A handbook of English grammar, RW Zandvoord

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Content: 5. ?*> · t\l. AN INTRODUCTION T( SOCIOLINGUISTIC RONALD WARDHAU LEY-BLACKWELL
Praise for An Introduction to Sociolinguistics 'In this revised and updated edition of his classic text, Wardhaugh brings us a smartly revitahzed presentation, including up to the minute, current advances m sociolinguistics. While An Introduction to Sociolinguistics retains its comprehensive coverage and accessible style, it also presents students with a contemporary text that is sure to spark interest in the discipline.' Alexandra D'Arcy, University of Canterbury 'Wardhaugh has long provided teachers and introductory students with a clear yet challenging introductory textbook that is prized by all who value broad understanding of the full scope of sociolinguistic study. This latest edition once again ensures that readers are up-to-date in even the most rapidly advancing areas of research, including language and identity and language and gender. In addition, it offers enhanced reader engagement through the inclusion of thought-provoking questions and hands-on exercises generously distributed throughout each chapter. Wardhaugh has long been a staple in my introductory sociolinguistics classes, and the text is now even more indispensible than ever.' Natalie Schilling-Estes, Georgetown University Praise for Previous Editions: 'The standard text in advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses.' Language 'Among the various introductions to sociolinguistics, this one certainly stands out in its comprehensiveness . . . it offers a wealth of relevant and correct information.' Sociolinguistica
Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics The books included in this series provide comprehensive accounts of some of the most central and most rapidly developing areas of research in linguistics. Intended primarily for introductory and post-introductory students, they include exercises, discussion points and suggestions for Further reading. 1. Liliane Haegeman, Introduction to Government and Binding Theory (Second Edition) 2. Andrew Spencer, Morphological Theory 3. Helen Goodluck, language acquisition 4. Ronald Wardhaugh, An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Sixth Edition) 5. Martin Atkinson, Children's Syntax 6. Diane Blakemore, Understanding Utterances 7. Michael Kenstowicz, Phonology in Generative Grammar 8. Deborah Schiffrin, Approaches to Discourse 9. John Clark, Colin Yallop, and Janet Fletcher, An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology (Third Edition) 10. Natsuko Tsujimura, An Introduction to Japanese Linguistics (Second Edition) 11. Robert D. Borsley, Modern Phrase Structure Grammar 12. Nigel Fabb, Linguistics and Literature 13. Irene Heim and Angelika Kratzer, Semantics in Generative Grammar 14. Liliane Haegeman and Jacqueline Gueron, English Grammar: A Generative Perspective 15. Stephen Crain and Diane Lillo-Martin, An Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition 16. Joan Bresnan, Lexical-Functional Syntax 17. Barbara A. Fennell, A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach 18. Henry Rogers, Writing Systems: A Lmguistic Approach 19. Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Intro- duction (Second Edition) 20. Liliane Haegeman, Thinking Syntactically: A Guide to Argumentation and Analysis 2 1 . Mark Hale, Historical Linguistics: Theory and Method 11. Henning Reetz and Allard Jongman, Phonetics: Transcription, Production, Acoustics and Perception 2 3 . Bruce Hayes, Introductory Phonology
An Introduction to Sociolinguistics SIXTH EDITION Ronald Wardhaugh WILEY-BLACKWELL A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication
This sixth edirion first pubHshed 2010 © 2010 Ronald Wardhaugh
Edition history; Basil Blackwfll l t d ( l e , 1986); Blackwell Puhhshers L.td (2e, 1992, 3e 1^98 and 4e 2002); Blackwell Publishing Ltd (5e 2006)
Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley &: Sons in February 2 0 0 7 . BlackwelTs publishing program has been merged with Wiley's global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell. Registered Office John Wiley &: Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, P C 19 8 S Q , United Kingdom
Editorial Offices 350 Main Street, Maiden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, O X 4 2 D Q , UK The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, P 0 1 9 8SQ, UK
For details of our Global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information about how to apply ft)r permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see o u r website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwelL
T h e right of Ronald W a r d h a u g h to be identified as the a u t h o r of this w o r k has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.
Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.
Library of Congress Catalugitig-in-Publication
Data
Wardhaugh, Ronald. An introduction to sociolinguistics / Ronald Wardhaugh. -- 6th ed. p. cm. -- (The language library) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4051-8668-1 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Sociolinguistics. I. Title P40.W27 2010 306.44--dc22 2009012680 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Set in 10/13pt Sabon by Graphicraft Limited, H o n g Kong Printed and bound in Singapore by Fabulous Printers Pte Ltd
3 20i0
Contents
Preface
vii
Acknowledgments
viii
1 Introduction
1
Knowledge of Language - Variation - Language and Society
- Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language -
Methodological Concerns - Overview - Further Reading
Part I Languages and Communities
21
2 Languages, Dialects, and Varieties
23
Language or Dialect? - Standardization - Regional Dialects
- Social Dialects - Styles, Registers, and Beliefs -
Further Reading
3 Pidgins and Creoles
53
Lingua Francas - Definitions - Distribution and
Characteristics - Origins - From Pidgin to Creole and
Beyond - Further Reading
4 Codes
84
Diglossia - Bilingualism and Multilingualism -
Code-Switching - Accommodation - Further Reading
5 Speech Communities
118
Definitions - Intersecting Communities - Networks and
Repertoires - Further Reading
Part II Inherent Variety
135
6 language variation
137
Regional Variation ~ The Linguistic Variable - Social
Variation - data collection and analysis -
Further Reading
\
i! I
This sixth edition first published 2010
1
© 2010 Ronald Wardhaugh
i
Edition history: Basil Blackwell Ltd (le, 1986); Blackwell Publishers Ltd (2e, 1992. 3e 1998 and 4e 2002};'Blackwell Publishing Ltd |5e 2006)
Blackwell Publishmg was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2 0 0 7 . Blackwell's publishing program has been merged with Wiley's global Scientific, Technical, 'ind Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.
Registered Office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO I 9 8SQ, United Kingdom
Editorial Offices 350 Main Street, Maiden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, O X 4 2 D Q , UK The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, P 0 1 9 8SQ, UK
For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.
The right of Ronald W a r d h a u g h to be identified as the a u t h o r of this w o r k has been asserted in
accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
|
All rights reserved. N o part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
;
or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
I
otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the
prior permission of the publisher.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.
Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication
Data
Wardhaugh, Ronald.
An introduction to sociolinguistics / Ronald Wardhaugh. -- 6th ed.
p. cm. -- (The language library)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
!
ISBN 978-1-4051-8668-1 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Sociolinguistics. 1. Title
'
P40.W27 2010
306.44--dc22
2009012680
I
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Set in 10/13pt Sabon by Graphicraft Limited, H o n g Kong
«
Printed and bound in Singapore by Fabulous Printers Pte Ltd
j
3 2010
-J
Contents
Preface
vii
Acknowledgments
viii
1 Introduction
1
Knowledge of Language - Variation - Language and Society
- Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language -
Methodological Concerns - Overview - Further Reading
Part I Languages and Communities
21
2 Languages, Dialects, and Varieties
23
Language or Dialect? - Standardization - Regional Dialects
- Social Dialects - Styles, Registers, and Beliefs -
Further Reading
3 Pidgins and Creoles
53
Lingua Francas - Definitions - Distribution and
Characteristics - Origins - From Pidgin to Creole and
Beyond - Further Reading
4 Codes
84
Diglossia - Bilingualism and Multilingualism -
Code-Switching - Accommodation - Further Reading
5 Speech Communities
118
Definitions - Intersecting Communities - Networks and
Repertoires - Further Reading
Part II Inherent Variety
135
6 Language Variation
137
Regional Variation - The Linguistic Variable - Social
Variation - Data Collection and Analysis -
Further Reading
This sixth edition first published 2010 © 2 0 1 0 Ronald Wardhaugh Edition historv: Basil Blackwell Ltd ( l e , 1986); Blackwell Publishers Ltd (2e, 1992, 3e 1998 and 4e 2002); Blackwell Publishing Ltd (5e 2006) Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2 0 0 7 . Blackwell's publishing program has been merged with Wiley's global Scientific, Technical, and Viedical business to form Wiley-Blackwell. Registered Office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, P 0 1 9 8SQ, United Kingdom
Editorial Offices 350 Main Street, Maiden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, O X 4 2 D Q , UK The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, P 0 1 9 8SQ, UK For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.
The right of Ronald W a r d h a u g h to be identified as the a u t h o r of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. N o part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.
Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.
Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.
Library of Congress Catalogmg-in-Publication
Data
Wardhaugh, Ronald. An introduction to sociolinguistics / Ronald Wardhaugh. -- 6th ed. p. cm. -- (The language library) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4051-8668-1 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Sociolinguistics. I. Title. P40.W27 2010 306.44--dc22 2009012680
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Set in 10/13pt Sabon by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed and bound in Singapore by Fabulous Printers Pte Ltd
3 2010
Contents
Preface
vii
Acknowledgments
viii
1 Introduction
1
Knowledge of Language - Variation - Language and Society
- Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language -
Methodological Concerns - Overview - Further Reading
Part I Languages and Communities
21
2 Languages, Dialects, and Varieties
23
Language or Dialect? - Standardization - Regional Dialects
- Social Dialects - Styles, Registers, and Beliefs -
Further Reading
3 Pidgins and Creoles
53
Lingua Francas - Definitions - Distribution and
Characteristics - Origins - From Pidgin to Creole and
Beyond - Further Reading
4 Codes
84
Diglossia - Bilingualism and Multilingualism -
Code-Switching - Accommodation - Further Reading
5 Speech Communities
118
Definitions - Intersecting Communities - Networks and
Repertoires - Further Reading
Part II Inherent Variety
135
6 Language Variation
137
Regional Variation - The Linguistic Variable - Social
Variation - Data Collection and Analysis -
Further Reading
vi
Contents
7 Some Findings and Issues An Early Study - New York City - Norwich and Reading - A Variety of Studies - Belfast - Controversies Further Reading
8 Change
19-5
The Traditional View - Some Changes in Progress -
The Process of Change - Further Reading
Part III Words at Work
227
9 Words and Culture
229
Whorf - Kinship - Taxonomies - Color - Prototypes -
Taboo and Euphemism - Further Reading
10 Ethnographies
253
Varieties of Talk - The Ethnography of Speaking -
Ethnomethodology - Further Reading
11 Solidarity and Politeness
274
Tii and Vous - Address Terms - Politeness -
Further Reading
12 Talk and Action
301
Speech Acts - Cooperation - Conversation -
Further Reading
Part rV Understanding and Intervening
331
13 Gender
333
Differences - Possible Explanations - Further Reading
14 Disadvantage
356
Codes Again - African American English -
Consequences for Education - Further Reading
15 Planning
378
Issues - A Variety of Situations - Further Examples -
Winners and losers - Further Reading
16 Conclusion
409
References
413
Index
447

RW Zandvoord

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