A manual of study for backward and mentally deficient children, M Bancroft

Tags: OBJECT LESSONS, PENMANSHIP, wood carving, pyrography, ARTICULATION, breathing exercises, labial consonants, Multiplication, vowel and consonant sounds, Swedish Day, common objects, KINDERGARTEN, MARGARET BANCROFT Haddonfield Training School HADDONFIELD, balance exercises, Parts of speech
Content: A Manual of Study FOR lGadtntnr!l null :!lrntally ilrtidrnt @qil!lrru Pr epa red by MARGARET BANCROFT Haddonfield TraininG School HADDONFIELD, N . J.
physical training. ~ The work for physical trammg in all the classes is in a weekly program form, based upon the Swedish Day's Order, with progression from week to week. One dancing lesson a week, in all of the classes. PRIMARY AND KINDERGARTEN. r. Drills in fundamental positions according to the Swedish and Delsarte systems. 2. Simple exercises, using the born, rib-stalls, rope-ladder, walking-ladder, and balance-beam, supplemented by work [3]
with light apparatus, wooden rings, dumbbells, and wands. 3· Games to cultivate alertness and direction. INTERMEDIATE CLASS. r. Drills from the Swedish Day's Order, with special attention to facings, marching, and balance exercises. ' 2. Delsarte and fancy steps. 3· Exercises on the born, rib-stalls, rope-ladder, window-ladder, jumpingstandards, and balance-beams, supplemented by work with light apparatus, wooden rings, dumb-bells, bar-bells, wands. ADVANCED CLASS. More difficult drills and exercises, with the addition of ropes to the apparatus used in the intermediate class. [4]
INDIVIDUAL WORK. Special attention is paid to medical gymnastics : To overcome faulty positions due to curvature of the spine, shortness of leg, paralytic deformities, etc.; to in'crease elasticity in muscles that have become hard ; to restore the flexibility of joints ; to strengthen the viscera; to stimulate the circulatory system. Electrical treatments and massage are given wherever necessary. All medical gymnastics are under the direction of physicians. MANUAL WORK. KINDERGARTEN, Exercises : Drawing of straight and curved lines on paper and on the blackboard ; folding, pasting, and cutting of [5]
paper; folding, pasting, and cutting of
cardboard; painting with water colors;
laying of splints to form geometrical
figures; weaving of splints ; modeling in
clay; sawing, hammering nail into a
marked spot, boring, planing; introduction to the use of the lining and parting
tools in wood carving; sewing.
Articles to be made : (I) of paper-
napkin ring, box, boat, sled; ( 2) of
cardboard- chair, bench; (3) of clay
ball, tile; (4) of wood-crosses, bench,
table, chair.
PRIMARY. Exercises : More advanced work in drawing lines with and without rules on paper and on the blackboard ; measuring; work in paper and cardboard; coloring; splint work ; modeling in clay; carpentry [6]
and carving with the same tools as in the kindergarten; pyrography; sewing; raffia. Articles to be made : (I) of paperbox, basket, pinwheel ; ( 2) of cardboard -square, circle, triangle; (3) of claytil e, cube, sphere, pyramid, fruit forms; ( 4) of splints - mat; (S) of woodkey-rack, thermometer-holder, pipe-rack, oblong box, toy furniture (pyrography and wood carving are used in the decoration of these articles) ; ( 6) by sewingdoilies and doll clothes ; ( 7) of raffia braids. I NTERMEDIATE. Exercises : Drawing on paper and on the blackboard; work in paper and cardboard; painting of at least one A.ower; splint work; modeling in clay; carpentry ; wood carving; pyrography; sewing; raffia.
Articles to be made : (I) of papercandle-shade, box, basket ; ( z) of cardboard- picture-frame, match-safe, doll furniture; (3) of clay- fruits, leaves; ( 4) of splints- napkin ring, basket; (S) of wood- corner shelf, wall-pocket, square collar-box, money-box, glovebox, pencil-case, work-basket, letter-rack (pyrography and wood carving are used in the decoration of .these articles) ; ( 6) by sewing- turnover cases, shopping bags, handkerchief case, work-bag, and complete set of large doll clothes; ( 7) of raffia- mat, hat, whisk-broom holder, basket. ADVANCED. Exercises : Drawing of designs and drafting of plans ; work in cardboard ; freehand drawing and painting of flowers ; simple floral and scroll designs for [8]
modeling in clay, pyrography, and wood
carving; carpentry; wood carving; pyrog-
raphy; sewing; raffia. Articles to be made : (I) of cardboard
-match-safe, house, furniture, portfolio;
(2) of clay-copies of clay models; (3)
of splints- cradle, box, basket; (4) of
wood- hanging book-case, music-holder,
footstool, fire-screen, tray, mirror-frame,
cabinet for minerals (pyrography and
wood carving for the decoration) ; (5)
by sewing- plain underwear, drawers,
skirt, corset cover (made of handker-
chiefs), hemstitch handkerchief, flannel
cover for hot water bottle, needlecase,
bag for sponge, traveling case, embroidery
bureau covers, knitted shawls in evening
shade; (6) of raffia-large hat, basket,
belt, and bag.
ARTICULATION. KINDERGARTEN. I. Secure the attention of the child by arousing his interest in certain objects. Teach him to recognize the same object in different positions; to bring it and replace it. Repeat this lesson, that the child may become familiar with the language used. 2. Train the child on special vowel and consonant sounds according to his natural aptitude, but try especially this series: a. The two-vowel sound a and ii. b. The labial consonants p, b, m, and w. c. The labial dental consonants f and v. 3· Lay special stress upon forming sentences; when the child utters a word, immediately form a sentence for him introducing that word. [10]
PRIMARY. I. Continuation of the drill on objects: On pl~cing and replacing them ; their relative sizes ; their colors. Compose sentences that introduce the names of the objects, colors, etc. End no lesson until an impression has been made. 2. Teach the child to recognize the letters of the alphabet with their various sounds, then words, and finally short phrases (for example, the cat, a man), whether these appear in the Primer or written upon the blackboard. Make this drill so thorough that a child having his eyes examined can name the letters readily. 3· Exercises for the vocal organs : Tongue gymnastics ; exercising of the soft palate by sucking in the breath. [II]
Exercises to teach the correct way of breathing. 4· Recitation of pieces individually and in concert. INTERMEDIATE. r. Spelling. Marking of diacritical signs. Drill in sentences especially chosen to teach different combinations of sound. 2. Tongue and breathing exercises. 3· Reading. Recitation of pieces. Dramatization of short stories. 4· written exercises reproducing what has been read. ADVANCED. r. A thorough drill of the work in articulation done in the three earlier courses. Special drill in difficult soundcombinations. [12]
z. Longer pieces for reading and recitation. Pantomime. The instruments used in articulation must be thoroughly disinfected after each child and boiled each day. [13]
MUSIC. MusrcAL NoTATION. Staff, notes, rests, ties, slurs, bar lines, measure. Position of the scale on the staff in different keys with key signature. Vocal (sight reading from charts).
ThTeusnceale as a whole ( The scale in part
In two part measure Three part measure Four part measure With rests With divided pulsation
The relation of the parts to the whole.
The relation of the parts to each other.
In all grades note songs are taught, the
chief object of which is to cultivate the
ear and improve the articulation.
PIANO. The keyboard. The key staff.
Application of the notes on the staff to the keyboard. This work to be as closely correlated to the vocal work as possible. Technique : Five-finger exercises and scales. In all grades special devices will be used to strengthen the fingers, to develop consciousness and independence in them. Studies : Classical work selected and graded with reference to the knowledge and technical attainment of the pupil. Particular attention is given to developing the ability to read at sight; the quick application of the knowledge thus acquired is an important factor in strengthening the intellect.
MENTAL WORH.. KINDERGARTEN. OBJECT LESSONS. Familiar objects: Plate, knife, fork, shoes, hat, head, hand, foot, etc. Placing of objects : Practical exercises to teach the use of such terms as on, above, under ; left, right; left hand, right hand ; before, behind; in the middle. Qualities of objects: Rough, smooth ; hard, soft; tough, brittle. Color of objects: Red, yellow, blue. ARITHMETIC. I. Nurn bers through ten : Their names ; their forms. 2 · Addition and subtraction with these numbers: Using objects; using figures. 3. Multiplication and division with [r6]
these numbers: Using object (no inexact division) . PENMANSHIP. Teach the child to make strokes on the blackboard with both of his hands at once and with either hand ; to connect large dots on the blackboard with vertical and horizontal lines; to draw parallel Jines; to intersect them. Repeat these exercises on manila paper. In Jetter formation have the child begin with small "m" and small "a," then mamma, mat, papa, etc. LETI'ER WRITING. Have the child reproduce, as a home Jetter, any words or figures that he has learned to form during the week. Teach him to fold the paper, to put it in the envelope, and to affix the stamp. [17]
PICTURE STUDY. Use picture cards, such, for example, as Prang's natural history Cards. SCIENCE. September.- The recognition and naming of three common autumn flowers. October.- The gathering and naming of two kinds of nuts. November.- Take notice of the falling of the leaves. December, January, February.-Take notice of the snow, ice, and frost; evergreen trees. March, April.- Buds. May, June.- The recognition and naming of two trees and three spring flowers. July, August.- The recognition and naming of two or three common objects at the seashore. [18]
GAMES. Accurate playing of two simple games, each month, for example, Thumbkins. PRIMARY. OBJECT LESSONS. Less familiar objects : Different articles of food and drink; parts of plants, for example, the flower, leaf, stem. Placing of objects: The use of such terms as through; into, out; against ; slanting; crossways ; high, low; at the end. Qualities of objects: Opaque, transparent; elastic, non-elastic ; stiff, flexible. Color of objects : The Secondary colors ; methods of producing them. Taste of objects : Sweet, sour, bitter, salt. Smell of objects: Lavender, fir-balsam, [19]
lemon, mint, coffee, tea, ammonia, kerosene. Sound of objects : Ringing of different bells; the xylophone; blowing whistles ; striking the triangle. ARITHMETIC. r, z, 3· The same work as in the kindergarten in numbers through twenty. 4· The signs of operation. S· Terms of value and length: Cent, nickel, dime, dollar ; inch, foot, yard. 6. Memory work : The multiplication table through three. PENMANSHIP. Drill in the formation of the small letters with chalk and lead pencil. letter writing. Daily training in asking and answering [zo]
questions concerning what the child sees, hears, or does. These questions and answers are to be the basis of the weekly home letter. PICTURE STUDY. Rosa Bonheur: "The Horse Fair," "Oxen Plowing," "An Old Monarch." Landseer: "Saved," "The Shepherd's Chief Mourner," "The King of the Forest." Sir Joshua Reynolds: "Angel Heads," "Penelope Boothby," "The Strawberry Girl." SCIENCE. r. The recognition and naming of common flowers and trees, and of objects found on the seashore. z. A daily record of the weather. [21]
GEOGRAPHY. The vacation trip : A description of it ; the names of the things which the child saw, for example, island, beach, lighthouse. GAMES, One a week. INTERMEDIATE. SCIENCE. I. F lowering plants : Their different parts, for example, root, stem, leaf, bud, flower, seed; comparison of leaves as to size and shape ; comparison of flowers as to color, size, and shape ; the growth of plants. 2. Vegetables: Grains and fruits in common use for food ; choose specimens to illustrate the use of roots, leaves, and seed. [22]
3· The most important domestic ammals : Adaptation of their structure to walking, flying, swimming, or wading. The life of the bee. 4· Man : Care of the body; clothing in hot and cold weather; necessity of pure air; more advanced tests of the senses. 5· Common minerals : Chalk, lime, granite. 6. A daily record of the weather. MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTIONS. Construction of the plow and locomotive. ARITHMETIC. I, 2, 3· Work similar to that in earlier classes, in numbers through one hundred. 4· Fractions: One-half, one-fourth. 5· Measures of quantity: Pint, quart, gallon, peck. [23]
6. Memory work : The multiplication table through six. LANGUAGE. 1. Use of punctuation marks and capital letters. 2. Correct use in sentences of I and me and of the singular and plural of auxiliary verbs. 3· Repetition of stories told or read. 4· Original stories told from pictures. PENMANSH IP. Drill in the formation of capital letters. Practice in the use of pen and ink. LETTER WRITING. More advanced work along the same lines as in the primary grade. PICTURE STUDY. Raphael: "The Sistine Madonna," L24)
' 'The Madonna of the Chair," "The Madonna with the Gold Finch." Van Dyck : " Baby Stuart," "Charles the First of England," " The Children of Charles the First." Landseer: "The King of the Forest," "Shoeing the Horse," "The Sleeping Bloodhound." Sir Joshua Reynolds: "The Age of Innocence," "The Infant Samuel."
r. The vacation trip.
2 . Elementary lessons to teach the use of the following terms : Spring, brook, river, pond, lake, bay, gulf, sea, ocean ; island, cape, peninsula, hill, mountain.
3· Direction: North, south, east, west ;
northeast, southeast, northwest, southwest ;
direction of the streets in the neighbor-
hood [25 ]
4· Diagram of the schoolroom. HISTORY. I. Story of Columbus. 2 . Story of William Penn. 3· Story of Washington. 4· Independence Day. 5. Old and new methods of traveling. GAMES. Games of a more complicated nature once a week. ADVANCED. SCIENCE. I. A continuation of the study of flowering plants : .Meaning of the terms corolla, calyx, stamen, pistil; familiarize the child with five families of flowers, using three species in each family. 2 . Teach the child to distinguish ten [26]
species of trees. Acquaint him with the common woods and their uses. 3· Natural History of Animals: A detailed account of the life of ten common animals which the child has seen; such as the horse, monkey, deer, robin, canary, sandpiper, goldfish, lobster, starfish, butterfly. 4 · The simplest lesson m human anatomy. 5· Elementary lesson in mineralogy. 6. Simple experiments in physics and chemistry.
Construction of the stationary engine.
I. Numbers through one thousand. 2. Addition: Columns of two or three figures.
3· Subtraction: Numbers of two or three figures in which a figure of the subtrahend exceeds the corresponding figure of the minuend. 4· Multiplication: Multiplicand, two or three figures ; multiplier, one or two figures, involving carrying. 5· Division: Dividend, two, three, or four figures ; divisor, one or two figures. 6. Fractions : One-third, one-fifth, onesixth, one-seventh, one-eighth, one-ninth, one-tenth. 7· United States money: Mental problems in making change. 8. Measures of time and weight. LANGUAGE. r. Simple lesson in grammar : parts of speech ; the plural of nouns and pro- [28]
nouns with the corresponding changes required in the verb; the possessive case; analysis of simple sentences ; simple exercises in enlarging sentences. 2. Reproduction of stories told or read. 3· Writing of original essays. PENMANSHIP. LETTER WRITING. A four-page home letter every week. PICTURE STUDY. Botticelli : "The Madonna of the Easter Lilies." Correggio: "Holy Night." Leonardo da Vinci: "The Last Supper." Michelangelo : " The Three Fates." Raphael : "The Granduca Madonna." [29]
Tintoretto: "The Flight into Egypt."
S· Commerce: Illus trate the exchange
Guido Reni : " Aurora."
of commodities.
Rembrandt: "The Night Watch."
6. An illustrated study of the cities of
Boston and New York. Postal cards are
used for this study.
I. The study of geographical terms
continued : Hemisphere, continent, grand
division, country, isthmus, valley, plain,
I. The history of the United States.
desert, volcano, etc.
Include the study of five important events
2. Climate : The three zones ; their
in each President's administration.
characteristic Plants and Animals.
2. A study of current events.
3· The races of the world: Their man-
ner of living.
4· Principal geographical divisions:
The most important countries; the loca-
tion of London, Paris, Berlin, Rome, St.
Petersburg, Vienna, Boston, New York,
Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago, New
Orleans, San Francisco ; simple map

M Bancroft

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