lu
DIR-escape NEG-able-ASP:1sg INT-that:one-day-LOC
41 bs-le:
jopu-le: ®q-lе
snake-DEF:CL cliff-DEF:CL below-LOC
42 u-t°yе-pеqtе
їеtе tse:-ui, їе-tsoqpi-wu
DIR-see:1sg-LNK(after) INT this:CL-TOP INT-this:family-AGT
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 303
43 qе mefiВ-l t°he, qе 1sg seek-come want 1sg
®pl е kidney COM
°t°i:mi heart
44 s-m-dz-s-te:-wu,
їеtе thе-hеn
DIR-NEG-eat-NOM-DEF:CL-if INT that:one-kind COP-LNK
45 їе-tsе-ui-ui,
INT-this:one-time-TOP Chen.Diqing 2sg
du-u DIR-run.away
46 dВ-t°efiwu
qе-ui tsoqpi
able-AMP119:all DIR-run.away-2sg-DTV 1sg-TOP this:family
47 jpе-q hand-top
їе-m-Щ-® DIR-NEG-go-LNK
mе-l-jyе.flfl NEG-able-ASP:1sg
48 ik thus
їеlе du-u,
say-ADV INT DIR-run.away
t®i-le:-ui son-DEF:CL-TOP
49 du-u-i
run.away-ADV other-one-village-LOC DIR-arrive-NAR-EMPH
50 nai-e-tshin-Ще
other-one-village-LOC DIR-arrive-NAR-LNK
51 їеlе INT
dе-qе dе-qе DIR-go DIR-go
DIR-go-LNK there
52 u-tu, COP-LNK
dе-qе-tu DIR-go-LNK
їеlе die-®e-m-le:
53 Вi-kui, wut°upu-le:-ui die-®e-kui, wut°upu-le:-ui exist-NAR husband-DEF:CL-TOP DIR-die-NAR husband-DEF:CL-TOP
54 die-®e-kui-tu,
DIR-die-NAR-LNK INT-RESULT sworn.brother sworn.brother
55 phnju їe-se
u. t°е-lе
friend DIR-make(friends) COP where-LOC village-LOC-LOC-TOP
56 ЖЖїе-tsi INT-this.manner
sworn.brother DIR-make(friends):1pl-LNK
304 Texts
57 їе-tsi
INT-this.manner DIR-make(friends):1pl INT-this.manner-TOP
58 їe-se-kui-wе.
ЖЖha, tse:
DIR-make(friends)-NAR-EMPH EXCL this:CL
59 fеnt®n® thе-hеn
shenВ bl-s
u,flfl ik
(anyway.is) that:one-kind birthday make-NOM COP thus
60 j-i,
61 е thе-hеn
zzi Вi-kui. їе-tu
COM that:one-kind manage-AUX-NOM a.few exist-NAR INT-RESULT
62 thе-hеn
that:one-kind (least.amount) NEG-lack-GEN (take.back) goods
63 їе-tu-ui, ЖЖkuеts
е stumpt®e120-ui, tsе
INT-RESULT-TOP close.relatives COM relatives-TOP
64 е-lе
ч~u-ui е-®pе
DIR-come want
one-place go
65 їe-me-se,flfl DIR-NEG-allow
say-NAR INT-thus
j-kui-tu, say-NAR-LNK
66 їеl there
-lе-ki-wе. DIR-come-NAR-EMPH
-lе-ki-tu, DIR-come-NAR-LNK
67 ai® їеlе-ui -lе-ki-tu, t®i-ui tshnpe-khunpe. (still.is) there-TOP DIR-come-LNK son-TOP smart-capable
їеlе-ui ai® tеul t°i kuo jue ®u
(still.is arrive few CL month time/when)
69 i-j-°
one-two-month become-LNK
їе-tsе Вmt®i
(still.is) INT-this emperor
70 louqpi-wu
mefiВ-kui-wе. Вmt®i tsoqpi-wu
DEF:one:family-AGT seek-NAR-EMPH emperor this:family-AGT
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 305
71 mefiВ-kui-tu, seek-NAR-LNK
qе-ui 1sg-TOP
mе-k NEG-go
72 їe-me-se, DIR-NEG-allow
73 stsim-le:-tе-ui, ЖЖa!

thе-hеn that:one-kind
74 u-®, qе-ui mе-k їe-me-se-®,
75 t®i son
become-LNK COP-LNK seven-years exist-ADV
76 l©z е:-su-k-wе. book DIR:INDTV-study-go-DTV
daughter become-LNK
77 ai® (still.is)

anything 1sg
mefiВ-l seek-come
me-t°hi, NEG-want
78 nai
other son
pe-tu become-LNK
®чfisui (twelve.years.old)
79 hani-p
le-i їе-tu
qе tе:-mefiВ-l-wе,flfl
twelve-year exist-LNK INT-RESULT 1sg INDTV-seek-come-DTV
80 j-jy. say-ASP
ui TOP
stsim-le:-tе-ui wife-DEF:CL-LOC-TOP
-te-jy, DIR-exhort-ASP
81 їе-tu
ЖЖВm-ui thеnkhemu -®p-n-pе,flfl
INT-RESULT name-TOP Thеnkhemu DIR-call-2sg-DTV say-ASP
82 ЖЖthеnkhemu-ui їе-tsi
Thеnkhemu-TOP INT-this.manner DIR-call-2sg-DTV INT-RESULT
83 l©z u-su-i book DIR-study-ADV
seven-year exist-ADV thus-COP-LNK
84 i-p-l-i DIR-return-come-ADV
qе ta:-mefiВ-wе.flfl
85 xs
new(again) other-one-CL-LOC (still.is) seek-come-NOM-TOP
306 Texts
86 steke-lе
behind-LOC DIR-chase-come-NAR
ai® du-u-i
DIR-chase-come-NAR-LNK (still.is) DIR-run.away-ADV
88 k-j-ki-tu,
go-REP-NAR-LNK other-one-place-LOC (still.is)
89 ui TOP
wut°upu husband
die-®e-m-le:-tе, DIR-die-NOM-DEF:CL-LOC
wut°upu husband
90 die-®e-m-le:-tе DIR-die-NOM-DEF:CL-LOC
ai® (still.is)
91 pe-i, become-ADV
qe:fi before
same.way INT-INDEF:CL
92 tu-tsu-j-ki. DIR-meet-REP-NAR
93 їе-ui u-pеn-thе-luo,
INT-TOP goods-manage-AUX-perhaps INT-DEF:one-kind-TOP
94 ai®
thu -m-lе-В
(still.is) there DIR-NEG-come-CAUS
mo-Щu-j-kui. NEG-willing-REP-NAR
95 їе-th INT-there
-lе-ki-tu, DIR-come-NAR-LNK
new(again) seek-come-NOM
96 i-p-l-j-kui
ЖЖt®i pe-tu,
qе mefiВ-l
DIR-arrive-come-REP-NAR son become-LNK 1sg seek-come
97 t°he-wе, want-DTV
tsi daughter
pe-tu, become-LNK
mefiВ-l seek-come
98 me-t°he-wе, NEG-want-DTV
t®i pe-tu,
son become-LNK INT
°t°-p seven.years
99 le-i exist-ADV
l©z е:-su-ku,
book DIR:INDTV-study-go:EMPH ten-year
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 307
100 le-i exist-ADV
qе ta:-mefiВ-l-wе,flfl 1sg DIR:INDTV-seek-come-DTV
їе-k INT-thus
101 j-kui-tu. say-NAR-LNK
thеnkhemu е likhemu j-ze wu t®i
INT-RESULT Thеnkhemu COM Likhemu two-CL all son
103 pe-kui,
become-NAR INT-RESULT one-day-LOC-TOP
dе-©z-i DIR-set.out-ADV
104 ai®,
їе-thе ЖЖep-te:
mefiВ kе:,flfl
(still.is) INT-there father-DEF:CL seek go:PRS:1sg
105 j-uе,
mefiВ kе:,flfl
say-because father-DEF:CL seek go:PRS:1sg
106 j-uе say-because
ui TOP
dе-qе DIR-go
dе-qе-ki-tu, DIR-go-NAR-LNK
107 bе-la:-Ще
flat.area.on.side.of.hill-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-encounter-NAR INT-RESULT
108 tshntit°hin-ui ep
Chen.Diqing-TOP father COP-VIS
father-DEF:CL seek-go
109 dе-q-ki-tu,
їеlе gue:fi-tе-ui e-t®epe-ki.
DIR-go-NAR-LNK INT road-LOC-TOP DIR-encounter-NAR
110 thеnkhemu-ui Thеnkhemu-TOP
t-kefil-ki. DIR-ask-NAR
thеnkhemu Thеnkhemu
111 t-kefil-ki-tu,
ЖЖч~u t°е kе:-n-е?flfl
j-kui, ЖЖч~u
DIR-ask-NAR-LNK 2sg where go:PRS-2sg-Q say-NAR 2sg
112 t°е
ЖЖha, qе
where go:PRS--2sg-Q say-NAR-LNK EXCL 1sg
ep father
113 mefiВ kе:flfl
ЖЖч~u ep i©i Вm-wе?flfl
seek go:PRS:1sg say-NAR 2sg father what call-Q
308 Texts
114 j-tu, ЖЖqе-ep
tshntit°hin u-uе,flfl121
say-LNK 1sg-father Chen.Diqing COP-VIS:1sg
j-ji. say-CSM
115 thеnkhemu їе-ts
ЖЖep l
Thеnkhemu INT-this
father also Chen.Diqing
116 ч~u qе mе-sun-®,flfl
2sg 1sg NEG-consider-LNK thus
117 mе-sun-®flfl NEG-consider-LNK
j-kui-tu, say-NAR-LNK
n-quеq-t°-i. DIR-fight-3pl-HS
hai EXCL
118 ne-quеq-kei-tu, DIR-fight-NAR-LNK
thеnkhemu-ui ЖЖa, ч~u е qе Thеnkhemu-TOP EXCL 2sg COM 1sg
119 ququе ma-qafi,
ч~u е qе ququе ma-qafi,
fight NEG-ought:1pl 2sg COM 1sg fight NEG-ought:1pl
120 -z -d-®е,flfl one-CL DIR-rest-HORT
j-kui. е-z -d-tu,
say-NAR one-CL DIR-rest-LNK INT
121 е-z -d-iant°i, thеnkhemu-j
ba-ki-®, їеlе
one-CL DIR-rest-after Thеnkhemu-(TOP) big-NAR-LNK INT
122 t-kefil-kui, DIR-ask-NAR
likhemu Likhemu
123 likhemu-ui ЖЖi:tsi Likhemu-TOP WH.kind
124 thеnkhemu-ui, ЖЖч~u е qе j-ze wu tsi-ui Thеnkhemu-TOP 2sg COM 1sg two-CL all this.manner-TOP
125 thе-hеn
that:one-kind father seek:1pl
knti e:
father-DEF:CL jointly one:CL
126 u-k-е:fi-t°i? COP-INF -PRS:1pl-Q
k-®е,flfl go-HORT
127 j-kui. say-NAR
їе-thu-ui, INT-there-TOP
ququе fight
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 309
128 a--i DIR-stop-LNK
dе-q-ki-hе. DIR-go-NAR-PART
dе-qе dе-qе
DIR-go DIR-go
130 xs-t°i-la:-Ще
god-house(temple)-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-stay/live-REP-NAR
131 -wi-j-ki-tu,
ЖЖthe: maha-ui tshnt°е
DIR-stay/live-REP-NAR-LNK INT-RESULT 3sg night-TOP Chen.family
132 qеpе
е tshntit°hin-t° kuеntеusje, їеlе-ui
old.man COM Chen.Diqing-GEN sword.and.bow INT-TOP
133 їеlе INT
pienе t-®u-j,
god-house beside DIR-hide-REP
їе-k that.manner
134 s'u-le:-pienе
tree-DEF:CL-beside DIR-hide-REP INDEF:CL DIR-dream-1sg-EMPH
135 j-ji.
ЖЖha, ч~u,
say-HS EXCL 2sg
qе-tut® 1sg-younger.brother
136 i:-ke:
u-Вmu-n-е?flfl j-i-tu,
qе l
WH-INDEF:CL DIR-dream-2sg-Q say-HS-LNK EXCL 1sg also
137 їе-k u-Вmu-е.
ta, ч~u е qе a-qs
INT-thus DIR-dream-1sg EXCL INT 2sg COM 1sg one-form
138 we-k-е:fi-t°i?
exist-INF-PRS:1pl-Q sword.and.bow INT-this.manner-INDEF:CL
139 u-Вmu-е-®,
tshn-ui їе-thе xs-t°i-le:-pienе-ui
DIR-dream-1sg-LNK Chen-TOP INT-there god-house-DEF:CL-beside-TOP
140 ВoЩu-pienе-lе
courtyard-beside-LOC wild.prickly.ash-DEF:CL-LOC DIR-look-ADV
141 їе-ke-ze INT-INDEF-CL
exist-REP thus
u-Вmu-е-wе,flfl DIR-dream-1sg-EMPH
310 Texts
142 j-ji.
dе-q-ki-tu, DIR-go-NAR-LNK
143 Щеt°hi їеlе gue:fi-le:-pienе-ui really INT road-DEF:CL-beside-TOP
144 s-l-jin-t®е
tree-DEF-few-CL exist-NOM-LOC-TOP INT
145 ts-le:
water(river)-DEF:CL come(flow)-HS
water DIR-thirsty-NAR
146 a-i
їе ts їe-°pi-ki-tu,
one-time DIR-go-NAR-LNK INT water DIR-thirsty-NAR-LNK
147 їеlе INT
qеtsimi-le: spring.water-DEF:CL
їе-l-kui. DIR-come-NAR
148 їе-tu-ui, INT-RESULT-TOP
thеnkhemu-ui Thеnkhemu-TOP
ts water
149 t-mefiВ-ki-tu, DIR-seek-NAR-LNK
їеlе there
water DIR-find-NAR
150 ts dе-t°-ki-tu, water DIR-find-NAR-LNK
ЖЖlikhemu, Likhemu
ч~u-ui 2sg-TOP
t°h drink
151 --n,
qе tuwе-le:-ui
DIR-stop-2sg 1sg older.brother-DEF:CL-TOP before
152 s-t°-lе,

DIR-drink-INDTV:1sg INT-RESULT DIR-drink-ADV 1sg
153 die-me-®a-tu,
їеl-ui, ч~u
2sg also
154 -t°h-n-pе. DIR-drink-2sg-DTV
nai qе other 1sg
die-®a-tu, DIR-die:1sg-LNK
155 ч~u 2sg
t°е-t°hi-n-pе,flfl NEG.IMP-drink-2sg-DVT
say-NAR-PART INT-thus
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 311
156 j-kui-tu, thе-ui-tu,
thеnkhemu s-t°-ki,
say-NAR-LNK that:one-time-LNK Thеnkhemu DIR-drink-NAR
157 s-t°-ki-tu DIR-drink-NAR-LNK
158 їa-que-ji-le: DIR-cover-CSM-DEF:CL
tu-tsu-ki, DIR-encouter-NAR
159 їе-tu
e:! tshnt°е qеpе е tshntit°hin
INT-RESULT EXCL Chen.family old.man COM Chen.Diqing
160 kuеntеusje
sword.and.bow INT
їe-le-i DIR-pack-ADV
®-В-kui exist-CAUS-NAR
161 ha, INT
pеnе ququa-s thing fight-NOM
pеnе, thing
162 kеnt°hi, club
їе-thе INT-there
®-В-kui-tu, exist-CAUS-NAR-LNK
163 thе-hеn,
thеnkhemu-ui ts
that:one-kind INT-DEF:one-time-LNK Thеnkhemu-TOP water
164 o-qu
їеlе ®pеn-le:
one-mouthful DIR-drink-NAR INT stone.slab-DEF:CL small-DEF:CL
165 t-qe-ki-tu.
t-tsi mе-l-ki,
DIR-lift-NAR-LNK small-DEF:CL-EXC DIR-lift NEG-able-NAR
166 їе-tu
ЖЖlikhemu l -t°h-n
INT-RESULT Likhemu also DIR-drink-2sg 1sg-little.brother DIR-drink-2sg
167 j-kui-®, say-NAR-LNK
DIR-drink-LNK INT-DEF:one-time-LNK
168 j-ze
wu u-su,
two-CL all DIR-jump
u-su-i DIR-jump-ADV
е-thеn one-trip
169 t-tsi-ki-tu, DIR-lift-NAR-LNK
170 t-me-qe-ki, ha, a-thn s-t°i-t°-®е,
DIR-NEG-lift-NAR EXCL one-time DIR-CON-drink-LNK one-time
312 Texts
171 s-t°i-t°-ki,
s-t°, ®pеn
DIR-CON-drink-NAR INT-DEF:one-time-LNK DIR-drink stone.slab
172 t-qe-iеufu,
їе-thе tshnt°е qеp е
DIR-turn.over-LNK(as.soon.as) INT-there Chen.family old.man COM
173 tshntit°hin-wu
pеn t-®u-j,
їе kuеntеusje
Chen.Diqing-AGT thing DIR-hide-CSM INT sword.and.bow
174 їе-lе-hеn
їеlе i-le-i
®-kui, їе-tu
INT-DEF:one-kind there DIR-pack-ADV exist-NAR INT-RESULT
175 t-xt®e-ki, DIR-take.out-NAR
t-xt®e-i DIR-take.out-ADV
he-t°y-i DIR-carry-ADV
176 dе-q-ki. DIR-go-NAR
one-time DIR-go-NAR-LNK
177 gue:fi-guu-lе road-upper.part-LOC
xs-t°i-le:-Ще god-house-DEF:CL-LOC
178 sin-le:-tе lion-DEF:CL-LOC
їе-l-i DIR-look-ADV
Вi-kui-wе, exist-NAR-EMPH
179 їеl there
Вi-kui-tu, exist-NAR-LNK
ЖЖha qе tshntit°hin INT 1sg Chen.Diqing
180 е tshnt°е
їе sin u-n-®е
COM Chen.family old.man-GEN INT lion COP-2sg-LNK
181 qap head
їa-Щu-n,122 DIR-throw-2sg
sin mе-u-n-®е,
182 qap head
їa-t°i-Щu-n, DIR-NEG.IMP-throw-2sg
t°ile dzе:-n-®е,
183 -z-n, DIR-eat-2sg
nai t°ile-t° other 1pl-GEN
lion COP-2sg-LNK
184 їеlе qap їе-Щu-n,flfl there head DIR-throw-2sg
j-kui. їеlе u-i, say-NAR there COP-ADV
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 313
185 qap їa-Щu-kui, head DIR-throw-NAR
qap їa-Щu-kui-tu, head DIR-throw-NAR-LNK
їеl there
186 u-tu, COP-LNK
sword.and.bow lion
t-qt®i-i DIR-ride-ADV
187 dе-q-ki-wе. DIR-go-NAR-EMPH
188 dе-q-ki-tu,
DIR-go-NAR-LNK INT-RESULT man.eating.demon
189 pe-m become-NOM
190 їе-tse:-ui, INT-this:CL-TOP
їеtе thеnkhemu
е likhemu, COM Likhemu
191 the-wu that-ABL
Chen.family old.man
tshntit°hin-ui, Chen.Diqing-TOP
192 tshnt°е
qеp-ui qe:fi jit°in jautsan
Chen.family old.man-TOP before (already) man.eating.demon
193 demi pe-m-le:-wu Demi become-NOM-DEF:CL-AGT
kidney COM
°t°i:mi heart
194 ha-xt®e-i
the-x®epi-Ще -Ще-s-tе
DIR-take.out-ADV (already) that-side-LOC DIR-go-NOM-LOC
195 їеlе t-pian-thе-ki, INT DIR-change-AUX-NAR
thе t-piеn-thе-iеnt°i, there DIR-change-AUX-after
196 gеnts saddle
sell-NOM there
Вi-ki. exist-NAR
197 gеnts saddle
uе-m sell-NOM
thе there
198 thеnkhemu е
Thеnkhemu COM Likhemu-TOP
їе-thе INT-there
mefiВ-k seek-go
314 Texts
199 hе-qе. DIR-go
tshntit°hin mefiВ-k hе-q-k-wе. Chen.Diqing seek-go DIR-go-INF-EMPH
200 t°hntit°hin mefiВ Chen.Diqing seek
hе-qе-tu, DIR-go-LNK
201 qеp-ui їеlе t-piеn-thе,
old.man-TOP there DIR-change-AUX DIR-change-AUX-LNK
202 їеlе gеnts-ui їеlе sin le-tue-tе
INT saddle-TOP INT lion DEF-pair-LOC DIR-put-GEN
203 їo-®u
їе-th INT-there
t-bl-iеnt°i DIR-make-after
204 gеnts uе-m їеl -t°-ki, saddle sell-NOM there DIR-stop-NAR
205 thеnkhemu е likhemu i-p-k-tu,
їеlе Щo-men
Thеnkhemu COM Likhemu DIR-arrive-go-LNK INT city-gate
206 їo-tsu-ji-la:-Ще
їеlе, ЖЖчile t°е:
DIR-stand.up-CSM-DEF:CL-LOC there 2pl where:LOC go:PRS-2pl-Q
207 j-tu, say-LNK
ЖЖt°ile tshntit°hin 1pl Chen.Diqing
mefiВ seek
lefi-wе,flfl come:1pl-EMPH
208 j-kui.
gants pе:-ji-uе?flfl saddle buy:PRS-2pl-Q
j-kui-tu. say-NAR-LNK
209 ЖЖa, EXCL
o®u-® fit-LNK
210 їе-®-®е. DIR-put-HORT
nai other
mo-o®u-tu mе-pfi-wе,flfl NEG-fit-LNK NEG-buy:1pl-EMPH
211 j-ji. їе-tu
їе-®-ki, їе-®-ki-tu,
say-HS INT-RESULT DIR-put-NAR DIR-put-NAR-LNK as.it.happens
212 t-®-ike DIR-grow-after
me-t°hi, їе-tsi
RESULT DIR-reveal NEG-want INT-this.manner
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 315
213 t-®-ike
їе-k pe-kui,
thеnkhemu е
DIR-grow-after INT-thus become-NAR INT-RESULT Thеnkhemu COM
214 likhemu-ui sin t-qt®i-i Likhemu-TOP lion DIR-ride-ADV
kuеntеusje sword.and.bow
215 he-t°y-i DIR-carry-ADV
-qе-ki. DIR-go-NAR
DIR-go-LNK INT-RESULT man.eating.demon
217 wut°upu-ui
titеu tunnel
t-xkue-i DIR-dig-ADV
218 їе-tsi INT-this.manner
-®-jy-kui-wе, DIR-put-ASP-NAR-EMPH
219 tshntit°hin-t° Chen.Diqing-GEN
guefi-е army-COM
n-quе-kui-®, DIR-fight-NAR-LNK
220 t®i
thеnkhemu е
male/son Thеnkhemu COM
likhemu Likhemu
221 tshntit°hin Chen.Diqing
i:-ep-t° 3sgREFL-father-GEN
guefi-е army-COM
222 n-quе-ki-wе, DIR-fight-NAR-EMPH
n-quе-i DIR-fight-ADV
223 їеlе there
u-tu, COP-LNK
steke behind
i:-ep-te:-t° 3sgREFL-father-DEF:CL-GEN
224 guefi-ui army-TOP
n-qti DIR-beat.to.death
dе-s. DIR-finish
225 n-qti
DIR-beat.to.death DIR-finish-LNK there
jеutsan man.eating.demon
226 demi Demi
їе-tsoqpi-t° INT-this:family-GEN
Вmt®i emperor
їе-tse:-wu INT-this:CL-AGT
316 Texts
227 tеitеulе, t-ts`qе-ku,
tshntit°hin l
(catch) DIR-catch-NAR INT-RESULT Chen.Diqing also
228 n-®-ku. DIR-tie.up-NAR
n-®-i DIR-tie.up-ADV
їе-the-wu, thеnkhemu INT-that-ABL Thеnkhemu
229 е COM
likhemu-ui Likhemu-TOP
tunnel-LOC DIR-throw-ADV
230 isues
nearly.dead NEG-exist-GEN-TOP
medicine DIR-feed-CSM
231 sipe
medicine DIR-feed-CSM-NAR-LNK
232 n-®-i
DIR-tie.up-ADV (still.is) 3sgREFL-father-DEF:CL-COM INT
233 е`u` n-®-i
together DIR-tie.up-ADV DIR-put-NAR INT-RESULT father-DEF:CL-TOP
234 їеlе there
kefil-jy, ®ku-В
ask-ASP orangutan-talk do-ASP
їе-tsi INT-this.manner
235 ®ku-В
їo-pu-i, ЖЖhьa, qе їеl -te
orangutan-talk DIR-do-ADV EXCL 1sg there DIR-exhort
236 lе-hеn
ik-j-i їе-k
DEF:one-kind male/son become-INF:PRS-CSM thus-say-ADV INT-thus
237 -te-ku,
thеnkhemu е likhemu-ui
DIR-exhort-NAR INT-RESULT Thеnkhemu COM Likhemu-TOP
238 ai®uijljitian, (also.recalled.a.little)
їе-tsi-i INT-this.manner-ADV
°t°'u thought(n.)
239 z-lе-i, DIR-come-ADV
father-DEF:CL-AGT INT-this.manner
240 їe-di-kui, DIR-say-NAR
®ku-В orangutan-talk
DIR-say-ADV male/son
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 317
241 pe-kе:-ji,
become-INF:PRS-CSM male/son become-LNK seven-year exist-ADV
242 l©z book
е:-su-wе, DIR:INDTV-study-DTV
the-wu that-ABL
hat®i-p eleven-year
243 le-i exist-ADV

nai other
244 steke-le:-ui behind-DEF:CL-TOP
likhemu -®p-i,
Likhemu DIR-call-ADV Likhemu-TOP
245 hot°u-p le-i ten-year exist-ADV

1sg DIR:INDTV-seek-come-DTV
246 t®i
male/son become-LNK
їе-k j-kui-wе, INT-thus say-NAR-EMPH
247 їе-tu
p-ki. їе-tu
INT-RESULT orangutan-talk do-NAR INT-RESULT
248 ep-te:-ui
father-DEF:CL-TOP INT-thus say-NAR-PART
thеnkhemu-ui, Thеnkhemu-TOP
249 ЖЖч~u

250 hе-lfi,
DIR-come:1pl 1sg-younger.brother say-NAR INT-RESULT
251 їе-k j-kui-tu.
ч~u е qе ep
INT-thus say-NAR-LNK EXCL 2sg COM 1sg father
252 mefiВ lfi-i,flfl
j-kui, ЖЖep
mefiВ lfi,flfl
seek come:1p-ADV say-NAR father seek come:1pl
253 likhemu-ui k-j-kui. їе-lе-ui-tu,
Likhemu-TOP thus-say-NAR INT-DEF:one-time-LNK father-DEF:CL-LNK
254 e!
EXCL DIR-discuss-go-3pl-HS
ЖЖta, qе чile ep INT 1sg 2pl father
255 u-k-е,flfl COP-INF -1sg
ik j-kui. thus say-NAR
318 Texts
їе-®i, DIR-discuss
257 їе-®i kе-hеn
u-tu, mefi®-tе-s-Ще-ui
DIR-discuss INDEF:one-kind COP-LNK next-DEF:one-day-LOC-TOP
258 qti-s,
tshntit°hin Chen.Diqing
259 е COM
thеnkhemu, Thеnkhemu
likhemu Likhemu
tszzi-ui these.people-TOP
260 їеlе jеutsan
there man.eating.demon Demi
wut°upu-le:-ui, husband-DEF:CL-TOP
261 ai® (still.is)
262 ai® (still.is)
qti-s beat.to.death-NOM
-®-jy, DIR-release-ASP
263 jautsan man.eating.demon
demi Demi
tse:-wu this:CL-AGT
264 ai® lеupe°i
l qusu
(still.is) ordinary.citizens also very.many DIR-kill-AUX
265 guefi army
that:one-kind dispute
qusu very.many
266 t-qе-В-kui-wе. DIR-go-CAUS-NAR-EMPH
INT-RESULT very.many
267 t-qе-В-i DIR-go-CAUS-ADV
268 їе-tu
tshntit°hin-ui їе-tu
INT-RESULT Chen.Diqing-TOP INT-RESULT (first.demand)
269 ЖЖsoqho-ui
t°ile ®e
tomorrow-TOP 1pl die
must-ASP that-TOP
270 ч~u-stsim-le:-ui t°ile ai® t°е:
2sg-wife-DEF:CL-TOP 1pl (still.is) where:LOC person-DEF:CL
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 319
271 u, COP
u-t°u t°he, quеha-upi
one-time DIR-see want face-appearance also
272 u-mu-t°u-le,
t°ile qti
DIR-NEG-see-because 1pl kill
їe-me-se.flfl DIR-NEG-allow
273 Вmt®i-le:-tе-ui
їе-k jеut°hiu-tu-pu-k-kui-stu.
emperor-DEF:CL-DAT-TOP INT-thus demand-DIR-do-go-NAR-PART
274 їе-tu
їе-k INT-thus
275 j-kui-tu, say-NAR-LNK
їе-k INT-thus
j-kui-tu, say-NAR-LNK
276 ЖЖmi
person (still.is) DIR-see
їe-se-wе,flfl DIR-allow-EMPH
j-kui, say-NAR
277 ЖЖkhuoji
(is.possible) tomorrow-ADV
®e-Щze-j-u-i die-must-CSM-VIS-ADV
278 е-® one-time
u-t°u DIR-see
279 j-kui-®.
Вmt®i-le:-ui stsim-le:
280 їе-thе mefi®-tе-s-Ще
Вmu tsu-s-tе-ui
INT-there next-DEF:one-day-LOC meeting hold-NOM-LOC-TOP
281 stsim-le: wife-DEF:CL
t®hets-qu-tе-ui cart-top-LOC-TOP
he-t°hi-ki, DIR-bring-NAR
282 їе-thе-ui, tshntit°hin-ui, ЖЖa! ots'uquе-i-ui
INT-there-TOP Chen.Diqing-TOP
EXCL morning-ADV-TOP
283 t°ile-t° jеut°hiu 1pl-GEN demand
(that.is) bezoar-TOP
е-t°, one-catty
284 the-wu, that-ABL
kеnthеn charcoal
mudu-ui е-w
charcoal-TOP one-pile blow(burn)
285 t°he-wе, t°ile tu-j'u-i want-DTV 1pl DIR-stand-ADV
чile-wu t°ile
exist:PRS 2pl-AGT 1pl
320 Texts
286 t°hеnpi-pе:-j-j-®
ji, їе-thu-ui,
shoot-do:PRS-2pl-say-LNK kill:PRS-2pl say INT-there-TOP
287 t°ile putu-lе-ui 1pl front-LOC-TOP
kеnthеn charcoal
one-pile blow(burn)
288 t°he-wе,flfl j-kui-t°u. їе-tu
ai® ЖЖkhuoji
want-DTV say-NAR-PART INT-RESULT (still.is) (is.possible)
289 їe-se,flfl j-kui-®,
Вmt®i-le:-ui k-j-kui.
DIR-allow say-NAR-LNK emperor-DEF:CL-TOP thus-say-NAR
iuuеn i-se-kui,
Вmu tsu
INT-RESULT bezoar DIR-burn-NAR INT-RESULT meeting hold
291 ai®
ui mi
(still.is) TOP person
man.eating.demon Demi-DEF:CL
292 l also
hе-l-ki, DIR-come-NAR
Вmt®i l hе-l-ki, emperor also DIR-come-NAR
293 Вmu-tsu meeting-hold
294 hе-l-kui, DIR-come-NAR
295 thе-s-Ще-tu,
їе-thizzi-ui t°hanpi-pu-t°, їеlе
that:one-day-LOC-LNK INT-3dl-TOP
shoot-do-GEN INT
296 qti qdi-j-kui.
qti qdi-j-kui-tu,
kill prepare-CSM-NAR INT-RESULT kill prepare-CSM-NAR-LNK
297 ai® thе-hеn
u-ku-wе, їе-tu-ui, їе-thе
(still.is) that:one-kind COP-NAR-EMPH INT-RESULT-TOP INT-there
298 t®hets-mq i°t°i
together DIR-look-ADV
emperor-DEF:CL COM
299 Вmt®i stsim jautsan
demi, їе-thе
emperor wife
man.eating.demon Demi INT-there
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 321
300 s-l-i DIR-look-LNK
Вi-tu. exist-LNK
їеlе tshntit°hin-wu
301 iuuеn-le-ste, bezoar-DEF-CL
kеnthеn-mq-tе charcoal-top-LOC
iuuеn-le-ste bezoar-DEF-CL
302 ®-ku-tu,
їе-tsu INT-here
Вmit®i emperor
303 stsim-le: wife-DEF:CL
jautsan man.eating.demon
u-ku-®. COP-NAR -LNK
304 jautsan-le:-ui
man.eating.demon-DEF:CL-TOP big.teeth DIR-come-NAR-PART
305 ЖЖha, EXCL
ps-ui today-TOP
Вmt®i emperor
stsim-le: wife-DEF:CL
306 t°iut°in (actually
® COP)
mi-le: person-DEF:CL
u-uе? COP-Q
307 jеutsan man.eating.demon
u, чile е-®
COP 2pl one-time DIR-look-2pl-DTV
308 їе-tse:-wu
е guefi е thе-hеn
INT-this:CL-AGT ordinary.citizens COM soldier COM that:one-kind
309 qusu
sun® t-qе-В-®,
very.many loss DIR-go-CAUS-LNK
їе-tse:-ui чileile INT-this:CL-TOP 2plREFL
310 i-tse-i-wе,flfl
DIR-look-2pl-DTV say-NAR-PART
INT-thus say-NAR-LNK
311 ЖЖa! Щеt uflfl EXCL truly COP
j-i, say-ADV
ЖЖЩеt uflfl j-j. truly COP say-CSM
312 їе-the-wu, ЖЖВmt®i INT-that-ABL emperor
n-q`ti, їе Вmt®i taipu, DIR-kill INT emperor capture
313 t-ts`qе,
їеl їe-me-se,
Щеt°hi u, k
DIR-capture INT DIR-NEG-allow truly COP
314 їе-k INT-thus
thеuluеn discuss
їе-q-i,flfl DIR-go-ADV
j-kui-stun. say-NAR-PART
322 Texts
315 їеl INT
ke-u-kui-tu, thus-COP-NAR -LNK
їе-lе-ui-tu INT-DEF:one-time-LNK
316 t°iu
tshntit°hin е thеnkhemu, likhemu їеt t°iu
(then) Chen.Diqing COM Thеnkhemu Likhemu INT (then)
317 tsoqpi
this:family COM
(redressed) INT
В affair
318 їе-q-В-k-wе, DIR-go-CAUS-INF-EMPH
В affair
їе-q-В-i DIR-go-CAUS-ADV
319 їе-ke INT-thus
u-tu, COP-LNK
(still.is) INT
320 t°iu akha, t°iu-lе
(then) slow home-LOC come-INF home-LOC
321 lu-k:-tu, come-INF-LNK
ai® mefi, stsim (still.is) pitiful wife
lе-hеn, DEF:one-kind
322 thеnkhemu е
mе: е
Thеnkhemu COM Likhemu-GEN mama COM
323 lе-hеn DEF:one-kind
mefiВ seek
k-t°i, go-3pl
mefiВ seek
324 k-tu, go-LNK
ai®, (still.is)
їеlе there
t-mefiВ-i DIR-seek-ADV
dВu-ui guest-TOP
325 xs-s dе-°t°-k-wе,
t-mefiВ-i, dВu xs-s
three-day DIR-host/feed-INF-EMPH DIR-seek-ADV guest three-day
326 dе-°t°-k:-tu, DIR-host/feed-go-LNK
(still.is) DIR-host/feed-go-LNK
327 xs-s three-day
dе-°t°-i DIR-host/feed-ADV
xs-s-Ще three-day-LOC
t°iu (then)
328 i-me-t°i-p-l,
їеt ©В-s-tе-s-Ще
DIR-NEG-CON-arrive-come INT four-day-DEF:one-day-LOC
329 dе-t°-k-tu, DIR-find-go-LNK
їеlе there
tsi woman
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 323
330 su-©du:-lе
DIR-left.over-LOC exist-NOM INT-INDEF:two:CL become-NAR
331 їе-tu
332 s-x®-s-tе DIR-be.last-NOM-LOC
333 tszzi-ui this:two:CL-TOP
thеnkhemu е likhemu-t° mе: Thеnkhemu COM Likhemu-GEN mama
334 lzzi-ui
DEF:two:CL-TOP DIR-afraid-NAR
EXCL 1pl
335 tsoqpi,
l tse-ze
this:family 1pl-grandfather also this-CL
336 jеpq-tе die-®e-jy,
їa! чile
hand-LOC DIR-die-ASP:EVID EXCL 1pl
337 ep-te:
е ququе-s-tе-ui
father-DEF:CL also this:family COM fight-NOM-LOC-TOP
338 die-®e-j-ka:-ji,
339 thе-hеn
k mе-n-jy-е,
that:one-kind DIR-set.out-ADV where:LOC go NEG-know-ASP-1sg
340 ai®
t°ile tsoqpi
jpе-q ®e Щza:flfl
(still.is) 1pl this:family hand-top die must
341 t°еu-Вb-k-i, think.to.oneself-INF-ADV
їе-ke INT-thus
Вbot°u-ki, think-NAR
342 °t°i:miq-tе-ui, °t°i:miq-tе їе-ke
heart-LOC-TOP heart-LOC INT-thus think
343 kе-hеn
u-ki-tu, їеlе ©В-s-tе-s-Ще
INDEF:one-kind COP-NAR-LNK INT four-day-DEF:one-day-LOC
324 Texts
344 z-lе-tu,
їеlе u-tu, tsе
DIR-come-LNK DIR-be.last-NOM-LOC INT COP-LNK here
345 е-® one-time
u-lu DIR-come
t°he-wе,flfl want-EMPH
346 j-tu, say-LNK
Щu mountain
n-quе-ki-wе, DIR-overturn-NAR-EMPH
347 Щu mountain
n-qhuе-i DIR-overturn-ADV
їе-kе-hеn INT-INDEF:one-kind
348 u-j-tu, COP-HS-LNK
hai! EXCL
NEG-want INT-there
349 wut®hu-їo-pu, thеnkhemu
likhemu-t° Likhemu-GEN
350 ®е®u assassin
he-°i-i, DIR-send-ADV
wut®hu-pu-m-le-©le helper-do-NOM-DEF-pl
351 he-°i-i DIR-send-ADV
u-tu, COP-LNK
352 u-lu DIR-come
t°he, s-x®-s-tе
want DIR-last-NOM-LOC exist-NOM
353 lzzi-ui
354 t°he-wе,flfl j-kui-wе,
355 i-t°hi-ki-tu, DIR-bring-NAR-LNK
їеlе kntеu
INT immediately INT
356 fusеn-tu-pu-i help.up124-DIR-do-ADV
fе clothing
t-l`lе-ki-wе, DIR-change-NAR-EMPH
357 fе
clothing DIR-change-LNK
kntеu immediately
358 u-i COP-ADV
їеlе mе:
INT-this:two:CL-TOP INT
mama COM
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 325
359 їе-lе-hеn,
thеnkhemu е likhemu mе:
INT-DEF:one-kind Thеnkhemu COM Likhemu mama
360 lе-hеn-ui

DEF:one-kind-TOP clothing
t-l`lе-iеufu DIR-change-LNK(as.soon.as)
361 kntеu
immediately (still.is)
Narrator: Yu Zelong I Born 1960 Recorded 1996
The Old Man of the Chen Family Long ago there was an old man named Chen and another person. Every day they went hunting. They made a living hunting. One day they went up the mountain to hunt but didnflt get a single animal. In a mountain cave they saw a snake and said, ЖЖToday we didnflt get anything. It looks like weflll have to return empty-handed. Itfls better to kill [this snake] weflve just seen with one shot.flfl After they shot it once, [it turned out that] this wasnflt a snake at all, but was an evil demon that ate people. He strangled it to death. She was the wife of the emperor (today we say /Вmt®i/, before we said /juеnЩuai/ for Жemperorfl), and had changed into an evil demon who ate people. ... The emperor said ЖЖGo find herflfl, and sent people to find her. (After they found her) this evil demon who ate people pretended to be sick. The emperor asked, ЖЖWhat illness do you have? The doctor canflt cure it. What will you do?flfl The evil demon who ate people answered, ЖЖIf I eat the kidney and heart of Old Man Chen, I can be cured.flfl The emperor sent soldiers to find Old Man Chen. Old Man Chenfls son was called Chen Diqing. Old Man Chen could foretell peoplefls future. He divined his own future and said to his son Chen Diqing, ЖЖThey are looking for me, son. Hurry and leave. I cannot escape. Because that day in the mountain cave I saw a snake, this snake (evil demon who eats people) will come looking for me. Only by eating my kidney and heart can its illness be cured. Chen Diqing, you hurry and escape. I cannot run away.flfl The old manfls son, Chen Diqing, ran away and arrived at another village. It happened that when he arrived at the other village, there was a woman whose husband had just died. He made friends there. The widowfls family and friends made him stay
326 Texts there. ЖЖYou cannot go anyplace.flfl So he stayed there. He was both smart and capable. A couple of months passed and the emperorfls family was again looking for him. He said to his wife, ЖЖI must go. I will go. (When our child is born) if he is a boy, make him go study when he is seven. If it is a girl, donflt look for me. If it is a boy, have him come look for me when he is twelve. Give him the name ЖЖThеnkhemuflfl. At seven have him go study and after he returns, have him come look for me.flfl Later the people of another village came to look for Chen Diqing and Chen Diqing fled. He arrived at another place and met another widow whose husband had just died, and again stayed at the widow's. Again some people came looking for him and he said to the widow. ЖЖIf our child is a boy, have him come look for me. If it is a girl, you/she neednflt look for me. If you give birth to a boy, have him go study at seven, and at ten come look for me. (His name should be Likhemu).flfl Thеnkhemu and Likhemu were both boys. One day each said ЖЖI will go find my fatherflfl, and they set out to go find their father. After walking a while, the two met each other in a river valley. Thеnkhemu asked Likhemu, ЖЖWhere are you going?flfl Likhemu said, ЖЖIflm going to find my father.flfl Thеnkhemu further asked, ЖЖWhat is your fatherfls name?flfl Likhemu said, ЖЖHefls called Chen Diqing.flfl Thеnkhemu said, ЖЖMy father is also called Chen Diqing. You arenflt to be considered me.flfl In this manner, the two started to fight. After fighting a while, Thеnkhemu said, ЖЖLetfls not fight. Letfls rest a minute.flfl After resting a while, Thеnkhemu, who was older than Likhemu, asked Likhemu, ЖЖNow what shall we do? Both of us are looking for our father (Chen Diqing), and our father is perhaps one person. Letfls go together.flfl So the two of them stopped fighting and went together. After walking a while, they put up at a temple. ЖЖLast night I dreamed I saw Old Man Chen and Chen Diqingfls sword and bow hidden under a tree by the temple.flfl Thеnkhemu said. Likhemu said, ЖЖI dreamed the same.flfl Thеnkhemu said, ЖЖWe both saw the sword and bow in our dreams. Could it be the same? We dreamed the sword and bow were on a wild prickly ash tree beside the temple courtyard.flfl They went on again for a while, and in fact there were some trees beside the road. The two of them were very thirsty. Thеnkhemu went to look for some water. After finding water, Thеnkhemu said to Likhemu, ЖЖLikhemu, donflt drink. Let me, your older brother, drink first. If I donflt die after drinking, then you drink. If I die, then donflt drink.flfl Thеnkhemu then drank. When he drank the water he encountered a stone slab cover. Eh! Old Man Chen and Chen Diqingfls sword and bow were put there, a thing for fighting, a club, was there. Thеnkhemu drank a mouthful of water and lifted the stone slab. He could only lift it a little bit.
Text 6: The Old Man of the Chen Family 327 ЖЖLikhemu, you drink too.flfl Likhemu drank also, and the two of them together again lifted the stone slab. They still could only lift it a little way. The two drank a mouthful of water again and they turned over the stone slab, and then they saw Old Man Chen and Chen Diqingfls sword and bow hidden inside and took them out. They went on again for a while, carrying the sword and bow, and then there was a lion looking down at them from within a temple above the road. The two of them said, ЖЖIf you are (my) Chen Diqing and Old Man Chenfls lion, then nod your head. If not, donflt nod your head. If you are going to eat us, then eat us. If you are our lion, then nod your head.flfl The head was nodded. Thеnkhemu and Likhemu rode on the lion and went on. After Old Man Chenfls heart and kidney had been taken out by the evil demon who ate people, he became a person who sold horse saddles (by the gate to the city). When Thеnkhemu and Likhemu went out to find their father, they saw the old man there selling horse saddles. When Thеnkhemu and Likhemu arrived at the city gate, Old Man Chen asked them, ЖЖWhere are you going?flfl The two of them answered, ЖЖWe're going to find Chen Diqing.flfl The old man also asked, ЖЖWill you buy a saddle?flfl They said, ЖЖIf it fits our lion, we will buy it. If not, we won't.flfl They tried it and it fit just right, so they bought it. Riding a lion and carrying the sword and bow, Thеnkhemu and Likhemu entered (the city). The husband of the evil demon who ate people had already prepared a pit as a trap there. They fought with Chen Diqingfls army, and Thankemu and Likhemu fought with their own fatherfls army. Later Chen Diqingfls soldiers were beaten to death. After that the man-eating demon and the emperor captured Chen Diqing and tied him up. After Thеnkhemu and Likhemu were captured, they were thrown into the pit. They were almost beaten to death. After feeding them some medicines, they were tied up together with their father. Their father asked the two of them (using pantomime) ЖЖThe matter I instructed my wives about, did they really have sons?flfl Thеnkhemu and Likhemu recalled the past a bit. Their father used pantomime and said, ЖЖCan it really be that [my wives] gave birth to sons? If it was a son, at seven have him go study, and at eleven come look for me. Afterwards that [second] child, call him Likhemu, and at ten have him come look for me.flfl Thеnkhemu then said, ЖЖLittle brother, what have the two of us come to do?flfl Likhemu answered, ЖЖWe came to find our father.flfl Thus their father said, ЖЖI am your father.flfl They then had a discussion. The husband [the emperor] of the evil demon who ate people [demi], had already determined to beat Chen Diqing, Thеnkhemu and Likhemu to death the next day. The evil demon who ate people [demi] had already killed many ordinary people and soldiers. Their dispute had continuously escalated. Chen Diqing made a demand. ЖЖTomorrow we must die. Because we still have not
328 Texts seen your wife (havenflt had one look at her face). It wonflt do to execute us like this.flfl The emperor said, ЖЖTomorrow they must die. They may have a look (at my wife).flfl The next day when they had a meeting, the emperor brought his wife out on a cart. Chen Diqing said further to the emperor, ЖЖTomorrow our demand is to bring half a catty of bezoar and some charcoal and set a fire. We will be standing and you will shoot us. In front of us, use charcoal and set a fire.flfl The emperor agreed to this as well. The demon who ate people [demi] and her husband [the emperor] notified everybody that they planned to shoot and execute Chen Diqing and his two sons. That day, the emperor and his wife, the demon who ate people, stood on the cart and watched. Chen Diqing put/burned a piece of the bezoar on top of the charcoal. The emperorfls wife, the demon who ate people, grew long canine teeth. Chen Diqing said, ЖЖHa!, today see if your emperorfls wife is human or not. Shefls a man-eating demon. You all look! This thing caused the loss of many soldiers and ordinary citizens. Look for yourselves!flfl He said, ЖЖIt is true! It is true! Kill the emperor, capture the emperor. This canflt be allowed, it is true, you should go discuss this.flfl Thus they did this (the emperor was arrested and beaten to death). Thus Chen Diqing, Thеnkhemu, and Likhemu were acquitted [their case was reversed/obtained justice]. The three of them, Father and Sons, slowly returned home. After returning home, Thеnkhemu and Likhemu went to find their mothers. In order to find them, they invited guests for three days. After three days of inviting guests, their mothers still had not returned. On the fourth day, they found them. At this time their mothers had already become the last two people. Thеnkhemu and Likhemufls mothers were afraid. ЖЖThis family of ours, our grandfather died at the hands of this person, and is no longer with us. Your father also fought with this person and perhaps is dead. Our sons also went to find their father and we donflt know where theyflve gone. Can it be that we will all die at this personfls hands?flfl That is what they thought in their hearts. On the fourth day they returned and the two of them said, ЖЖThe last few come in.flfl (The result is that) the mountain peak has toppled. Thеnkhemu and Likhemu sent out an assassin. ЖЖYou must come here. Those last two people, bring them in.flfl The assassin brought in the two. They were brought in and immediately had their clothes changed, and these two were Thеnkhemu and Likhemufls mothers.
English-Qiang glossary arranged by semantic field
NATURAL PHENOMENA sky mutup ± mutu (mu < PTB *muw). day breaks (vi.) mutu su (mutu = Жskyfl). night falls (vi.) їе-xt®p ± xt®еp (DIR + Жdarkfl). sun msi / msaq / mujuq. rise (of the sun) msi ts`u (Жsunfl + Жshinefl). set (of the sun) ms -¬ ± msi -¬ (Жsunfl + DIR + ¬ Жdisappear, descendfl). become dusk їo-ful (< phul Жunclear, duskyfl). sun (vt., vi.) msi ®kue (Жsun (n.)fl + Жbakefl). shine (vi.) -tsu. solar eclipse khu-wu mujuq s-dzi (Жdogfl + AGT + Жsunfl + DIR + Жeatfl). moon °i-®ue (Жmoon/monthfl + Жbrightfl; °i possibly < PTB *s-la). lunar eclipse khu-wu °i®ue sdzi (Жdogfl + AGT + Жmoonfl + DIR + Жeatfl). moonlight ®uaq (= Жlightfl). star ЩdВ. meteor / falling star ЩdВ dotshu (Жstarfl + DIR + Жfallfl). light ®uaq. bright ®ue / ®uex. shiny, shining t-®ue (DIR + Жbrightfl). dark xt®еp / mo:t°u. obscure, dark mo:t°u (mo: possibly < PTB *muk ± *mu). shadow ®uaq (= Жlightfl). wind moЩu. blow (of the wind) moЩu we (= Жthere is windfl) / moЩu Щu (Жwindfl + Жblowfl(?)--cognate
Natural phenomena 331 verb, from last syllable of Жwindfl). stop blowing (of the wind) moЩu m-w`e-ji (= Жwindfl + NEG + Жexistfl + CSM). storm (vi.) moЩu we (= Жthere is windfl). whirl (vi., of the wind) Щlе®. whirlwind moЩu Щlе® (Жwindfl + Жwhirlfl). dry up by the wind tu-j`uku-В (D I R + Жdryfl + causative suffix). rain (n.) me:fi. rain (vi.) me:fi °e (Жrainfl + Жrelease, fallfl). get wet (from the rain) ini (< i-ie DIR + Жwetfl). stop (of the rain) me:fi m-°`e-ji (Жrainfl + NEG + Жrelease, fallfl + CSM). drizzle buВ me:fi (Жdirt/soilfl + Жrainfl). raindrop °t°y. drip (vi.) tshu. drop (CL) t®. rainbow t®qt® Щu (Жrainbowfl + Жto be bentfl) / t®qt® we (Жrainbowfl + Жexistfl). cloud zdеm. disperse (of clounds) zdеm їaqat®he (Жcloudfl + D I R + Жdispersefl). rosy clouds, rosy sunset stu t°i (Жoilfl + DIR + Жreleasefl; used for colored clouds morning or night). fog, mist zd-qhu ± zdo-qhu (Жcloudfl + Жdescendfl). spread (of fog) zdqhu °e (Жfogfl + Жrelease/descendfl) / zdqhu do-qhu (Жfogfl + D I R + Жdescend (of fog)fl). dew dВq.
332 Glossary dewdrop dВq °t°y (Жdewfl + Жraindropfl). fall (of dew) dВq de-we (Жdewfl + DIR + Жexistfl). sleet (vi.) qhеts. frost mefi-x (Жrainfl + Жform (of frost)fl). snow pe. snow (vi.) pe °e (Жsnowfl + Жrelease, fallfl). melt (of snow) (pe) їе-l (Жsnowfl + DIR + Жmeltfl). hail zu. hail (vi.) zu °e (Жhailfl + Жrelease, fallfl). lightning (n.) ®u()-quе (Жtoothfl + Жlightningfl). lightning (vi.) ®u-quе (Жtoothfl + Жlighteningfl). thunder (n.) mefi-g`u (Жrainfl + Жthunderfl). thunder (vi.) mefigu / sе (sе = Жto make loud noisefl). be struck by lighting mefig`u їе- qе (Жlightningfl + Жgo down (DIR + Жgofl)fl). fine day, nice day m qе (Жsky/heavenfl + Жclearfl). cloudy day, rainy day m Щi (Жsky/heavenfl + Жbadfl). drought m t-qе (Жskyfl + DIR + Жclearfl). seven sister stars tsi-sеt®`u °t°t® (Жolder sisterfl + flyounger sisterfl + Жsevenfl + CL). south wind moЩu su-Щu (= Жwind blows down-riverfl (relative to Ronghong village)). north wind moЩu nu-Щu (= Жwind blows up-riverfl (relative to Ronghong village)).
east wind moЩu to-Щu (= Жwind blows upfl (relative to Ronghong village)). west wind moЩu їo-Щu (= Жwind blows downfl (relative to Ronghong village)). air ms (= Жbreathfl). earth (the earth) zp (z = Жfield, land, groundfl). surface of the earth l (not natural ground, but altered in some way, such as bottom floor of house, etc.). land, ground z. earthquake z tefim (Жearth/ landfl + Жshakefl). crack, split (vi.) dе-t®е. soil, dirt buВ`u. mud mеt®е. mire maha. stone Веwе / ¬u (¬u < PTB *r-lu). rock Вgut. pebble qеi. sand ts-®е (Жwaterfl + Жsandfl) / ®еts (< Ch. sh--a, sh--azifl). hill, mound mountain Щopu.± Щu climb a hill dde. peak Щu-q (Жmountainfl + Жheadfl). halfway up a mountain Щu edzue (Жmountianfl + Жonefl + Жhalffl). foot of a hill je-ku (Жclifffl + Жbasefl). slope of a hill xepi. loess x¬iex-buВ (Жloessfl + Жsoil/ dirtfl). ravine, valley ot ± ot®. l a n d s l i d e Щu do-tshu (Жmountainfl + Жfall downfl (DIR + Жfallfl)). hill without vegetation safi.
cliff jеq. cave, hole, crack Вo:pu. water ts (< PTB *ts). freeze (vi.) tspе zu-p`u (Жicefl + DIR + Жform(v.)fl). ice tspе (cf. ts Жwaterfl). flow (vi., of water) (ts) lu (Жwaterfl + Жcomefl). wash down (vi., of water) s-lе (D I R + Жcomefl; = Жcome downfl). soak, flood (vi.) ini (< i-ie DIR + Жwetfl). flood (n.) ®um (cf. ®u Жseafl). flood (vi.) ®um s-lе (Жflood (cf. ®u Жseafl)fl + Жcome down (DIR + Жcomefl)fl). float (vi.) t-q-tе. sink (vi.) їе-q-tе. clear (of water) (ts) qfiq (Жwaterfl + Жclearfl). muddy mе-qfiq (NEG + Жclearfl). dirt in water ts-® (Жwaterfl + Жshitfl). waterfall ts їo-`u (Жwaterfl + Жfall downfl). sea, lake ®u. flow like a wave (vi.) ¬еte. rise (of the tide) ts t-wa (Жwaterfl + Жbecome big (DIR + Жbigfl)fl). ebb (of the tide) ts їе-t®е (Жwaterfl + Жbecome small (DIR + Жsmallfl)fl). river, stream ts / xsts (large river) (ts = Жwaterfl; xs-ts = Жgodfl + Жwaterfl). river valley qhuе:. river-bed ts-`u` (ts = Жwaterfl). embankment ts qhеts. dredge a river ts °e (Жwater/ riverfl + Жrelease/dofl). pond tshthе (< Ch. chо| ta| ng).
Natural phenomena 333 puddle tеn(tеn) (< Ch. t--an). spring Щis. ditch, gully, g o r g e ts-`u (Жwaterfl + Жmountain valleyfl (334 Glossary + Жform/becomefl) / de-we-dеs (DIR + Жexistfl + Жfinishfl). smoke (n.) mu-`u ± mu-x`u (Жfirefl + Жsmokefl). smoke (meat) (vt.) t°hu-thе (< Ch. (Sichuan dialect form for Жto smoke meatfl) + AUX). flame m-zdе (m = Жfirefl, zdе = Жcloud (?)fl). vapor, steam lue. congeal (vi.) t-g (D I R + Жcongealfl). stop up (a hole), fill (in land) xt®. stop the flow of water ts xt® (Жwaterfl + Жstop upfl). water gate tsulpi. level up (vt.) s-phin-thе (DIR + Жlevel (< Ch. p|оng)fl + AUX). enjoy coolness ®uеqqе Вi (Жcool shadefl + Жexistfl).
ANIMALS (Wild) fur xupе (= Жfeatherfl). tail sikue. wag the tail sikue phete (Жtailfl + Жshake/patfl). claw (n.) pеfi. claw (vi.) gigi. hoof t®u (cf. t®uwе Жshoesfl and t®u Жwear (shoes)fl). horn Вaq. chew the cud dВu-z (Жgrassfl + Жeat (< dz)fl). h e r d wu (with number pronounced a-w(u) Жone herdfl). flock ®pu. herd together a-wu pe / a-wu u (Жform a herdfl / Жis a herdfl). copulate (of animals) b l (euphemistic term; = Жdofl). give birth to the young (of animals) t®u i-°i (Жchildfl + DIR + Жrelease/dofl). hide, skin (n.) Вpi. excrement jimi / ®. nest Вbaha. beasts (wild animals) phux®u (phu < ph Жtree/forestfl + x®u Жroedeerfl). dragon Вbu ± Вb. tiger u (< Ch. h«u). lion sin ± sigi (< Tibetan < Sanscrit siga) / sts (< Ch. sh--оzi; former used mostly by older people, latter by younger people). roar (as lion), howl (as wolf) zd. leopard s (< PTB *sik). wolf lе (< Ch. l|ang). jackal ®pe°i (®pe cf. Tib spjakhu). fox Вgue.
fox, wildcat tue:fi. weasel t®oqu. elephant jе:ku ± jеku (= Жbraceletfl). deer zdu. roedeer, barking deer x®u. musk, river deer, roedeer ju-x®u (ju < jy Жfemale roedeerfl; x®u = Жroedeerfl). roedeer (female) jy-mi (mi = female animal suffix). wild boar pie-u (Жpigfl + Жtiger (?)fl). bear t°i. bear gall t°i-xt® (Жbearfl + Жgallfl). monkey Щuеsе. ape, orangutan ®kup ± ®kup. badger t°uk`u. porcupine wits (< Ch. w\eizi (c\оw\ei)). rabbit Вt°hеq. rabbit (male) Вt°hеq-zdu (Жrabbitfl + male gender marker for small animals). mouse, field mouse zex`u. mole z-puku (z = Жfield, earthfl). mountain goat ®kui. land otter ©z° (possible to eat this animal, but quite oily). otter ts-©z (Жwaterfl + Жland otterfl). squirrel lubi (lu = ЖChina fir treefl). silver monkey khu-hi: (khu = Жdogfl?). BIRDS bird w. fly (vi.) lе (dе-lе). wing ©zi-fе (Жflyfl (cf. Mawo gzi) + Жclothingfl (?)).
Animals , birds, and insects 335 feather xupе (= Жfurfl). moult (vi.) xupе-Щue (Жfeatherfl + Жthrow, cast awayfl). beak zdek`u. peck (v.) tshuete. gizzard dВual. egg (in general) w-s (Жbirdfl + nominalizer). hawk ¬u. owl wufu` . swallow (n.) jant®hеqutsi (= Жlong forked stickfl). crow no-Щu (Жblackfl (?) + Жgoosefl). m a g p i e °t°i°t°еq (onomato- poetic form). sparrow wtshi (w = Жbirdfl). pigeon wu-®pu / u®pu / gug`u (wu < w Жbirdfl + Жflockfl; u form possibly related to uk`u bu Жdeaffl; gug`u is onomatopoetic form; wu®pu / u®pu refers to wild pigeons, gug`u to those raised by the family). woodpecker luЩuе-tshuete-m (ЖChina fir treefl + Жpeckfl + agentive nominalizer). parrot ginguo ± gnkuo. pheasant wu-lu (wu < w Жbirdfl). crane jugu` . bat (animal) pie-®pеlе / pi®pеlе (Жpigfl + Жchange (< ®pеtе)fl). cuckoo k u p u t ± k u p t (onomatopoetic form). hunt khu-°e (Жdogfl + Жreleasefl) / x®u-qhu-k (Жroedeer/wild animalfl + Жhit/shootfl + Жgofl). set a snare x®ul le (of a trap made of hemp rope; Жropefl + Жinsert/installfl) / еnsu le (of a trap made of metal wire).
336 Glossary catch (vt.) gigi. shoot qhu (soqhu qhu Жshoot a gunfl). gun soqhu. ANIMALS (Domestic) livestock ket®e. rear (vt.), breed (vt.) pefiВ. kill t®. remove fur xupu khue (from animals; Жfurfl + Жscrape, shavefl). butcher (vt.) t®u-t®u. castrate Щue. castrated animal toЩu. ox x®e-x / В (Жcowfl + castrated male marker / В is stud male; also wild cow). cow x®e-mi (Жcowfl + female gender marker). calf x®e-t®u ± x®e-t®`u (Жcowfl + Жchildfl). cow manure x®e-® (Жcowfl + Жmanure, excrementfl). buffalo tsu-В (Жwaterfl + Жwild cow (< В)fl). common yellow cow soЩu. common yellow cow, male soЩu-В. common yellow cow, female u / soЩu-u / u-mi (u < PTB *wa). wild cow В. yak Вb (= Жdragonfl). pianniu (a cross between a bull and a yak) xi. tend cattle x®e °t°y (Жcowfl + Жrelease/grazefl). fight (of bulls), gore (vt.) t®it®i. tie up a cow x®e zdy (Жcowfl + Жtie upfl). pierce the nose of a cow °t°y ® (Жnosefl + Жpiercefl).
nose ring of cow j. pig pie (< PTB *p(w)ak). pig (male) pie-°i. s o w piejmi (Жpigfl + female gender marker). breeding boar, sire pig t°ot®o. shoat, piglet (male) pie-°u` . half-grown pig pie-t°еts (Жpigfl + Жfamilyfl (< Ch. ji--azi .)). root (vt., of pigs) ©l (= Жturn overfl). pigfls bristles tsum-phе ± tson- phе (< Ch. z--ong). tend pigs pie ЩuеЩ`u (Жpigfl + Жtendfl). pig feed pie-st (Жpigfl + Жfood/ ricefl). sheep, mountain goat tshe. drive (sheep) (tshe) we. sheep (wool sheep) owu ± o:wu. goat (male) dВe. goat (female) tshe-mi (Жsheepfl + female gender marker). kid owu-zdue (Жwool sheepfl + diminutive for sheep). l a m b tshe-zdue (Жmountain sheepfl + diminutive for sheep). wool, fleece tshe-fu` (Жmountain sheepfl + Жfurfl (f`u < xupе ± upе)) / iu (wool of wool sheep). sheepskin tsha:pi (Жsheepfl + Жskinfl (< Вepi)). horse w (possibly < PTB *sra ± *m-ra; cf. Mawo dial. Щu < *ra). mare w-mi (Жhorsefl + female gender marker). horse dung w-® (Жhorsefl + Жmanure, excrementfl (< ®)).
ride (a horse) tsе / qеt®he. horse feed pеha (= Жdried grassfl). ass, donkey dВawa. dog, hunting dog khu (< PTB *kwy). dog, male khu-zdu (Жdogfl + male gender marker for small mamals). dog, female, bitch khu-mi / khu-miaha (Жdogfl + female gender marker). bark (vi.) te. dog feed khu-st (Жdogfl + Жfood/ricefl) / seiеu (< Ch. s--оli\ao). cat puu. cat (male) puu-zdu (Жcatfl + male gender marker for small mamals). meow (vi.) mjеu. chicken t°y:. cock jy-pi (Жchickenfl (< t°y:) + male gender marker for flying birds). chicken dung t°y:-® (Жchickenfl + Жmanure, excrementfl). cockscomb jy-pi-qulu (Жchickenfl (< t°y:) + male gender marker for flying birds + Жpointfl). crow (vi., of cock) se. cockfls tail t°y: sikue (Жchickenfl + Жtailfl). hen (before or after laying eggs) jy-miaha (Жchickenfl (< t°y:) + female gender marker). chick t°y:-t®`u (Жchickenfl + Жchildfl). lay eggs ws khefi (ws = Жeggfl). hatch (sit on eggs) t°y: le (Жchickenfl + Жinsertfl). hatch (come out of egg) ws phe(te) (Жeggfl + Жshake, pat,
Animals , birds, and insects 337 scratchfl) / t°y: le (Жchickenfl + Жexistfl) scratch for feed (chicken) phete (Жshake, pat, scratchfl). duck jеts (< Ch. ya-- zi). quack (vi.) qa qa. tend ducks jеts ЩuеЩ`u (Жduck (< Ch.)fl + Жtendfl). goose Щu (possibly < PTB *a). remove feathers xupе stue (Жfeathersfl + Жpull outfl). clip the wings ©zifе tuе (Жwingfl + Жcutfl). INSECTS insect, maggot, worm, riceworm bl (b < PTB *bu). crawl (of insects) sei (= Жwalkfl). metamorphosis Вepi їa-Щue (Жskinfl + DIR + Жthrow, cast awayfl). silkworm buqt®hu. bee b (< PTB *b(y)a). stinger of a bee/wasp ji. sting (vt.) i-t®ue (DIR + Жstingfl). honeycomb, beehive bt (b = Жbeefl + t°i Жhousefl ?). honey b-® ± b-x® (Жbeefl + Жexcre-mentfl). wasp, yellow jacket tshuеЩi. hornet bia. butterfly, moth xt®еmphе. caterpillar soqhu ± suqhu. firefly but®huqu / dum. fly, blue-bottle fly bia. mosquito, g n a t, wriggler bunquts (there are no big mosquitos in the Qiang areas). bite (vt., of mosquito) sе t®he (Жbloodfl + Жsuckfl).
338 Glossary mosquito bite (n.) t-phе (DIR + Жswellfl). spider t®h®. spiderfls web t®h®-dВu (Жspiderfl + Жnetfl). spin a web (of spider) dВu bl (Жnet/webfl + Жdofl). ant, termite t°ukhu. snail Вum-me:fi. earthworm l-bl (Жground/ earthfl + Жwormfl). centipede de:fi. grassshopper tsho-su (su = Жjumpfl). snake (thick) bs. snake (thin) b©i. red-spotted lizard ®qu-tshe ± ®qu-tshi (= Жstutterfl; ®qu = Жmouthfl). l e e c h mеuеn (< Ch. m«ahu|ang). bedbug buqt°hu (= Жsilkwormfl). louse, tick xt®e (possibly < PTB *srik). nit xt®uts`u. flea tsun. intestinal worm bl-qhuе (bl = Жwormfl). insect which eats wood or bamboo bt®. FISH, FROGS, & TURTLES frog (green), toad dzupi ± dzupi. frog (black) dzupi iq (Жfrogfl + Жblackfl). turtle wukui (< Ch. wu-- gu-- i). fish Щz. swim (vi.) tsu Щlu (Жwaterfl + Жswimfl) / Щz-lе (of fish; Жfishfl + Жfly (v.)fl). fish scale dze.
fish spawn Щz-ws (Жfishfl + Жeggfl). fish (with a rod) Щz Щue (Щz = Жfish (n.)fl). fishing rod jy kefi (< Ch. y|ug--an). fishing hook jy ku (< Ch. y|ug--ou). catch fish with net or hands Щz gi (Жfishfl + Жgrab/catchfl). fishing net jy Щuеn (< Ch. y|uw«ang).
PLANTS grow (vi.) t-®. creep (vi.) hе-t®hе. seed zu ± zu. sprout (n.) t®hoq. sprout (as from seed) t®hoq t-® (Жsprout (n.)fl + Жgrowfl). young shoots ®-q (Жgrowfl + Жheadfl). tree, s h r u b s-f (Жwoodfl + Жforestfl (f < ph)). forest ph. seedlings of a tree tshen miеu (< Ch. q--оngmi|ao). root kopu. tree trunk ®q (= Жbodyfl). bark sf Вpi (Жtreefl + Жskinfl). branches Вaji. tree-fork, a forked stick jan t®hе qu tsi (< Ch.) resin, colophony luz (lu = Жfir treefl). pine tree °pie- ± °pie-f (Жpinefl + Жtree/forestfl). pine cone °pie-lu-qu® (Жpinefl + Жfirfl + ?). fir tree lu / luЩu. poplar tree Щzu-f`u. cypress tree zuеm-u. willow tree s:fi. birch tree ds. tree stump zeke. leaf xt®еpе (used for all types of leaves, including those of vegetables). shade (vt., of leaves) -xt®. tree shade (n.) ®uеq (= Жshadowfl). flower (n.), pollen lеmpе ± lеpе. bud (n.) lеmpе t®huqu. petals of a flower efi. thorn tshmе.
Plants, farming, and food 339 bloom (vi.) pе. flowers falling/wilting Щue. bamboo ®p. vine kum. sunflower mu-n-tuq (mu = Жsunfl). dandelion mq maha (Жtop, abovefl + Жeveningfl/Жmirefl). moss ts-еf (Жwaterfl + Жgrassfl). bracken mЩl. fennel o°iеn (< Ch. h|ui- xi--ang). grass, thatch rushes еf. azalea Щofu` . sheephorn flower, morning glory zeke lеmpе. cotton miбu (< Ch. mi|an- hu--a). g r a i n s dz-s (Жeatfl + instru- mental nominalizing suffix). rice shoots, sprouting grain ®q (= Жsproutsfl). rice (in field or hulled) qhfi. ear of grain, ears of wheat °t°q / dzpеt (°t°q < PTB *sni; cf. Жsevenfl, Жheartfl, Tib. si-ma; q is secondary, possibly < q Жheadfl). glutinous rice t°iumi (< Ch. ji«um«о (Жwine ricefl)). long white rice qhfi-xs (Жricefl + Жnewfl). rice husk kha. wheat Щl. buckwheat dzuеЩе. tares p. wheat bran fts (< Ch. fu\ zi). gluten of wheat gfi. wheat flour bolu. spiked millet kuts (< Ch. g«uzi). sorghum, glutinous millet ®pе. corn jima (< Ch. yu\ mо« ). flax, hemp su.
340 Glossary hemp seed su-z`u` (Жhempfl + Жseedfl). barley nz. highland barley dz. tsamba dВu. oats wmе. wheat straw paha (= Жhorse feedfl). vegetables ku®`u. sweet potato o®еu (< Ch. h|ongsh|ao). potato jеju` (< Ch.). cabbage t°yan-°in-pe (< Ch. ju«anx--оnb|ai). Chinese cabbage pеtshai (< Ch. b|aic\ai). spinach po-tshai (< Ch. b--oc\ai). rape seed plant tsht / ts. pumpkin, bottle gourd pеkuе (< Ch.). winter melon tokuе (< Ch. d--onggu--a). cucumber uеkuе (< Ch. hu|anggu--a). young cucumber kekuе (< Ch.). turnip lup (< Ch. l|uobo). carrot olumpеu (< Ch. h|u- l|uobo). bean, pea, soybean d (said by Sun (1988:58) to be an old loan from Chinese, but said by Huang Chenglong to be a native word). pea/bean shoots/sprouts d-®q (Жbeanfl + Жsproutfl). soybean tutu (< Ch. do\ u). hyacinth bean/lentil petu (< Ch. bi«and\ou, an older loan of same word as piantu?-- next item). black-eyed pea, black bean, string bean, white bean piantu (< Ch. bi«and\ou). horsebean uthfi.
snow pea-pod d (= Жbeanfl) / Щuеntu (< Ch. w«and\ou). peanut uеsen (< Ch. hu--ash--eng). chives t°iu tshai (< Ch. j«оuc\ai). c e l e r y t°hin tshai (< Ch. q--оnc\ai). coriander jеnsui (< Ch. y|an- su--о). onion dutshе. garlic t°i-° (Жhousefl + Жgarlicfl). pepper oitshu (< Ch. h«aiji--ao). ginger kuiЩuе ± kuiЩе. laminaria, kelp taipi (< Ch.). lettuce khumе tshai (tshai < Ch. c\ai). fungus, mushroom muju` . grass mushroom se:fi-muj`u (Жwillowfl + Жfungus / mushroomfl). fruit zu / simi. bear fruit zu u-dВu. pear pie simi (Жpigfl + Жfruitfl). prune tshp ki simi. grape kulumi. jujube Вuеntsfi. walnut athi (< Ch. h|et|ao). apple phikuo (< Ch. p|оngg«uo). red bayberry buВ`u simi (Жdirt/earthfl + Жfruitfl). strawberry еf-simi (Жgrassfl + Жfruitfl). herb, medicine sipe. danggui (a kind of medicinal root) t°iquеki. fritillary (Fritillaria thunbergii) bulb qupki. rhubarb suеki.
FARMING plant (vt.), sow seeds phie. field zp ± z (= Жearthfl). plant a field z phie (Жfieldfl + Жto plantfl). weed (vt.) е ste (Жgrass (< еf)fl + Жget rid offl). gather night soil ® t°y (Жexcrementfl + Жpick upfl). fertilize jimi Щlie (Жfertilizer (dry manure or grass stalks)fl + Жuse, applyfl). graft (vt.) t°е t°e p (< Ch. ji--e zh--о (in reverse order) + Жto dofl). plow (n.) tuq. plow-share gu:. plow (a field) l (= Жto turn over, roll upfl; used with x®e Жcow (pianniu)fl: x®e l Жplow the fieldsfl). edges of a field z-pienе (Жfieldfl + Жside/vicinityfl). irrigate ts ®u (Жwaterfl + Жirrigatefl). water (vt.) ts qhutu (Жwaterfl + Жto spread, sprinklefl). pick tshu-(tshu) (reduplicate for repeated action). harvest (vt.) ku. thresh (vt.) Вe. winnowing tray tshot°u. sieve (n.), sieve (vt.) se (native word, not loan). flour sieve Вbu. soak (vt.) st. mill (n.) dzuе-Щl (Жgrindfl + Жstone (< Щlu)fl). grind (vt.) dzue. grind, rub fine (vt.) khefi. shell (vt.), peel (vt.) qefiqefi (= Жopen out, separatefl). pound, hit Вete.
Plants, farming, and food 341 peel with a peeler sue (< Ch. xu--e). climb (a tree) dide. garden tsek`u. vegetable garden ku®`u tsek`u (Жvegetablefl + Жgardenfl). store (grains) (vt.) -®u` ` (DIR + Жto put, placefl). mow / cut grass (vt.) jimi gue (Жfertilizer grass (grain stalks)fl + Жto cutfl). bind, tie up (grain stalks etc.) dВuedВu. grain stalk rack jimi-lеquе. hang (vt.) (on grain stalk rack) ju. FOOD food, provision Вgu. meal (CL) di (e-di). breakfast °t°es (possibly < *s- th-s [causative prefix-eatinstrumental nominalizer] Жwhat is fedfl). noon meal, lunch dza:. evening meal, dinner j e s (possibly Жgood to eatfl + instrumental nominalizer] Жwhat is good to eatfl). cooked rice, food stuеhе. cooked rice (dry or drained) ®kum. rice gruel, congee ©Вem. corn gruel, corn meal porridge mеha. rice water mithеn (< Ch. m«оt--ang). burnt rice that adheres to sides of pot kupе (< Ch. gu-- oba-- ). steamed or baked bread qhеl. round dumpling kuque / pеuts (< Ch. b--aozi).
342 Glossary noodle(s) °pies. thin vermicelli that has been hung to dry °pies / kuеmin (< Ch. gu\ami\an). dregs (of solids or liquids) t®еts (< Ch. zh--azi). flour bolu. dishes of food ku®`u (= Жvegetablesfl). soup thеn (< Ch. t--ang). pork pie-pies (Жpigfl + Жmeat (Жpigfl + Жmeatfl)fl). meat pie-s (Жpigfl + Жmeatfl (< PTB *sya); now used for all kinds of meat). fat meat piexu ± piefu (Жmeatfl + Жfatfl (?)). lean meat tshе ( < е). roast pork with skin piesphuxt°u (Жmeatfl + Жroastfl). pigfls feet pie-doqu (Жpigfl + Жfootfl). stomach (pork) kuiЩuе / sutsqhе. brain (as food) qpеt® (= Жheadfl). beef x®e-pies / Вb-pies / soЩupies (pianniu meat / yak meat / cow meat). beef stomach Вgu-qa (Жgrainfl + Жtransportfl). tail sikue. mutton tsh-pies / o:wu-pies (mountain goat meat / woolsheep meat). egg w-s (Жbirdfl + nominalizer). kidney ®pl. bean curd de-d. bean-thread fnthiauts (< Ch. f«enti|aozi). dried fungus mеk-uk`u (uk`u = Жearfl). leftover ku®`u-hog`u-j (Жvegetablesfl + Жleft overfl + CSM).
fried bread-stick juthiеu (< Ch. y|outi|ao). small round soft cake of pounded glutinous rice, grass jelly ianffi (< Ch. mi\anf«en; made of potatoes). pastry, cake pints (< Ch. b«оngzi). bean paste tut®е (< Ch. d\oush--a). melon seed kuеts (< Ch. gu--az«о). ingredients thiеu niеu (< Ch. ti|aoli\ao). oil zdue Жanimal oilfl / zdue:fi Жplant oilfl / еmе Жbutterfl (< Tib). press out oil zdue:fi th (Жplant oilfl + Жsqueezefl). lard pie-zdue (Жpigfl + Жanimal oilfl). salt tsh (< PTB *tsa). soy sauce tuju (< Ch. d\ouy|ou). vinegar tshu (< Ch. cu\ ). sugar, candy mеthе (< Ch. m|ath|ang). white sugar pethеn (< Ch. b|ait|ang). black salted beans tu® (< Ch. d\ouch«о). cornstarch tufn (< Ch. d\ouf«en). bunge prickly ash peel (pericarpium zanthoxyli; sometimes called wild pepper; used for numb hotness) tshi. boiled water ts tu-®-l (Жwaterfl + Жcome to a boil (DIR + Жboil (vi.)fl) + Жcome (?)fl) / khеi®ue (< Ch. k--aish«ui).
wine, liquor (made by Qiang; not filtered) °i. liquor (made by Chinese) Щfi-°i (ЖHanfl + Жliquorfl; Chinesemade white liquor). brew wine °i ®qu ± °i qu (Жliquorfl + Жboilfl). sweet fermented rice qhfi-°i (Жricefl + Жliquorfl). d i s t i l l e r ' s y e a s t t°hou (possibly < Tibetan). milk pеp (= Жbreastfl). cigarette t®ijan (< Ch. zhо-- ya-- n). smoke (cigarettes) (vt.) t®he (= Жsuckfl). be addicted to jin le (jin < Ch. y«оn + Жexistfl). FOOD PREPARATION cook (rice) stuеhе bl (Жcooked ricefl + Жdofl) / qhfi ®qu (Жuncooked ricefl + boilfl) / qhfi ts (Жricefl + Жsteamfl). wash rice qhfi ulе (Жricefl + Жwashfl) / thеu-thе (< Ch. t|ao + AUX). sort out vegetables ku®`u stеqе (Жvegetablesfl + Жselectfl). large shallow basket (worn on back) peilants (< Ch. b--eil|anzi). cut (with downward motion), cut into slices, threads or dice qhua. cut with a rolling action khukhu. cut with sideward motion ku. chop, to mince tshuе. cut in two ji-dzue p (Жtwofl + Жsectionsfl + Жdofl). chopper tsheto (< Ch.).
Plants, farming, and food 343 cutting board bet (large cutting board) / t®hеfn (like small table < Ch.) / teg`u (block of wood). chop firewood s guefi (Жfirewoodfl + Жchopfl). firewood splitter duеЩl. kindling (for a fire) tshu®upi. firewood s. charcoal muk`u-t°hu® (Жfire- placefl (possibly < Жfirefl + basefl)) + Жashfl) / mut°u ± mudu (Жfirefl + Жashfl; small, used in making steel) / kеnthan (large; < Ch.). smother (charcoal) ethan (< Ch. h--eit\an Жblack charcoalfl) / pеithan (< Ch. b|ait\an Жwhite charcoalfl; use water). make a fire m ph (Жfirefl + Жblowfl). light a fire dВue. burn (firewood) s °t° (Жfirewoodfl + Жaddfl). bellows phete (= the verb phete Жblowfl). kitchen range tsul. fire hole in a kitchen range s°t°-stе (Жfirewoodfl + Жaddfl + Жplace (-s nominalizer + LOC)fl). stove oluts (< Ch. hu« olu| zi). brazier ophen (< Ch. hu« ope| n). fire tongs s-ste (Жfirewoodfl + Жpick up with chosticksfl). frying pan dВ. lead cooking pan lе quе. lid for cooking pan qut°. food-turner t®hеnts (< Ch. ch«anzi) / spi (flat; has handle). fire kettle tshue. steamer tsents (< Ch. zh--engzi).
344 Glossary heat up a pan t-si (DIR + Жhotfl = Жbecome hotfl). soot of a pan Щlеi. scour a pan kupе-khue (Жburnt rice (< Ch. g--uob--a)fl + Жscrapefl). stir wte. mix tsеqе. knead (dough) ethe (< Ch. ni«e). mix (dough) s-xt®ue. roll into a ball with the hands ©lu (= Жto rollfl). wrap (dumplings) qugue. pound (garlic) t°i° qhua (use back of knife; Жgarlicfl + Жcutfl). put in (ingredients) -Щ'\u (DIR + Жto placefl). sprinkle (vt.) se. pour over qhutu. soak st. rise (vi., of bread) fе-thе (< Ch. f--a + AUX). strain (strain away liquid) ®е. filter, to strain (strain away solid) t®е. crack an egg ws pie. cook (a few dishes) t®hut®hue. boil (vi.), (vt.) , stew (vt.) ®qu. boil for a long time l. boil (water; vt.) tshu. boil (of water) ts tu-su (Жwaterfl + Жcome to a boilfl). cook on a griddle, fry in fat or oil °e. pop (of oil, etc.) dе-®p (= Жsplit apartfl). deep-fry t®е-thе (< Ch. zh|a + AUX). steam (vt.), smoke ts. roast phuxt°u. roast in hot ashes tshu. warm, to roast, to bake ®kue.
half-cooked apt. warm up leftovers sesi (Жhotfl + Жhotfl). render fat t®h. cook soup thеn bl (Жsoup (< Ch. t--ang)fl + Жto dofl). taste tse. EATING AND STORAGE UTENSILS set the table t®uеts ® (Жtable (< Ch.)fl + Жto placefl). dish out rice stuеhе ju (Жricefl + Жto spoonfl). rice ladle zе. cover (n.) qut°. tray pe (< Ch. p|en). dish phants (< Ch. pa| nzi). dip (vt.) -st`u. b o w l Щuе-t®е (Жbowl (< Ch. w«an)fl + Qiang word for Жbowlfl). chopsticks wets ± wet-ts (wet = Жstickfl; ts < Ch. zi). pick up with chopsticks ste. spoon (n.) thiеukfi (< Ch. tia| og--eng). ladle, spoon (vt.), pour (tea) ju. large open-mouthed jar ®u t®huе. gourd used for a ladle tsuЩu. bottle phints (< Ch. pо| ngzi). cork (vt.) s-xt®. hot water bottle pеuwenphin (< Ch. b«aow--enp|оng). tea t®hе (< Ch. cha| ). teapot t®hеu` (< Ch. cha| hu| ). infuse tea t®hе phеu-thе (< Ch. ch|a p\ao (Жteafl + Жinfusefl) + AUX). cup peits (< Ch. be-- izi).
large earthenware jar without handle, shaped like an upside-down pear qеp (°i qеp) (Жliquorfl + Жjarfl). cooking utensils stuеhе-bl-s (Жricefl + Жto dofl + instrumental nominalizer). blowing pipe for kindling otho (< Ch. h«uot«ong).
Plants, farming, and food 345 CLOTH AND CLOTHING cloth ba:. cotton cloth mianpu (< Ch. mi|anb\u). printed cotton ba:-lеmpе (Жclothfl + Жflower(y)fl). thin silk Щua. wool tshe-f`u (Жsheepfl + Жfurfl (f`u < xupе ± upе)). foreign woolen cloth its (< Ch. n|оzi). spin (yarn) (vt.) lete. weave (vt.) t°et°i (< PTB *tak). loom t°e. weaverfls shuttle aВu` . make clothes fе jj (Жclothingfl + Жto sewfl). cut tuе. cutout in sewing qhqh. sew jj. torn (of clothes) depi. patch (vt.) ®pet°. needle a (< PTB *kap) eye of needle a Вopu (Жneedlefl + Жholefl). thread a needle ba:-t®hl dе-® (Жthreadfl + DIR + Жplacefl) thimble tint®en (< Ch. d«оng- zh--en). thread ba:-t®hl (ba: = Жclothfl). spool puju. wind thread Щu. sew on a button dВu. make a button hole їe-phe. border (garment, shoes) (vt.), embroider ®е. woollen thread mеu°ian (< Ch. m|aoxi\an). knit (vt.), weave a net kepi. knitting needle kepi-s (Жknitfl + instrumental nominalizer). brush (n.) ®uеts (< Ch. shu--azi).
346 Glossary brush (vt.) ®uе-thе (< Ch. shu--a + AUX). wash (clothes) fе ulе (Жclothingfl + Жto washfl). wooden stick for washing clothes Щduе® (Щduе = Жhammerfl). wash clothes with stick dete (= Жhitfl). shrink (vi., of clothes) t-watsi (= Жbecome short (DIR + Жshortfl)fl). put on clothesline, sun (clothes) (vt.) phе. dye (vt.) s. clothes fе ± fuе / gu-s (Жto wearfl + instrumental nominalizer). wear (clothing) gu (< PTB *gwa). wear (shoes) t®u (cf. t®u Жhooffl and t®uwе Жshoesfl). wear (pants) de. undress da-qe. change clothes llе (= Жexchangefl). hang (clothes) Щu Щue. naked stе °i pеu (stе = Жbuttocksfl; cf. Жbarefootfl for °i). woollen sweater x®ufu` . leather, f u r Вepi (= Жskin, hidefl). fur garment phikuеts (< Ch. p|оgu\azi). collar jinin (nin < Ch. lо« ng). sleeves juqu (ju = Жhandfl (?)). waist belt dzidzi. fasten the waist belt dzu dzu. trousers, pants doqu. trousersfl seat doqu thunpе (doqu = Жtrousersfl). skirt tsulwе. wear a skirt tsulwе Щu. button (n.) kеtе.
buttonhole kеtе-Вop (Жbuttonfl + Жhole (< Вo:pu)fl). snap button (n.) gеn khu (< Ch. \ank\ou). button (vt.) -tsu. unbutton (vt.) їe-phe. pocket pеu pеu (< Ch. b--ao- b--ao). hat tеwе. wear (a hat) tе. head scarf ®pеt. scarf bеq. head wrapping thotho. leg wrappings (leggings) °yde. handkerchief ®uphеts (< Ch. sh«oup\azi). a p r o n wiwi (< Ch. w|ei- (q|un)). shoes t®uwе (cf. t®u Жhooffl and t®u Жwear (shoes)fl). tie (shoelace), make a knot t u tu. untie (shoelace) phefi phefi (can be pronounced phefiВ). long boots °yets (< Ch. xue-- zi). socks Щuеts (< Ch. w\azi). sheepskin vest lnkuеts (< Ch.). belt for carrying baby on the back t°ymi-bie-s (Жchildfl + Жcarry on backfl + instrumental nominalizer). carry on onefls back bie. mourning apparel sefi-fu (Qiang mourning apparel is white). barefooted doq(u) pе °i (doqu pе = Жfootfl + Жsole (palm of foot)fl). necklace pio lu. earring upеl (u < uk`u Жearfl (?)). pierce the ear lobe ®. bracelet ji-de (ji = Жhandfl).
ring ji-sе (Жhandfl + CL for joints and sections). umbrella t®hu-sе. put up an umbrella t®husе tе (tе also used for Жto wear a hatfl). walking stick kueiphеts (< Ch.). carry a walking stick kueiphеts t°-t°i. tobacco pipe jеn tu (< Ch. y--and«ou).
Cloth and clothing 347 BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES cattle pen x®e-t°aЩe (Жcattlefl + Жpenfl). pigsty, hogpen pie-t°aЩe (Жpigfl + Жpen/styfl). stable w-t°aЩe (Жhorsefl + Жpen, stablefl). manger w-tshu (w = Жhorsefl). kennel khu-n® (Жdogfl + Жbedfl). c h i c k e n n e s t t°y:-Вbaha (Жchickenfl + Жnestfl). birdfls nest Вbaha. beastfls cave Вopu (= Жhole, cavefl). house t°i-Щuе (t°i alone also = Жhousefl < PTB *kjim; Щuе is possibly an old classifier for house (it still is used as such in some other dialects), cf. t°i-sе Жroomfl < Жhousefl + Жjoint, classifier for sectionsfl). dwell (vi.) le (= Жto exist in a container of some typefl). move (house) pеn-thе (< Ch. b--an + AUX). watch the house dy gfi (Жdoorfl + Жto guardfl). storey sе (classifier for rooms, stories, and for joints and sections). ground floor t®h. upper storey t°y. second floor of house ji-sе (Жtwofl + CL; same form as Жtwo roomsfl). third floor of house x s - s е (Жthreefl + C L for rooms, stories, sections). storehouse ®p. room t°i-sе (Жhousefl + classifier for rooms, stories, sections).
348 Glossary kitchen t®hufеn (< Ch. chu| fa| ng; the Qiang don't have separate kitchens; the cooking is done in the fireplace in the middle of the main (= 2nd) floor). toilet mеus (< Ch. m|aoc\e). corridor phet°i / tsulan (< Ch. z«oul|ang). roof q-stе (Жheadfl + Жplacefl). ceiling Щuеn pan (< Ch.). beam tеu` . pillar tsu. wall qhеts (qhе = Жstonefl). climb over a wall didi. corner kuokuo (< Ch. ji«ao). staircase, ladder (wooden) bu- zd (Жboardfl + Жladderfl). ladder (to the roof) zd. railing jеp-gigi-s (Жhandfl + Жgrabfl + instrumental nominalizer). window Вo:kum (Вo: < Вo:pu Жholefl). door dy. knock at the door dy Вete (Жdoorfl + Жhit, knockfl). open a door dy Вge (Жdoorfl + Жopenfl). close a door dy hе-quе (Жdoorfl + DIR + Жclosefl). door frame doqpu. doorway, an entrance doqpu-q (doqpu = Жdoorframe). step over the doorsill dе-Щuе. door bolt Щlеt®huе. bolt (a door) (Щlеt®huе) del (< DIR + le Жinsertfl). lock (n.) doЩu. key qusaЩu. lock (vt.) suе. steps luts-qhе (qhе = Жstonefl). courtyard Щuе. platform, level area dq
well (n.) tsuk ± tsk`u` (Жwaterfl + Жpitfl). drying terrace (on roof of house) or yard t°epi. bamboo fence tsek`upi. fireplace mugu` . fireplace rack si mi. mill house dzuеЩl (Жgrindfl + Жstone (< Щlu)fl). build a house, pile up a wall ¬ie. lay the foundation of house lthe. roof (vt.) t°i-sе-buВ dye (Жroom (< Жhousefl + CL for rooms)fl + Жearth, dirtfl + Жput roof togetherfl). lime ®ui (< Ch. shо| hu-- i). cement ®uii (< Ch. sh«uin|о). lumber pеnpеn (< Ch. b«an). set up pillars tsu le (Жpillarfl + Жinsert, move acrossfl). paint, spread on (vt.) m mе. fence in p. collapse, fall on its own weight da-qhua. clean / tidy up (room, house) su®`u`. broom tolu. dust basket tsot°u. sweep the floor dВudВu. splash water ts se (Жwaterfl + Жsplash, sprinklefl). dust cloth mmе-s (Жto wipefl + instrumental nominalizer). wipe (vt.) mmе (< Ch. (?)) / tshе-thе (< Ch. c--a). feather duster x®e-sikue (Жcow, cattlefl + Жtailfl). dust (vt.) phete. water-drawing bucket ts kut (ts = Жwaterfl). fetch water ts bie (Жwaterfl + Жcarry on backfl).
Buildings, structures, furniture, and tools 349
polish (vt.) їе-tsh-thе (DIR + Жwipe (< Ch.)fl + AUX). leak (v.) z. FURNITURE furniture pеnе (= Жthingsfl). arrange / place (furniture) -®. table t®uеts (< Ch. zhuo-- zi). cupboard Щuеn kui (< Ch. w«ang\ui). chair jts (< Ch. y«оzi) / dzu-s (< Жsitfl + nominalizer, used for any thing to sit on). stool, wooden bench pante (< Ch. b«and--eng). closet kuits (< Ch. g\uizi). drawers t®hu-t®hu (< Ch. ch--ou(t|о)). box qhu®. trunk °ants (< Ch. xia-- ngzi). b e d bede / n-s ± n-® (< Жsleepfl + instrumental nominalizer). bed plank bu (= Жwooden boardfl). set up a bed bede-e-ze bl (Жbedfl + Жonefl + CL + Жto dofl). mirror mi:-lе`u (miЪ = Жeyefl). look in a mirror mi:-lе`u tse (Жmirror, lensfl + Жlookfl). lamp muwu (mu < m Жfirefl; originally meant the burning of pine cones, now can refer to any kind of lamp). turn on the light muwu de-Вge (Жlamp, lightfl + D I R + Жopenfl). turn off the light muwu -quе (Жlamp, lightfl + D I R + Жclosefl). wick liеn-uts (< Ch.). candle lеt®u (< Ch. la\ zhu| ).
picture lеmp (= Жflowerfl). bedding t®huеnp (< Ch. chu|angpu). make the bed ns phphе (Жbedfl + Жto spreadfl). mattress Вuts (< Ch. ru\ zi). mattress made of rice-stalks butshu. mat sits (< Ch. xо| zi). blanket t®an (< Ch. zha\ n). quilt quеt°hi. cover (with quilt) gu (= Жto wearfl). spread (vt.) phphе. fold up t-°t°i. pillow nk`u. lay on a pillow -® (DIR + Жto placefl). hang (a mosquito net) Щue. TOOLS thing pеn. matter В. method, way panfе (< Ch. b\anf«a). tools pеn (= Жthingsfl). scissors qusеp. cut with scissors tuе. knife xt®epi ± xt°epi. back of a knife tuopi (< Ch. d--aob«ei). sheath, scabbard tuo°еu (< Ch. d--aosh--ao (d--aoq\оao). grindstone Щlu-s (Щlu = Жstonefl). sharpen a knife su. handle ji (= Жhandfl (?)). scrape (vt.) khue. peel (vt.) sue. split (wood) (vt.) qhefi. prick (vt.) -t® (D I R + Жto prickfl). pierce (vt.) dе-t®huеn-thе (DIR + < Ch. chu--an + AUX).
350 Glossary hammer (n.) Щduе (< PTB *mtwa). hammer (vt.) de. axe stei. chop with an axe khe. pincers t°hiants (< Ch. qi|anzi). pincer (vt.) xt®e. chisel (n.) Щzu (cf. zu Жto chiselfl). chisel (vt.) zu. saw (n.) sqa. saw (vt.) khfi. file tshuots (< Ch. cu\ozi). awl or drill tsants (< Ch. zu\anzi). awl Щit®u` . bore a hole t®it®i. plane (n.) thuipеu (< Ch. tu--о- b\ao). plane (vt.) thui-thе (< Ch. + AUX). shavings pеuuеfi (< Ch. b\ao- hu--ar). hook (n.) tinniu (< Ch. d--оng- ni«u). hook (vt.) їе-t®uе. nail (n.) tints (< Ch. dо-- ngzi). nail (vt.) ВВi. screwdriver luostеu (< Ch. l|uos--оd--ao). screw (n.) luos (< Ch. l|uos--о). screw in (a screw) qut®ue (= Жto turnfl). carrying pole tu-s (Жcarryfl + instrumental nominalizer) / piantan (< Ch. bi«and\an). roll (v.) ©lu. shovel, spade (n.) t®huеnts (< Ch. ch«anzi). spade (vt.) t®huеn-thе (< Ch. ch«an + AUX). hoe (n.) t°ye. hoe (vt.), dig (with tools) phiphi.
dig (with hands) phefi. sickle set / duaЩl (the latter is a heavy curved knife used for chopping wood). sickle with teeth used to cut grain crops kaset (also smaller than set and duaЩl). stick wet. beat (with a stick) dete. whip (n.) piants (< Ch. bi--anzi). whip (vt.) z-di. ropes, cordage jl. string, rope (n.) dВu / x®ul (Жrope for trapsfl) / t°е®uen (< Ch.). twist ropes dВu bl (Жropefl + Жto dofl). pail ®ut. hand bucket tho (< Ch. to« ng). crossbar at the top of a Chinese bucket ji (= Жhandlefl = Жhandfl (?)). basket lants (< Ch. l|anzi). small hand basket puku` . whistle (n.) °t°yl. m a t c h e s janu (< Ch. y|anghu«o). torch ®uеp (cf. ®ue Жbrightfl and ®uеq Жlightfl; -p possibly < paha Жstrawfl). flint Щlu-fi ± Щlu-i (Жstonefl + Жwhitefl; this is the white stone used for decoration and to invest spirits in). light a match khe. straw paha. board bu. wire thies (< Ch. tie« sо-- ). gunpowder mu-du (Жfirefl + Жpowderfl). wood s (< PTB *sik). tile Щuе (< Ch. wa« ). lacquer lts (< Ch. (?)).
Buildings, structures, furniture, and tools 351
ivory jеku (< Ch. ya« gu« ). kiln jеuts (< Ch. y|aozi). winnowing shallow basket se. net ЩuеnЩuеn (< Ch. w«ang). sawdust t°ymuts (< Ch.). repair bl (= Жto dofl) / °iu-thе (< Ch. xi--u + AUX). pierce with a fork -t®.
TRADE AND BUSINESS trade (n.) tts. do business tts p (Жtradefl + Жto dofl). buy p. sell uе. it sells well uе-nе (Жsellfl + Жgoodfl). capital p-tshe (< Ch.be« nqia| n). earn money dzig`u qupu (Жmoneyfl + Жearnfl). lose money in business t-phei- thе (DIR + < Ch. p|ei+ AUX). accounts t®an (< Ch. zha\ ng). record accounts t®e quе. put on credit kuеt®i (< Ch.). collect debts x®olu` . make a quotation or offer phu de (Жpricefl + Жsayfl). how much (asking for price) еwe. haggle over prices ph didi (Жpricefl + Жdiscussfl). become wealthy dziku` tu-qu` pu (Жmoneyfl + DIR + Жearnfl). get promoted t-qе (= Жgo up (DIR + Жto gofl)fl). get demoted їе-lе (= Жcome down (DIR + Жto comefl)fl). country market or fair t®hеq (= Жstreetfl). open stall (n.) thеnts (< Ch. t--anzi). buy vegetables or groceries ku®`u p (Жvegetablesfl + Жto buyfl). settle a bill їе-suе (DIR + Жcomputefl). inn (hostel) je t°i (Жlive/stay (at)fl + Жhousefl). stay at an inn je (= Жlive/stay (at) (short term)fl) / wi. pawnshop phuts (< Ch. p\uzi).
352 Glossary mortgage (vt.) ti-thе (< Ch. d«о + AUX). money dzig`u ± dzik`u (dzi said by Sun (1988:58) to be an old loan of Chinese qi|an). price phu ± ph. paper money phiеuts (< Ch. pi\aozi). coins (small change) epi (< Ch. ni\eb\о (Жnickelfl + Жmoneyfl) ( )). d o l l a r pi (epi) (< Ch. b\о ( )). dime (ten fen) t°o (ot°o) (< Ch. ji«ao). cent fefi (е-fefi) (< Ch. f\en). spend money ®-thе (< Ch. sh«о ( ) + AUX). waste money е the (Жwastefl + Жto usefl). lend (money) he-°i. borrow(money) ha-xku` . owe (money), debt °t°y. dun for (money, debt) °t°y uasi (°t°y = Жdebtfl; ua = Жto loan, borrowfl (?)). return a borrowed object or money he-w. return a debt °t°y he-w (Жdebtfl + Жreturnfl). return change (from purchace) (hе)-t®. interest pеq. worth (be worth) lu. tax (n.) khefi / sui (< Ch. shu\о). tax (vt.) khefi ®е (Жtaxfl + Жto levyfl). pay tax sui ®е (sui < Ch.). unite t®u t®u. scale t®h (< Ch. che\ ng). weigh (vt.) t®ht® (t®h = Жscalefl). measure (rice) Щzi. measure (cloth) ЩzЩzi.
catty t° (е-t°) (< Ch. jо-- n). tael, ounce lu (o-lu) (< Ch. li«ang). mace, 1/10 tael t°han (е-t°han) (< Ch. qi|an). peck, a dry measure (316 c. in.) quеt. pint, 1/10 peck pu. measure of 10.8 feet t®еn (е- t®еn) (< Ch. zh\ang). yard mе (е-mе) (< Ch. ma« ). foot (measure) t® (е-t®) (< Ch. ch«о). inch tshuen (e-tshuen) (< Ch. c\un). Chinese mile (360 paces, 1/2 km.) li (e-li) (< Ch. lо« ). Chinese measure of land area (240 square paces) mu (omu) (< Ch. m\u). fathom (length of outstretched arms) ze (e-ze). handspan (thumb to middle finger) tu (е-tu; < PTB *twa). handspan (thumb to forefinger) t®he (e-t®he). handspan (thumb to curled forefinger) qu t°he (o-qu t°he) (qu = Жmouth(ful)fl). TOWN AND ROAD t o w n , city Щu ± Щo (= Жmountainfl) / t®hеq. city gate Щo men (Жcityfl + Жgate (< Ch. m|en)fl). street t®hеq. go into town t®hеq-tе k (Жstreetfl + LOC + Жto gofl). road, path gue:fi. walk on foot sei.
Trade, business, travel, and communication 353
build a road gu:fi bl (Жroadfl + Жto do, makefl). forked road gu:fi et®etpe-stе (Жroadfl+ Жmeetfl + Жplacefl). bridge tshuе. temporary bridge tshuе-stuе (tshuе = Жbridgefl). village tshuе (= Жbridgefl). county °an (< Ch. xi\an). Chengdu dytе (takes long е: instead of locative particle). Mao County qui(lе) ± ®qui(lе). Wenchuan County qhusu(lе). Li County (Xue City) ®еt®h- (lе) (actually the name of the county town, Xue Cheng (ЖXue Cityfl) but also used for the whole county). Ronghong Village jotе. Muyu / Moyu Village buja(lе). Guali Village quеЩlе. Wowo Village ЩoЩu (lе). Chibu Village t®hpе (pronounced t®hpе: including locative particle). Matang Village tshoЩu (lе) (can be pronounced tshoЩuе: including locative particle). Hexi Village ¬opе (pronounced ¬opе: including locative particle). Xihu Village °f`u (tе). Kawo Village qhoЩu (lе) (= Жcoffinfl). Yadu Township jotu` . Ekou Village guf`utе. Daguazi Village quеzdе. Xiaoguazi Village °i-quеzdе (°i- < Ch. xi«ao Жlittlefl). Luhua Village Щlo-uе (Жstone towerfl + Жcrookedfl). Seergu Village sefig`u.
Longba Village lunpеqp. Wasi Village waxs. Luoda Village Щlota. TRAVEL travel (vi.) hе-qе (= Жgo out (DIR + Жgofl)fl). traveller dе-qе-m (Жpass by (D I R + Жgofl)fl + agentive nominalizer). start on a journey ho-j`u. luggage pеn (= Жthing(s)fl). pack (luggage) °t°op`u. unpack (luggage) phefiВ. pass by a place dе-qе (= Жgo by (DIR + Жgofl)fl). guide (n.) q-®-m (Жheadfl + Жleadfl + agentive nominalizer). reach destination i-p-k (DIR + Жarrivefl + Жgofl) / i-p-l (DIR + Жarrivefl + Жcomefl). go home t°u-lе ipk (Жhomefl + LOC + Жreach destinationfl). yoke °it®u` . saddle gеnts (< Ch. --anzi). sedan chair t°еuts (< Ch. ji\aozi). carry a sedan chair t°еuts tu (< Ch. ji\aozi + Жcarryfl). ride (a bicycle) tsе (= Жride a horsefl) / qt®i. ride in a car t®hets-Ще dzu (car + LOC + Жsitfl). automobile, car t®hets (< Ch. ch--ezi). have a holiday de-°e (DIR + Жreleasefl; possibly a calque of Chinese f\angji\a).
354 Glossary LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION language Вwе. pass on a message ph stе. spoken words mele. speak, say de. talk (vt.), say j. chat, gossip pethiеu p (< Ch. b«aiti|ao). ask kefil. answer (vt.) he-Вgue (DIR + Жanswerfl). whisper (vi.) hama-i k-j (Жquietfl + adverbial marker + thus + Жsayfl). be silent ®qu-st`u` (Жmouthfl + Жto storefl). call (vi.), shout (vi.) Щoi. respond verbally hе-sе (= Жmake a soundfl). story ®kupu-mele (Жgorillafl + Жwordsfl). tell a story ®kupu-mele de (Жstoryfl + Жsayfl). telephone (n.) tianuе (< Ch. di\anhu\a). telephone (v.) Щoi (tianuе Щoi) (= Жshout, callfl). letter, book l©z. message (oral) ph. write (a letter/book) l©z Вe (Жletterfl + Жto writefl). mail a letter l©z stе (Жletterfl + Жentrust tofl). read a book l©z tse (Жbookfl + Жto look atfl). read aloud zd. recite lessons from memory l©z bie (Жbookfl + Жcarry on backfl (calque from Chinese?)). teach, study su.
literate l©z sе (Жletterfl + Жunderstandfl). illiterate l©z mе-sе (Жletterfl + NEG + Жunderstandfl). diligent nе-ji su (Жgoodfl + adverbial marker + Жstudyfl). draw / paint a picture uе-thе (< Ch. hu\a + AUX). newspaper pеut® (< Ch. b\aozh«о). read newspaper pеot® tse (Жnewspaperfl + Жlook atfl). paper ze:fi. pen, writing brush Вe-s (Жwritefl + instrumental nominalizer) / pi (< Ch. b«о). ink (fluid) me (< Ch. m\o). shape qs. sign (v., n.) suqhu / i-t®i-(s) (becomes a noun with -s nominalizer). trace jimi-gu` (= Жfootprintfl). bundle (CL) pе (е-pе; < Ch. b«a). paste, glue (n.) maha. glue (vi.), paste, stick (vt.) mmе. paste up ®pe.
Religion, festivals, games, and play 355
RELIGION g o d еp xs (Жgrandfatherfl + Жgodfl). deity (family god) t°i-xs (Жhousefl + Жgodfl). worship god, sacrifice (to the gods) xs °t° (Жgodfl + Жfeed; respectfl). ghost, spirit du-g`u-mi: (mi: = Жeye(s)fl). incense fts ± ft ± fut(s) (possibly < Tib. spos). i n c e n s e b u r n e r futs--®-s (Жincensefl + Жput, placefl + instrumental nominalizer). burn incense fut ts (Жincensefl + Жburnfl). temple xs t°i (Жgodfl + Жhousefl). monastery xs t°i (Жgodfl + Жhousefl). boddhisatva leme (< Tibetan). tell the future su suе (< Ch. su\an). efficacious t®e. fate lez. pagoda la-xse (Жstonefl + Жgodfl). auspicious jiqhuе °e (Жchest (bodypart)fl + Жbeautifulfl). white stone Щlu-i (Жstonefl + Жwhitefl; the white stone (a piece of flint) is invested with spirits). FESTIVALS Qiang Festival (held in Autumn; also used for Lunar New Year) (Вme) de. Solar New Yearfls Day Щfi de (ЖChinesefl + Жfestivalfl). observe the New Year de °e (Жfestivalfl + Жreleasefl).
crack firecrackers °e (= Жreleasefl). swear brotherhood or sisterhood; to pledge in a sworn brotherhood gul se (= Жmake friendsfl; gul = Жfriendfl). adopt, raise pfiВ. take a wife d. take a husband ©В. wedding or other set date zt. groom, bride mi-xs (Жpersonfl + Жnewfl; calque from Chinese?). remarry (of woman) ai-e:-tе ©В (Жanotherfl + Жone (+CL)fl + goal marker + Жmarryfl). birthday senВ (< Ch. sh--engr\о). birthday m (= Жonefls symbolic animalfl). celebrate birthday senВ bl (< Ch. sh--engr\о + Жdofl). dress a newly dead person fе llе (Жclothesfl + Ж(ex)changefl). burial clothes lеu-ji (< Ch. l«ao- y--о ( )). coffin qhoЩu. put the dead into the coffin qhoЩu-Ще le (Жcoffinfl + LOC + Жput infl). watch the coffin containing the corpse gfigfi. hold a funeral procession h e kue (= Жtake outfl). inter, to bury guele ± kuele. grave mp. tombstone mopei (< Ch. m\ub\ei). cremation Вb. human nature, friendliness zen tshen (< Ch. r|enq|оng).
356 Glossary make friends gul se (Жfriendfl + Жmake (friends)fl). hail (v., to say hello) Вmt®i p. keep company gul p (Жfriendfl + Жdofl). make a visit (to friends) g u l tse-k (Жfriendfl + Жlook atfl + Жgofl). welcome, to receive d. receive (visitor), entertain °t° (= Жfeedfl). host/master t°ip (t°i = Жhousefl; -p < PTB *pa Жmale gender marker; formative suffixfl). guest dВu. send presents pеnе dВu (Жthingsfl + Жsendfl). gift, present u-lu-t° pеnе (DIR + Жsendfl + genitive/relative marker + Жthingfl). treat (others to a meal, etc.) t°ip dzu (Жhost/masterfl + Жsitfl). invite guests to give a party dВu-°t° (Жguestfl + Жinvite/ feedfl). see a visitor off °e (= Жreleasefl). be a guest dВu p-k (Жguestfl + Жdofl + Жgofl). set up a banquet -® (= Жto placefl). take a seat at a dinner table z`u (DIR + dzu Жsitfl). start serving a banquet ku®`u ® (Жvegetablesfl + Жto placefl). thank for a gift В hе-sе (Жaffair, matterfl + D I R + Жmake soundfl). thank for an act of kindness В hе-sе (Жaffair, matterfl + DIR + Жmake soundfl). Жexcuse mefl mе-t®u-s-tе u (NEG + Жpay attentionfl + nominalizer + L O C + copula).
Жplease have a seatfl -z`u-nе (DIR + Жsitfl + Жgoodfl). Жstop, donflt trouble yourself to come outfl -t° (= Жstop (walking)fl). GAMES AND PLAY play Щzlе / ®uе-thе (< Ch. shu«a + A U X; used more commonly than the native word ЩВlе). toy ®uе th-s (Жplayfl + AUX + instrumental nominalizer). somersault tеnt°igugu. shuttlecock t°ants (< Ch. ji\anzi). play the shuttlecock t°ants Щue (Жshuttlecockfl + Жthrowfl). take a step dе-Щuе. play hide and seek e-wu e:-ipi- k-bl (Жonefl + agentive marker + Жone (plus classifier)fl + Жhidefl + Жgofl + Жdofl). cards phai (< Ch. pa| i). play card game phai °e (phai < Ch. p|ai + Жrelease, playfl). dice ®qеi (= Жstonesfl). play jacks, dice game ®qеi Щue (®qеi is seven stones thrown like dice; Щue = Жthrowfl). ball pou tеn. play ball pou tеn th. song, music zm. sing zm tshu. whistle (n.) °t°yl. whistle (vt.) °t°yl ph (Жwhistle (n.)fl + Жblowfl). flute t°hl. play the flute t°hl ph (Жflutefl + Жblowfl).
Religion, festivals, games, and play 357
gong omu. sound the gong omu Вete (Жgongfl + Жstrike, beatfl). drum Вbu. hit a drum Вbu Вete (Жdrumfl + Жstrike, beatfl). d a n c e zm sutu (Жsongfl + Жjumpfl). movies tia-jin (< Ch. di\an- y«оng). watch a movie tia-jin tse (= Жlook atfl). camera t®еu°an p-s (< Ch. zh\aoxi--ang + Жdofl + instrumental nominalizer). take a photo mi:-lе`u quе (Жmirror, lensfl + Жclosefl) / t®еu°an p / t®еu°an quе (t®еu°an < Ch. zh\aoxi--ang + p Жdofl or quе Жclosefl). win tu-qu. lose їo-qu.
BODYPARTS body pefi®en. body hair xupе (= Жfurfl). skin Вe:pi ± Вepi. wrinkle phutu. mole, birthmark ®paimi. bone Вeke. marrow Вeke-® (Вeke = Жbonefl). tendon, vein gfi. fat (n.) tsha (< PTB *tsa, used to refer to the fat of animals) / tshini (used to refer to the fat of people). blood sе. bleed sе hе-lе (Жbloodfl + Жcome out (ЖDIR + Жcomefl)fl). sweat (n.) xt®u. sweat (v.) xt®u lu (Жsweat (n.)fl + Жcomefl). body dirt khue. callous, blister, corns on the feet tsuq. grow callous skin, raise a blister tsuq sfi-®p. pus ®p-sе (sе = Жbloodfl). breathe (in) ms e-xk`u (Жbreathfl + Жinhalefl). breathe out ms he-°i (Жbreathfl + Жexhale (Жrelease out (DIR + Жreleasefl)fl)fl). pant (v.) (ms) °i°i. yawn (v.) lau` t-lе. doze mzi p / qutе. head q-pеt® (Жheadfl + Жroundfl). top of the head q-stе (Жheadfl + Жplacefl). dandruff zdadzi. head hair q-`u (Жheadfl + Жhairfl). hair whorl Вb (= Жdragonfl). bald-headed dzoq-pеt® (Жhairfl + Жroundfl).
358 Glossary back of the skull, occiput wuluot® (ot® = Жmountain ravinefl). brain q-i (Жheadfl + Жbrainfl < PTB *nuk). temple qе°t°y. forehead zduxku. face quaha. eyebrow, eyelash mi:-xkеm (mi: = Жeye(s)fl). eyes, eyeball mi: (< PTB *mik ± myak). eyelid miapi (Жeyefl + Жskin (< Вepi)fl). white of the eye mi:-phi® (Жeyefl + Жwhitefl). secretion in the eye mi:-® (Жeyefl + Жexcrementfl). tears Щlq. shed tears Щlq °i (Жtearsfl + Жreleasefl). cross-eyed mi:-daqhuе (Жeyefl + Жslanted, crookedfl). twitching of the eyelid mi: sutu (Жeyefl + Жjumpfl). have a sty qеp s-lе (Жsty (= Жjarfl)fl + DIR + Жcomefl). ears uk`u (u possibly < PTB *g/r-na). ear lobe uk`u-qulu (Жearfl + Жpointfl). soft secretion of the ear uku` - tshu®. nose °t°y-ts`u (°t°y < PTB *sna Жnosefl). ridge of nose °t°y-tsu: (Жnosefl + Жpillarfl). base of nose °t°yts-kopu (Жnosefl + Жrootfl). nostril °t°yts-Вo:pu (Жnosefl + Жholefl). mucus from the nose a. have a running nose a lu (Жmucusfl + Жcomefl).
blow the nose a sue (Жmucusfl + Жblow (the nose)fl). hard secretion from the nose a-kupе (Жmucusfl + Жburnt rice (that sticks to pan < Ch. g--uob--a)fl). flat-nosed °t°yts-pеt® (Жnosefl + Жroundfl). mouth, opening of the mouth ®qu. lips zdeku` . tongue zq (q final probaby from q Жhead, pointfl (Liu 1984)). tongue tip zq-qulu (Жtonguefl + Жpointfl). root of the tongue zq-kopu (Жtonguefl + Жrootfl). fur on the tongue ®qu ma (®qu = Жmouthfl). saliva, spittle t®uе / ts-s (ts = Жwaterfl). phlegm tshup-qhе. spit (v.) t®uе ph (Жsalivafl + Жspit, blowfl). teeth ®u (< PTB *swa). incisors, front teeth ®u-zdu Жtoothfl + male marker). canine teeth dza. tartar ®u-® (Жtoothfl + Жexcrementfl). gums (of teeth) ®u-z (®u = Жtoothfl). lose onefls milk teeth ®u llе (Жtoothfl + Ж(ex)changefl). protruding teeth dza qpi (Жcanine teethfl + Жprotrudefl). cheek t°ipi. cheekbone t°ini. sideburn, mustache, beard ots (< Ch. h|uzi). dimples °i-°pie (°i = Жliquorfl (+ Жthirstyfl?--if this is a calque on Chinese ji«uw--o it should
be Жnestfl, but Жnestfl is Вbaha)). chin do:. freckles its (< Ch.). neck t®uke ± t®uki. throat muwu. Adamfls apple dzuqt°hi-pеt® (pеt® = Жroundfl). shoulder, forearm jipi (ji = Жhand, armfl). armpit dВodВ-®ql / diqе (®ql = Жunder(neath)fl). hand jеpе (also ji in combination). right-hand na-x®e (Жrightfl + Жsidefl). left-hand Щua-x®e (Жleftfl + Жsidefl). arm lo-pu. elbow la-Щus. wrist sе Щua. pulse of the wrist gfi (= Жvein, tendonfl). back of the hand pewe (= Жinstepfl). palm la-x® . finger, knuckles ji-sеq (ji = Жhandfl; sе(q) = Жsection, jointfl). finger tips qulu (= Жpoint, tipfl). fingernail ЩdВs. thumb ji-miaq (Жhandfl + female marker). little finger t°i-t®е (Жmostfl + Жsmallfl). m i d d l e f i n g e r Вek`u-tе-lе (Жmiddle, betweenfl + DEF:one + C L for long thin objects). lines of the palm ji-l©z (Жhandfl + Жletter, writing, bookfl). fist ju-®pul (Жhandfl + Жkidneyfl). chest ji-qhuе. breast pеp (= Жmilkfl).
Bodyparts 359 nipple pеp-qulu (Жbreastfl + Жpointfl). heart °t°i:mi (°t°i: < PTB *sni; mi is secondary, and dropped in compounds). lungs tshu (< PTB *tsjwap?). stomach sikue. waist ®q. belly, intestines p. small intestine bitsi. large intestine p-po (Жintes- tinefl + Жthickfl). navel pu-t®u` (pu = Жbellyfl). liver sе-е (sе = Жbloodfl). gall bladder xt®. kidneys ®pl ± ®pul. pancreas at®u` . bladder t®h®. backbone thosu. buttocks stеstе. anus ®u-В`u (Жexcrementfl + Жholefl (< ®u-Вo:pu)). feces mi-® (Жpersonfl + Жexcre- mentfl). defecate ® ju (Жexcrementfl + Жto move from one container to another (= Жto spoon, pour (tea)fl)fl). urine bi. u r i n a t e bi °e (Жurinefl + Жreleasefl). expulsion of intestinal gas ® (= Жexcrementfl). expel intestinal gas ® °e (Жintestinal gasfl + Жreleasefl). penis (common term) liaq. penis (baby term) t°ut°u. testicles bfi. sperm, semen lie®. have nocturnal emissions lie® s-lе (Жspermfl + D I R + Жcomefl). vulva (common term) pho®. vulva (euphemistic term) °pie.
360 Glossary sexual intercourse (common term) stеu (stе = Жbuttocks (?)fl). sexual intercourse (euphemistic term) bl (= Жto dofl). pregnant t°ymi le (Жchildfl + Жexist (in a container)fl). give birth i-°i (DIR + Жreleasefl). leg duе. thigh duеp (duе = Жlegfl; -p < po Жthickfl?). kneecap Вguq. shinbone gfi. calf of the leg d В i ® p u t ® (possibly Жfootfl + Жroundfl). foot doqu. heel jimi-pеt® (Жfoot(print)fl + Жroundfl). instep pewe (= Жback of handfl). lower leg saq. sole of the foot pеq / doq-pе. toe ji-sеq (= Жfingerfl). toenail ЩdВs (= Жfingernailfl). point of the foot ji-sеq-qulu (Жtoesfl + Жpointfl). strength guqe. voice, sound, noise qi. ribs a:. back tsup / jipi (upper back; = Жshouldersfl). ACTIONS INVOLVING BODYPARTS raise the head qpеt® ho-Щu. droop the head qpеt® їе-qut. turn the head hе-l. turn around (the head) z-l / dе- l. look (vt.) tse / l. open the eyes mi: dе-t®е (= Жcrack/splitfl). close the eyes mi: їе-t®е.
blink (v.) mi: phqphq p (mi: = Жeye(s)fl; p = Жto dofl). gaze fixedly or fiercely Ве-t®е. look sideways pianufi (< Ch.). aim at Вuzdе. hear x®u°t° (°t° < *st(front vowel) < *sn, ultimately < PTB *sna; cf. Mawo dial. kh°ust, Taoping dial. t°hy y (data from Sun 1981a); compare also Жrestfl and Жpainfulfl). smell (vt.) °ete. open the mouth ®qu dе-qе. close the mouth ®qu їе-mm. open the mouth a slit ®qu dВaha (Жmouthfl + Жslit openfl). purse the lips zdek`u su-t®hu (Жlipsfl + DIR + Жextend, stick outfl). kiss (vt.) zde t®ue p (zde = Жlipsfl; p = Жto dofl). eat dz (dry foods; < PTB *dza) / t°h (liquidy foods; = Жdrinkfl). drink (vt.) t°h / suqu. suck (vt.), smoke (cigarettes) t®he. bite (vt.), hold in the mouth ЩdВe. chew (vt.) dzidzi. gnaw at a bone Щa¬i (people or animals). lick with tip of tongue ete. taste (vt.) е-® tse (Жonefl + Жtimefl + Жlook atfl). sip (vt.), suck (fingers) t®he-x¬ (t®he = Жsuckfl). swallow (v.) sЩzu` . choke with food sukutsu. spurt (vt.) їе-f (DIR + Жto spit, blow (< ph(te))fl).
spit (vt.), blow (vt.) ph(te). drool tss lfi (Жsalivafl + Жdrip, flowfl). stick out the tongue zq ho-t®hu (Жtonguefl + DIR + Жextend, stick outfl). tuck under the arm dВodВ®qеl (Жarmpitfl + Жunderfl). elbow (v.), nudge th. raise the hand ho-t®hu (DIR + Жextend, stick outfl). stretch out the hand su-t®hu (DIR + Жextend, stick outfl). clap the hands lеx® Вete (Жpalm(s)fl + Жhit, strikefl). let loose of the hand de-°i (DIR + Жreleasefl). shake hands Щo®u p (< Ch. w\osh«ou + Жto dofl). clench onefls fist ju®pul zu-Щu. point (v.) t®-thе (< Ch. zh«о + AUX). hold with the hand, take in the fingers, carry in the hand(s), pick up, raise (vt.) t-tsi. carry, bring lie. claw (v.), clutch z-t®uе (< Ch. zhu--a (?), but cf. t®u-t®uе Жtwist, crush together in the handfl). gather together x®ol. hold firmly z-t®hi. bring (as a tray) t°y (= Жcarryfl). bring (polite request) ha-xkue. hold up in both hands i-tsi (same root as in Жhold with the hand, take in the fingersfl, and Жraisefl). raise with the hands ho-t®hu (= Жextendfl). shoulder (a load), carry on the shoulders (two people) tu.
Bodyparts 361 raise by putting something under u-x®u / tian-thе (< Ch. di\an + AUX). transport ®qa / pеn-thе (pеn-thе < Ch. b--an + AUX). feel, touch (vt.) sosu t®е. put, place in/on -®. put down rudely da-Щ`u (< Щue Жthrowfl). pile up b. rub, wipe ®еxt®е. rub between the hands, rub, massage ©liete. rub on (oil) mm. press down їe-t®he. twist (v.), wring (a wet towel), pinch with the fingers, clutch, grasp with the hand, screw (v.), turn (doorknob) qu-t®ue. crowded °t°i°t°i (= Жfoldfl (?)). squeeze (out) z-t®hi. strangle z-x®. twist, sprain (v.) pеt©l. twist, crush together in the hand (e.g. clothes) t®u t®uе (cf. z-t®uе Жclaw (v.), clutchfl). scratch dze e (Жitchfl + Жgrab, scratch (< phefl)fl). push °t°i / thui-thе (< Ch. tu--о + AUX). pull, drag (vt.) ®e-xku` . pull at (a string) їе-(®e)-xku` . pull out stue. draw (lots) stеqе (= Жselectfl). disperse (e.g. sand) se. flay, peel (vt.), open out, separate qfiqfi. separate, divide, divorce qala. rip, tear (vt.) phifiphifi (< PTB *prak). fold (vt.) °t°i°t°i / z°t°i. hit, strike (vt.) dete. slap (vt.) qhli.
362 Glossary pound, tap, strike, rap on (the head), skim, fish out, massage the back by pounding Вete. pick at, scrape (e.g. the nose) t®ut®u. pat (on the shoulder) t-¬i (< qhli Жslapfl). pat (on the table) phete. pound, ram de. poke (vt.) -t®. break into two ji-dzue їo-p (Жtwofl + Жsectionsfl + DIR + Жto dofl). shake stustuе. shake out їe-ete (< phete). pull out, take out (from pocket) t®(t®e). rummage (vt.) mefiВ (= Жlook forfl). throw Вgutu / Щute ± Щue. throw away da-Щ`u (DIR + Жthrow (< Щute)fl). take with the hand, receive, support, prop up їe-ke. embrace, hug (v.) t-ua. carry in the arms їo-ua. ward off -xt® (xt® = Жto stop upfl) / tе-thе (< Ch. d«ang + AUX). prop up, stretch out t-t°. roll up ©l ± ©lu. wrap (vt.) ququе. tie up, bind t-®. fill up, load ll. carry in upper garment phlе-tе del (phlе is the part of the upper garment that comes across the chest). shake open, spread by shaking da-qat®he. lift open (a lid) t-qe. pry open t-t°hеu-thе (DIR + < Ch. qi\ao + AUX).
cover from head down їе-® / їе-que. ladle (vt., water) t-zе (zе = Жladle (n.)fl). scoop from one container to another ju. line up, queue up phai-thе (< Ch. p|ai + AUX). tread on t®huen (< Ch.). stamp the feet doqu tshuate. step across dе-Щuе. limp (n.) t°hq-lе. run phu (possibly < PTB *plo). kick t®hu. kick (as a horse), kick back pе®u t®hu. kick off coverings quеt°i s-Щu (Жquiltfl + Жturn overfl). cross the legs z-pelе. bind the feet °yte-de (Жbindingfl + Жwrapfl). sit (up) dzu (said by Sun (1988:58) to be an old loan of Ch. zu\o). sit down -dzu. stand (up), get up tu-ju. squat tuen-thе (< Ch. d--un + AUX) / їe-gue (said by Sun (1988:58) to be an old loan from Chinese gu\о Жkneelfl). stoop їo-Щu. kneel, bow (vi.), prostrate and knock head on ground Щutshu (tshu = Жjumpfl). lean against -qhuе (qhuе = Жslantedfl). lie down їе-n (DIR + Жsleepfl). lie flat on the stomach pun nu qu. sleep face down pun nu qu-i n (Жlie flat on stomachfl + adverbial particle + Жsleepfl).
sleep on onefls back mutu t-li n (Жlie on back (Жskyfl DIR + Жlookfl)fl + adverbial particle + Жsleepfl). sleep on onefls side e-x®e dе-li n (Жonefl + Жsidefl + DIR + Жlookfl + adverbial particle + Жsleepfl). slip (v.) ¬е. stumble, fall down, slip and fall dе-¬е (fall because ground is slippery (¬е = Жslipfl; < PTB *kla) / da-que (fall because of tripping over rock, etc.). jump sutu / tshu. crawl b-t° p (Жbugfl + genitive particle + Жdofl). rush on zu-su (DIR + Жjumpfl). run against -t. move or slip away or to one side (v.) de-xtse. hide i-pi (i-pi / i-pi-k) (< PTB *pak). meet e-t®epe. carry on the back (child or objects) bie. GROOMING wash face quaha ulе (Жfacefl + Жwashfl). pan for washing face slеnphn (< Ch. x«оli«anp|en) / tshiphen. take a bath pefi®en ulе (Жbodyfl + Жwashfl). wash the feet doqu ulе (Жfeetfl + Жwashfl). shampoo the hair qpеt® ulе (Жheadfl + Жwashfl). soap jits (< Ch. yо| zi). washcloth, bath towel phеts (< Ch. p\azi).
Bodyparts 363 toothbrush ®u-ulе-s (Жtoothfl + Жwashfl + instrumental nominalizer). brush onefls teeth ®u ulе (Жtoothfl + Жwashfl). rinse onefls mouth ®qu ulе (Жmouthfl + Жwashfl). wipe the anus (after defecating) tshе-thе (< Ch. c--a + AUX). make up (v.) d d. comb (n.) qus ± qusе ± qu- si (Жheadfl (?) + Жcombfl (?) < PTB *si (?)). comb the hair qpеt® khefi (Жheadfl + Жcombfl (khefi < khefi-khefi < PTB *kwi (?)). dress up the hair tutu. pigtail (tied with hemp) qux®ul. pigtail (not tied with hemp) dzoq / qut°u. plait the hair (vt.) kepi. have a haircut (male), shave the head qpеt® khue (Жheadfl + Жscrape, shavefl). have a haircut (female) tuе (Qiang women donflt normally cut their hair). shave the head bald kuеthu khue (< Ch. gu--angt|ou + Жscrape, shavefl). shave beard ots khue (Жbeard (< Ch. h|uzi)fl + Жscrape, shavefl).
364 Glossary LIFE, DEATH, AND ILLNESS life su. whole life (onefls whole life) e- ®e (Жonefl + Жdiefl). be born Вi-ji (Жexistfl + CSM) give birth i-°i (DIR + Жreleasefl) living, to be alive su (= Жto jumpfl (?)). raise (children) pefiВ. watch (the children) tse (= Жlook atfl). young in age ®us me-le (Жyears/agefl + NEG + Жexistfl). grow up (vi.) t-wa (DIR + Жbig (< ba)fl). be grown up t-wa-ji (DIR + Жbig (< ba)fl + aspect marker (CSM)). old of age, become old dе-p (DIR + Жoldfl). become tired t-t®hue °t°еq mo-lu (DIR + Жmovefl + heartfl + NEG + Жcomefl = Жnot want to movefl). rest d (< *na; cf. Жdiseasefl, Жhearfl, Жnosefl). sleep n (also used for Жlie downfl) / mzi (fully asleep). dream (v.) u-Вmu (D I R + Жdreamfl; < PTB *r-mang). talk in sleep mzi-q p (mzi = Жsleepfl; p = Жto dofl). fatigued їo-®u. part from qale. die (vi.) ®e (has special form for DIR prefix: die-®e). have maggots bl de-Вi (Жwormfl + DIR (= become) + Жexist (animate refer-ent)fl). corpse Вmu ± Вm. age p / ®us (= Жyearsfl). year old p.
disease, illness, pain(ful) di (< *na; cf. Жhearfl, Жrestfl, Жnosefl). ill t-di (DIR + Жdisease, be illfl = Жbecome illfl). infect dе-tsu. not feel well leme mo-lu (Жspirit, energyfl + NEG + Жcomefl). moan (v.) ts©dВ. get well u-x®u` . have headache qpеt® di (Жheadfl + Жbe painful, illfl). feel dizzy qpеt® su (Жheadfl + Жturn, spinfl). eyesight blurred mi: lеmp tlе (Жeye(s)fl + Жflowerfl + DIR + Жcomefl). deaf uk`u bu (Жearfl + Жdeaffl; bu < PTB *ba). sneeze (v.) i-su p (p = Жto dofl). have a stuffy nose °t°yts mе-n (Жnosefl + NEG + Жgoodfl). remove teeth ®u stue (Жtoothfl + Жpull outfl). have decayed teeth bl-wu ®u dz (Жbug, insectfl + agentive marker + Жtoothfl + Жeatfl). burp (v.) qhup-tul. nauseating dowa-®-ke: u (Жvomitfl + Жthink aboutfl + DEF:CL + copula). vomit (v.) dowe. have the mumps t®ue. hoarse qei hе-s-mе-l (Жvoicefl + DIR + Жmake sound (< sе)fl + NEG + Жable (< dВ)fl). nervous, palpitating heart °t°i:mi sutu (Жheartfl + Жjumpfl). h e a r t d i s e a s e °t°i:mi-di (Жheartfl + Жdisease; be ill, painfulfl).
have tuberculosis lеupin (< Ch. l|aob\оng). strain, sprain (onefls back, muscles) do-qu¬е. have indigestion p-le: mе-nke: u (Жintestinesfl + DEF:CL + NEG + Жgood (< nе)fl + INDEF:CL + copula). have stomachache sikue qhfiqhfi (Жstomach/bellyfl + Жbe painful, hurt (only used for stomach pain)fl). have diarrhea sikue di (Жstomach, bellyfl + Жdisease; be ill, painfulfl). have dysentery, diarrhea ku (t)-®е. feel numb t-©z (DIR + Жhot (peppery / spicy)fl). have cramps gfi su (Жtendonfl + Жturn, spinfl). shiver (v.), shudder (v.) leme xse (Жspirit, energyfl + Жmovefl). catch chill t-nian-thе (DIR + < Ch. li|ang + AUX). have fever t-si (DIR + Жhotfl = Жbecome hotfl). have the measles bu dе-ts`u (Жrashfl + DIR + Жmeet withfl). have pockmarked face mеts (< Ch. m|azi). dropsy p phphе (Жintestines, bellyfl + Жswellfl). have asthma tshup tshu (tshu = Жcoughfl; cf. tshup-qhе Жphlegmfl). hysterical ®ent°in tshu (< Ch. sh|enj--оng + Жmeet withfl). have cholera ®е-® dе-ts`u (Жbloodfl + Жstool(feces)fl + Жmeet withfl). have leprosy dzu.
Life, death, illness, and warfare 365 have lice xt®e de-w (Жlicefl + DIR + Жexistfl). have underarm odor t®oqubtsi (Жweaselfl + Жsmell badfl). have goose flesh puf`u hе-lе (hеlе = Жcome outfl). have piles (hemorrhoid) l u k u di (Жbackside, read endfl + Жillness, painfl). get a splinter tshmе -t® (Жthornfl + DIR + Жto stickfl). scald oneself їe-t®i. heal, close (of wound) zmmе. grow into a scar jinpi qut (Жwoundfl + Жcover (qu)fl). whip mark jimi-k`u (jimi = Жfootprintfl(?)). wound, sore jinpi. get wounded ®еn tu-ts`u (< Ch. sh--ang + D I R + Жto get (illness), sufferfl). wrap a wound ll. have prickly heat Вfets (< Ch. r\ef\eizi). have sores jinpi їo-p (Жsoresfl + DIR + Жbecomefl) have the itch, scabbies pie-dzu (pie = Жpigfl). have nosebleed °t°y-sе lu (Жnosefl + Жbloodfl + Жcomefl). constipation kait®u їo-p. smallpox bu. heal disease t®hop. examine the disease / see a doctor di tse (Жillnessfl + Жlook atfl). acupuncture jin t®en (< Ch. y|оnzh--en). make up a prescription phei-thе (< Ch. p\ei + AUX). medicine sipe. dose of medicine fu (е-f`u) (< Ch. f\u).
366 Glossary p i l l sipe-pеt® (Жmedicinefl + Жroundfl). liquid medicine sipe-thеn (Жmedicinefl + Жsoup (< Ch. t--ang)fl). make a decoction sipe ®qu (Жmedicinefl + Жboilfl). take medicine sipe dz (Жmedicinefl + Жeatfl). drink liquid medicine sipe t°h (Жmedicinefl + Жdrinkfl). medicinal plaster kеojеu (< Ch. g--aoy\ao). apply a plaster kеujеu ®pe (Жplasterfl + Жto pastefl). ointment jokеu (< Ch. y\aog--ao). rub ointment jokеu mma (Жointmentfl + Жrubfl). poison du. hospital jiЩuеn (< Ch. yо-- yua\ n). WARFARE army guefi. bow l (< PTB *d-liy). crossbow qhuеtq. slingshot phiphnts (< Ch.). shoot an arrow or gun qhu. gun soqhu. bullet xt®. shoot a gun soqhu qhu. target Вu. shoot the target Вu zdе (Вu = Жtargetfl). ambush (vt.) ipi (= Жto hidefl). guard (vt.) gfigfi. surround (vt.) t°hyt°hy. win (in some contest) tu-qu. be defeated їo-qu. truce їе-t®u.
KINSHIP name (n.), surname, clan name Вm (< PTB * r-mi). be called, be named or surnamed Вm / u (u = copula). regard as u (= copula). count as °е-`u (Жallowfl + copula). relatives ku-е-ts (< Жolder brotherfl + Жandfl + Жsisterfl; refers to close relatives) / stum ± stum (refers to relatives with the same surname) / tsuoЩlumi (refers to women from a family who have married into other families). married relationships t°hint°iе (< Ch. q--оnji--a). senior generation ®us-le-m (Жage, yearsfl + Жexistfl + agentive nominalizer). great-grandfather jipе. great-grandmother jimе. paternal grandfather (address term), maternal grandfather (address and quoting term) еpе. paternal grandfather (quoting term) еpе / qеpе (-pе < PTB *pa). paternal and maternal grandmother (address and quoting term) utumе. parents mе:-е-tеt (Жmotherfl + Жandfl + Жfatherfl). father (address term) tеt. father (quoting term) tеt / ep. mother (address term) mе:. mother (quoting term) w.
Kinship; types of people; verbs of interaction between people 367
husbandfls or wifefls mother (address and quoting term) khstе. paternal uncles upu. fatherfls elder brother (address and quoting term), motherfls sisterfls husband ipi. fatherfls elder brotherfls wife, motherfls sister imi. fatherfls younger brother upu. fatherfls younger brotherfls wife, elder brotherfls wife it°i. fatherfls sisterfls husband еtsе. fatherfls sister ii. wifefls father (quoting term) puk`u. motherfls brother еkuе. motherfls brotherfls wife i®pi. of the same generation e-pei (Жonefl + Жgeneration (< Ch. b\ei)fl). husband wut°upu. wife stsim. brothers tu-tu-wa (< tut®tu-ba Жyounger brotherfl + Жolder brother (Жbrotherfl + Жbigfl)fl). elder brother (address term) ku: (< Ch. g--e?). elder brother (quoting term) tu-wa (Жbrotherfl + Жbig (< ba)fl). sister call brother m. brother call sister ©lu. younger brother (quoting term) tut®`u. s i s t e r s tsi-sat®`u (Жgirlfl + Жyounger sisterfl). elder sister tsi (< Ch. jie« ). elder sisterfls husband еtsе. younger sister (quoting term) sat®`u. siblings of fatherfls sisters; of motherfls brothers and
sisters, cousins lеupiеu (< Ch. l«aobi«ao). cousins on fatherfls or motherfls s i d e tu-tu-wa (= Жbrothersfl). junior generation ®us-me-le-m (Жage, yearsfl + NEG + Жexistfl + agentive nominal-izer). son t®i (= Жboyfl). sonfls wife tsu©zu (tsu < tsi Жgirl/daughterfl + ©zu < ©z Жmarryfl(?)). daughter tsi (= Жgirlfl). daughterfls husband t®i-mi (Жboy/sonfl + Жpersonfl). brotherfls son or daughter di. sisterfls child ®pts (male or female). grandchild z-t®`u (< PTB *za + t®u Жchildfl). great-grandson l-t®`u (< PTB *b-liy + t®u Жchildfl). family t°u-lo-qpi (Жhomefl + DEF:one: + DEF:one-family). sworn brothers lokun (< Ch. l«aog--eng ( ). friend gul / tеu. intimate friend gul. neighbor mq-to-qpi (Жabovefl + ЖDEF:one-familyfl) / thex-toqpi (Жthat sidefl + ЖDEF:onefamilyfl) / ql-lo-qpi (Жbelowfl + ЖDEF:one-familyfl). villagers (same village) еtshp. family members o-qpi (Жonefl + Жfamilyfl). baby tsi°i. child t°ymi / t®u (now used mainly for the young of animals, but appears in some compounds referring to humans). boy, male, married man t®i.
368 Glossary girl, female, married woman tsi. young man °еuots (< Ch. xi«aoh«uozi) / ®us-me-le-m (Жage, yearsfl + NEG + Жexist, havefl + agentive nominalizer). bachelor tokun (< Ch. d|ug--en ( )). unmarried young woman tsam. pregnant woman t°ymi-le-m (Жchildfl + Жexist (in container)fl + Жagentive moninalizer). widow kuеmuts (< Ch. ku«am«uzi). old man qеpе (= Жpaternal grandfatherfl). old woman qotu. adult ba-t-m (ba = Жbigfl; -m is agentive nominalizer). first born t°i-wa (< t°i-ba; Жmostfl + Жbigfl). youngest child t°i-t®е (Жmostfl + Жsmallfl). twins е-Щue (Жonefl + Жplacentafl). single child t®i-xt® (male) / tsixt® (female). orphan kеp / kеpt®. TYPES OF PEOPLE person, human being mi. in-group t°ile-mi (3pl pronoun + Жpersonfl). outsider t°ile-mi mе-`u` (3pl pronoun + Жpersonfl + NEG + copula). stranger mе-s-m mi (N E G + Жknow, recognizefl + animate nominalizer + Жpersonfl). townpeople t®hn®е-mi (< Ch. ch|engsh\о + Жpersonfl).
(Жearth, landfl + locative
particle + Жto dofl + agentive
person from another province
waisen-mi (< Ch. w\aish«eng
+ Жpersonfl).
foreigner waikue-mi (< Ch.
w\aigu|o + Жpersonfl).
bald-headed person dzoq-pеt®
(Жhairfl + Жroundfl).
blind person (mi:) khfip ((Жeyefl)
+ Жblindfl).
blind mi: їa-khfip (Жeyefl + DIR
+ Жblindfl) / mi: mo-t°u (
Жeyefl + NEG + Жseefl).
one-eyed person mi: e-x®e
khfip (Жeyefl + Жonefl + Жsidefl
+ Жblindfl).
person who wears glasses
jеnt°ints-de-m (< Ch.
y«anj\оngzi + Жwearfl + agent-
ive nominalizer).
deaf person uk`u pu ± uk`u-
bu (Жearfl + Жdeaffl).
deaf bu (< PTB *ba).
dumb person Щua.
dumb qi hе-s-mе-l (Жsoundfl +
DIR + Жmake a soundfl + NEG
+ Жablefl).
harelipped person
t°huet°hue (Жonefl + Жmouthfl
+ < Ch. qu--e).
person who stutters t°ets (<
Ch. ji--ezi) / ®qu-tshi (®qu =
person with missing front teeth
®u-Вo:pu (Жtoothfl + Жholefl).
person with pockmarks mеts
(< Ch. m|azi).
lame person t°hqlе / peits ( <
Ch. b«ozi).
lame t°hqlе.
humpbacked tsupu.
Kinship; types of people; verbs of interaction between people 369
simpleton he-me-the (DIR + NEG + Жablefl). mad person, crazy person ЩuЩu-m (Жcurse, be crazyfl + agentive nominal-izer). Tibetan (name of ethnic group) ®pe (= Жpeople of the grasslandsfl). T i b e t a n l a n g u a g e ®pe-В (ЖTibetanfl + Жspeechfl). Han (name of ethnic group) Щfi. Han person (common derogatory term, literally Жrotten Han personfl) Щfi-ptsuquе (ЖHan personfl + p + Жrottenfl). Han language Щfi-В (ЖHanfl+ Жspeechfl). rGyalrong (Jiarong; name of ethnic group) t®hp. Qiang (name of ethnic group) Вme. Qiang language В m e - В (ЖQiangfl + Жspeechfl). Yi (name of ethnic group) lolo. Hui (name of ethnic group; Moslems) pie-pies ma-se-m (< Жpigfl-Жmeatfl NEG-knowNOM Жthose who donflt know porkfl) / uits (< Ch. h|uizi). common people pesi (< Ch. b«aix\оng). poor people ma-q-m (NEG + Жwealthyfl + agentive nominalizer). rich people qq-m (Жwealthyfl + agentive nominalizer). work (vt.) bl (= Жto dofl). train °unian p (< Ch. xu\ nlia\ n + Жto dofl). hire, to employ ku (< Ch. g\u). salary °in®ui (< Ch. x--оnsh«ui).
m a s t e r t°i-p (Жhousefl + formative affix < PTB *pa). servant Щua-m (Жhelpfl + agentive nominalizer). officer ©z. teacher l©z-su-m (Жbook, letterfl + Жteach, studyfl + agentive nominalizer). student °osen (< Ch. xu|esh--eng) / su-m (Жteach, studyfl + agentive nominalizer). f a r m e r zе-Щ-bl-m (Жfield, landfl + locative postposition + Жto dofl + agentive nominalizer). hunter qhu-m (Жhuntfl + Жagentive nominalizer). landowner tit®u (< Ch. d\оzh«u). herd, shepherd (v.) °t°y cattle shepherd x®e-°t°y-m (Жcattlefl + Жherd, shepherd (v.)fl + agentive nominalizer). pig tender pie-°t°y-m (Жpigfl + Жherd, shepherd (v.)fl + agentive nominalizer). butcher pie-t®-m (Жpigfl + Жkillfl + agentive nominalizer). woodchopper s-gue-m (Жwoodfl + Жchopfl + agentive nominalizer). tailor fе-jeji-m (Жclothingfl + Жsewfl + agentive nominalizer). barber qpеt®-khue-m (Жheadfl + Жscrape, shavefl + agentive nominalizer). carpenter mutsan (< Ch. m\uji\ang). blacksmith dy-m (Жforgefl + agentive nominalizer). forge (thing) out of iron dy.
370 Glossary m a s o n t°i-x¬ie-m (Жhousefl + Жbuild (pile bricks)fl + agentive nominalizer). doctor di-t®hop-m (Жillnessfl + Жheal, curefl + agentive nominalizer (with epenthetic vowel)) / di-i-thе-m (Жillnessfl + Жheal, curefl < Ch. y--о + AUX + agentive nominalizer). household servant Щ u a - m (Жhelpfl + agentive nominalizer). c o o k stuеhе-bl-m (Жfood, ricefl + Жto dofl + agentive nominalizer). doorkeeper dy-gfi-m (Жdoorfl + Жto guardfl + agentive nominalizer). master of a trade sf (< Ch. sh--оf\u). apprentice su-m (Жteach, studyfl + agentive nominalizer) / thuti (< Ch. t|ud\о). merchant tts-p-m (Жtradingfl + Жto dofl + agentive nominalizer). do business tts p (Жtradingfl + Жto dofl). shopkeeper uе-m (Жsellfl + agentive nominalizer). assistant in a shop, waiter gul (= Жfriendfl). soldier guefi. military officer guefi-©z (Жarmyfl + Жleaderfl). jail keeper, guard gfigfi. to guard gfi. monk o®еn (< Ch. he| sha\ ng). beggar wasi-m (Жbeg, demandfl + agentive nominalizer). thief, pickpocket (n.) ®ku (< *PTB r-kuw).
VERBS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN PEOPLE beg (for money) wasi (= Жdemandfl). steal, pickpocket (v.) ®quеt®. rob dВudВue. cheat phian-thе (< Ch. pi\an + AUX). joke (verbally, v.) dВе°t°i-s de (Жlaughfl + instrumental nominalizer + Жsayfl). brag (v.) tutu. argue tsn-thе (< Ch. zh--eng + AUX). criticize phiphan p (< Ch. p--оp\an + Жto dofl). ridicule sarcastically or in disguise Щuеkhu pu (< Ch. w--ak«u + Жto dofl). lie (v.) piеnu °t°e (piеnu = Жlie (n.)fl). make a mistake de-tshi (< Ch. cu\o). incite to contention qz Щue. tease (vt.) dВе°t°i-В (Жto laughfl + causative suffix). provoke Вe-thе (< Ch. r«e + AUX). blame (vt.) kuеi-thе (< Ch. gu\ai + AUX). upbraid xe. scold, curse (v.) xe / ЩuЩu. use bad words efi-kеn-ts (< Ch. \erg\anzi). get scolded tupt°i. quarrel Вmmfi. act as peacemaker , persuade someone not to fight x®e. intercede їе-t®u. advise t°huan-thе (< Ch. qu\an + AUX).
Kinship; types of people; verbs of interaction between people 371
give in to Веn-thе (< Ch. r\ang + AUX). deal with negligently mq-mq (Жtop, abovefl + Жtop, abovefl; = Жsloppyfl). conceal stu. assume falsely ®pеt. offend people tetsui p (< Ch. d|ezu\о + Жto dofl). hinder, to get in the way mi- ®kue-m (Ж(other) personfl + Жpullfl + agentive nominalizer) / bl-В-mo-Щu (Жto dofl + causative suffix + NEG + Жallowfl). bully (vt.) mq s-l (Жtop, abovefl + DIR + Жlookfl). compel, force (vt.) t°hiеnphe p (< Ch. qi|angp--o + Жto dofl). keep for oneself t®еn-thе (< Ch. zh\an + AUX). wedge in; to crowd into the line t°hе-thе (< Ch. ch--a + AUX). intercept, to stop (vt.) їe-qe. crowd (v.) t°i-thе (< Ch. j«о + AUX). tell tales of, to play trick on suеn-thе (< Ch. su\an + AUX). fight (vt.) qu-qu (= reciprocal form of quе Жto hitfl). get beaten z-di. chase away he-w. scram! he-xtse. call Жhelpfl t-Щuе-l (DIR + Жhelpfl + Жcomefl). Жdonflt movefl t°e-mex¬e (prohibitive prefix + Жmovefl). consult d В i d i ( t h e N P representing the person consulted takes the comitative particle -е). beg (for a favor) t°hiu-thе (< Ch. qi|u + AUX).
promise (vt.) Щu (= Жbe willingfl). imitate su (= Жstudy, teachfl). depend on khеu-thе (< Ch. k\ao + AUX). help (vt.) Щuе. protect pеufu p (< Ch. b«aoh\u + Жto dofl). rescue (vt.) t°iu-thе (< Ch. jiu\ + AUX). beware of i-tsi. look after t®еuku pu (< Ch. zh\aog\u + Жto dofl). attend (someone) tshiou p (< Ch. c\оh\ou + Жto dofl). requite (vt.) pеutе p (< Ch. b\aod|a + Жto dofl). avenge a grievance pеut®hu p (< Ch. b\aoch|ou + Жto dofl). meet with tse (= Жto look at, seefl). meet (by chance) e-t®ipe ± e- t®epe. summon (vt.) do-Щoi (DIR + Жto call, yellfl). send phеi-thе (< Ch. p\ai + AUX). give command minin p (< Ch. m\оngl\оng + Жto dofl). lead (vt.) tе-°t°u` . cause (vt.) bl-В (use -В± -В suffix after verb, or if no verb, then Жto dofl + causative suffix). wait for zul`u. hasten, to urge tshui-thе (< Ch. c--ui + AUX). give d-l ± de-l (< DIR + le; cf. 2sg form: delen). decline (refuse) їe-qe-mo-Щu (Жacceptfl + NEG +Жwillingfl). accept, seize and arrest їe-qe. exchange (vt.) llе.
372 Glossary take the place of tеithi p (< Ch. d\ait\о + Жto dofl; usually use causative suffix on copula to express this meaning). compensate phei-thе (< Ch. p|ei + AUX). hand down їе-t®huеn-thе (DIR + < Ch. chu|an + AUX). select (as) stеqе. hold a meeting Вmu tsu (Жmeetingfl + Жhold (meeting)fl). meeting dismissed Вmu tsu dе-s (Жmeetingfl + Жhold (meeting)fl + DIR + Жfinishfl). sue kеu-thе (< Ch. g\ao + AUX). search the person su-thе (< Ch. s--ou + AUX). detain t°yiu tu-p`u (< Ch. j--uli|u + DIR + Жto dofl). release (from captivity) de-°i (DIR + Жreleasefl). flee du-fu (DIR + Жflee/run (< phu)fl; possibly < PTB *plo). pursue dzе. murder mi qti (Жpersonfl + Жslaughterfl). overtake (in pursuit) -dzе-k (DIR + Жpursuefl + Жgofl). use (vt.) ®-thе (< Ch. sh«о ( + AUX). waste (vt.) е p (Жwastefl + Жto dofl). keep (vt.) hе-® (DIR + Жplacefl). try (vt.) е-® (Жonefl + measure word for actions; no auxiliary verb for this meaning, simply add this measure to imply doing tentatively). prepare t®unpi p (< Ch. zh«unb\ei + Жto dofl).
put (things) away, hide (things) t-®u. look for mefiВ. forget (something), l e a v e behind, forget to take da-m (< DIR + root). compare pi-thе (< Ch. b«о + AUX). make up the proper amount tshou-thе (< Ch. c\ou + AUX). succeed he-the. fail he-me-the (DIR + N E G + Жsucceedfl). OK, acceptable їe-se. unable to sustain / resist ti-thеmе-l (< Ch. dо« + AUX + NEG + Жablefl). mark / make a sign qhu. like, love (vt.) topu. love (a child) (vt.), favor to excess ge. spoil (a child) ge-t®`u (Жlovefl + Жchildfl). long for, want to (do something) °t°k lu ± °t°еq lu (Жheartfl + Жcomefl). fascinated by, addicted to ї o topu (DIR + Жto like, lovefl). laugh (at) (v.), smile (v.) dВе°t°. anger (vt.) t-khue-В (DIR + Жangryfl + causative suffix). lose onefls temper phit°hi fе-thе (Жtemper (< Ch. p|оq\о)fl + < Ch. f--a + AUX). weep, to cry zei. pity, piteous (vt.) °t°i qs (Жheartfl + Жpityfl). jealous, envy (vt.) qhu. dislike (vt.) mo-topu (NEG + Жto like, lovefl).
Kinship; types of people; verbs of interaction between people 373
hate (vt.) n-thе (< Ch. h\en + AUX) / qhu (= be jealous of, to envy). tire of Щi (= Жfattyfl (calque from Chinese?)). fear (vt.), afraid (vi.), worried qu (Жhave been frightenedfl = do-qu (DIR + Жbe afraidfl)). opinion jit°ian (< Ch. y\оji\an). decision, resolution t®uji (< Ch. zh«uy\о). intention jis (< Ch. y\оs--о). plan, device t°iuе (< Ch. j\оhu\a). know, b e c l e a r a b o u t , understand, r e m e m b e r dВuk`u le (Жknowledge'(?) + Жexist (in a container)fl). comprehend sе. become aware of, enlightened t°owu (< Ch. ju|ew\u). misunderstand de-tsha (DIR + Жmistakefl). think about, worry, to put to heart Вbot°u. speculate, to guess tshai-thе (< Ch. c--ai + AUX). fancy, imagine їo-©odu. believe °t°e. make an effort to remember t®equе. recognize, know (someone) s(s). recognize (on meeting someone, exchange chat) Вmt®i p. want t°he ± t°hi. demand (vt.) wasi. value, regard as rare °ian (< Ch. x--оh«an). ought to, should V-s `u` (verb + instrumental nominalizer + copula) / Щze (auxiliary verb).
have to V-s `u` (verb + instrumental nominalizer + copula). worthy of (doing), may do blji me-t°hi (Жto dofl + exclusion particle + NEG + Жwantfl; = Жcan dofl). willing (to), prefer Щu. not willing mo-Щu (NEG + Жwillingfl). dare x®u. capable of, know (how to) ©В. pretend ®pеqtе p / t®uе-thе (< Ch. zhu--ang + AUX). ability, capability pns (le) (< Ch. b«ensh\о (+ Жto existfl)).
374 Glossary STATIVE VERBS (ADJECTIVES) cold mpе. cool stu. hot, warm si. hot (to the touch), sultry, stuffy and hot dВidВi. stuffy ms t-°i-mе-l (Жairfl + D I R + Жreleasefl + NEG + Жablefl). hungry їe-®ue. thirsty (їe)-°pi. full, satiated ± t-. fatty, oily (of food) Щi. drunk °i-q t-qе (Жliquorfl + Жheadfl + DIR + Жgofl). itchy dze. comfortable (of person) °t°i:mi-q-tе-nе-ke: u (Жheartfl + Жheadfl + locative postposition + Жgoodfl + INDEF:CL + copula; = Жinside the heart is a good onefl). busy, urgent, pressing t°in-thе (< Ch. j«оn Жtightfl + AUX). leisurely, unimportant mе-t°in- thе (NEG + Жbusy (< Ch.)fl + AUX). tickle dВе°t°i qhu (Жlaugh, smilefl + Жcarvefl). frustrated bl-®qu (Жto dofl + Жdifficultfl). delicious je. it tastes bad me-j (NEG + Жdelicious (< je)fl). sweet t®h. sour tsue. bitter qhе ± qhеq (< PTB *ka). hot (peppery) ©z (= Жnumbfl; used for both numb-type hotness and chili-type hotness). astringent tsisti.
salty dz. flavorless, insipid mе-z (NEG + Жsalty (< dz)fl). brittle, crunchy qhеpqhеp. soft, uncrisp, spongy, fluffy mеt®. smell (vt.) °ete. fragrant xu. fresh (of food) °in°yеn (< Ch. x--оnxi--an). smell bad, musty (of cereals), rotten (of meat, etc.), rank (smell of urine, fish) bt®i. big ba. small, tiny t®е / °i. tall, high ti-wi (DIR + Жtallfl, but wi not used alone). low, short (of height) їe-gi (DIR + Жshortfl, but gi not used alone). long dВ (< PTB *s-ri (?)). short (in length) watsi. thick (eg. thread) po. fine (eg. thread) btsi. broad, wide lе. narrow t®hit®hi. thick lie. thin khikhi. deep t®hе. s h a l l o w mе-t®hе (NEG + Жdeepfl). round pat® / jyеn-ti (< Ch. yu|an de). upright -©l (DIR + Жroll, turnfl; = Жturn/roll overfl). turn over (the wrong side), reversed їе-©l (DIR + Жroll, turnfl). upside down q t-ts`u (Жheadfl + DIR + Жstand, verticalfl). slanted, inclined, sloping tеqhuе (DIR + Жslantedfl). horizontal (n.) uеnt°hi (< Ch. h|engzhe).
vertical t-tsu` . straight st. steep xepi. crooked qwe. level phin-(thе) (< Ch. p|оng; with -thе is adjective, without -thе is noun). concave qut®е. convex tu-phuq`u. blurred u-t°u-mе-l (DIR + Жseefl + NEG + Жablefl). good-looking -l-nе (D I R + Жlook (< l)fl + Жgoodfl). ugly looking -l-mе-nе (DIR + Жlook (< l)fl + NEG + Жgoodfl). giant tе-fi (< Ch. da\ ha\ n). skinny die-®e-® (DIR + Жdiefl + Жappearancefl (used for cursing out someone)). shabby, tattered garments bеhе (= Жpoor, remote, out of the wayfl). clumsy and bulky, bulging piese (Жpigfl + Жoilfl). nauseating, unsightly dowе-® (Жvomitfl + Жthink about, want tofl). vexed leme mo-lu / °t°i-k`u mеnе (Жspirit, energyfl + NEG + Жcomefl / Жheartfl + Жinsidefl + notfl + Жgoodfl). suitable qhuеt (= Жjust rightfl). angry t-khue (DIR + Жangryfl). s a d °t°i-k`u mе-nе (Жheartfl + Жbasefl + NEG + Жgoodfl). grievous, sad °t°i qs we (Жheartfl + Жpityfl + Жexistfl). glad, happy °t°i-k`u nе (Жheartfl + Жbasefl + Жgoodfl). s e l f - s a t i s f i e d qts-mе-l (Жmodestfl + NEG + Жablefl). detestable mei (< me NEG + j Жgood (to eat)fl (?)).
Stative verbs (adjectives) 375 terrible, frightening qu-s we (Жbe afraidfl + instrumental nominalizer + Жexistfl). bashful dВou. embarassed dВou-s we (Жbe bashfulfl + instrumental nominalizer + Жexistfl). lose face, be disgraced quaha me-we (Жfacefl + N E G + Жexistfl). shameful dВou mе-sе (Жbe bashful, ashamedfl + NEG + Жknow, understandfl). distressed °t°i:mi d(i) (Жheartfl + Жbe ill, be painfulfl). patience °t°i tse (Жheartfl + Жlook atfl). peaceful, quiet hama (of people) / ®quap (of the surrounding environment). free from anxiety qu me-t°hi (Жbe afraidfl + NEG + Жwantfl). grateful Веhеsе. difficult(y), tired ®qu ± qu. red, pink °upu. yellow, orange color е®. blue lеn-ti (< Ch. l|an de). white phi® ± phi. black ix ± iq (< PTB *nak; the final is secondary). green еf-Вu (еf = Жgrassfl). grey phiеque. colorful lеpе (= Жflowerfl). loud sе. soft voice qi t®е (Жsoundfl + Жsmallfl). light (in weight) ©Вu. heavy dz. loose de-pha® (DIR + Жloosefl, but pha® not used alone). tight -® (DIR + Жtightfl, but ® not used alone). cram in tightly s-xt®-ti (DIR + Жcramfl + Жveryfl).
376 Glossary t a u t t-®-ti (DIR + Жtiefl + Жveryfl). dry juku. wet (n.) mеt®е (takes the copula or pe Жbecomefl to be predicative). moistening z-Вuen-thе (DIR + < Ch. r\un + AUX). soft mеt®t®е. tender ln-thе (< Ch. n\en + AUX). hard, tough (of meat, rice) ®ku°t°u (tu-®ku°t°u = Жbecome hardfl). tough, old, spoiled, bug-eaten (of vegetables) їе-ts`uqе (if fruit on a tree, then hеts`uqе). scorched, burned (of rice) °t°еp. raw еt®q. done, ripe їе-m (DIR + Жdone, ripefl < PTB *s-min). cooked till tender їе-m-ti (DIR + Жdone, ripefl + Жveryfl). thin (of liquid) thеn®. thick (of liquid) be. sparse, not dense qha. dense t°hi. smooth ¬е¬ (cf. ¬е Жslipperyfl). slippery ¬е. wrinkled -tu (of clothing) / ph-tu (of skin). scattered °i°i (°i = Жreleasefl). empty me-le (NEG + Жexist (in a container)fl). full t-sue. overflowing ha-¬e. hollow (of grain) z-piaq (piaq < Ch. bi«an (?)). solid (of grain) s-p. sharp tse. dull me-tse (NEG + Жsharpfl). pointed tsaq.
blunt m е - t s a q (NEG + Жpointedfl). new xs. old bе. steady wen-thе (< Ch. w«en + AUX). unsteady ststuе. torn de-pi. chipped (of cup, etc.) o-qu do- tshu (Жonefl + CL (mouth) + Жfall outfl). broken da-Щe. fragmentary nin-ti (< Ch. l|оng de). orderly, regular, uniform, even khep. disorderly (of things), uneven luеn (< Ch. lu\an; with -thе is adjective, without -thе is noun). mildewed and spoiled (of wood) sptsuqе. strong, lasting Вgue. flimsy ma-g`u (NEG + Жstrong, lasting (< Вgue)fl). good nе. b a d , not good enough, poor q u a l i t y , mе-nе (N E G + Жgoodfl). of passing/indifferent quality, plain, second-rate tsa:n-mеnе (Жtoofl + NEG + Жgoodfl, = Жnot too goodfl). rare (n.) °ian (< Ch. x--оh«an; takes the copula or pe Жbecomefl to be predicative). unusual (n.) °it°hi (< Ch. x--оq|о; takes the copula or pe Жbecomefl to be predicative). strange (n.) t°hikuai (< Ch. q|оgu\ai; takes the copula or pe Жbecomefl to be predicative). difficult ®qu.
easy ze. knotty (problem) (n.) mеfеn (< Ch. m|af|an; takes the copula or pe Жbecomefl to be predicative). rough (of road) sei-mе-nе (Жwalkfl + NEG + Жgoodfl). expensive, valuable p h u - l u (Жvaluablefl + Жcostfl). cheap, worthless mo-f`ulu (NEG + Жexpensive (< phulu)fl). worth, worthwhile uеsuan (< Ch. hu--asu\an). clean kantsi (< Ch. g--anj\оng; although this is a loan word, it is used as an adjective in Qiang without an auxiliary verb or copula). dirty mе-kantsi (NEG + Жcleanfl). early dВе. late Щlе. quick, fast ¬u¬u-(wa) / sei-dВ (Жwalkfl + Жablefl) / khuеi-thеwе (< Ch. ku\ai + AUX + Жveryfl). slow bеstе. accurate Вu-stе (Жtargetfl + Жaccuratefl). bustling lеuВe (< Ch. n\aor\e; although this is a loan word, it is used as an adjective in Qiang without an auxiliary verb or copula). crowded with (people) t°i-thе (< Ch. j«о + AUX). remote, out of the way bеhе (= Жpoorfl). safe qu-s me-we (Жbe afraidfl + instrumental nominalizer + NEG + Жexistfl). dangerous qu-s we (Жbe afraidfl + instrumental nominalizer + Жexistfl).
Stative verbs (adjectives) 377 harmful mei (< me NEG + j Жgood (to eat)fl (?)). harmless, unimportant qu met°hi (Жbe afraidfl + NEG + Жwantfl). advantageous bl-s je (Жto dofl + instrumental nominalizer + Жgood (to eat)fl). gay and extravagant, luxurious kn-nе (Жveryfl + Жgoodfl). fat (of people) t-phе / tshini we (Жfat (n.)fl + Жexistfl). fatty (of meat) tsha we (Жfatfl + Жexistfl). lean tsha me-we (Жfatfl + NEG + Жexistfl). thin (of people) bЩei. strong bedi. weak їе-ts (become weak). state of being well nе-ji u (Жgoodfl + adverbial particle + copula). f a m o u s mint°hi le (< Ch. m|оngq\о + Жexistfl). correct pe. wrong me-pe (NEG + Жcorrectfl). poor ma-qe (NEG + Жrichfl). rich qqe. lucky lez we (Жluckfl + Жexistfl). unlucky lez me-w`e (Жluckfl + NEG + Жexistfl). temper phit°hi (< Ch. pо| qо\ ). behavior, attitude thеitu (< Ch. t\aid\u). bad-tempered, irritable phit°hi mе-nе (Жtemperfl < Ch. + NEG + Жgoodfl). i m p a t i e n t °t°i:mi sutu-wa (Жheartfl + Жjumpfl + Жveryfl). fierce, courageous, brave nthе (< Ch. h«en ( + AUX). trustworthy, honest pnfn (< Ch. b«enf\en).
378 Glossary cunning t°iеu-thе (< Ch. ji«ao + AUX). designing jin-skue (< Ch. y«оn + Жtailfl). k i n d °t°i:mi nе (Жheartfl + Жgoodfl). considerate °t°i:mi ® (Жheartfl + Жexistfl). strong character tshut°u ®ku (Жcharacterfl + Жhard (< ®ku°t°u)fl). weak (of character) tshut°u mo®ku (Жcharacterfl + N E G + Жhard (< ®ku°t°u)fl). bold, greedy for money °t°i:mi ba (Жheartfl + Жbigfl). t i m i d °t°i:mi t®е (Жheartfl + Жsmallfl). stubborn tshut°u ®ku (Жcharacterfl + Жhard (< ®ku°t°u)fl). bold and aggressive t®ho-thе (< Ch. ch--ong + AUX). clever, smart tshimpe. quick, smart q ¬е (Жheadfl + Жslipperyfl; calque from Chinese hu|at|ou Жslippery headfl). capable bl-dВ (Жto dofl + Жablefl). stupid pn-thе (< Ch. b\en + AUX). foolish, dull, stupid, ignorant (n. or v.) еpеu (< Ch. ca« oba-- o; can take kn Жveryfl, e.g. kn еpеu le: Жthe very stupid personfl). cute topu-s we (Жto like, lovefl + instrumental nominalizer + Жexistfl). l i v e l y sutu-dВ (Жjumpfl + Жablefl). good (of a child) Вwе-x®u°t°`u (Жspeech, wordsfl + Жlistenfl).
naughty, mischievous В w е mo-x®u°t°`u (Жspeech, wordsfl + NEG + Жlistenfl). spoiled (of child) mq t-Ще (Жtopfl + DIR + Жgofl). irritating, annoying (n.) t u p t°im. proud t°еukеu p (< Ch. ji--ao\ao + Жto dofl). modest qts. generous jеp ba (Жhandfl + Жbigfl). niggardly, miserly jеp t®е (Жhandfl + Жsmallfl). mad, out of onefls mind tu-Щu (= Жbecome madfl; DIR + Жcurse, crazyfl). u n c o n s c i e n t i o u s mq-mq (Жtopfl + Жtopfl). careful, conscientious °t°i tse (Жheartfl + Жseefl). careless, headless °t°i me-tse (Жheartfl + NEG + Жseefl). mean-spirited dВu® qhu (Жteaching (ji\aox\un)fl + Жhatefl). act in a blushing manner dВou (= Жbe bashful, ashamedfl). childish t°ymi-qs we (Жchildfl + Жformfl + Жexistfl). taciturn mele tsan-de-k mе-p (Жwordsfl + Жtoofl + Жsayfl + thus + NEG + Жto dofl). long-winded, garrulous, talkative mele de-dВ (Жwordsfl + Жsayfl + Жablefl). like to tell tales of others miwstе-mi de-kp (Жpersonfl + Жbehindfl + Жpersonfl + Жsayfl + habitual aspect marker). jokeful dВе°t°is de-dВ (Жjoke (< Жlaughfl + instrumental nominalizer)fl + Жsayfl + Жablefl).
diligent bl-dВ (Жto dofl + Жablefl). lazy ®q / lеn-thе (< Ch. la« n). nervous °t°i:mi sutu-wa (Жheartfl + Жjumpfl + Жveryfl). in a hurry, hurried ataВ (= Жquicklyfl). bewildered, in a fluster uеn- thе (< Ch. hu--ang + AUX). slyly hama-i. quick ¬u¬u-wa (Жfastfl + Жveryfl). sluggish bеst (= Жslowfl). clumsy jеp mo-Щu (Жhandfl + NEG + Жwillingfl). skillful jеp Щu (Жhandfl + Жwillingfl).
Stative verbs (adjectives) 379 TIME PHRASES four seasons t s a q - s u q (Жspring/summerfl + Жautumn/ winterfl; traditionally the Qiang only recognized two seasons). spring-summer tsaq. autumn-winter suq. year p. this year ts-p (Жthisfl + Жyearfl). next year eii. year after next de-p-i (cf. Жday after tomorrowfl, Жday after day after tomorrowfl; p < p Жyearfl; i = adverbial marker). last year n-p (cf. Жyesterdayfl; p < p Жyear). year before last dВ-p (cf. Жday before yesterdayfl; p < p Жyearfl). beginning of the year е-p-t° їo-luе: (Жonefl + Жyearfl + genitive marker + DIR + Жcomefl + PRS). end of the year е-p-t° їo-tshu (Жonefl + Жyearfl + genitive marker + DIR + Жfallfl). all year round е-p (Жonefl + Жyearfl). month °() (= Жmoonfl). first lunar month t®-° / a-° (both Жonefl + Жmoon/ monthfl). this month tsa-° ((Жthisfl + Жonefl) + Жmoon/monthfl). last month q:fi-la-° (Жbeforefl + DEF:one + Жmoon/monthfl). next month steke-la-° (Жafterfl + DEF:one + Жmoon/monthfl). end of the month a-° їo-tshu (Жonefl + Жmoon/monthfl + Жfall down (DIR + Жfallfl)fl).
380 Glossary first day of the lunar month t®ut°u (Жonefl + Жbeginning (< Ch. ch--u)fl). day s. today p-s (s = Жdayfl). tomorrow tp-i. day after tomorrow sudu-i. day after day after tomorrow dusu-i. yesterday n-s (cf. Жlast yearfl; s = Жdayfl). day before yesterday dВ-s (cf. Жyear before lastfl; s = Жdayfl). day before day before yesterday dВ-dВ-s (Жday before yesterdayfl reduplicated). this morning psu-quе (psu (= ps) Жtodayfl + Жmorning (< tsquе)fl). tomorrow morning tpotsquе (Жtomorrowfl + Жmorningfl). this evening p-maha (Жtodayfl + Жeveningfl). tomorrow evening tp-maha (Жtomorrowfl + Жeveningfl). day after tomorrow evening sudu-maha (Жday after tomorrowfl + Жeveningfl). yesterday evening n(i)-maha (Жyesterdayfl + Жeveningfl). day before yesterday evening dВi-maha (cf. Жday before yesterdayfl + Жeveningfl). daytime °t°u¬u (°t°u < *°t° < PTB *sni; u due to vowel harmony). nighttime gs. whole day е-s (Жonefl + Жdayfl). from morning till night е-sfiwu (Жonefl + Жdayfl + Жallfl (retroflex vowel on Жdayfl is part of Жallfl)). whole night e-jfiwu (Жonefl + Жnightfl + Жallfl (retroflex
vowel on Жnightfl is part of Жallfl)). dawn, daybreak mu tu-su (Жskyfl + DIR + Жbrightfl). sunrise mujuq--ts`u (Жsunfl + DIR + Жshinefl). morning tsquе ± ots`uquе. b e f o r e n o o n dza:-t°ik`u (Жmidday mealfl + Жbeforefl). n o o n dza:-t°hе-Ще (Жmidday mealfl + Жeatfl + locative/ temporal particle). afternoon dza:-khui (Жmidday mealfl + Жafterfl). sunset їе-xt®p (DIR + Жdarkfl (= Жbecome darkfl)). evening maha. night je (< Ch. y\e). midnight panji (< Ch. ba\ nye\ ). every other day е-s-pe-i (Жonefl + Жdayfl + Жbecomefl + adverbial particle). overnight e-je-pe-i (Жonefl + Жnight (< Ch.)fl + Жbecomefl + adverbial particle). hour, oflclock tian (< Ch. di«an). what day is today? (ask date) е-°-t°-o-t°u (Жhow muchfl + Жmoon, monthfl + genitive postposition + Жhow muchfl + Жbeginning (< Ch. ch--u)fl). what time is it? (ask time) еtian-pe-ji-uе (Жhow muchfl + Жhour, oflclock (< Ch.)fl + Жbecomefl + CSM + Q). week °it°i (< Ch. xо-- ngqо-- ). LOCATION PHRASES place z-p / z-pq (z = Жland, earth, fieldfl).
be at a place, existential verb, to have Вi (animate referents only) / we (immovable referents) / le (location within a container) / ® (inanimate movable referents only) / xu (similar to ® but also takes nominalized clause). not at (home) me-Вi (N E G + Жexist (animate referent)fl). face (to the east) е-l (DIR (inside/toward the mountain) + Жlookfl; use of directional prefix relative to position of village). face (to the south) s-l (DIR (downriver) + Жlookfl; use of directional prefix relative to position of village). face (to the north) n-l (D I R (upriver) + Жlookfl; use of directional prefix relative to position of village). face (to the west) t-l (DIR (up) + Жlookfl; use of directional prefix relative to position of village). front t°i-qe:fi (Жmostfl + Жbefore, frontfl). central, middle Вegu` ± Вeku` . back steke. location, place where something is Вi-s-tе / we-s-tе (both Жexistfl + nominalizer + locative postposition). inside t°iquе / Веuе (deeper inside than t°iquе). outside Щuе-lе (Жouter sidefl + locative postposition). above mq-tе (Жtopfl + locative postposition).
Time, location, and movement 381 top (n.) q-s-tе (Жheadfl + Жplace (nominalizer + locative postposition)fl). below ql-lе (Жbelowfl + locative postposition). underneath ®ql. side, neighboring, next door, surrounding pienе. both sides ji-x®e (Жtwofl + Жsidefl). around dВuku` -tе. opposite the-x®e (Жthatfl + Жsidefl). east mujuq-hе-l-s-tе / musi- hе-l-s-tе (both Жsunfl + Жcome out (DIR + Жcomefl)fl + nominalizer + locative postposition). west mujuq--x¬-s-tе / musi-x¬-s-tе (both Жsunfl + Жgo down (DIR + Жmovefl)fl + nominalizer + locative postposition). south khi-lе locational noun, Жdownriverfl). north i-lе (locational noun, Жupriverfl). left (side) Щua. right (side) na. world Вm-® (the people of the world; Вm = Жpeoplefl). home t°u-lе. everywhere, the whole floor / ground t°et°i-lе. along (the road) (gue:fi)-tе / -wu (Жroadfl + locative or ablative postposition). far guaha. near gue-i.
382 Glossary MOVEMENT move mex¬e. s t o p - (stop doing an activity) / -t° (stop walking). start ЩЩe. come lu (imperfective) / lе (perfective). go k (unprefixed imperfective) / -Щ prefixed imperfective or prospective (e.g. /dеЩ/ Жgo outfl) / -qе prefixed perfective (e.g. /їеqе/ Жwent downfl). ascend t-Щ (DIR + Жgofl). descend їе-Щ (DIR + Жgofl). enter, advance (v.) -Щ (DIR + Жgofl). exit hе-Щ (DIR + Жgofl). return (v.) (come back) i-p-l (DIR + Жarrivefl + Жcomefl). cross (v.), go around dе-Щ (DIR + Жgofl). retreat (v.) hе-Щ (DIR + Жgofl) / he-thue (DIR + Жretreat (< Ch. tu\о)fl). turn around -l (DIR + Жlookfl). turn a corner z-fie (DIR + Жturnfl). go around in a circle fie. surround it°hye. pace back and forth z-Щ dе-Щ (DIR + Жgofl + DIR + Жgofl). be (copula) u. resemble a-qs we (Жonefl + Жformfl + Жexistfl). appear hе-lе (DIR + Жcomefl). disappear me-Вi-ji (NEG + Жexistfl + change of state particle). lose (thing) do-©Вu. change (v.) pian-thе (< Ch. bi\an + AUX); (changes of
state are often marked by the addition of a directional prefix rather than by use of this loan word).
Quantifiers, pronouns, adverbs and particles 383
QUANTIFIERS a l l (e-©le) wu (e-©le (Жonefl + plural marker) often appears as r-coloring on vowel of previous syllable + wu, e.g. sfiwu Жall dayfl). every (mifi) wu (for people (Жpersonfl + Жallfl; r-coloring is part of Жallfl)) / (еs) mеqе (for days, etc.). very long (in time) kn е-®u pe (Жveryfl + Жonefl + CL + Жbecomefl). whole (e-zefi) wu ((Жonefl + CL (with r-coloring from Жall)) + Жallfl). half dzue (e-dzue Жonefl + Жhalffl). greater half ba-le-dzue (Жbigfl + DEF + Жhalffl). s m a l l e r h a l f t®е-le-dzue (Жsmallfl + DEF + Жhalffl). one and a half e-zi-е-e-dzue (Жonefl + CL + Жandfl + Жonefl + Жhalffl). twice as much / many e-pei (Жonefl + < Ch. b\ei). two times odd e-pei ma-t®e (Жonefl + Жtime (< Ch. b\ei)fl + NEG + Жstopfl). increase (v.) t-wa (< t-ba; DIR + Жbigfl). count (v.) ®i®i. calculate, to count susu (< Ch. su\an). add t°iе-thе (< Ch. jia-- + AUX). subtract t°iеn-thе (< Ch. ji«an + AUX). multiply ®en-ji (< Ch. ch|eng). divide t®hu-ji (< Ch. ch|u). zero lin (< Ch. l|оng).
o n e a / dВ / t®i / t®u (see §3.1.5 for the uses of these different forms). two j / i (< PTB *g-ni-s/k; i only used in hе-i Жtwelvefl). three s / si (< PTB *g-sum; si only used in hе-si Жthirteenfl). four ©В (< PTB *b-lij & *blj) five Щuе (< PTB *l/b-a; cf. Жfifteenfl). six t®u (< PTB *d-(k)-ruk). seven °t° (< PTB *s-nis). eight khefi (< PTB *b-r-gjat & *b-g-rjat. nine Вgu (< PTB *d-kw & *s-gw). ten hot°u ± hodu. eleven ha-dВi ± ha-t®i (Жtenfl + Жonefl). twelve hе-i ± ha-i (Жtenfl + Жtwofl). thirteen hе-si ± ha-si (Жtenfl + Жthreefl). fourteen hе-В (Жtenfl + Жfourfl). fifteen hе-u` ` (Жtenfl + Жfivefl). sixteen hе-t®`u (Жtenfl + Жsixfl). seventeen hе-° ± ha-° (Жtenfl + Жsevenfl). eighteen hе-khefi ± ha-khefi (Жtenfl + Жeightfl). nineteen hе-gu (Жtenfl + Жninefl). twenty ju-su (Жtwofl + Жtenfl). twenty-one ju-su-t®i (Жtwofl + Жtenfl + Жonefl). twenty-two ju-su-j (Жtwofl + Жtenfl + Жtwofl). twenty-three ju-su-xs (Жtwofl + Жtenfl + Жthreefl). thirty xsu-su (Жthreefl + Жtenfl). forty ©Вu-su (Жfourfl + Жtenfl). fifty Щo-su (Жfivefl + Жtenfl) sixty t®u-su (Жsixfl + Жtenfl) seventy °t°u-su (Жsevenfl + Жtenfl)
384 Glossary eighty khe-su ± khefi-su (Жeightfl + Жtenfl) ninety Вgu-su (Жninefl + Жtenfl) h u n d r e d khe (e-khe Жone hundredfl; < PTB *r-gya). hundred and one e-khe-е-e: (Жonefl + Жhundredfl + Жandfl + Ж(one + classifier)fl). t h o u s a n d stu (е-stu Жone thousandfl; < Tibetan stu (?)). ten thousnd Щuan (е-Щuan Жone ten-thousandfl; < Ch. w\an). ten odd hodu-ma-t®e (Жtenfl + NEG + Жstopfl). the first one t°i-qfi-le: (Жmostfl + Жfrontfl + DEF:CL). the last one t°i-steke-le: (Жmostfl + Жbackfl + DEF:CL). champion kuant°yn (< Ch. gu\anj--un). runner-up jat°yn (< Ch. ya« ju-- n). numbering еumе (< Ch. h\aom«a). more or less, about, approximately е:n ± їе:n (appears after numeral expression). decrease їе-t®е (= Жbecome smallfl; DIR + Жsmallfl). handful е-pе (< Ch. b«a). some (number) е-hе (Жonefl + plural marker). several izi (< Жonefl + Жtwofl + CL). a little, some (quantity) е-zе ± е-z (е = Жonefl). a little while a-i (Жonefl + Жtimefl). alone e-ze (Жonefl + CL). time (one time) ® (е-®) / tеu (< Sichuan dialect Chinese) / ui (е-ui Жone timefl; < Ch. h|ui).
I/me (1st sg. pronoun) qе.
you (thou) (2nd sg. pronoun)
he, she, it (3rd sg. pronoun)
the: (< the Жdistal demon-
strative pronounfl + leng-
thened vowel to represent
the classifier) / qupu (used
for close relations and as
logophoric pronoun).
we/us (1st plural pronoun) t°i-
le (le < ©le plural marker; no
inclusive/exclusive distinc-
we/us two (1st dual pronoun)
t°izzi (1pl pronoun + Жtwofl +
you (2nd pl. pronoun) чi-le (le
< ©le plural marker).
you two (2nd dual pronoun)
чizzi (2pl pronoun + Жtwofl +
they (3rd pl. pronoun) them-le
± themne (le < ©le plural
they/them two (3rd dual
thizzi (3pl
pronoun + Жtwofl + classi-
we all, all of us e-©le-wu (Жonefl
+ plural marker + Жallfl).
self, emphatic and reflexive
pronoun qе-qi (1sg), t°il-
t°ile (1pl), ч~i-ч~i: (2sg), il-ile
(2pl), i-i ± i: (3sg), il-
ile (3pl) .
individual(ly) ut°uku.
other people mi (= Жpersonfl).
other (things or people) nai.
whoever s (= Жwhofl).
a n y t h i n g i©i (used with
negative verb).
Quantifiers, pronouns, adverbs and particles 385
something i©i (used with positive verb; = Жwhatfl). everyone, all Вi-Вi-mefiwu ( < Жexist (animate)fl + reduplication + (animate nominalizer + plural marker + Жallfl)). each one mifiwu (Жpeoplefl + Жallfl). one by one e-ze e-ze (Жonefl + CL + Жonefl + CL). possessive pronouns, mine qеt° (1sg + genitive postposition). yours (sg.) ч~u-t° (2sg + genitive postposition). his, hers the:-t° (3sg + genitive postposition). ours t°ile-t° (1pl + genitive postposition). yours (pl.) чile-t° (2pl + genitive postposition). theirs themle-t° (3pl + genitive postposition). this tse. that the. these tsе-hе (Жthisfl + Жonefl + plural marker). those thе-hе (Жthatfl + Жonefl + plural marker). here tsе / tsеkua (adding kua implies larger area than tsе alone) / tsu (smaller area than tsе). there thе / thеkua (adding kua implies larger area than thе alone) / thu (smaller area than thе). this side tse-x®e (Жthisfl + Жsidefl). that side the-x®e (Жthatfl + Жsidefl). this much, in this way tsei ± tsi (tse Жthisfl + adverbial marker (< ji) ).
that much, in that way thei ± thi (Жthatfl + adverbial marker (< ji)). who? s / s-le: (le: = DEF:CL). what? i©i. which one? i©i-le: (le = DEF:CL). where? t°е-lе ± t°е: (Жwherefl + locative postposition (or lengthened vowel representing the postposition)). w h i c h s i d e ? i©i-la:-kua (Жwhatfl + DEF:one + Жsidefl). when? i©i-lai (Жwhatfl + DEF + е-i Жonefl + Жtimefl) / t°ho:. how (to do?) -manner- i-ke: (WH-INDEF:CL). how (in what way or form) iqs (WH + Жformfl; this is the Жhowfl of pefi®en iqs we [body how have] Жhow is your health?fl). why? i©i-uеi (Жwhatfl + cause marker). how (good!) -degree- wa (= Жveryfl; postverbal adverbial). how much / how many a-wu ± a-we (WH + Жmanyfl). how long (in time) i-kai (WH + INDEF + е-i Жonefl + Жtimefl). ADVERBS AND PARTICLES also l. also, in addition j (postverbal particle). all (e-©le)-wu (people) / еhefi- wu (objects). again xs (= Жnewfl). additionally nai (= Жotherfl). mutually (mutually help each other) e:-wu e:-tе (Жonefl +
386 Glossary agentive postposition + Жonefl + dative postposition). individually, separately ut°uku. o n l y mе-`u`-ji (used after noun; N E G + copula + exception marker). merely, scarcely, barely t°i. all together ut®uqu` . almost е-z t°е-t®hе. previous qe:fi (= Жfront, beforefl). next steke (= Жback, afterfl). temporarily е-z (= Жa littlefl). now tsai (Жthis (< tse)fl + Жone time (< е-i)fl). that time thai (Жthat (< the)fl + Жone time (< е-i)fl). in the future steke-i (Жbackfl + adverbial particle). l a t e r (їе)-tsi-ike (INTthis:ADV-after). first (t°i)-qe:fi (Жmostfl + Жfront, beforefl). beforehand t°i-qe:fi. start early е-z dВе-t° (Жa littlefl + Жearlyfl + genitive postposition). continue t°е-V. finish (v.) dе-s. quickly, immediately ataВ / ata-i. often, always, usually i ° t ° i mеqе (Жtogetherfl + Жeveryfl). then and only then t°i (postposition used with negative verb to achieve this meaning). already -ji ± -jy (CSM). recently tsu-an-t°i. just now, just a while ago ptsa-i. formerly qe:fi-lot®u-Ще. from childhood t°еt®st-wu.
just right, in the nick of time, exactly qhuеt. too late me-zde-ji (NEG-Жenough timefl-CSM). still, as before, more t°е ± t°e ± t° ± t°i (preverbal adverb). very, rather, pretty, quite w a (postverbal adverb; used mostly with stative verbs) / ken ± gen; (preverbal adverb, has wider use than wa.). most t°i (verbal prefix). too (adj.), excessively t ® a n (placed before adj.) / -®. slightly, somewhat е-z (= Жa littlefl; Жonefl + CL). progressive aspect, Жhe is eatingfl root form of verb: the: t°h [3sg eat]. perfective aspect, Жhave you eaten?fl prefix+V (+ ji) (ji = change of state marker): ч~u stuеhе s-t°h-ji-n-е? [2sg food DIR-eat-ASP-2sg-Q]. experiential aspect de (postverbal auxiliary verb). inchoative aspect use directional prefix or change of state marker /ji/). continuative aspect t°е+V. instantative aspect, Жas soon as (he eats, he vomits)fl ......ike......p. additive, ЖV some more!fl е z t°i V. really and truly Щеt°hi. terminative, Жfinish (eating the rice)fl V-dе-s. partitive, Ж(ate two apples) out of (five)fl N-Ще (= locative postposition). possibly, perhaps V-m lе-hеnu (verb + agentive nomi-
Quantifiers, pronouns, adverbs and particles 387
nalizer + DEF:one + Жkindfl + copula). largely V-m tеn u (verb + agentive nominalizer + appearance + copula). not (e.g. it is not good) mе- ± me- ± m- ± mu- (verbal prefix). in unison, together it°i ± i°t°i. have not (e.g. he has no money) mе-® (N E G + Жexist (inanimate object)fl). not yet (e.g. he has not yet come) m-t°i-V (NEG + Жstill, yetfl). negative imperative, prohibitive t°е-V. need not (eg. you need not cry) V-me-t°hi (NEG + Жwantfl). cannot (e.g. I cannot see) Vmе-lе (N E G + Жable (< dВ)fl). possessive marker (eg. my book) t°() (genitive postposition). comparative degree marker (eg. you are taller than him) s() (used in following structure: NP1 + NP2-s() + adj.). empty-handed j е p - x ® u ° u (Жhandfl + Жemptyfl). face to face ut°u-s-tе (Жto seefl + instrumental nominalizer + locative postposition). as...as, same as (eg. you are as tall as he is) NP1 + е + NP2 aqs + adj. degree complement marker (eg. he runs very fast) V-dВ wa (Жablefl + Жveryfl). secretly hama-i. seemingly qes-we (Жformfl + Жexistfl).
agentive marker (eg. he was hit by his brother) wu (same postposition as used for instrumental and ablative meanings). instrumental marker (eg. to cut with a pair of scissors) wu (same postposition as used for agentive and ablative meanings). side, inside, (locational particle) kua (used in combination with demonstrative pronouns, e.g. tsеkua Жherefl; also seems to be morpheme aside from Жheartfl in °t°ik`u nе Жhappyfl [heart-in good]). from wu (ablative postposition; same form as agentive and instrumental postposition). horizontally uеnt°hi (< Ch.). in place of (eg. do it for him) uеi / -t°. vertically tutsu ji. i f tu / ta / ® (all clause-final linkers). according to my view ... qе itsi ike uе ®е (1sg look LNK COP:1sg LNK). except for mе-u` ` t°i (NEG-COP ADV). when (eg. when I came) Щza-Щa (time-L O C / lai (< DEF + Жonefl + Жtimefl). before (eg. before I came) mo t°u +V + t°. after (eg. after I came) V-ike (marks the action in the following clause as occuring after the action in the clause where ike appears). since (eg. since you were born) V-ike (= Жafterfl).
388 Glossary just before (eg. just before he left) Щza-Щa. cause, reason for, because wu / uеi (postpositions used after clause representing the cause). for the sake of (eg. for the sake of him) uе-i (used after an NP). since (eg. since you donflt like it) tu (used clause-finally). unless mе-u` ` tu (NEG + COP + Жiffl). although hе-`u`-lu (DIR + COP + Жcomefl). and е. even, including (eg. even he doesnflt want to go) l (= Жalsofl). both...and l...l (= Жalsofl). at the same time, while..., as... (eg. he eats while he runs) e x®e...e x®e. at one time ... at another time (eg. at one time he says he is coming at another time he says he is not coming), sometimes ... sometimes ... (eg. sometimes he is naughty, sometimes he is good) ai ui...ai (Жone timefl TOP ... Жone timefl). not only...but also met°hi...t°е... either ... or ... ... uеi ... uеi (... TOP ... TOP). either...or (interrogative) (eg. are you eating rice or eating noodles?) ... n-е ... n-е? (... 2sg-Q ... 2sg-Q). the ... the (eg. the older he grows the smarter he becomes) е z wu е z.
Index to English glosses in glossary
a little while 384 a little, some (quantity) 384 ability, capability 373 about, approxi-mately 384 above 381 accept 371 according to my view ... 387 accounts 351 accurate 377 act as peacemaker 370 act in a blushing manner 378 acupuncture 365 Adam's apple 359 add 383 additionally 385 additive, `V some more!' 386 adopt, raise 355 adult 368 advance (v.) 382 advantageous 377 advise 370 `don't move' 371 `excuse me' 356 `please have a seat' 356 `stop, don't trouble yourself to come out' 356 afraid (vi.) 373 after (eg. after I came) 387 afternoon 380 again 385 age 364 agentive marker (eg. he was hit by his brother) 387 aim at 360 air 332 all 383, 385 all together 386 all year round 379 almost 386
alone 384 along (the road) 381 already 386 also 385 also, in addition 385 although 388 always 386 ambush (vt.) 366 and 388 anger (vt.) 372 angry 375 answer (vt.) 354 ant 338 anus 359 anything 384 ape, orangutan 335 appear 382 apple 340 apply a plaster 366 apprentice 370 apron 346 argue 370 arm 359 armpit 359 army 366 around 381 arrange / place (furniture) 349 as before 386 as...as, same as (eg. you are as tall as he is) 387 ascend 382 ash 333 ask 354 ass, donkey 337 assistant in a shop, waiter 370 assume falsely 371 astringent 374 at one time ... at another time (eg. at one time he says he is
390 Glossary coming at another time he says he is not coming) 388 at the same time, while..., as... (eg. he eats while he runs) 388 attend (someone) 371 auspicious 355 automobile 353 autumn 379 avenge a grievance 371 awl 350 awl or drill 350 axe 350 azalea 339 baby 367 bachelor 368 back 360, 381 back of a knife 349 back of the hand 359 back of the skull, occiput 358 backbone 359 bad 376 bad-tempered 377 badger 335 bald-headed 357 bald-headed person 368 ball 356 bamboo 339 bamboo fence 348 barber 369 barefooted 346 bark 339 bark (vi.) 337 barking deer 335 barley 340 base of nose 358 bashful 375 basket 350 bat (animal) 335 bath towel 363 be (copula) 382 be a guest 356 be addicted to 343 be at a place 381 be born 364
be called, be named or surnamed 366 be clear about, understand 373 be defeated 366 be grown up 364 be silent 354 be struck by lighting 332 beak 335 beam 348 bean 340 bean curd 342 bean paste 342 bean-thread 342 bear 335 bear fruit 340 bear gall 335 beard 358 beast's cave 347 beasts (wild animals) 334 beat (with a stick) 350 because 388 become ashes (vi.) 333 become aware of, enlightened 373 become dusk 331 become old 364 become tired 364 become wealthy 351 bed 349 bed plank 349 bedbug 338 bedding 349 bee 337 beef 342 beef stomach 342 before (eg. before I came) 387 before noon 380 beforehand 386 beg (for a favor) 371 beg (for money) 370 beggar 370 beginning of the year 379 behavior, attitude 377 believe 373
bellows 343 belly 359 below 381 belt for carrying baby on the back 346 beware of 371 bewildered, in a fluster 379 big 374 bind the feet 362 bind, tie up (grain stalks etc.) 341 birch tree 339 bird 335 bird's nest 347 birthday 355 birthmark 357 bitch 337 bite (vt.) 360 bite (vt., of mosquito) 338 bitter 374 black 375 black bean 340 black salted beans 342 black-eyed pea 340 blacksmith 369 bladder 359 blame (vt.) 370 blanket 349 bleed 357 blind 368 blind person 368 blink (v.) 360 blister 357 blood 357 bloom (vi.) 339 blow (of the wind) 331 blow (vt.) 361 blow the nose 358 blowing pipe for kindling 345 blue 375 blue-bottle fly 337 blunt 376 blurred 375 board 350
Index of English glosses 391 boddhisatva 355 body 357 body dirt 357 body hair 357 boil (of water) 344 boil (vi.), (vt.) 344 boil (water 344 boil for a long time 344 boiled water 342 bold 378 bold and aggressive 378 bolt (a door) 348 bone 357 book 354 border (garment, shoes) (vt.) 345 bore a hole 350 borrow(money) 352 both sides 381 both...and 388 bottle 344 bottle gourd 340 bow 366 bow (vi.) 362 bowl 344 box 349 boy 367 bracelet 346 bracken 339 brag (v.) 370 brain 358 brain (as food) 342 branches 339 brazier 343 break into two 362 breakfast 341 breast 359 breathe (in) 357 breathe out 357 breeding boar, sire pig 336 brew wine 343 bride 355 bridge 353 bright 331
392 Glossary bring 361 bring (as a tray) 361 bring (polite request) 361 brittle, crunchy 374 broad, wide 374 broken 376 bronze 333 broom 348 brother call sister 367 brother's son or daughter 367 brothers 367 brush (n.) 345 brush (vt.) 346 brush one's teeth 363 buckwheat 339 bud (n.) 339 buffalo 336 build a house 348 build a road 353 bullet 366 bully (vt.) 371 bundle (CL) 354 bunge prickly ash peel (pericarpium zanthoxyli 342 burial clothes 355 burn (firewood) 343 burn (vi.) 333 burn incense 355 burnt rice that adheres to sides of pot 341 burp (v.) 364 bustling 377 busy 374 butcher 369 butcher (vt.) 336 butter 342 butterfly 337 buttocks 359 button (n.) 346 button (vt.) 346 buttonhole 346 buy 351 buy vegetables or groceries 351 cabbage 340
cake 342 calculate, to count 383 calf 336 calf of the leg 360 call (vi.) 354 call `help' 371 callous 357 camera 357 candle 349 candy 342 canine teeth 358 cannot (e.g. I cannot see) 387 capable 378 capable of, know (how to) 373 capital 351 car 353 cards 356 careful 378 careless, headless 378 carpenter 369 carrot 340 carry 361 carry a sedan chair 353 carry a walking stick 347 carry in the arms 362 carry in the hand(s) 361 carry in upper garment 362 carry on one's back 346 carry on the back (child or objects) 363 carry on the shoulders (two people) 361 carrying pole 350 castrate 336 castrated animal 336 cat 337 cat (male) 337 catch (vt.) 336 catch chill 365 catch fish with net or hands 338 caterpillar 337 cattle pen 347 catty 352 cause (vt.) 371
cause, reason for 388 cave 333 ceiling 348 celebrate birthday 355 celery 340 cement 348 cent 352 centipede 338 central 381 chair 349 champion 384 change (v.) 382 change clothes 346 charcoal 343 chase away 371 chat 354 cheap 377 cheat 370 cheek 358 cheekbone 358 Chengdu 353 chest 359 chew (vt.) 360 chew the cud 334 Chibu Village 353 chick 337 chicken 337 chicken dung 337 chicken nest 347 child 367 childish 378 chin 359 Chinese cabbage 340 Chinese measure of land area (240 square paces) 352 Chinese mile (360 paces, 1/2 km.) 352 chipped (of cup, etc.) 376 chisel (n.) 350 chisel (vt.) 350 chives 340 choke with food 360 chop firewood 343 chop with an axe 350
Index of English glosses 393 chop, to mince 343 chopper 343 chopsticks 344 cigarette 343 city 352 city gate 352 clap the hands 361 claw (n.) 334 claw (v.), clutch 361 claw (vi.) 334 clean 377 clean / tidy up (room, house) 348 clear (of water) 333 clench one's fist 361 clever, smart 378 cliff 333 climb (a tree) 341 climb a hill 332 climb over a wall 348 clip the wings 337 close a door 348 close the eyes 360 close the mouth 360 closet 349 cloth 345 clothes 346 cloud 331 cloudy day 332 clumsy 379 clumsy and bulky, bulging 375 clutch, grasp with the hand 361 coal 333 cock 337 cock's tail 337 cockscomb 337 coffin 355 coins (small change) 352 cold 374 collapse 348 collar 346 collect debts 351 colorful 375 comb (n.) 363
394 Glossary comb the hair 363 come 382 comfortable (of person) 374 common people 369 common yellow cow 336 common yellow cow, female 336 common yellow cow, male 336 comparative degree marker (eg. you are taller than him) 387 compare 372 compel, force (vt.) 371 compensate 372 comprehend 373 concave 375 conceal 371 congeal (vi.) 334 conscientious 378 considerate 378 constipation 365 consult 371 continuative aspect 386 continue 386 convex 375 cook 370 cook (a few dishes) 344 cook (rice) 343 cook on a griddle 344 cook soup 344 cooked rice 341 cooked rice (dry or drained) 341 cooked till tender 376 cooking utensils 345 cool 374 copper 333 copulate (of animals) 334 coriander 340 cork (vt.) 344 corn 339 corn gruel, corn meal porridge 341 corner 348 corns on the feet 357
cornstarch 342 corpse 364 correct 377 corridor 348 cotton 339 cotton cloth 345 count (v.) 383 count as 366 country market or fair 351 countryfolk 368 county 353 courageous, brave 377 courtyard 348 cousins on father's or mother's side 367 cover (n.) 344 cover (with quilt) 349 cover from head down 362 cow 336 cow manure 336 crack 333 crack an egg 344 crack firecrackers 355 crack, split (vi.) 332 cram in tightly 375 crane 335 crawl 363 crawl (of insects) 337 crazy person 369 creep (vi.) 339 cremation 355 criticize 370 crooked 375 cross (v.) 382 cross the legs 362 cross-eyed 358 crossbar at the top of a Chinese bucket 350 crossbow 366 crow 335 crow (vi., of cock) 337 crowd (v.) 371 crowded 361 crowded with (people) 377
cuckoo 335 cucumber 340 cunning 378 cup 344 cupboard 349 curse (v.) 370 cut 345 cut (with downward motion) 343 cut in two 343 cut into slices, threads or dice 343 cut with a rolling action 343 cut with scissors 349 cut with sideward motion 343 cute 378 cutout in sewing 345 cutting board 343 cypress tree 339 Daguazi Village 353 dance 357 dandelion 339 dandruff 357 dangerous 377 danggui (a kind of medicinal root) 340 dare 373 dark 331 daughter 367 daughter's husband 367 dawn 380 day 380 day after day after tomorrow 380 day after tomorrow 380 day after tomorrow evening 380 day before day before yesterday 380 day before yesterday 380 day before yesterday evening 380 day breaks (vi.) 331 daybreak 380 daytime 380
Index of English glosses 395 deaf 364, 368 deaf person 368 deal with negligently 371 debt 352 decision, resolution 373 decline (refuse) 371 decrease 384 deep 374 deep-fry 344 deer 335 defecate 359 degree complement marker (eg. he runs very fast) 387 deity (family god) 355 delicious 374 demand (vt.) 373 dense 376 depend on 371 descend 382 designing 378 detain 372 detestable 375 dew 332 dewdrop 332 dice 356 die (vi.) 364 difficult 376 difficult(y), tired 375 dig (with hands) 350 dig (with tools) 350 diligent 354, 379 dime (ten fen) 352 dimples 358 dip (vt.) 344 dirt 332 dirt in water 333 dirty 377 disappear 382 disease 364 dish 344 dish out rice 344 dishes of food 342 dislike (vt.) 372 disorderly (of things) 376
396 Glossary disperse (e.g. sand) 361 disperse (of clounds) 331 distiller's yeast 343 distressed 375 ditch, gully 333 divide 361, 383 divorce 361 do business 351, 370 doctor 370 dog 337 dog feed 337 dog, female 337 dog, male 337 dollar 352 done, ripe 376 door 348 door bolt 348 door frame 348 doorkeeper 370 doorway, an entrance 348 dose of medicine 365 doze 357 drag (vt.) 361 dragon 334 draw (lots) 361 draw / paint a picture 354 drawers 349 dream (v.) 364 dredge a river 333 dregs (of solids or liquids) 342 dress a newly dead person 355 dress up the hair 363 dried fungus 342 drink (vt.) 360 drink liquid medicine 366 drip (vi.) 331 drive (sheep) 336 drizzle 331 drool 361 droop the head 360 drop (CL) 331 dropsy 365 drought 332 drum 357
drunk 374 dry 376 dry up by the wind 331 drying terrace (on roof of house) or yard 348 duck 337 dull 376 dull, stupid, ignorant (n. or v.) 378 dumb 368 dumb person 368 dun for (money, debt) 352 dust 333 dust (vt.) 348 dust basket 348 dust cloth 348 dwell (vi.) 347 dye (vt.) 346 each one 385 ear lobe 358 ear of grain, ears of wheat 339 early 377 earn money 351 earring 346 ears 358 earth (the earth) 332 earthquake 332 earthworm 338 east 381 east wind 332 easy 377 eat 360 ebb (of the tide) 333 edges of a field 341 efficacious 355 egg 342 egg (in general) 335 eight 383 eighteen 383 eighty 384 either ... or ... 388 either...or (interrogative) (eg. are you eating rice or eating noodles?) 388
Ekou Village 353 elbow 359 elbow (v.), nudge 361 elder brother (address term) 367 elder brother (quoting term) 367 elder brother's wife 367 elder sister 367 elder sister's husband 367 elephant 335 eleven 383 embankment 333 embarassed 375 embrace 362 embroider 345 empty 376 empty-handed 387 end of the month 379 end of the year 379 enjoy coolness 334 enter 382 entertain 356 even, including (eg. even he doesn't want to go) 388 evening 380 evening meal, dinner 341 every 383 every other day 380 everyone, all 385 everywhere 381 exactly 386 examine the disease / see a doctor 365 except for 387 exchange (vt.) 371 excrement 334 existential verb, to have 381 exit 382 expel intestinal gas 359 expensive 377 experiential aspect 386 expulsion of intestinal gas 359 eye of needle 345 eyeball 358 eyebrow 358
Index of English glosses 397 eyelash 358 eyelid 358 eyes 358 eyesight blurred 364 face 358 face (to the east) 381 face (to the north) 381 face (to the south) 381 face (to the west) 381 face to face 387 fail 372 fall (of dew) 332 fall down 363 fall on its own weight 348 family 367 family members 367 famous 377 fancy, imagine 373 far 381 farmer 369 fascinated by, addicted to 372 fast 377 fasten the waist belt 346 fat (n.) 357 fat (of people) 377 fat meat 342 fate 355 father (address term) 366 father (quoting term) 366 father's elder brother (address and quoting term) 367 father's elder brother's wife 367 father's sister 367 father's sister's husband 367 father's younger brother 367 father's younger brother's wife 367 fathom (length of outstretched arms) 352 fatigued 364 fatty (of meat) 377 fatty, oily (of food) 374 favor to excess 372 fear (vt.) 373
398 Glossary feather 335 feather duster 348 feces 359 feel dizzy 364 feel numb 365 feel, touch (vt.) 361 female 368 fence in 348 fennel 339 fertilize 341 fetch water 348 field 341 field mouse 335 fierce 377 fifteen 383 fifty 383 fight (of bulls) 336 fight (vt.) 371 file 350 fill (in land) 334 fill up, load 362 filter, to strain (strain away solid) 344 fine (eg. thread) 374 fine day 332 finger 359 finger tips 359 fingernail 359 finish (v.) 386 fir tree 339 fire 333 fire disaster 333 fire hole in a kitchen range 343 fire kettle 343 fire tongs 343 firefly 337 fireplace 348 fireplace rack 348 firewood 343 firewood splitter 343 first 386 first born 368 first day of the lunar month 380 first lunar month 379
fish 338 fish (with a rod) 338 fish scale 338 fish spawn 338 fishing hook 338 fishing net 338 fishing rod 338 fist 359 five 383 flame 334 flat-nosed 358 flavorless, insipid 374 flax 339 flay, peel (vt.) 361 flea 338 flee 372 flimsy 376 flint 350 float (vi.) 333 flock 334 flood (n.) 333 flood (vi.) 333 flour 342 flour sieve 341 flow (vi., of water) 333 flow like a wave (vi.) 333 flower (n.) 339 flowers falling/wilting 339 flute 356 fly (vi.) 335 fly, 337 foam (vi.) 333 foam, froth (n.) 333 fog, mist 331 fold (vt.) 361 fold up 349 food 341 food, provision 341 food-turner 343 foolish 378 foot 360 foot (measure) 352 foot of a hill 332
for the sake of (eg. for the sake of him) 388 forearm 359 forehead 358 foreign woolen cloth 345 foreigner 368 forest 339 forge (thing) out of iron 369 forget (something) 372 forked road 353 formerly 386 forty 383 four 383 four seasons 379 fourteen 383 fox 335 fox, wildcat 335 fragmentary 376 fragrant 374 freckles 359 free from anxiety 375 freeze (vi.) 333 fresh (of food) 374 fried bread-stick 342 friend 367 fritillary (Fritillaria thunbergii) bulb 340 frog (black) 338 frog (green) 338 from 387 from childhood 386 from morning till night 380 front 381 frost 332 fruit 340 frustrated 374 fry in fat or oil 344 frying pan 343 full 376 full, satiated 374 fungus, mushroom 340 fur 334, 346 fur garment 346 fur on the tongue 358
Index of English glosses 399 furniture 349 gall bladder 359 garden 341 garlic 340 garrulous, talk-ative 378 gasoline 333 gather night soil 341 gather together 361 gay and extravagant, luxurious 377 gaze fixedly or fiercely 360 generous 378 get a splinter 365 get beaten 371 get demoted 351 get dusty (vi.) 333 get promoted 351 get scolded 370 get up 362 get well 364 get wet (from the rain) 331 get wounded 365 ghost, spirit 355 giant 375 gift, present 356 ginger 340 girl 368 give 371 give birth 360 give birth i-°i (DIR + `release') 364 give birth to the young (of animals) 334 give command 371 give in to 371 gizzard 335 glad 375 glue (n.) 354 glue (vi.) 354 gluten of wheat 339 glutinous millet 339 glutinous rice 339 gnat 337 gnaw at a bone 360
400 Glossary go 382 go around 382 go around in a circle 382 go home 353 go into town 352 goat (female) 336 goat (male) 336 god 355 gold 333 gong 357 good 376 good (of a child) 378 good-looking 375 goose 337 gorge 333 gossip 354 gourd used for a ladle 344 graft (vt.) 341 grain stalk rack 341 grains 339 grandchild 367 grape 340 grass 339 grass jelly 342 grass mushroom 340 grassshopper 338 grateful 375 grave 355 great-grandfather 366 great-grandmother 366 great-grandson 367 greater half 383 greedy for money 378 green 375 grey 375 grievous, sad 375 grind (vt.) 341 grind, rub fine (vt.) 341 grindstone 349 groom 355 ground 332 ground floor 347 grow (vi.) 339 grow callous skin 357
grow into a scar 365 grow up (vi.) 364 Guali Village 353 guard 370 guard (vt.) 366 guest 356 guide (n.) 353 gums (of teeth) 358 gun 336, 366 gunpowder 350 haggle over prices 351 hail 332 hail (v., to say hello) 356 hail (vi.) 332 hair whorl 357 half 383 half-cooked 344 half-grown pig 336 halfway up a mountain 332 hammer (n.) 350 hammer (vt.) 350 Han (name of ethnic group) 369 Han language 369 Han person (common derogatory term, literally `rotten Han person') 369 hand 359 hand bucket 350 hand down 372 handful 384 handkerchief 346 handle 349 handspan (thumb to curled forefinger) 352 handspan (thumb to forefinger) 352 handspan (thumb to middle finger) 352 hang (a mosquito net) 349 hang (clothes) 346 hang (vt.) (on grain stalk rack) 341 happy 375
hard 376 hard secretion from the nose 358 harelipped person 368 harmful 377 harmless 377 harvest (vt.) 341 hasten, to urge 371 hat 346 hatch (come out of egg) 337 hatch (sit on eggs) 337 hate (vt.) 373 have a haircut (female) 363 have a haircut (male) 363 have a holiday 353 have a running nose 358 have a stuffy nose 364 have a sty 358 have asthma 365 have cholera 365 have cramps 365 have decayed teeth 364 have diarrhea 365 have dysentery, diarrhea 365 have fever 365 have goose flesh 365 have headache 364 have indigestion 365 have leprosy 365 have lice 365 have maggots 364 have nocturnal emissions 359 have nosebleed 365 have not (e.g. he has no money) 387 have piles (hemorrhoid) 365 have pockmarked face 365 have prickly heat 365 have sores 365 have stomachache 365 have the itch, scabbies 365 have the measles 365 have the mumps 364 have to 373
Index of English glosses 401 have tuberculosis 365 have underarm odor 365 hawk 335 he, she, it (3rd sg. pronoun) 384 head 357 head hair 357 head scarf 346 head wrapping 346 heal disease 365 heal, close (of wound) 365 hear 360 heart 359 heart disease 364 heat up a pan 344 heavy 375 heel 360 help (vt.) 371 hemp 339 hemp seed 340 hen (before or after laying eggs) 337 herb, medicine 340 herd 334 herd together 334 herd, shepherd (v.) °t°y 369 here 385 Hexi Village 353 hide 334, 363 hide (things) 372 high 374 highland barley 340 hill 332 hill without vegetation 332 hinder, to get in the way 371 hire, to employ 369 his, hers 385 hit 361 hit a drum 357 hoarse 364 hoe (n.) 350 hoe (vt.) 350 hold a funeral procession 355 hold a meeting 372 hold firmly 361
402 Glossary hold in the mouth 360 hold up in both hands 361 hold with the hand 361 hole 333 hollow (of grain) 376 home 381 honey 337 honeycomb, beehive 337 hoof 334 hook (n.) 350 hook (vt.) 350 horizontal (n.) 374 horizontally 387 horn 334 hornet 337 horse 336 horse dung 337 horse feed 337 horsebean 340 hospital 366 host/master 356 hot 374 hot (peppery) 374 hot (to the touch) 374 hot water bottle 344 hour 380 house 347 household servant 370 how (good!) -degree- 385 how (in what way or form) 385 how (to do?) -manner- 385 how long (in time) 385 how much (asking for price) 351 how much / how many 385 howl (as wolf) 334 hug (v.) 362 Hui (name of ethnic group 369 human nature, friendliness 355 humpbacked 368 hundred 384 hundred and one 384 hungry 374 hunt 335
hunter 369 hunting dog 337 husband 367 husband's or wife's mother (address and quoting term) 367 hyacinth bean/lentil 340 hysterical 365 I/me (1st sg. pronoun) 384 ice 333 if 387 ill 364 illiterate 354 illness 364 imitate 371 immediately 386 impatient 377 in a hurry, hurried 379 in place of (eg. do it for him) 387 in that way 385 in the future 386 in this way 385 in unison, together 387 in-group 368 incense 355 incense burner 355 inch 352 inchoative aspect 386 incisors, front teeth 358 incite to contention 370 inclined, sloping 374 increase (v.) 383 individual(ly) 384 individually 386 infect 364 infuse tea 344 ingredients 342 ink (fluid) 354 inn (hostel) 351 insect 337 insect which eats wood or bamboo 338 inside 381
instantative aspect, `as soon as (he eats, he vomits)' 386 instep 360 instrumental marker (eg. to cut with a pair of scissors) 387 intention 373 inter, to bury 355 intercede 370 intercept, to stop (vt.) 371 interest 352 intestinal worm 338 intestines 359 intimate friend 367 invite guests to give a party 356 iron 333 irrigate 341 irritable 377 irritating, annoying (n.) 378 it sells well 351 it tastes bad 374 itchy 374 ivory 351 jackal 334 jail keeper 370 jealous, envy (vt.) 372 joke (verbally, v.) 370 jokeful 378 jujube 340 jump 363 junior generation 367 just a while ago 386 just before (eg. just before he left) 388 just now 386 just right, in the nick of time 386 Kawo Village 353 keep (vt.) 372 keep company 356 keep for oneself 371 kennel 347 kerosene 333 key 348 kick 362
Index of English glosses 403 kick (as a horse), kick back 362 kick off coverings 362 kid 336 kidney 342 kidneys 359 kill 336 kiln 351 kind 378 kindling (for a fire) 343 kiss (vt.) 360 kitchen 348 kitchen range 343 knead (dough) 344 kneecap 360 kneel 362 knife 349 knit (vt.) 345 knitting needle 345 knock at the door 348 knotty (problem) (n.) 377 know 373 knuckles 359 lacquer 350 ladder (to the roof) 348 ladle 344 ladle (vt., water) 362 lake 333 lamb 336 lame 368 lame person 368 laminaria, kelp 340 lamp 349 land 332 land otter 335 landowner 369 landslide 332 language 354 lard 342 large earthenware jar without handle, shaped like an upsidedown pear 345 large intestine 359 large open-mouthed jar 344
404 Glossary large shallow basket (worn on back) 343 largely 387 last month 379 last year 379 late 377 later 386 laugh (at) (v.) 372 lay eggs 337 lay on a pillow 349 lay the foundation of house 348 lazy 379 lead (vt.) 371 lead cooking pan 343 leaf 339 leak (v.) 349 lean 377 lean against 362 lean meat 342 leather 346 leave behind, forget to take 372 leech 338 left (side) 381 left-hand 359 leftover 342 leg 360 leg wrappings (leggings) 346 leisurely 374 lend (money) 352 leopard 334 let loose of the hand 361 letter 354 lettuce 340 level 375 level up (vt.) 334 Li County (Xue City) 353 lick with tip of tongue 360 lid for cooking pan 343 lie (v.) 370 lie down 362 lie flat on the stomach 362 life 364 lift open (a lid) 362 light 331
light (in weight) 375 light a fire 343 light a match 350 lightning (n.) 332 lightning (vi.) 332 like 372 like to tell tales of others 378 lime 348 limp (n.) 362 line up, queue up 362 lines of the palm 359 lion 334 lips 358 liquid medicine 366 liquor 343 liquor (made by Chinese) 343 literate 354 little finger 359 lively 378 liver 359 livestock 336 living, to be alive 364 location, place where something is 381 lock (n.) 348 lock (vt.) 348 loess 332 long 374 long boots 346 long for 372 long white rice 339 long-winded 378 Longba Village 353 look (vt.) 360 look after 371 look for 372 look in a mirror 349 look sideways 360 loom 345 loose 375 lose 357 lose (thing) 382 lose face, be disgraced 375 lose money in business 351
lose one's milk teeth 358 lose one's temper 372 loud 375 louse 338 love (a child) (vt.) 372 love (vt.) 372 low 374 lower leg 360 lucky 377 luggage 353 Luhua Village 353 lumber 348 lunar eclipse 331 lunch 341 lungs 359 Luoda Village 353 mace, 1/10 tael 352 mad person 369 mad, out of one's mind 378 maggot 337 magpie 335 mail a letter 354 make a button hole 345 make a decoction 366 make a fire 343 make a knot 346 make a mistake 370 make a quotation or offer 351 make a visit (to friends) 356 make an effort to remember 373 make clothes 345 make friends 356 make the bed 349 make up (v.) 363 make up a prescription 365 make up the proper amount 372 male 367 manger 347 Mao County 353 mare 337 mark / make a sign 372 married man 367 married relationships 366 married woman 368
Index of English glosses 405 marrow 357 mason 370 massage the back by pounding 362 master 369 master of a trade 370 mat 349 Matang Village 353 matches 350 maternal grandfather (address and quoting term) 366 matter 349 mattress 349 mattress made of rice-stalks 349 may do 373 meal (CL) 341 mean-spirited 378 measure (cloth) 352 measure (rice) 352 measure of 10.8 feet 352 meat 342 medicinal plaster 366 medicine 365 meet 363 meet (by chance) 371 meet with 371 meeting dismissed 372 melon seed 342 melt (of snow) 332 meow (vi.) 337 merchant 370 merely 386 message (oral) 354 metamorphosis 337 meteor / falling star 331 method, way 349 middle 381 middle finger 359 midnight 380 mildew, mold 333 mildewed and spoiled (of wood) 376 military officer 370 milk 343
406 Glossary mill (n.) 341 mill house 348 mire 332 mirror 349 mischievous 378 misunderstand 373 mix 344 mix (dough) 344 moan (v.) 364 modest 378 moistening 376 mole 335, 357 monastery 355 money 352 monk 370 monkey 335 month 379 moon 331 moonlight 331 more 386 more or less 384 morning 380 morning glory 339 mortgage (vt.) 352 mosquito 337 mosquito bite (n.) 338 moss 339 most 386 moth 337 mother (address term) 366 mother (quoting term) 366 mother's brother 367 mother's brother's wife 367 mother's sister 367 mother's sister's husband 367 moult (vi.) 335 mound 332 mountain 332 mountain goat 335, 336 mourning apparel 346 mouse 335 mouth 358 move 382 move (house) 347
move or slip away or to one side (v.) 363 movies 357 mow / cut grass (vt.) 341 mucus from the nose 358 mud 332 muddy 333 multiply 383 murder 372 music 356 musk, river deer, roedeer 335 mustache 358 mutton 342 mutually (mutually help each other) 386 Muyu / Moyu Village 353 nail (n.) 350 nail (vt.) 350 naked 346 name (n.) 366 narrow 374 naughty 378 nauseating 364 nauseating, unsightly 375 navel 359 near 381 neck 359 necklace 346 need not (eg. you need not cry) 387 needle 345 negative imperative 387 neighbor 367 neighboring, next door 381 nervous 379 nervous, palpitating heart 364 nest 334 net 351 new 376 newspaper 354 next 386 next month 379 next year 379 nice day 332
niggardly, miserly 378 night 380 night falls (vi.) 331 nighttime 380 nine 383 nineteen 383 ninety 384 nipple 359 nit 338 noise 360 noodle(s) 342 noon 380 noon meal 341 north 381 north wind 332 nose 358 nose ring of cow 336 nostril 358 not (e.g. it is not good) 387 not at (home) 381 not feel well 364 not good enough 376 not only...but also 388 not willing 373 not yet (e.g. he has not yet come) 387 now 386 numbering 384 oats 340 obscure, dark 331 observe the New Year 355 of passing/indifferent quality 376 of the same generation 367 offend people 371 officer 369 o'clock 380 often 386 oil 342 ointment 366 OK, acceptable 372 old 376 old man 368 old of age 364
Index of English glosses 407 old woman 368 on fire, to catch fire (vi.) 333 one 383 one and a half 383 one by one 385 one-eyed person 368 onion 340 only 386 open a door 348 open out, separate 361 open stall (n.) 351 open the eyes 360 open the mouth 360 open the mouth a slit 360 opening of the mouth 358 opinion 373 opposite 381 orange color 375 orderly 376 orphan 368 other (things or people) 384 other people 384 otter 335 ought to, should 373 ounce 352 ours 385 outside 381 outsider 368 overflowing 376 overnight 380 overtake (in pursuit) 372 owe (money) 352 owl 335 ox 336 pace back and forth 382 pack (luggage) 353 pagoda 355 pail 350 pain(ful) 364 paint, spread on (vt.) 348 palm 359 pan for washing face 363 pancreas 359 pant (v.) 357
408 Glossary paper 354 paper money 352 parents 366 parrot 335 part from 364 partitive, `(ate two apples) out of (five)' 386 pass by a place 353 pass on a message 354 paste 354 paste up 354 pastry 342 pat (on the shoulder) 362 pat (on the table) 362 patch (vt.) 345 paternal and maternal grandmother (address and quoting term) 366 paternal grandfather (address term) 366 paternal grandfather (quoting term) 366 paternal uncles 367 path 352 patience 375 pawnshop 351 pay tax 352 pea 340 pea/bean shoots/sprouts 340 peaceful 375 peak 332 peanut 340 pear 340 pebble 332 peck (v.) 335 peck, a dry measure (316 c. in.) 352 peel (vt.) 341, 349 peel with a peeler 341 pen, writing brush 354 penis (baby term) 359 penis (common term) 359 pepper 340
perfective aspect, `have you eaten?' 386 person from another province 368 person who stutters 368 person who wears glasses 368 person with missing front teeth 368 person with pockmarks 368 person, human being 368 persuade someone not to fight 370 petals of a flower 339 pheasant 335 phlegm 358 pianniu 336 pick 341 pick at, scrape (e.g. the nose) 362 pick up 361 pick up with chopsticks 344 pickpocket (n.) 370 pickpocket (v.) 370 picture 349 pierce (vt.) 349 pierce the ear lobe 346 pierce the nose of a cow 336 pierce with a fork 351 pig 336 pig (male) 336 pig feed 336 pig tender 369 pigeon 335 pig's bristles 336 pig's feet 342 pigsty, hogpen 347 pigtail (not tied with hemp) 363 pigtail (tied with hemp) 363 pile up 361 pile up a wall 348 pill 366 pillar 348 pillow 349 pincer (vt.) 350
pincers 350 pinch with the fingers 361 pine cone 339 pine tree 339 pink 375 pint, 1/10 peck 352 pity, piteous (vt.) 372 place 380 plain, second-rate 376 plait the hair (vt.) 363 plan, device 373 plane (n.) 350 plane (vt.) 350 plant (vt.) 341 plant a field 341 platform, level area 348 play 356 play ball 356 play card game 356 play hide and seek 356 play jacks, dice game 356 play the flute 356 play the shuttlecock 356 plow (a field) 341 plow (n.) 341 plow-share 341 pocket 346 point (v.) 361 point of the foot 360 pointed 376 poison 366 poke (vt.) 362 polish (vt.) 349 pollen 339 pond 333 poor 377 poor people 369 poor quality 376 pop (of oil, etc.) 344 porcupine 335 pork 342 possessive marker (eg. my book) 387 possessive pronouns, mine 385
Index of English glosses 409 possibly, perhaps 387 potato 340 pound (garlic) 344 pound, hit 341 pound, ram 362 pound, tap, strike, rap on (the head) 362 pour (tea) 344 pour over 344 powder 333 prefer 373 pregnant 360 pregnant woman 368 prepare 372 press down 361 press out oil 342 pretend 373 previous 386 price 352 prick (vt.) 349 printed cotton 345 progressive aspect, `he is eating' 386 prohibitive 387 promise (vt.) 371 prop up, stretch out 362 prostrate and knock head on ground 362 protect 371 protruding teeth 358 proud 378 provoke 370 prune 340 pry open 362 puddle 333 pull 361 pull at (a string) 361 pull out 361 pull out, take out (from pocket) 362 pulse of the wrist 359 pumpkin 340 purse the lips 360 pursue 372
410 Glossary pus 357 push 361 put (things) away 372 put down rudely 361 put in (ingredients) 344 put on clothesline 346 put on credit 351 put the dead into the coffin 355 put up an umbrella 347 put, place in/on 361 Qiang (name of ethnic group) 369 Qiang Festival (held in Autumn 355 Qiang language 369 quack (vi.) 337 quarrel 370 quick 377, 379 quick, smart 378 quickly 386 quiet 375 quilt 349 quite 386 rabbit 335 rabbit (male) 335 railing 348 rain (n.) 331 rain (vi.) 331 rainbow 331 raindrop 331 rainy day 332 raise (children) 364 raise (vt.) 361 raise a blister 357 raise by putting something under 361 raise the hand 361 raise the head 360 raise with the hands 361 rank (smell of urine, fish) 374 rape seed plant 340 rare (n.) 376 rather, pretty 386 ravine 332
raw 376 reach destination 353 read a book 354 read aloud 354 read newspaper 354 really and truly 386 rear (vt.), breed (vt.) 336 receive (visitor) 356 recently 386 recite lessons from memory 354 recognize (on meeting someone, exchange chat) 373 recognize, know (someone) 373 record accounts 351 red 375 red bayberry 340 red-spotted lizard 338 regard as 366 regular, uniform, even 376 relatives 366 release (from captivity) 372 remarry (of woman) 355 remember 373 remote, out of the way 377 remove feathers 337 remove fur 336 remove teeth 364 render fat 344 repair 351 requite (vt.) 371 rescue (vt.) 371 resemble 382 resin, colophony 339 respond verbally 354 rest 364 retreat (v.) 382 return (v.) (come back) 382 return a borrowed object or money 352 return a debt 352 return change (from purchace) 352 rGyalrong (Jiarong 369 rhubarb 340
ribs 360 rice (in field or hulled) 339 rice gruel, congee 341 rice husk 339 rice ladle 344 rice shoots, sprouting grain 339 rice water 341 riceworm 337 rich 377 rich people 369 ride (a bicycle) 353 ride (a horse) 337 ride in a car 353 ridge of nose 358 ridicule sarcastically or in disguise 370 right (side) 381 right-hand 359 ring 347 rinse one's mouth 363 rip, tear (vt.) 361 rise (of the sun) 331 rise (of the tide) 333 rise (vi., of bread) 344 river 333 river valley 333 river-bed 333 road 352 roar (as lion) 334 roast 344 roast in hot ashes 344 roast pork with skin 342 rob 370 rock 332 roedeer 335 roedeer (female) 335 roll (v.) 350 roll into a ball with the hands 344 roll up 362 Ronghong Village 353 roof 348 roof (vt.) 348 room 347
Index of English glosses 411 root 339 root (vt., of pigs) 336 root of the tongue 358 rope (n.) 350 ropes, cordage 350 rosy clouds, rosy sunset 331 rough (of road) 377 round 374 round dumpling 341 rub 361 rub between the hands 361 rub ointment 366 rub on (oil) 361 rub, massage 361 rummage (vt.) 362 run 362 run against 363 runner-up 384 rush on 363 rust 333 rust (vi.) 333 sacrifice (to the gods) 355 sad 375 saddle 353 safe 377 salary 369 saliva 358 salt 342 salty 374 sand 332 saw (n.) 350 saw (vt.) 350 sawdust 351 say 354 scald oneself 365 scale 352 scarcely, barely 386 scarf 346 scattered 376 scissors 349 scold 370 scoop from one container to another 362 scorched, burned (of rice) 376
412 Glossary scour a pan 344 scram! 371 scrape (vt.) 349 scratch 361 scratch for feed (chicken) 337 screw (n.) 350 screw (v.) 361 screw in (a screw) 350 screwdriver 350 sea 333 search the person 372 second floor of house 347 secretion in the eye 358 secretly 387 sedan chair 353 see a visitor off 356 seed 339 seedlings of a tree 339 seemingly 387 Seergu Village 353 seize and arrest 371 select (as) 372 self, emphatic and reflexive pronoun 384 self-satisfied 375 sell 351 send 371 send presents 356 senior generation 366 separate 361 separately 386 servant 369 set (of the sun) 331 set a snare 335 set the table 344 set up a banquet 356 set up a bed 349 set up pillars 348 settle a bill 351 seven 383 seven sister stars 332 seventeen 383 seventy 383 several 384
sew 345 sew on a button 345 sexual intercourse (common term) 360 sexual intercourse (euphemistic term) 360 shabby, tattered garments 375 shade (vt., of leaves) 339 shadow 331 shake 362 shake hands 361 shake open, spread by shaking 362 shake out 362 shallow 374 shameful 375 shampoo the hair 363 shape 354 sharp 376 sharpen a knife 349 shave beard 363 shave the head 363 shave the head bald 363 shavings 350 sheath, scabbard 349 shed tears 358 sheep 336 sheep (wool sheep) 336 sheephorn flower 339 sheepskin 336 sheepskin vest 346 shell (vt.) 341 shinbone 360 shine (vi.) 331 shiny, shining 331 shiver (v.) 365 shoat, piglet (male) 336 shoes 346 shoot 336 shoot a gun 366 shoot an arrow or gun 366 shoot the target 366 shopkeeper 370 short (in length) 374
short (of height) 374 shoulder 359 shoulder (a load) 361 shout (vi.) 354 shovel, spade (n.) 350 shrink (vi., of clothes) 346 shrub 339 shudder (v.) 365 shuttlecock 356 siblings of father's sisters 367 sickle 350 sickle with teeth used to cut grain crops 350 side 381 side, inside, (locational particle) 387 sideburn 358 sieve (n.) 341 sieve (vt.) 341 sign (v., n.) 354 silkworm 337 silver 333 silver monkey 335 simpleton 369 since (eg. since you don't like it) 388 since (eg. since you were born) 388 sing 356 single child 368 sink (vi.) 333 sip (vt.) 360 sister call brother 367 sister's child 367 sisters 367 sit (up) 362 sit down 362 six 383 sixteen 383 sixty 383 skillful 379 skim, fish out 362 skin 357 skin (n.) 334
Index of English glosses 413 skinny 375 skirt 346 sky 331 slanted 374 slap (vt.) 361 sleep 364 sleep face down 362 sleep on one's back 363 sleep on one's side 363 sleet (vi.) 332 sleeves 346 slightly 386 slingshot 366 slip (v.) 363 slip and fall 363 slippery 376 slope of a hill 332 slow 377 sluggish 379 slyly 379 small 374 small hand basket 350 small intestine 359 small round soft cake of pounded glutinous rice 342 smaller half 383 smallpox 365 smell (vt.) 360, 374 smell bad, musty (of cereals), rotten (of meat, etc.) 374 smile (v.) 372 smoke 344 smoke (cigarettes) 360 smoke (cigarettes) (vt.) 343 smoke (meat) (vt.) 334 smoke (n.) 334 smooth 376 smother (charcoal) 343 snail 338 snake (thick) 338 snake (thin) 338 snap button (n.) 346 sneeze (v.) 364 snow 332
414 Glossary snow (vi.) 332 snow pea-pod 340 soak 344 soak (vt.) 341 soak, flood (vi.) 333 soap 363 socks 346 soft 376 soft secretion of the ear 358 soft voice 375 soft, uncrisp 374 soil 332 solar eclipse 331 Solar New Year's Day 355 soldier 370 sole of the foot 360 solid (of grain) 376 some (number) 384 somersault 356 something 385 sometimes ... sometimes ... (eg. sometimes he is naughty, sometimes he is good) 388 somewhat 386 son 367 son's wife 367 song 356 soot 333 soot of a pan 344 sorghum 339 sort out vegetables 343 sound 360 sound the gong 357 soup 342 sour 374 south 381 south wind 332 sow 336 sow seeds 341 soy sauce 342 soybean 340 spade (vt.) 350 sparrow 335 sparse, not dense 376
speak 354 speculate, to guess 373 spend money 352 sperm, semen 359 spider 338 spider's web 338 spiked millet 339 spin (yarn) (vt.) 345 spin a web (of spider) 338 spinach 340 spit (v.) 358 spit (vt.) 361 spittle 358 splash water 348 split (wood) (vt.) 349 spoil (a child) 372 spoiled (of child) 378 spoken words 354 spongy, fluffy 374 spool 345 spoon (n.) 344 spoon (vt.) 344 spread (of fog) 331 spread (vt.) 349 spring 333, 379 sprinkle (vt.) 344 sprout (as from seed) 339 sprout (n.) 339 spurt (vt.) 360 squat 362 squeeze (out) 361 squirrel 335 stable 347 staircase, ladder (wooden) 348 stamp the feet 362 stand (up) 362 star 331 start 382 start early 386 start on a journey 353 start serving a banquet 356 state of being well 377 stay at an inn 351 steady 376
steal 370 steam (vt.) 344 steamed or baked bread 341 steamer 343 steel 333 steep 375 step across 362 step over the doorsill 348 steps 348 stew (vt.) 344 stick 350 stick (vt.) 354 stick out the tongue 361 still 386 sting (vt.) 337 stinger of a bee/wasp 337 stir 344 stomach 359 stomach (pork) 342 stone 332 stool 349 stoop 362 stop 382 stop (of the rain) 331 stop blowing (of the wind) 331 stop the flow of water 334 stop up (a hole) 334 store (grains) (vt.) 341 storehouse 347 storey 347 storm (vi.) 331 story 354 stove 343 straight 375 strain (strain away liquid) 344 strain, sprain (one's back, muscles) 365 strange (n.) 376 stranger 368 strangle 361 straw 350 strawberry 340 stream 333 street 352
Index of English glosses 415 strength 360 stretch out the hand 361 strike (vt.) 361 string 350 string bean 340 strong 377 strong character 378 strong, lasting 376 stubborn 378 student 369 study 354 stuffy 374 stumble 363 stupid 378 subtract 383 succeed 372 suck (fingers) 360 suck (vt.) 360 sue 372 sugar 342 suitable 375 sultry, stuffy and hot 374 summer 379 summon (vt.) 371 sun 331 sun (clothes) (vt.) 346 sun (vt., vi.) 331 sunflower 339 sunrise 380 sunset 380 support, prop up 362 surface of the earth 332 surname, clan name 366 surround 382 surround (vt.) 366 surrounding 381 swallow (n.) 335 swallow (v.) 360 swear brotherhood or sisterhood 355 sweat (n.) 357 sweat (v.) 357 sweep the floor 348 sweet 374
416 Glossary sweet fermented rice 343 sweet potato 340 swim (vi.) 338 sworn brothers 367 table 349 taciturn 378 tael 352 tail 334, 342 tailor 369 take a bath 363 take a husband 355 take a photo 357 take a seat at a dinner table 356 take a step 356 take a wife 355 take in the fingers 361 take medicine 366 take the place of 372 take with the hand, receive 362 talk (vt.) 354 talk in sleep 364 tall 374 tares 339 target 366 tartar 358 taste 344 taste (vt.) 360 taut 376 tax (n.) 352 tax (vt.) 352 tea 344 teach 354 teacher 369 teapot 344 tears 358 tease (vt.) 370 teeth 358 telephone (n.) 354 telephone (v.) 354 tell a story 354 tell tales of, to play trick on 371 tell the future 355 temper 377 temple 355, 358
temporarily 386 temporary bridge 353 ten 383 ten odd 384 ten thousnd 384 tend cattle 336 tend ducks 337 tend pigs 336 tender 376 tendon 357 terminative, `finish (eating the rice)' 386 termite 338 terrible, frightening 375 testicles 359 thank for a gift 356 thank for an act of kindness 356 that 385 that much 385 that side 385 that time 386 thatch rushes 339 the ... the (eg. the older he grows the smarter he becomes) 388 the first one 384 the last one 384 the whole floor / ground 381 theirs 385 then and only then 386 there 385 there is a fire 333 these 385 they (3rd pl. pronoun) 384 they/them two (3rd dual pronoun) 384 thick 374 thick (eg. thread) 374 thick (of liquid) 376 thief 370 thigh 360 thimble 345 thin 374 thin (of liquid) 376
thin (of people) 377 thin silk 345 thin vermicelli that has been hung to dry 342 thing 349 think about 373 third floor of house 347 thirsty 374 thirteen 383 thirty 383 this 385 this evening 380 this month 379 this morning 380 this much 385 this side 385 this year 379 thorn 339 those 385 thousand 384 thread 345 thread a needle 345 three 383 thresh (vt.) 341 throat 359 throw 362 throw away 362 thumb 359 thunder (n.) 332 thunder (vi.) 332 Tibetan (name of ethnic group) 369 Tibetan language 369 tick 338 tickle 374 tie (shoelace) 346 tie up a cow 336 tie up, bind 362 tiger 334 tight 375 tile 350 time (one time) 384 timid 378 tin 333
Index of English glosses 417 tiny 374 tire of 373 to guard 370 toad 338 tobacco pipe 347 today 380 toe 360 toenail 360 toilet 348 tombstone 355 tomorrow 380 tomorrow evening 380 tomorrow morning 380 tongue 358 tongue tip 358 too (adj.), excessively 386 too late 386 tools 349 toothbrush 363 top (n.) 381 top of the head 357 torch 350 torn 376 torn (of clothes) 345 tough (of meat, rice) 376 tough, old, spoiled, bug-eaten (of vegetables) 376 town 352 townpeople 368 toy 356 trace 354 trade (n.) 351 train 369 transport 361 travel (vi.) 353 traveller 353 tray 344 tread on 362 treat (others to a meal, etc.) 356 tree 339 tree shade (n.) 339 tree stump 339 tree trunk 339 tree-fork, a forked stick 339
418 Glossary trousers, pants 346 trousers' seat 346 truce 366 trunk 349 trustworthy, honest 377 try (vt.) 372 tsamba 340 tuck under the arm 361 turn (doorknob) 361 turn a corner 382 turn around 382 turn around (the head) 360 turn off the light 349 turn on the light 349 turn over (the wrong side), reversed 374 turn the head 360 turnip 340 turtle 338 twelve 383 twenty 383 twenty-one 383 twenty-three 383 twenty-two 383 twice as much / many 383 twins 368 twist (v.) 361 twist ropes 350 twist, crush together in the hand (e.g. clothes) 361 twist, sprain (v.) 361 twitching of the eyelid 358 two 383 two times odd 383 ugly looking 375 umbrella 347 unable to sustain / resist 372 unbutton (vt.) 346 unconscientious 378 underneath 381 undress 346 uneven 376 unimportant 374, 377 unite 352
unless 388 unlucky 377 unmarried young woman 368 unpack (luggage) 353 unsteady 376 untie (shoelace) 346 unusual (n.) 376 upbraid 370 upper storey 347 upright 374 upside down 374 urgent, pressing 374 urinate 359 urine 359 use (vt.) 372 use bad words 370 usually 386 valley 332 valuable 377 value, regard as rare 373 vapor, steam 334 vegetable garden 341 vegetables 340 vein 357 vertical 375 vertically 387 very 386 very long (in time) 383 vexed 375 village 353 villagers (same village) 367 vine 339 vinegar 342 voice 360 vomit (v.) 364 vulva (common term) 359 vulva (euphemistic term) 359 wag the tail 334 waist 359 waist belt 346 wait for 371 walk on foot 352 walking stick 347 wall 348
walnut 340 want 373 want to (do something) 372 ward off 362 warm 374 warm up leftovers 344 warm, to roast, to bake 344 wash (clothes) 346 wash clothes with stick 346 wash down (vi., of water) 333 wash face 363 wash rice 343 wash the feet 363 washcloth 363 Wasi Village 353 wasp 337 waste (vt.) 372 waste money 352 watch (the children) 364 watch a movie 357 watch the coffin containing the corpse 355 watch the house 347 water 333 water (vt.) 341 water gate 334 water-drawing bucket 348 waterfall 333 we all, all of us 384 we/us (1st plural pronoun) 384 we/us two (1st dual pronoun) 384 weak 377 weak (of character) 378 wear (a hat) 346 wear (clothing) 346 wear (pants) 346 wear (shoes) 346 wear a skirt 346 weasel 335 weave (vt.) 345 weave a net 345 weaver's shuttle 345 wedding or other set date 355
Index of English glosses 419 wedge in 371 weed (vt.) 341 week 380 weep, to cry 372 weigh (vt.) 352 welcome, to receive 356 well (n.) 348 Wenchuan County 353 west 381 west wind 332 wet (n.) 376 what day is today? 380 what time is it? 380 what? 385 wheat 339 wheat bran 339 wheat flour 339 wheat straw 340 when (eg. when I came) 387 when? 385 where? 385 which one? 385 which side? 385 whip (n.) 350 whip (vt.) 350 whip mark 365 whirl (vi., of the wind) 331 whirlwind 331 whisper (vi.) 354 whistle (n.) 350, 356 whistle (vt.) 356 white 375 white bean 340 white of the eye 358 white stone 355 white sugar 342 who? 385 whoever 384 whole 383 whole day 380 whole life (one's whole life) 364 whole night 380 why? 385
420 Glossary wick 349 widow 368 wife 367 wife's father 367 wild boar 335 wild cow 336 willing (to) 373 willow tree 339 win 357 win (in some contest) 366 wind 331 wind thread 345 window 348 wine 343 wing 335 winnowing shallow basket 351 winnowing tray 341 winter 379 winter melon 340 wipe 361 wipe (vt.) 348 wipe the anus (after defecating) 363 wire 350 wolf 334 wood 350 woodchopper 369 wooden bench 349 wooden stick for washing clothes 346 woodpecker 335 wool 345 wool, fleece 336 woollen sweater 346 woollen thread 345 work (vt.) 369 world 381 worm 337 worried 373 worry, to put to heart 373 worship god 355 worth (be worth) 352 worth, worthwhile 377 worthless 377
worthy of (doing) 373 wound, sore 365 Wowo Village 353 wrap (dumplings) 344 wrap (vt.) 362 wrap a wound 365 wriggler 337 wring (a wet towel) 361 wrinkle 357 wrinkled 376 wrist 359 write (a letter/book) 354 wrong 377 Xiaoguazi Village 353 Xihu Village 353 Yadu Township 353 yak 336 yard 352 yawn (v.) 357 year 379 year after next 379 year before last 379 year old 364 yellow 375 yellow jacket 337 yesterday 380 yesterday evening 380 Yi (name of ethnic group) 369 yoke 353 you (2nd pl. pronoun) 384 you (thou) (2nd sg. pronoun) 384 you two (2nd dual pronoun) 384 young cucumber 340 young in age 364 young man 368 young shoots 339 younger brother 367 younger sister 367 youngest child 368 yours (pl.) 385 yours (sg.) 385 zero 383
Notes 1. In the stories the interjections often take the form of demonstrative pronouns, but are used as fillers rather than for their lexical content. This is common in Chinese as well, but I don't know if this is by chance or due to contact influence. 2. Other members of the Qiangic branch include Pumi (Prinmi), Muya, Ergong, Shixing, Namuzi (see Sun 1982, 1983, 1985). rGyalrong is often included in this group as well, though this categorization is less than certain (see LaPolla 2000b, 2003a). 3. Studies on the culture and history of the Qiang people include Zhuang 1937; Yan 1951; Graham 1958; Luo & Shi 1983; Ran, Li & Zhou 1984; Ren 1984; Ma 1984; Zhou & Liu 1993; Xu 1993; Li, Lin & Wang 1994; Meng, Gui & Lin 1994; and Wang 1997a, 1997b, 1998, 1999a, 1999b, 1999c, 2000, 2001a, 2001b. 4. These population figures are from Sun 1981a:177; Huang Bufan 1991:208 gives the total number of Qiang speakers as approximately one hundred thousand people. Neither author gives a source for these figures. According to the 1990 census (figures cited in Zhou & Li 1993), the total population of the Qiang people is one hundred ninety-eight thousand people (it had been 102,768 in the 1982 census). If Huang's number is correct, then only about half of the people of the Qiang nationality still speak the Qiang language fluently. This seems about right, as my understanding is that there are very few fluent speakers left in the majority of the southern Qiang areas. See also Lin 1990. 5. Having the animals within the same building was to prevent theft and to maintain warmth, but as this is a rather unhygienic arrangement, the government has been encouraging the Qiang to build separate pens for the animals. 6. Before 1949 the area was quite poor, and the main economic activity was opium growing and selling. Few Qiang people were able to attend schools or improve their livelyhood. Their situation was not unlike the difficult situation the Akha people in northern Thailand still live in today. 7. The Qiang are sometimes mistakenly believed to be worshiping the white stone itself, but they are in fact worshiping the spirit invested in the stone. 8. Liu (1998b:1-3) gives a detailed history of the work done by the team in the 1950's. Fieldwork was carried out in 32 different Qiang-speaking areas, and a large amount of data was collected. Work on this data stopped for many years because of the disruption of the Cultural Revolution, although Liu and Sun have since the late 1970's tried to work up and publish the data (Liu's book, Sun 1981a, and many of the other relatively recent publications are based largely on the data collected in the 1950's).
422 Notes 9. This list was compiled by Yu-hung Chang, Anne Y. Hashimoto and Jerry Norman, and published by Princeton University. While this was not an ideal word list for Qiang, as it included many lexical items specific to Southeast China, it was chosen because it had both English and Chinese glosses, semantic numbering, an index, and more items than the standard lists used in China. A revised version of this list is also being used for the Qiang Dialect Atlas Project. 10. The form // is used instead of the standard IPA /Ї/ simply to be consistent with other works on the language published in China (where this form is standard usage), and to have the palatal series consistently marked by the curl on the right. 11. The forms /khе/ and /xе/ do not appear in Qiang, though /k-/ and /kh-/ contrast in /kha/ `rice husk' and /ka:/ `teeth of a sickle', and /x-/ and /-/ contrast in /xa/ `scold (1sg)' and /a/ `sword'. 12. The analysis of the phonemic form of the prefix as /®-/ (rather than /s/) may seem odd from a Tibeto-Burman comparative perspective, but based on both internal evidence, and comparative evidence from other Qiang sub-dialects (e.g. cf. Mawo dialect /®pi/, Ronghong dialect [°pie] `thirsty'), this seems the only choice. 13. It is a puzzle why the second person pronoun has a glottal or zero initial (they don't contrast) instead of /n/ or //, as the rhyme /u/ would be a regular development from the usual Tibeto-Burman second person singular pronoun *nang. (PTB *n- has several reflexes in Qiang, but not usually [ч- ± Ш].) 14. When r-coloring is added to /е/, it is usually pronounced [fi] or [afi], so we cannot determine whether there are separate /afi/(/fi/) and /еfi/ forms. 15. This example has been added to show that the final r-coloring contrasts with final /-l/. 16. Even though this is true, the forms of the second person pronouns, /~u/ (singular) and /i-/ (plural) are written in this grammar with a glottal stop onset, purely to give them graphic bulk. 17. Here we are treating the glides that appear after the initial as part of the final rather than as part of an initial cluster because they do not form part of the syllable-final clusters (which are formed from initial clusters), even though historically the high-front glide has affected the initial consonant or cluster, palatalizing the initial, or in some cases (where the initial is /p/) palatalized the preinitial (e.g. *®pie > [°pie]). See the discussion of clusters later in this section, and also footnote 12. 18. In general, prefixes are preserved in the second syllable of two-syllable combinations (unless the entire complex initial is reduced), except in the case of the numerals (see §3.1.5) (and a few very old compounds such as [mag`u] `flimsy', from /ma/ NEG + /Вgue/ `strong'). This would be evidence that the numeral combinations were formed at a time when the prefixes were still productive, or at least were still not seen as integral to the root, and that other combinations (where the prefixes were preserved) developed after the prefixes had become fixed as part of an initial consonant cluster.
Notes 423 19. Even if the form does not become monosyllabic, there will still be a reduction in the number of syllables, e.g. in (2.5b), below, where three syllables reduce to two. 20. The lateral which occurs from the weakening of /dВ-/ is somewhat retroflexed. 21. This contrasts with languages such as Dulong/Rawang and Jinghpaw, which generally have an iambic stress pattern, and so reduction is of the first syllable rather than the second syllable (basically a southern pattern within TibetoBurman, possibly due to Mon-Khmer influence). See Dai 1995, Dai & Xu 1995 on Jingpo initial syllable reduction. 22. There are several forms for `one' and `ten'; see §3.1.5. 23. The words for `eight' and `hundred' can both be pronounced [khe] or [khefi], though in context there doesn't seem to be a problem of ambiguity. It seems the r-coloring is in the process of being lost, at least in the speech of the younger people. This homophony might seem odd, but it also occurs in the Cantonese dialect of Chinese, when final /-k/ and final /-t/ both become glottal stop in rapid speech (i.e. baatЈЈ `eight' and baakЈЈ `hundred' both > baaчЈЈ). 24. If more than two need to be expressed, an adverbial marker would need to be added, e.g. [t®hets xs na-i khuaithе] (car new good-ADV fast] `good fast new car'. 25. In Chinese it is also the case that many nouns which are themselves measures do not take classifiers or measures, particularly those of units of time, such as ni|an `year' and ti--an `day'. 26. A stative verb (adjective) can also be followed by the definite marker, though the resulting form functions as a noun, not a verb. 27. One example of a non-natural referent that seems to have this structure is /soqhu qhu/ `to fire a gun', but I am not clear on the origin of the term /soqhu/ `gun'. James A. Matisoff (p.c.) has suggested that the first syllable of /soqhu/ might be related to /somu/ `iron'. 28. The semantics of this noun are exactly that of Chinese yu\eli\ang `moon' (< `moon' + `bright'), but as it is an item of basic vocabulary and follows a general pattern of Qiang, and the pattern is also found in a number of other TibetoBurman languages (Xu 1997), it does not seem to be a calque on the Chinese. 29. In the case of `flower', the form is sometimes pronounced [lеpе], sometimes [lеmpе]; in general, [lеmpе] is used when referring to the actual flowers, and [lеpе] is used when it is an adjective, `flowery', modifying a noun. The form [lеm] is not used alone for `flower' , so the gloss here is speculative. 30. This is an animal that is a cross between a common cow and a yak. 31. In some northern Qiang sub-varieties, such as the Qugu variety, the form /qupu/ is used more generally. 32. In one elicited example, given in (3.201b), the form [the:-x®-tе] `on that side', with a long vowel, was said to mean a position farther away than that meant by [the-x®-tе], with a short vowel, but this does not seem to be a regular pattern. 33. Where the form of the verb has been altered by the addition of person or aspect marking, the original form of the verb is given at the margin.
424 Notes 34. Here the verb is glossed as having first person singular marking (/-е/), though because the form of the prospective aspect marking (/-е:/) incorporates that of the first person singular marking, there is no obvious difference between first person singular prospective aspect and third person singular (zero marking) prospective aspect forms of verbs. See §4.3.2 on person marking. 35. Given this situation, and the fact that an (in)definite marker plus classifier can form a complete noun phrase (see T3:63 for an example), plus the fact that crosslinguistically definite markers often derive from demonstrative pronouns, as in English, it seems likely that the definite markers (and locative markers) of Qiang also derive historically from demonstrative pronouns. The form /te/ is not very problematic in this regard, as it could easily be related to the contemporary distal demonstrative pronoun /the/ (both possibly < Proto-Tibeto-Burman *day; see Benedict 1972:19), but the origin of /le/ is more puzzling, as the only evidence for a /le/ or /lе/ demonstrative pronoun other than that used for the definite marker is the form [їеlе], which often appears as an interjection in the Texts and seems to mean `there'. (See also footnote 53). 36. Here the copula could have been used instead of the existential verb, but the sense would be of a state that was permanent or at least lasted a rather long time. 37. In fact one expression meaning `story' is /®kup-mele/, literally `orangutan words'. (As far as I know, there are no orangutans in Sichuan, China, but the Chinese word for the type of animal involved in these stories, which matches the imagined form of the animal, translates as `orangutan'.) 38. Both `eight' and `hundred' can be pronounced either [khe] or [khefi]. Only the context can distinguish the two. See footnote 23. 39. As mentioned in §2.2.3, this expression appears as [wu], [le-wu], [©le-wu], [lefiwu], [-efiwu], or [-fiwu]. In the case of the latter form, the final vowel of the previous word becomes r-colored. 40. Although this form seems very similar to the form [o-u] given just above, this form is made up of the word 'one' plus the initial consonant of the word for 'pile' and so there is no vowel harmony, while [o-u] involves two vowels, and so there is vowel harmony. 41. It might be argued that there is only one topic in this example, as the expression /skue di/ `stomach hurts' is predicated about the main topic, but within this predication the stomach is also a topic about which a predication is made, and an adverb such as [kn ± gn] `very' can appear between the second noun phrase and the verb, so it can also be said there are two topics. The second topic is a secondary topic, though, and can only take topic marking in a quoted clause, e.g. [the:-ui skue-ui di j] (3sg-TOP stomach-TOP pain say) `(He) says his stomach hurts'. See LaPolla 1995a, LaPolla & Poa 2003, for discussion of this type of construction in Chinese. 42. [umt®i] and [khumtsi] are common Qiang names. They are derived from the name of the animal associated with the year of birth of the individual, plus a nominalizer /-m/, plus a suffix indicating whether the person is male (/t®i/ = `male child') or female (/tsi/ = `female child'). In this case /u/ means `tiger',
Notes 425
and /khu/ means `dog' (< /khu/), so [umt®i] is a male child born in the year of the tiger, and [khumtsi] is a female child born in the year of the dog ([u-lu-m] `the one who came in the year of the tiger', etc. is also possible). There are several other common ways of forming Qiang names: using the name (= number) of the month the person was born in, e.g. the name [khefit®i] is derived from [khefi-°] `August' (< /khefi/ `eight' + /°/ `moon, month') plus the male child suffix, so [khefit®i] is a male child born in August (the eighth month); using the age of one of the parents at the time of the child's birth, e.g. [Щuеsuet®i] `son of a fifty-year-old'; using the name of the place where the mother gave birth, e.g. [joЩotsi] `girl born on the threshing ground'; using the weight of the child at birth, e.g. [wut°in] (< Chinese w«uj--оn) `five catty'; using one of the five elements, e.g. [t°insen] (< Chinese j--оnsh--eng) `golden birth'; using a reference to the god who was prayed to in requesting the child be born, e.g. [xs-lu-t®i] `god-coming- son'. See Huang, Yu, & Huang 1992. 43. There is also use of non-actor person marking to show affectedness; see §4.3.2. 44. Here the vowel change is due to harmonizing with /ji/, and then the prefix harmonizes with the changed vowel. 45. Notice in (3.121) and (3.122) that 2nd person plus 1st person results in 1pl person marking, while 2nd person and 3rd person result in 3pl person marking. 46. Qiang only has native words for two seasons, one (/tsaq/) representing both Spring and Summer, the other (/suq/) representing both Autumn and Winter. 47. The third person pronoun is translated as `s/he' because there is no gender distinction, and except for those examples that are taken from the stories, there was no disambiguating context (Chinese, the working language, also has no gender distinction). 48. See LaPolla 1995d on the common development of ablative markers into instrumental and agentive markers in Tibeto-Burman languages. 49. Notice here how the verb is first reduced from /t°h/ to [-t°] and then an epenthetic vowel is inserted before the /-m/ suffix. 50. The Chinese measures zh\ang in (3.177) and l«о in (3.178) are equivalent to 3 1/3 meters, or 10.8 feet, and half a kilometer, or 1/3 of a mile, respectively. 51. In a kinship relation such as this, we would normally have causative marking on the verb (see §3.2.14), but in the exclusion construction, the verb is intransitive, and there is only one direct argument (here, `my sister'). Another example would be (i):
(i) the: o-u-stu-t°i
3sg one-CL-alone-EXC NEG-have/exist
`There is only him alone.' 52. There does not seem to be any regularity as to when [t°i] is used as opposed to [ji
± j], other than emphasis. That is, when the particle is emphasized, it is more
likely to be pronounced [t°i], but if it is not emphasized, it is often pronounced
[ji] or [j].
426 Notes
53. There is an interesting correlation between the two definite markers, /le/ and /te/, the demonstrative pronoun /the/ `this' (also /thе/ `there'), and these locative particles /lе/ and /tе/ (see also footnote 35). 54. This is a loan from Chinese, so the individual morphemes have not been given glosses. This is also the case with `1958' below. 55. The two phrases [jеut°hiu] `demand' and [t°iu-®] `just-is' are Chinese. This is possibly a case of code-mixing in the telling of the story rather than loans. 56. Middle voice marking is found in a number of Tibeto-Burman languages (see LaPolla 1995b, 1996, 2003a), but passive marking is rare. 57. This pattern is similar to that found in Dulong and Rawang (see LaPolla 2000, 2003b), but unlike in Dulong and Rawang, the noun phrase representing the causer cannot take topic marking in this example. In ex. (4.8), where the inanimate causer is marked with the agentive marker, it would be possible to have the noun phrase representing the causee in sentence-initial position and marked by the topic marker. 58. While this structure is acceptable, most often if the causer is 3rd person and the causee is 1st or 2nd person, the direct causative is not used. Instead a quotative structure is used, as in (i):
(i) the: qе-tе
stuеhе t-bl-i
3sg 1sg-LOC food
`He told me to make the food.'
59. In this example it would also be possible to use a directional prefix on the copula (i.e., [hе-`u`-В]), if the person had already assumed the office. As it stands,
with no directional prefix and prospective aspect marking on the verb, the
sentence assumes the person has been chosen, but has not yet assumed office.
That is, the prospective aspect is relative only to the becoming, not to the
60. This is a sufficient, but not a necessary condition for adjective status: except for
/topu/ `like', any verb that can take /-wa/ will be an intransitive state predicate
verb, but a verb that cannot take /-wa/ may also be an intransitive state predicate
verb (see §4.4.1).
61. It could be that the sense of plurality is involved in both types, as the reciprocal
must involve more than one person.
62. Because of the semantic nature of adjectives as stative verbs, prospective aspect
can only be used with an adjective if the continuative aspect marking is used
together with it, marking the sense that a state will continue to exist or develop.
63. In the case of `potatoes' in this example and `fish' in (4.33a-b) below, number marking is not used (though it would be possible to add [е-hе] `some, a few')
when the exact number of items is not relevant. 64. There is another verb /k/ that means `walk, leave', but does not undergo the
changes that the form /k/ `go' undergoes when prefixed, e.g. /-k/ `leave!',
/t°е-k/ `don't leave!'.
65. The change of state marker /-ji/ is not used with the negative of this construction.
Notes 427 66. This distinction of actor vs. non-actor parallels the use of agentive and nonagentive (ergative and anti-ergative) marking on noun phrases (see LaPolla 1992a, 1995c), and makes the Qiang system quite different from many of the other Tibeto-Burman person marking systems, which mark person primarily, and not semantic role (they are hierarchical systems). For example, in Tangut or Dulong/Rawang, marking of a first person participant appears in a clause regardless of the semantic role of that participant (see LaPolla 1992b, 1994, 2003a for discussion of person marking). 67. In the Mawo dialect (Sun 1981:192), the form /sa/ is used for all persons and numbers in the non-actor paradigm: 1sg /sa/, 2sg /sai/, 3sg /saji/, 1pl /safi/, 2pl /sat°ii/, 3pl /sat°iji/. From the Mawo evidence it seems the actor marking, number marking, and non-actor marking were originally three different systems. 68. These are the maximum forms possible. As the non-actor marking is always optional, and the actor marking is sometimes optional, these are not necessarily the forms that appear in the examples throughout this grammar. 69. The non-actor person marking is optional in most cases. 70. The verb /le/ never appears alone without the directional prefix /d/ for the meaning `give', therefore no unprefixed forms are given here. There are corresponding verbs [sle] `pack in', [zl(e)] `take, bring over here', and [ile] `bring in, put in', which leads one to assume there was originally a verb /le/ that meant some kind of change of possession or movement, with the four directional prefixes (movement away from the center vs. movement downstream (here used for down-in), movement toward the center vs. movement in) determining the meaning as `give', `pack in', `take', or `bring'. This verb may in fact be the existential verb /le/, which can have a transitive use in reduplicated form (see §4.2.4), but which would possibly lose the reduplicated token when a prefix is added. The word /-®/ 'put' may also be the existential verb /®/ (which can also have the sense of transitive 'put' in reduplicated form) when it takes a prefix. 71. The two systems do not correspond one-to-one, as the Taoping dialect uses the cognate of the Ronghong `movement in' prefix for marking movement up-river, and it seems the cognates of the prefixes for marking movement toward or away from the center are used for movement towards the mountain and towards the river respectively. See Nishi 1990 and Huang Bufan 1991, 1994 for broader comparative treatments. 72. The assignment of a verb to a certain class is not arbitrary; it is done on the basis of tests for each type. See Van Valin & LaPolla 1997, Chapter 3 for discussion. 73. One of the few exceptions to this found so far is the form [tiwi] `tall, high'. This form is made up of the root /-wi/ and the directional prefix [ti-], but the root cannot be used without the prefix. The combined form has the simple meaning rather than the change or state meaning. 74. There is a contrast between a nominalized adjective used with the verb /pe/ `become', and the form of the adjective (intransitive stative verb) with the directional prefix, which gives it the sense of `become ADJECTIVE': /t-iq/
428 Notes [DIR-black] `become black' vs. /iq-ke: pe/ [black-INDEF:CL become] `become a black thing'. 75. Not all verbs can do this, even if the semantics might allow it; in some cases if the verb can take all of the directional prefixes, then the concrete directional sense will override the more abstract sense, e.g. [їo©lu] `roll down' has no connotation of agentiveness, because it can take all of the directional prefixes, and so the use of /ї-/ here will be based on the actual direction of rolling. 76. For discussion of Aktionsart differences expressed using the directional prefixes, see Section 4.3.3. 77. See also the discussion in §4.3.3 on the use of reduplication with different directional prefixes on each token for marking a type of repeated action. 78. While logically it would seem the two could be used together, they aren't. For example, if one wanted to express the meaning `don't do it again/anymore', the form would not be */t°-t°-bl/, but would be [t°е-bl-jy] (NEG.IMP-do-ASP); for `don't let him come again/anymore' it would not be */°е:-t°-t°-lе/, but would be [t°o-lu-В-jy] (NEG.IMP-come-CAUS-ASP). 79. Huang Bufan (2000) has suggested this suffix derives from /k/ `thus' + /p/ `do', but except for `come' and `go', generally two verbs are not used together in that way (/p/ can immediately follow the main verb), and it is possible to have another word for `do' in between /k/ and /p/, as in (i), so it would seem /p/ does not mean `do'. (i) the: khu °e-k-k-bl-p. 3sg dog release-go-thus-do-habitual `He goes hunting.' 80. It is important to emphasize that these are the formal means of marking the associated speech-act types, not necessarily the only way of performing these speech acts. Almost any formal type can be used to perform any type of speechact. 81. In some cases, such as the verbs for `eat' and `drink', the prefix usually used for the imperative is different from the prefix usually used for the other uses of the directional prefixes: [s-z] `(S/he) ate.' vs. [-z] `Eat!' (both < prefix + dz); [s-t° ]`(S/he) drank.' vs. [-t°] `Drink!'. 82. The resulting form can appear to be the same as a question form, which also has [-nе] at the end of the clause (see §, but it does not have the same origin, i.e. the imperative particle /nе/ does not involve person marking, as the question form /-n-е/ does, and so can be added after 2sg/2pl marking, as in /-z-n-nе/ (directional prefix + `eat' + 2sg + polite imperative marker) `(Please) eat!'. It also can be used with the plural, whereas the question particle /nе/ cannot, and the imperative /nе/ has a falling rather than rising intonation. 83. The form /lе/ is glossed as `INDTV:1sg', even though there is no non-first person form, because there is this first person plural form. 84. The form of the verb as [tu-pu] (i.e. with the [-u] vowel) is due to the fact that the unprefixed form of `to look after someone' is [t®еuku pu] (< /t®еuku p/, where
Notes 429
the vowel of the verb /p/ becomes [-u] due to harmony with the final vowel of /t®еuku/. It is unclear whether the vowel of the prefix is due to harmony with the already harmonized vowel of the verb, or due to harmony with the final vowel of /t®еuku/. 85. The form /ч~h~/ sounds like the English backchannel positive response, but its meaning is the opposite of that in English! 86. The form which results from /u/ + /i/ is the same as the topic marker /ui/, and this may be the origin of the topic marker, but they are not felt to be the same thing in this context. 87. Compare Chinese y\ao ( ) which has the same two uses. 88. This form of nominalized verb plus the copula is sometimes used for simple statements, and even in questions, with the meaning `it is the case that', e.g.
(i) dza:khui l©z su-s
afternoon book learn-NOM COP-Q
`Is there class this afternoon?'
(ii) dza:khui l©z su-s
afternoon book learn-NOM NEG-COP
`There is no class this afternoon'
There are also examples of this form with only the nominalized clause without the copula:
(iii) i©i-lai k-s? what-time go-NOM `What time (do we) go?' 89. /dВ/ is an adjective, and seems to be the same word as /dВ/ Жlongfl; it is reduced to a somewhat retroflexed /-l/ after a prefix, such as the negative and continuative prefixes. 90. Cf. the systems in Hare and Sunwari discussed by DeLancey (1997), where perfective contexts yield an evidential interpretation, and imperfective contexts yield a mirative interpretation. See also Zeisler 2000 for discussion on the relationship of tense/aspect and interpretation as mirative or not. 91. The combination of inferential and hearsay marking is sometimes pronounced [kui] in stories, as in (4), but there is no difference in meaning between [ki] and [kui] in that context. 92. This form contrasts with a direct quote, which would involve a 1st person pronoun and a full verb of speaking (i), and an indirect quote, which would involve third person forms (ii):
(i) "qе °t°imi da" j. 1sg heart sick+1sg say `He said "I'm unhappy".'
(ii) the: °t°imi di j. 3sg heart sick say `He said he's unhappy.'
430 Notes 93. As the prohibitive prefix and the continuative prefix have the same form in some contexts, `still want to go out' would have almost the same structure as `don't go out', but due to differences in stress and aspect, the pronunciation of the former would be a bit different: /hе-t°i-Ще:/. 94. In this clause, [mi lewu wu qs] functions as one argument with [qs] as the head, and so the existential verb used is one for inanimate objects rather than animate beings. 95. Although the prospective aspect marking in these cases seems more like an irrealis marker, it is not used in all hypothetical, conditional, or unrealized situations; /-tu/ and /-ta/ are more common as conditional markers, and generally do not appear with the prospective aspect marking. 96. Cross-linguistic comparison points to the original sino-Tibetan relative clause structure being of this type, that is, a clause directly modifying a noun without nominalization or relative marking, although most Sino-Tibetan languages have grammaticalized some sort of nominalizer or complementizer for relativization (see for example, DeLancey 1986, Genetti 1992). 97. It is an open question whether the /-s/ form here is a native innovation or an old loan from Tibetan. The lexical form in Qiang corresponding to Tibetan /sa/ is /z/ `ground, earth'; the voiced initial makes it an unlikely source for the suffix. On the other hand, the uses of Tibetan /-sa/ and Qiang /-s/ are not completely the same: both can be used for locations, but Tibetan does not use this form for instrumentals. See Mazaudon 1978, DeLancey 1986 on the Tibetan relative formations. 98. Yoshio Nishi (personal communication) suggests the possibility that /-tе/ might be derived from a noun, and here might still be functioning as a noun head in a relative clause structure of the type discussed below. 99. Usually the comitative marker is not used to link verbs unless they are nominalized, but here the first verb is missing the marker of nominalization. 100. In this example, the vowel of the last verb could be pronounced [] or [е]. While these two vowels are usually distinguished, especially in such cases where they can represent person marking, there are a number of cases where they are not carefully distinguished. Another example is [the: tеwе їе-tе] (3sg hat DIR-wear) `S/he put on a hat', the final vowel of which, although phonemically /-е/, could also be pronounced [-]. 101. Notice in (5.59) that the person marking is plural, unlike in English, where the verb agreement in a disjunction of two singular noun phrases like this would be singular. 102. In this example and the following one, the verb takes the non-actor person marking to show the affectedness of the referent involved. If the referent involved were 2nd person, the form would be the same except for the person marking, which would then be /-sеn/ or /-sеi/ for singular or plural respectively. There is no person marking in a subordinate clause marked by [-wu] or [-i]. 103. The particle /tu/ is also often used in narratives without the sense of a conditional, but more as a general linker of clauses (/ta/ is only used for
Notes 431 conditionals). See the Texts for examples. (Cf. the development of the use of the clause particle /na/ in Tibetan from a general marker of clause connectedness to a marker of conditionals, and the common use of de-hu\a `if' in Chinese as a topic marker.) There is something of a contrast between /-tu/ and the clause-final marker /-®/ discussed in §4.4, in that both are used for a broad range of meanings centered around the conditional, but /-®/ is used only with a verb marked with prospective aspect marking, while /-tu/ appears with verbs without prospective aspect marking. 104. Here the verb [-x-] is a reduced form of /khefi/. The form [xte] at the end of this line is a reduced form of /xtexte/. 105. Here [-wе] is a form of the question marker /-uе/. 106. This Жfeastfl refers to the feast held two days after the new year, usually for the newly married man to visit his in-laws. /de/ is the word for Жfestivalfl, particularly the new year festival. 107. The Qiang drink their home-made barley wine from large casks with straws, so the verb for 'suck' is used here instead of that for 'drink'. This verb is also used for 'smoke (cigarettes)'. 108. Ramfls horn flower: among the Qiang this symbolizes true love. Whenever the ramfls horn flower is in bloom, young men use the flower to express their feelings of love to their beloved. 109. The expression [Вmt®i] is from /Вm/ Жpeoplefl and /t®i/ Жmale, sonfl, and here means the local leader, but when translating this term into Chinese, the term for Жemperorfl (hu|angd\о) was used, so I have followed that usage. Before 1949, the Chinese official system title yu|anw\ai (pronunced [juеnЩuеi] by the Qiang) was used for local officials. 110. Here [delde] derives from /de-lede/. Although we would not normally expect a directional prefix on a habitual action, it seems the fact that this appears in an adverbial phrase ending with /-i/ makes the prefix necessary. 111. In this clause, [ЖЖpns u-su-е-®flfl j-m-le:-wu] Жthe one who said "I have learned an ability"fl is in apposition to [sat®'u-le:-t®i-le:-wu] Жthe younger sister's sonfl, clarifying which person is mentioned. 112. Here we would have expected a noun, such as /В/ Жaffairs, thingsfl, but it was left out by the speaker. 113. This object is either a monkfls robe (g--as--a) or a Hu|ang M«a Gu--a (a golden topcoat given by the emperor of China to people who had performed meritorious deeds for the emperor). Both [dzin] and [jn ± jin] refer to the same object. 114. The expression [е-l-wu е-l] means Жone to the otherfl and gives the sentence a reciprocal sense. 115. The expression [Ве hе-sе] is used to mean Жdo something good for someonefl, and can be used as something like Жthank youfl. 116. [im ts] = Жnotifyfl. 117. The visual evidential marker is used here to emphasize that this is common knowledge. 118. Here Жrelease dogfl is an expression to mean Жgo huntingfl.
432 Notes 119. This syllable adds the meaning Жas much as possible; completelyfl. 120. The expression [ku-е-ts] is literally Жolder brotherfl + COM + Жsisterfl, but here means close relatives. The expression [stumpt®e] includes the word [stum ± stum] Жsame-surname relativesfl, and refers to a wider set of relatives. A third category of relatives is the [tsuшЩlumi], the females from a family who have married into other families. 121. Here the form [-uе] is derived from /-u-е/ (VIS + 1sg), which normally produces [-wе], but the initial is influenced by the initial of the copula. 122. [qap Щu] Жhead throwfl is an expression for Жnod the headfl. 123. The expression Жdo orangutan talkfl means to use gestures instead of speech. As the vowel of Жdofl harmonizes with the /u/ of /®ku/, I have linked the parts with hyphens. 124. This word [fusan-pu] is a loan of Chinese f|u Жto support under the arm to help a person get up or walkfl plus possibly sh\ang Жupfl or ch--an Жsupport under the armfl.
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Index to the grammar
3rd person indirect directive prefix 120 ablative 114 ablative postposition 93, 106, 109, 110, 113 actor of a transitive or ditransitive verb 76 actor person marking 88, 124 added final consonant 45 addition 103 adjectives 44, 47 adverbial 114, 119 adverbial marker 110, 112 adverbial noun phrase 41 adverbial time phrases 110 agentive 114 agentive marker /-wu/ 74, 76, 78, 79, 80, 84, 86, 125, 226 agentive noun 44 agentivity 125 alienable possession 97 allative 114 allative postposition 106 ambitransitive 121 animacy 125, 133 animate referents 83 antecedent of a reflexive/emphatic pronoun 58 apposition structure 40 attributive 90 attributive copula clauses 81 auxiliary verb 137, 138 auxiliary verbs 136 bathrooms 7 Beds 6 benefactive 91, 92, 114 benefactive/recipient 114 bilingualism 7 calques 47 cardinal numeral system 62 case marking 51
causative suffix 19, 20, 97, 119, 121, 124-125, 127, 158, 208 causativized copula 127 causativized ditransitive 126 causativized intransitive 126 causativized transitive 126 ceramics 16 change of state aspect marking 119 Chen Yonglin 18 Chinese (the Southwestern Mandarin dialect) 46 citation form 122 classifiers 65 clausal complement 72 cognition verbs 96 comitative 114 comitative structure 105 comitative/conjunction marker /-е/ 89, 90, 95, 123, 237 comparative 114 comparative construction 88 comparative marker 88 compound nouns 43 compound verbs 136 compounds 23, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36 conjunction 114 consonant clusters 24 contrastive topics 73 coordinated nouns 43, 70 copula 138 dative 107 dative/allative marker 74, 83, 85 definite marker 20, 37, 42, 44, 52, 59, 81, 90, 94, 100 demonstrative plus classifier 39 demonstrative pronoun 20, 41, 51-52, 59, 65, 69, 113 denominal verbs 122 deverbal nouns 43 diminutive 49 diphthongs 26, 29
444 Index direct argument of an intransitive verb 74, 81 directional auxiliary verbs 136 directional prefix 23, 31, 32, 47, 119, 120, 121-122, 128, 132, 154-156, 158-159, 160-161, 164, 165-166, 173, 175, 179, 213-214, 229 "double topic" construction 73 dual pronouns 51 elative 108, 114 emphatic genitives 58 emphatic pronouns 56 epenthetic vowel 36 equational clauses 81, 96, 139 equative comparative construction 89 exception 114 exception construction 110 exception marker 104, 105 exclusion 104 existential clause 97 existential/locative verbs 97, 133, 135, 136 extent of an action 103 fertilizer 6 final consonant 45 final consonant clusters 30 finals 23 fireplace 6 flow of action 79 focus position 82, 85, 94 free variation 37 gender marking 48 genitive 114 genitive construction 91 genitive marker 86, 91, 99, 100, 107, 112 genitive phrase 20, 39, 41, 87, 99, 107 goal 85, 114 goal marker 85 house 6 hunt 9 iconicity 46 identificational copula clauses 81, 90 ideophonic adverbials 21 illative 108, 114 imperative 135 inalienable possession 97, 100 inclusion 103 indefinite marker 59, 90
indefinite pronoun 55 indirect directive 120, 136 indirect quotes 50 inessive 108, 114 initial consonant weakening 31 instrumental 114 instrumental noun phrase 43 instrumental postposition /-wu/ 94, 102 instrumental referent 94 interrogative morpheme 53 interrogative pronouns 53, 55 intonation 33 intransitive verbs 121 irregular verbs 136 iteration 123 Japanese 104 kinship prefix 49 kinship relations 100 kinship terminology 49 learned ability 137 loan words 23, 27, 28, 36, 46, 123 locational nouns 58, 106-107, 113 locative 114 locative adverbial phrase 71 locative postposition 60, 93-94, 97, 106, 108, 110 locative referent 106 logophoric pronoun 50 long vowels 25 manner adverbial 127 marked word order 78 Matisoff 26 Mawo dialect 32, 128, 142, 155, 223 measure words 65 middle voice 124 modification of a noun 40 multiple topics 71 nasalization 26 natural (physical) ability 137 negation 136 nominalizations 44 nominalized adjective 40 nominalized clause 56, 71, 101 nominalized verbs 134 nominalizing suffix 19, 43-44, 223, 225-226, 234- 235 non-actor person marking 88, 125 non-specific reference 51
Northern Qiang 2 noun 42 noun plus a classifier 44 noun plus verb combination 44-45 number marking 52 numerals 62 obligation 137 order of the adjectives 39 ordinal numerals 64 passive 79, 124 perlative 110, 114 permissive 124 person marking 119, 123 personal pronouns 50 plural marking 28, 51, 52, 60, 69, 70 plural pronouns 51 possessed referent 97, 98 possession 97, 98 possession of a quality 99 possessive structure 96 possessive verb 99 possessive/genitive pronouns 51 possessor 97-98 postpositions 70 potential 137 predicate noun 60 predicate noun phrase 90 price/value 102 pronominal possessive prefixes 51 pronoun-noun apposition constructions 51 prospective aspect marking 119, 125 Proto-Tibeto-Burman 23 Qiang Dialect Map Project, 17 Qugu 18 r-coloring 28, 35 recipient 85, 87 recipient marker 86, 91 reciprocal 19, 52, 123, 124, 127 reciprocal pronouns 52 reduplication of verbs 19, 123 reflexive pronouns 56, 124 reflexives 124 relational morphology 70 relative clause 20, 39, 40, 41, 99 rhinoglottophilia 26 rounding of vowels 34 sortal classifiers 65 sound symbolism 21
Index 445 source 92 Southern Qiang 2 standard of comparison 88 storage 6 stress 33 structure of the noun phrase 39 syllable canon 30 temporal adverbials 53, 112 temporal referent 110 Tibetan 46 Tibetan loans 46 Tibetans 6 Tibeto-Burman suffix *-pa 45 topic 71, 114 topic marker 71, 73-74, 79, 82, 89, 91, 112 transitive verbs 121 translative constructions 127 triphthong 26 TV 7 undergoer 107 undergoer of a ditransitive verb 84 undergoer of a transitive verb 81 utensils 16 VCD 7 verb 121 verb complex 119, 120 verbal action classifiers 68, 119 verbs of possession/existence 98 voiced-voiceless (aspirated) contrast in simplex-causative or intrasitive-transitive pairs 128 volitionality 80 vowel harmony 35 vowel loss 34, 35 watchtowers 6 white stone 6 whole-part relationships 101 willingness to perform an action 137 word 31 writing system 3

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