Antioxidant Superfoods, K Herring

Tags: Copyright Health-e Enterprises, free radicals, antioxidant, Free Radic Biol Med, J Agric Food Chem, antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, organic foods, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione, Reactive Oxygen Species, free-radical, superoxide dismutase, Remesy C. Bioavailability, Crozier A. Extraction, eicosanoid metabolism, Afzal M. Garlic, ORAC score, free radical, Antioxidant Nutrients, Crozier A. Plant, natural antioxidant, Williamson G. Common, Frei B. Consumption, Rice-Evans C. Flavonoids, Fremont L. Biological, Liu X. Metabolism, clinical relevance, Humana Press, Thomson M, Preventive effects, Jimenez L. Polyphenols, Bast A. Flavonoids, anthocyanins, Mol Nutr Food Res, antioxidant defense system, Jiao H. Scavenging, Eldridge A. L., raw Cabbage, American Dietetic Association, cancer prevention, Biomed Pharmacother, raw Corn, Journal of American Medical Association, Free Radical Biol, Food Peppers, American Institute for Cancer Research, raw Sweet potato, World Cancer Research Fund, Loeffler Petrides Heinrich, A. N. Phycoerythrin, Olea europaea L., Free Radic, B. Mechanisms, R. Assays, P. Nigel Leigh, Red wine vinegar, Lippincott Williams, Peppers, R. L. Development, Crystallographic Structures, Nancy M. Betts
Content: 1 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Your Guide to Antioxidant Superfoods By Kelley Herring & the Editors of Healing Gourmet® © August 2007-2011. Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. IT IS ILLEGAL TO COPY OR FORWARD THIS E-BOOK TO OTHERS DISCLAIMER: This publication does not provide medical advice. Always consult your doctor. 2 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Contents What is Oxidation? ............................................................................. 4 Your Body's Antioxidant Artillery .......................................................... 5 Glutathione: Guardian of Your Health ................................................... 6 Superoxide Dismutase: Disarming the Damagers................................... 8 Love Your Liver... to Live Longer! ........................................................ 9 The ORAC Scale................................................................................10 Key Antioxidant Nutrients ..................................................................12 Get More Antioxidants with Organics ...................................................16 Maximize Antioxidants... in the Kitchen! ..............................................16 Antioxidant Wolves in Sheep's Clothing ...............................................17 Antioxidant Superfoods .....................................................................18 3 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
What is Oxidation? Lines on your face? Skin feeling less taut? Plaque clogging your pipes? Oxidation plays a role in all of these processes. Oxidation is the chemical process that causes the metal on your car to rust or a fresh-cut apple to turn brown. This same chemical process also happens within your body. And while the effects are less visible immediately, oxidative stress can lead to DNA damage, cell mutation, accelerated aging and many forms of disease. The oxidation process is perfectly natural within your body. After all, oxygen is your primary metabolic fuel. But this natural process causes damaging molecules to form, called free radicals. These rogue molecules are missing an electron, making them highly reactive with other molecules within the body. As these molecules rob electrons from healthy cells, they can cause a cascading series of damage, like a line of dominos falling over. That is why your body has mechanisms to neutralize these molecules and repair their damage. Free radicals are meant to be controlled by free radical scavengers known as antioxidants. But if these antioxidants are in short supply, or if so many free radicals are formed that they overwhelm your body's antioxidant defense system, cellular damage, accelerated aging and disease are the result. Although it is impossible to escape the effects of oxidation, Mother Nature's kitchen cabinet offers a cornucopia of antioxidant-rich foods and nutrients that help to combat free radicals. Antioxidants including carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and a colorful array of phytonutrients help repair, prevent, or limit oxidative damage to our cells caused by free radicals. You can get more antioxidants by: Kicking up your body's internal antioxidant artillery Opting for organic foods that naturally produce more antioxidants Choosing high ORAC foods including herbs, spices, legumes, fruits and vegetables (you'll learn about these on p. 17) Preparing your foods in a way that maximizes their antioxidant levels Read on to learn how delicious fighting free radicals can be. 4 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Your Body's Antioxidant Artillery When it comes to anti-aging and disease-proofing your life, fighting free-radicals is job #1 (you'll learn about the other 4 jobs in The Food CureTM). But what might surprise you is that you get more freeradical protection from the antioxidants manufactured inside your body than you do from your food. It's true! Endogenous antioxidants (meaning antioxidants produced or synthesized within the organism) are freeradical fighters made primarily by the liver. They include the phase 2 detoxifying enzymes (glutathione and quinone reductase) as well as superoxide dismutase. In this next section you'll learn: The specific foods you need to eat to help your body create endogenous antioxidants The exotic spice that kicks up your antioxidant production by turning on specific genes Why whole foods ­not supplements­ are the key to engaging your antioxidant artillery How to protect your liver--your antioxidant manufacturing engine Let's take a look at the jobs of each of these powerful free-radical fighters and how we can flip the antioxidant switch to the on position. Is There Poison in Your Pantry? Packaged foods can contain hundreds of additives, preservatives, artificial colors and other contaminants that cause oxidative damage. Use Your Kitchen Makeover to protect your cells and start living greener today. 5 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Glutathione: Guardian of Your Health Glutathione is known as the body's master antioxidant and detoxifier. And for good reason. In addition to performing the critical task of neutralizing free radicals, glutathione also: Breaks down highly toxic peroxide and other damaging compounds (including xenoestrogens like bisphenol-a which you learned about in Smart Cooks Age Better) Protects cell membranes and DNA from damage Helps to repair damaged DNA Binds to carcinogens in the body, aiding in their removal Participates in immune function Recycles vitamins C and E back to their active forms But in order to reap the benefits of this health guardian, your body requires three glutathione precursors--cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Of these three precursors, glutamic acid and glycine are available in abundant amounts. Cysteine, on the other hand, becomes depleted quickly. And when this happens, glutathione production slows to a halt. Keep your master antioxidant and detoxifier working for you by enjoying these delicious ingredients: Sulfur-Containing Foods: Foods that provide high levels of sulphur-containing amino acids will help you achieve optimal levels of glutathione. · Grass-Fed Whey Protein Isolate: Whey is rich in proteins like alphalactalbumin which are a concentrated source of sulfur-containing amino acids. But heating and pasteurizing destroys the delicate disulfide bonds that make these proteins active in the body. Look for undenatured grass-fed whey like Whey Advanced by HealthFX or Jay Robb's whey protein (and learn about the benefits of grass-fed in Organics: Beyond Green) · Cruciferous Vegetables: The broccoli family of veggies is especially high in organosulfur compounds which you learned about on p. 8 of Smart Cooks Age Better. And later in this book (p. 13) you'll learn about the cruciferous veggies that provide the greatest glutathione-inducing power. 6 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
· Organic, Omega-3 Eggs: Eggs are a perfect protein and provide the necessary precursor for glutathione. While cooked eggs still offer many benefits, heating denatures the protein and reduces the potency of many vital nutrients (including the important omega-3 DHA, as well as carotenoids). To get the most, try enjoying them raw whirled in a smoothie. · Garlic: The stinking rose is packed with organosulfur compounds like allicin, sufides and other compounds which boost glutathione production. Foods High in Glutathione: Here are the foods naturally rich in glutathione (values per 100g) avocado (31 mg), watermelon (28 mg), asparagus (26 mg), grapefruit (15 mg), acorn squash (14 mg), orange (11 mg), tomato (11 mg ), and cantaloupe (9 mg). Turmeric: This essential ingredient in curry contains a powerful antioxidant called curcumin (see p. 7 of Smart Cooks Age Better). Studies show that curcumin can increase glutathione levels by turning on the genes that make glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) the enzyme required in glutathione synthesis. The Thistle Family: Milk thistle and artichokes contain compounds like silymarin - a natural liver detoxifier that helps to prevent the depletion of glutathione. N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC): This supplement is derived from L-cysteine and acts as a precursor to glutathione. It is quickly metabolize into glutathione and for this reason, has been approved by the FDA for use in acetaminophen overdose. Alpha-Lipoic Acid: Known as the mother antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid recharges oxidized antioxidants including vitamins C and E and increases levels of glutathione in cells. Selenium: This cancer-fighting mineral is a co-factor in glutathione. Low levels of selenium in your diet, means low levels of glutathione produced in your body. The best source of selenium is Brazil nuts ­ with one ounce providing 767% of the daily requirement. Many veggies also contain selenium, but the content of selenium in foods is directly related to the selenium in the soil--which is greatly depleted. In addition to enjoying Brazil nuts, wild salmon, wild halibut, shrimp and crab provide excellent sources of selenium as well. Vitamin C: Vitamin C supplementation (500 mg/d) recycles the glutathione back to its active from in the blood and improves its antioxidant protection too. Boost Antioxidants...with Exercise! What you eat is only half of the healthy lifestyle equation. The other half­ exercise! In addition to the many well-established benefits of vigorous exercise, it also revs up your production of disease-fighting, anti-aging glutathione too. So get moving! 7 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Superoxide Dismutase: Disarming the Damagers Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a potent antioxidant that repairs cells and reduces the damage done by superoxide ­ the most common free radical in the body. In addition to SOD acting as an antioxidant, it is also a powerful anti-inflammatory agent (learn more about why fighting inflammation is critical to your health in The Food CureTM). As a metalloenzyme, SOD contains amino acids as well as the metal ions copper, zinc and manganese. Let's take a look at the three types of SOD in the human body: · SOD1: Found in the cytoplasm (or watery part of the cell). · SOD2: Found in the mitochondria (or powerhouse of the cell). Because mitochondria consume over 90% of the oxygen used by cells, they are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress. · SOD3: Found extracellularly (or outside of cells). In order for SOD do its important job, it requires a healthy supply of the metal ions to catalyze the free-radical fighting reactions. Here are the mineral-rich foods you need to enjoy help SOD do its dirty job: · Zinc: Oysters, grass-fed beef and lamb, naturally raised pork · Copper: Oysters, clams, crab, cashews, sunflower seeds, hazelnuts, almonds, lentils, cocoa · Manganese: Pecans, oatmeal, brown rice, spinach, chard, mustard greens, collard greens, turnip greens, kale, pineapple, almonds, peanuts, sweet potato, garbanzo beans 8 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Love Your Liver... to Live Longer! As you learned in the last few pages, your body's antioxidant artillery greatly depends on your liver. To get the most out of your free-radical fighting machine, you need to keep it healthy. Here are some tips: 1. Pass on Prescriptions: Avoid Prescription Drugs if at all possible. They are enemy #1 to your liver... and your longevity. 2. Don't Let Painkillers Kill YOU! Avoid over-the-counter drugs (especially acetaminophen/Tylenol) that damage your liver. 3. Imbibe Wisely: Enjoy alcohol in moderation. And if you drink wine, make sure it's organic (see Organics: Beyond Green to learn about the top contaminated crops--including grapes). 4. Organic, Grass-Fed & Wild: Eat only organic foods, grass-fed meats and wild seafood to lighten your liver's load (see Organics: Beyond Green to learn about the toxic burden conventional produce, grain-fed meats and farmed seafoods pose to your body due to the use of herbicides, fungicides, pesticides and other contaminants). 5. "Clean" Your Cookware: Certain types of cookware, storage containers, bottles and other kitchen tools add to your toxic burden. Reduce that burden with tips you'll find in Smart Cooks Age Better. 6. Savor Healthy Fats Only: Enjoy healthy fats (like omega-3, monounsaturated and conjugated linoleic acid) and avoid harmful fats (like trans fats and omega-6s) that compromise your liver and promote free radicals (learn more in Fats that Heal, Fats that Harm). 7. Power Up with Power Foods: Fill your plate with the nutrient-dense foods discussed in this book that power up your natural antioxidant defensesglutathione and superoxide dismutase. 8. Forgo Fakes: Avoid artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame) and preservatives (like sodium benzoate) that tax your liver, suppress your immune system and wreak havoc on your metabolic system. 9. Enjoy Liver Lovers: Learn more about the specific foods that have been found to have a protective effect on the liver--including beets, artichokes, grapefruit and avocado-at our website. 10. Glisten, Glow & Purify: Engage in vigorous exercise. It's the most effective form of detoxification for your body, and offers too many benefits to list. If you don't do it, start today--your life absolutely depends on it! 9 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
The ORAC Scale When you think of ORAC, think of another O word: octane. Just like high-octane fuel delivers more energy per unit to your car, high ORAC foods deliver more antioxidant protection to your body. So what is ORAC anyway? Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) is simply a method of measuring the ability of a food to extinguish free radicals. Scientists refer to this as the antioxidant capacity of a food. In the mid 1990's, Dr. Ronald Prior, Ph.D., an antioxidant expert at USDA's Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University aligned with the team who initially published the concept of ORAC--physician and chemist Guohua Cao, M.D., Ph.D., and his colleagues at the National Institute on Aging (NIA). And the ORAC scale was born. So how does it work? ORAC tests challenge an antioxidant sample--blueberry extract, for example--against free radicals in a test tube. Researchers evaluate the sample containing free radicals as well as the isolated extract. The more the extract successfully negates free radicals, the greater the antioxidant capacity and thus the higher the ORAC score. But all antioxidants are not created equal, the ORAC scale has its limitations and your own biochemistry factors in too. Here are several ideas to keep in mind to boost your antioxidant levels naturally: 1. Water Dilutes the ORAC Score: Don't get diluted into thinking you should be eating more energy dense dried fruits just because they have a high ORAC score. While a raisin may concentrate the antioxidants in a grape, it also concentrates the calories and sugar too. The same is true for water-rich foods-- like watermelon--whose ORAC score reflects low antioxidant content. 2. Some Like it Hot: In order to understand what ORAC scores really mean to health and disease prevention, it's important to understand the differences between the types of antioxidants and how they work. Some are water soluble; some are lipid soluble. Some get stronger with heat while others shrink in their ability to quench aging free radicals at the very mention of a burner. We know the best preparation methods to maximize antioxidants and you'll learn about them in Smart Cooks Age Better. 10 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
3. Supplements Can't Mimic Foods: Think you can pop a pill that will replace the unique antioxidant effects of a blueberry... a sweet potato... or green tea? Think again. Study upon study shows that the greatest antioxidant benefits come from foods in their natural state. Why? Because phytonutrients possess synergy multiple components working together to produce stronger, better effects than the isolated compounds do alone. 4. Antioxidants are Selective Specialists: You have a hair stylist for your hair, a manicurist for your nails, and a gardener for your lawn. You wouldn't expect the yardman to paint a perfect French manicure or the hair stylist to groom your petunias. Antioxidants are the same. They are specialized. Some fight singlet oxygen free radicals; others are programmed to annihilate peroxyl radicals. Vitamin C, for example, may be most effective in the aqueous part of a cell. Vitamin E may be most effective in the fatty parts of the cell (including the membrane bilayer and mitochondria). This is exactly why it's important to enjoy a whole foods diet that provides the entire antioxidant army. 5. There's Antioxidant Variation Among the Same Foods: Harvest times, growing conditions, use of chemicals, season, temperature, soil conditions, ripeness and other factors can dramatically affect the antioxidant capacity of foods. You'll learn later in this book, as well as in Organics: Beyond Green, why organic foods give you more antioxidant bang per bite. 6. Your Body Makes Antioxidants Too: In the next section--Your Body's Antioxidant Artillery--you'll learn that some of the most powerful antioxidant protection comes from inside the body. And while this protection does in fact come from foods, it's not necessarily from the high ORAC foods that fuel the body's free-radical fighting furnace. 7. A Healthy Gut Absorbs More Antioxidants: We can test the freeradical fighting ability of extracts in test tubes, but their behavior in the body can vary greatly. To maximize absorption of antioxidants, it's important to cultivate the healthy bacteria in the digestive tract by enjoying high-fiber foods that act as prebiotics, as well as probiotic foods including kombucha, sauerkraut, yogurt, kefir and other fermented dairy. Learn more in Your Digestive Ecosystem. The bottom line? Enjoy a wide spectrum of antioxidants from the cleanest food sources available to provide maximum protection, health benefits and enjoyment! 11 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Key Antioxidant Nutrients In this section, we'll take a closer look at some of the phytonutrients (found in plant foods) and zoonutrients (from animal sources) that help to fend off your body's nemesis: free radicals. Ajoene: This sulfur-rich nutrient, found exclusively in garlic, helps to inhibit the release of superoxide--the most common free radical in the human body. Allicin: Also found in garlic, allicin helps induce the body's phase 2 detoxifying enzymes. Anthocyanins: This group of more than 400 red-blue substances is found Primarily in berries and scavenges four types of cell-damagers--superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen. Astaxanthin: Found in wild salmon, shellfish and microalgae, astaxanthin shows antioxidant capacity 10 times stronger than other carotenoids. It's also a natural internal sunscreen that protects skin from sun damage and discoloration. Carotenoids: This diverse group of more than 600 lipid-soluble plant pigments includes beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin. Because of their lipid-soluble nature, carotenoids are believed to be most protective in cell membranes. Curcumin: Found exclusively in turmeric, not only does this potent antioxidant scavenge free radicals, it also kicks up the body's phase 2 detoxifying enzymes. EGCG: Found in green tea, this potent antioxidant scavenges free radicals, fights inflammation and boosts the body's phase 2 detoxifying enzymes. Ellagic Acid: A potent antioxidant found in raspberries, strawberries, cranberries, walnuts, pecans and pomegranates that neutralizes free radicals and disarms carcinogens. Ergothionene: This antioxidant is found in mushrooms (shiitake, oyster, king oyster and maitake have the most). Curious as to why mushrooms don't rank on our list of 150+ Antioxidant Superfoods? While ergothionene does not contribute to total antioxidant activity in the mushroom, it may significantly boost antioxidant activity in the body. 12 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Flavonoids: This large family of phytonutrients is found in a wide variety of healing foods--including apples, onions, tea, red wine, berries, citrus, cocoa and beans (see Table 1 below). Researchers believe that flavonoids protect cells by increasing the body's production of phase 2 detoxifying enzymes and help to reduce inflammation, rather than acting as direct antioxidants.
Table 1: Flavonoids in Common Foods
Flavonoid Subclass
Dietary Flavonoids
Food Sources
Anthocyanidins Flavanols Flavanones
Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin Monomers (Catechins): Catechin, Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin gallate Dimers and Polymers: Theaflavins, Thearubigins, Proanthocyanidins Hesperetin, Naringenin, Eriodictyol
Red, blue, and purple berries; red and purple grapes; red wine Catechins: Teas (particularly green and white), chocolate, grapes, berries, apples Theaflavins, Thearubigins: Teas (particularly black and oolong) Proanthocyanidins: Cocoa, apples, berries, red grapes, red wine Citrus fruits: oranges, grapefruits, lemons
Flavonols Flavones
Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Isorhamnetin Apigenin, Luteolin
Widely distributed in plant foods including yellow onions, scallions, kale, broccoli, apples, berries, teas Parsley, thyme, celery, hot peppers
Isoflavones
Daidzein, Genistein, Glycitein
Soybeans, soy foods, legumes
Are Drugs Draining Your Antioxidants? Many drugs -- over the counter and prescription medications--deplete your body of vital nutrients. As you've learned in this book, the most powerful antioxidants are produced inside your body and require these raw materials to manufacture free-radical fighters. Learn about the medicines that drain the nutrients your body needs in Depleted By Drugs?
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Glucosinolates: Earlier in this book, you learned that the endogenous antioxidants made by the body may afford more free-radical protection than antioxidant-rich foods themselves. And glucosinloates--found in the cruciferous family of veggies (see Table 2 below) are one of the most sulfur-rich groups of nutrients, helping to induce the phase 2 detoxifying enzymes and reduce inflammation. While fresh cruciferous veggies all start out with glucosinolates, they turn into isothiocyanates--including sulforaphane, phenethyl-isothiocyanate (PEITC) and others--when chewed and digested.
Table 2: Glucosinolate Content of Cruciferous Vegetables
Food (raw)
Serving
Total Glucosinolates (mg)
Brussels sprouts
Ѕ cup (44 g)
104
Garden cress
Ѕ cup (25 g)
98
Mustard greens
Ѕ cup, chopped (28 g)
79
Turnip
Ѕ cup, cubes (65 g)
60
Cabbage, savoy
Ѕ cup, chopped (45 g)
35
Kale
1 cup, chopped (67 g)
67
Watercress
1 cup, chopped (34 g)
32
Kohlrabi
Ѕ cup, chopped (67 g)
31
Cabbage, red
Ѕ cup, chopped (45 g)
29
Broccoli
Ѕ cup, chopped (44 g)
27
Horseradish
1 tablespoon (15 g)
24
Cauliflower
Ѕ cup, chopped (50 g)
22
Bok choy
Ѕ cup, chopped (35 g)
19
Resveratrol: Primarily found in red wine, resveratrol has potent antioxidant activity, protects DNA from damage and has been found to boost longevity too.
Table 3: Resveratrol Content of Foods & Beverages
Food
Serving
Calories/Serving Total Resveratrol (mg)
Red wine
5 ounces
120
(Spanish)
Red wine (Global) 5 ounces
120
0.29-1.89 0.30-1.89
Red Grape Juice 5 ounces
120
0.17-1.30
Peanuts, raw
1 cup
854
0.01-0.26
Peanuts, boiled
1 cup
572
0.32-1.28
Peanut butter
1 cup
1517
0.04-0.13
Red Grapes
1 cup
110
0.24-1.25
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Pterostilbene: This cousin of resveratrol is found predominantly in blueberries. It's a potent scavenger of the peroxyl-radical, shows similar antioxidant capacity to resveratrol and has been found protective against several cancers. Vitamin A: This lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin is found in animal products including egg yolks, organ meats and milk. It is also converted by the body from beta-carotene. Healing Tip: If you choose to eat organ meats--which are a rich source of certain nutrients--always ensure they are grass-fed and organic. Otherwise you are exposing yourself to a plethora harmful contaminants and inflammation-promoters (see Organics: Beyond Green for the dangerous byproducts in conventional foods that end up on your plate and Fats that Heal, Fats that Harm for how certain fats promote inflammation and disease). Vitamin C: This well-known water-soluble antioxidant is found in citrus fruits, berries, mangoes, papaya, melons, tomatoes, peppers, and leafy greens. As you learned earlier, vitamin C helps to boost glutathione production. It is also essential for collagen synthesis (which is important for youthful skin and healthy blood vessels) and exerts most of its free-radical fighting power in the aqueous (or watery) part of the cell. Vitamin E: Best known for its ability to protect LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage, vitamin E is a lipid-soluble group of eight compounds found primarily in nuts, nutritive oils (from nuts) and wheat germ, as well as mango, broccoli, dandelion greens, spinach and kiwi. On the Web: Visit our website and check out our many Encyclopedias. You'll find more than 1,500 pages of life-saving information that's easily accessible, written in simple, easy-tounderstand language and grouped into searchable categories including: Phytonutrients Vitamins Minerals Additives & Preservatives Fats Contaminants and many more! 15 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Get More Antioxidants with Organics A redder, juicier, more succulent tomato. A sprig of basil that sings with notes and nuances that are indescribably fresh. There's no doubt that organic foods boast more flavor. But that's not all. Research shows they pack more nutrients than their conventional counterparts too. A comprehensive review of 97 studies entitled--New Evidence Confirms the Nutritional Superiority of PlantBased Organic Foods--found that organic, plant-based foods contain higher levels of eight out of 11 nutrients studied. That includes significantly greater concentrations of health-promoting antioxidants and polyphenols. These compounds not only protect your body, but they protect the plant as well, acting as natural defense against pests and fungi. But when crops are sprayed, they no longer rely on their own defenses and produce less of these health-promoting nutrients. What's more, researchers found that organically grown plant foods are 25 percent more nutrient-dense. That means they deliver more nutrition calorie for calorie than conventional grown foods. More Nutrients + Less Risk! Filling your plate with an organic superfood smorgasbord not only maximizes the antioxidants in your diet, but also protects you from dangerous contaminants like herbicides, pesticides that wreak havoc on your metabolic machinery. Learn more in Organics: Beyond Green. Maximize Antioxidants... in the Kitchen! The name of the antioxidant game is pretty simple: know which antioxidants thrive in which environments. Tomatoes--as you might have guessed--long to be slowly simmered with a high quality extra virgin olive oil. That's because the heat unlocks the lycopene matrix and the healthy fat boosts the bioavailability in your body. Garlic, on the other hand, doesn't want to be tamed or tempered. On the contrary! The tingle on the taste buds represents the benefit in your body. You don't have to be a chemist to know how to extract the most potency from healing foods. Simply refer to Smart Cooks Age Better for a list of foods and the best ways to prepare them. 16 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Antioxidant Wolves in Sheep's Clothing You've seen them. Drinkable concoctions that promise the ability to fend off free radicals (and all sorts of ailments) with more vigor than any pure, natural, whole food could ever hope. At a first glance, their pitch may seem convincing. But look closer and you'll often find sugars, preservatives, and artificial sweeteners. Even if the antioxidant levels of some of the constituent fruits is high, the benefits of the superdrink would be negated by the additives. What's worse, they may do more harm than good. Here's why: · Sodium Benzoate + Vitamin C = Benzene (a carcinogen) · Sugar = Insulin Resistance + Inflammation + Glycation · Sucralose = Metabolic Disruption So where are these wolves in sheep's clothing lurking? They're found everywhere from smoothie shops (like Jamba Juice) to multi-level marketing meetings (like Mona Vie and clones), to products lining the shelves at your local healthy food store (like Tahitian Noni juice and even pomegranate juice). If the product you're buying doesn't have a label, be sure to ask about the ingredients. You'll might be surprised to find an unhealthy dose of chemical sweeteners (like sucralose) and a whopping 20-30 grams of sugar per serving. Learn more about why avoiding additives, preservatives and artificial sweeteners is crucial to your health in Organics: Beyond Green and use Your Kitchen Makeover to get started purging your pantry and purifying your body today! 17 © 2007-2011 Copyright Health-e Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. www.healinggourmet.com
Antioxidant Superfoods Your Complete Guide to the Free-Radical Fighting Ability of 150+ Foods
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
Food Cloves, dried, ground Cinnamon, dried, ground Oregano, dried Turmeric, ground Sorghum, bran, black Cocoa powder, natural (non-dutched) Cumin seed, dried Parsley, dried Basil, dried Curry powder, dried Cocoa powder, dutched Sage, fresh Mustard seed Pepper, black Thyme, fresh Marjoram, fresh Rice bran Chili powder, dried Ginger, ground Chocolate, dark Pecans Paprika, dried Tarragon, fresh Ginger root, raw Sorghum grain, red Peppermint, fresh Oregano, fresh Walnuts, english Hazelnuts Cranberries, raw Pears, dried Savory, fresh Artichokes, boiled Beans, red kidney
ORAC Score 314,446 267,536 200,129 159,277 100,800 80,933 76,800 74,349 67,553 48,504 40,200 32,004 29,257 27,618 27,426 27,297 24,287 23,636 21,867 20,823 17,940 17,919 15,542 14,840 14,000 13,978 13,970 13,541 9,645 9,584 9,496 9,465 9,416 8,459
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Rank 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68
Food Beans, black Pistachios Currants, European, black, raw Beans, pinto, raw Plums, black diamond, w/ peel Lentils, raw Agave, dried Garlic powder Artichokes, raw Blueberries, raw Prunes Plums, raw Leeks, bulb + lower leaf, raw Soybeans, raw onion powder Blackberries Garlic, raw Cilantro, raw Cabernet Sauvignon Raspberries, raw Basil, fresh Almonds, raw Dill, fresh Blackeyed peas, raw Apples, Red Delicious (with skin) Peaches, dried Apples, Granny Smith (with skin) Dates, deglet noor Strawberries, raw Peanut butter, smooth w/ salt Currants, red raw Figs, raw Cherries, sweet, raw Peanuts, raw
ORAC Score 8,040 7,983 7,960 7,779 7,581 7,282 7,274 6,665 6,552 6,552 6,552 6,259 5,997 5,764 5,735 5,347 5,346 5,141 5,034 4,882 4,805 4,454 4,392 4,343 4,275 4,222 3,898 3,895 3,577 3,432 3,387 3,383 3,365 3,166
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Rank 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102
Food Raisins Pears, raw Agave, cooked Apples, Gala (with skin) Cardamom, dried Apples, Fuji (with skin) Guava, white-fleshed Dates, medjool Broccoli, cooked, boiled Lettuce, red leaf Cabbage, red, raw Oat bran cereal Quick oats, dry Asparagus, raw Sweet potato, baked w/skin Chives, raw Cabbage, savoy, cooked, boiled Prune juice Guava, red-fleshed Bread, pumpernickel Cashew nuts Avocado, Haas Arugula, raw Oranges, navel, raw Peaches, raw Beets, raw Pears, red anjou Popcorn, air-popped Radishes, raw Old fashioned oats, dry Macadamia nuts, dry roasted Spinach, frozen Potatoes, russet, flesh + skin, baked Asparagus, boiled
ORAC Score 3,037 2,941 2,938 2,828 2,764 2,599 2,550 2,387 2,386 2,380 2,252 2,183 2,169 2,150 2,115 2,094 2,050 2,036 1,990 1,963 1,948 1,933 1,904 1,819 1,814 1,767 1,746 1,743 1,736 1,708 1,695 1,687 1,680 1,644
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Rank 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136
Food Mandarin oranges, raw Broccoli raab, cooked Grapefruit, pink, raw Onions, red, raw Spinach, raw Alfalfa sprouts Lettuce, romaine Lettuce, butterhead Bread, mixed grain Brazil nuts, raw Broccoli, raw Parsley, raw Grapes, red, raw Green tea Agave, raw Grapefruit juice, white Lemon juice, raw Onions, yellow, sautйed Kiwi, gold Extra virgin olive oil Grapes, green, raw Apricots Onions, raw Mangos, raw Salsa Peppers, sweet, orange, raw Peppers, sweet, yellow, raw Eggplant, raw Peppers, sweet, green, raw Beans, pinto, boiled Kiwi Bananas Onions, white, raw Chickpeas, raw
ORAC Score 1,620 1,552 1,548 1,521 1,515 1,510 1,447 1,423 1,421 1,419 1,362 1,301 1,260 1,253 1,247 1,238 1,225 1,220 1,210 1,150 1,118 1,115 1,034 1,002 1,001 984 965 933 923 904 882 879 863 847
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Rank 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170
Food Peppers, sweet, red, sautйed Cauliflower, raw Lime juice, raw Peppers, sweet, red, raw Sweet potato, boiled w/o skin Beans, green, snap, raw Nectarines, raw Peas, yellow, mature, raw Corn, sweet, yellow, raw Orange juice, raw Peppers, sweet, yellow, grilled Tomato sauce, canned Carrots, raw Cauliflower, cooked, boiled Pine nuts Peppers, sweet, green, sautйed Peas, green, frozen Apple cider Vinegar Tomatoes, plum, raw Peas, split, mature, raw Cabbage, raw Celery, raw Tomato juice, canned Pumpkin, raw Lettuce, iceberg Poppy seed, dried Red wine vinegar Tomatoes, ripe, cooked Butternut squash, raw Pineapple, raw Cantaloupe, raw Fennel bulb, raw Beans, snap, canned Eggplant, cooked, boiled
ORAC Score 847 829 823 791 766 759 750 741 728 726 694 694 666 620 616 615 600 564 546 524 508 497 486 483 438 418 410 406 396 385 315 307 290 245
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