Appraisal of Air and Water Pollution in Hyderabad and Karachi, Pakistan, A Kazi

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Content: APPRAISAL OF AIR AND WATER POLLUTION IN HYDERABAD AND KARACHI, PAKISTAN Asadullah Kazi* ABSTRACT
Environmental pollution refers to mixing or contamination of undesirable substances in the environment, affecting the living organisms of the biosphere. This obviously includes human beings, who themselves may be responsible for introducing pollutants in the biosphere. Worldwide, more than 10 million people, die every year from the ingestion or inhalation of these pollutants. This paper, mainly deals with pollution of air and water, which are the main sources of damage to the life of human beings. In this framework, the two largest cities of Sindh, namely Karachi and Hyderabad, and the areas around them, are selected for the analysis of contaminated air and water in these areas. Guidelines formulated by the US Environmental Agency, World Health Organization, as well as the Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan are consulted. Clean air is essential for human health and environmental. Consequently, the presence of excessive amounts of pollutants, such as particulate matter, together with oxides of Carbon, Sulphur and Nitrogen, as well as Ozone is the main ingredients of concern in the studied areas. In a similar context, water is also an important ingredient of the environment. It is used for drinking, municipal, irrigation and industrial purposes. The discharge of untreated industrial and municipal waste, as well as the presence of contaminated drinking water, poses serious environmental concerns in Karachi and Hyderabad. Noise pollution is also a matter of apprehension, particularly in the thickly populated settlements, around the two cities surveyed in this study. Suggested are given to circumvent some of the environmental concerns through legislation and implementation by relevant authorities
Keywords: Pollution, environment, greenhouse gases, air, drinking water, wastewater
1. INTRODUCTION
Pollution is defined as the introduction of contaminants into the environment that may cause undesirable changes in air, water and land, affecting living organisms in the ecosystem. As shown in Figure 1, there are four basic components of global environment. These include Atmosphere (Air), Lithosphere (Land), Hydrosphere (Water) and Biosphere. The latter is the living component of the environment including human beings, as well as parts of other components of the global environment. Fig. 1: Global Environment
It may be emphasized that the biosphere is a composite of living as well as nonliving parts (Figure 2). The living part constitutes ecosystem, which varies with type of species. Furthermore, each ecosystem requires a kind of habitat that may include living and nonliving counter parts, for its survival. A habitat is, therefore, a place where a living organism finds its shelter, obtains food and where it can reproduce. The science of ecology, on the other hand, deals with the study of living organisms in their natural environment. However, the impact of anthropogenic activities, in particular, on the pollution of environment is a matter of concern for all involved in the study of environmental health hazards. A wide variety of environmental issues, generally resulting from the rapid urbanization together with industrialization, have led to contamination of air, water, land and the ecosystem of living organisms. The influx of such contaminants, particularly the toxic materials and other pollutants, threatening survival of
* Professor Environmental Geosciences, Isra University, Hyderabad - Sindh, Pakistan QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY Research Journal OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, VOLUME 13, No. 1, JAN-JUN. 2014 1
living organisms, predominantly human beings, is a pollutants, including the ones', introduced by the intensive use of materials, employed for the generation of energy needed for socioEconomic Development of countries, has seriously affected the quality of life in the biosphere. Fig. 2: Global Ecosystem This paper will essentially address issues caused by the pollution of air and water in broad-spectrum and shed some light on guidelines for drinking water and disposal of industrial effluents. Finally, the situation of pollution related matters in the most populated two district of Sindh, namely Hyderabad and Karachi, as shown in Figure 3, will be addressed and remedial measures to circumvent the adverse situation affirmed. Hyderabad and Karachi, and are the two most important cities of the province of Sindh (Figure 3). The urban and rural constituencies of these two cities constitute less than 5% of the total area of the Province. The two cities are inhabited by approximately 27 million people.
matter of great concern. The cumulative effect of all these The main occupation of the rural population is generally agriculture, while the urban population is mainly involved in office work, service and industrial sectors.
The rural areas have generally clean air, mostly free of air pollutants, as well as the nuisance of noise. However, the lack of clean and hygienic water together with absence of hygienic conditions and poor sanitation, are a major problem in the rural surroundings. The urban areas, on the other hand are inflicted mostly with problems of air pollution, and generally untreated wastewater, as well as disposal of the untreated industrial effluents in the channels, carrying river water, or dispose it off directly in the Arabian Sea.
2. POLLUTION OF ENVIRONMENT
Air and water, besides others, are among the most significant pollutants affecting human beings. Environmental imbalance in these and noise, as well as other components often gives rise to a wide variety of health problems to human beings and other living organisms.
The earth's atmosphere consists of a mixture of various gases. By volume, it contains approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, as well as argon and other inert gases to the extent of about 1.0%. Furthermore, carbon dioxide is another important constituent of the atmosphere, which varies in amount from 0.1% to 0.3%. The gaseous composition of clean dry air is given in Table 1.
TABLE 1: MAJOR CONSTITUENTS OF DRY AIR [17]
Gas
Volume Percentage
Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Argon (Ar)
78.084% 20.946% 0.9340%
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Neon (Ne)
0.0397% 0.001818%
Helium (He)
0.000524%
Methane (CH4)
0.000179%
Not included in Major Constituents of dry air*
* Water Vapor (H2O)
Locally varies from 0.001% to 5.0%
Fig. 3: Map of Pakistan, showing the route of River Indus and its main tributaries, contributing water to the Province of Sindh
Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. It can be defined broadly as the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials into the atmosphere that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment. By reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
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Air pollution can be classified into anthropogenic and
Water pollution is the second most crucial environmental
non-anthropogenic origin. The latter includes natural
concern to human beings after air. It is estimated that over
events such as wildfires, volcanic activity and dust/sand
96% of the water is saline. Of the total fresh water, fit for
storms [4]. These, as well as the anthropegenic pollutants
human consumption, more than 68% is locked up in
including Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Lead and Ozone, as
glaciers and ice caps. Another 30% of freshwater is under
well as other containments, which may pose
the ground. Rivers are the source of surface water that
environmental hazards. The effect of Greenhouse gases,
people mostly use; but this constitutes only 0.0002% of
such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous
the total water available in the hydrosphere. Table 2 and
oxide. Ozone and Chloroflorocarbons, which greatly
Figure 4 present, an estimate of global water distribution
affect the temperature of the earth, are beyond the scope
[10] [11].
of this article.
TABLE 2: ESTIMATED GLOBAL WATER DISTRIBUTION [10]
Water source
Water volume in cubic miles
Water volume in cubic kilometers
Percent of freshwater
Percent of total water
Oceans, Seas & Bays
321,000,000
1,338,000,000
--
96.54
Ice caps, Glaciers, & Permanent Snow
5,773,000
24,064,000
68.7
1.74
Groundwater
5,614,000
23,400,000
--
1.69
Fresh
2,526,000
10,530,000
30.1
0.76
Saline
3,088,000
12,870,000
--
0.93
Soil Moisture
3,959
16,500
0.05
0.001
Ground Ice & Permafrost
71,970
300,000
0.86
0.022
Lakes
42,320
176,400
--
0.013
Fresh
21,830
91,000
0.26
0.007
Saline
20,490
85,400
--
0.006
Atmosphere
3,095
12,900
0.04
0.001
Swamp water
2,752
11,470
0.03
0.0008
Rivers
509
2,120
0.006
0.0002
Biological Water
269
1,120
0.003
0.0001
Water pollution is a grave problem in Sindh. Water is polluted from a wide variety of sources. It gets contaminated, when pollutants from different sources either come in contact with sources of water or are discharged into bodies of water. However, the effects of water contamination depend on the composition of effluent pollutants that get mixed up with water. This is particularly true for untreated industrial waste. The same is true for habitation situated close to urban centers. The assimilation of garbage and other untreated hazardous chemicals, with sources of surface and groundwater, are a major health hazard in this regard. This reflects lack of hygienic control, which promotes the local inhabitants, as well as municipal authorities and manufacturing chemical industries to make use of the uncontrolled situation.
Fig. 4: Distribution of Earth's Water There is a long list of hazardous chemicals, which generally pollute water, and are the main cause of environmental degradation. These, among others, include inorganic and organic, as well as microbial contaminants
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and radio nuclides. The guidelines and specification together with environments guidelines including permissible limits, of these and other chemicals, will be outlined later on. 3. GUIDELINES FOR AIR POLLUTANTS Air pollution often causes stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic as well as acute respiratory diseases, including asthma. Guidelines for clean air are set
by several international and domestic organizations for the benefits of public health and environment. The modified Clean Air Act requires [13] to set National Ambient Air quality standards for pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment. For a lay person, one may refer to Air Quality Index [12] to make an assessment of the quality of air. This practice is nonexistent in Pakistan. Table 3, summarizes the type of air pollutants and the standards used in Pakistan [8].
TABLE 3: NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS FOR AMBIENT AIR
Concentration in Ambient Air
Pollutants
Time-weighted average
Effective from 1st January 2009
Effective from 1st January 2012
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
Annual Average* 24 hours**
80 µg/m3 120 µg/m3
80 µg/m3 120 µg/m3
Oxides of Nitrogen as (NO)
Annual Average* 24 hours **
40 µg/m3 40 µg/m3
40 µg/m3 40 µg/m3
Oxides of Nitrogen as (NO2)
Annual Average* 24 hours **
40 µg/m3 80 µg/m3
40 µg/m3 80 µg/m3
Ozone O3
1 hour
180 µg/m3
130µg/m3
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)
Annual Average* 24 hours**
400 µg/m3 550µg/m3
360 µg/m3 500µg/m3
Respirable Particulate Matter. PM10
Annual Average* 24 hours**
200 µg/m3 250 µg/m3
120 µg/m3 150 µg/m3
Annual Average*
25 µg/m3
15 µg/m3
Respirable Particulate Matter. PM2.5
24 hours**
40 µg/m3
35 µg/m3
1 hour
25 µg/m3
15 µg/m3
Lead (Pb)
Annual Average* 24 hours**
1.5 µg/m3 2 µg/m3
1 µg/m3 1.5 µg/m3
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
8 hours** 1 hour
5 mg/m3 10 mg/m3
5 mg/m3 10 mg/m3
* Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.
** 24 hourly /8 hourly values should be met 98% of the in a year. 2% of the time, it may exceed but not on two consecutive days.
The "WHO Air Quality Guidelines" [15], also provide an assessment of health effects of air pollution and thresholds for health-harmful pollution levels. These Guidelines apply worldwide in all WHO regions; and are based on expert evaluation of current scientific evidence for the presence of Particulate matter (PM), Ozone (O3), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) as the indicator of larger group of nitrogen oxides. These guidelines include most of the pollutants listed by US EPA (2012) [13], but further troughs light on Nitrogen Oxide (NO2), Chloroflorocarbons (CFCs), which affects the lower atmospheric zone leading to climate change, which among other things causes global warming. Furthermore, the presence of Ozone, in particular, at the upper atmospheric zone, is a blessing. It prevents the penetration of this zone by Ultraviolet radiation; and thus protects human beings from the incidence of
cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, at the lower ground level, these constituents cause decrease in visibility, and difficulty in driving. Commenting on climate change, Mu and Mu [16] reflect on the influence of mining of fossil fuels and other substances, which destroy the `thermal insulating' layers inside the Earth's Crust. Any decrease in the thickness of these layers, eventually cause, the trapped heat inside the Earth, to escape at the earth's surface, leading to climate change, particularly in the regions, where such activities are intensely practiced. The climate change is, therefore, manifested by global warming gases, as well as the heat emanating from the surface of the earth. Besides, quality of ambient air, the response of human ear to sound is also important. The noise has direct and specific effects on human health as described by Abbasi
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et al [1]. WHO (1980) [14], recommendations of noise exposure, and guidelines for environmental quality standards are reproduced in Table 4. These guidelines are more specific about the environment, such as living areas, hospitals, industrial and commercial, as well as traffic congested areas, public address and music related activities. The time of exposure and the duration of the specified level of sound, as well as the environment of work, are also significant in critical health effects Khan, et al [6].
The WHO Guidelines are more specific than Pakistan National Environmental Quality Standards, for Noise. The latter classifies the areas into residential, commercial, industrial and silent zones; but does not consider the time duration, as well as the critical health effects thereof. However in both the cases, the noise levels at day time does not exceed 65 accept in industrial and commercial areas where the maximum allowable limit varies between 65 and 75 dB. However, the acceptable limit for residential areas is 50 dB; but the allowable level for schools is 35 dB.
TABLE 4: WHO GUIDELINES FOR NOISE QUALITY STANDARDS
Specific Environment Outdoor living area Indoor, Inside bed room Outside bed room Class room Hospital ward room Industrial, commercial, shopping and traffic area Public address Music through head phone
Critical Health Effects
Serious Annoyance Day time
Moderate Annoyance
Day Time Night Time
Sleep disturbance, windows open
Disturbance of information, message communication
Sleep disturbance
Day Time Night Time
Hearing impairment
Hearing impairment
Hearing impairment
Allowable Noise Level (dB) 50 35 30 45
Time Duration (Hrs) 16 16 08 08
35
During class
30
08
30
16
70
24
85
01
85
01
4. GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING WATER & WASTEWATER POLLUTANTS Water is important for the survival of all living organisms. There is a considerable variation in the amount of water in healthy human body; and it is generally agreed that 75% of the human body weight is composed of water. Besides being essential for survival, water is used for a variety of other purposes. This among others includes industrial, agricultural, municipal, as well as household purposes. Water quality standards for each purpose vary according to the purpose for which the water is put into use. The availability of drinking water cannot be over emphasized. But in many instances, the drinking water may contain a number of undesirable constituents. Therefore, most people in the developed countries of the world consume hygienically certified bottled water. The presence of pollutants in drinking water is classified as Physical, Chemical, Organic and Bacterial, as well as Radio Nuclides (Table 5). The Physical Pollutants include color, odor, taste and turbidity in the form of suspended particles. There is a long list of Chemical Pollutants. It consists of pH, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved
Salts, Ammonia, Arsenic, Barium, Boron, Cadmium, Chloride, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Phosphorous, Selenium, Zinc, Nitrate & Nitrites, and Sulfate & Sulfide. The Organics include Pesticides and Phenolic compounds. Bacterial contaminants contain all forms of Coilform bacteria. The radioactive materials essentially include Alpha Emitters. The wastewater of untreated or partially treated wastes includes municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes. It includes several physical, inorganic, organic, biological and hazardous contaminants. Metcalf and Eddy [7] present a list of typical concentrations of Organics in untreated domestic wastewater. The list, as shown in Table 6, includes BOD, COD, TOC, O&G. The latter includes Oil & grease, which are insoluble in water. They and their byproducts, include a wide variety of contaminants. They can reduce aquatic organisms' ability to reproduce and survive. Dumped oil or oil spills, through breakup or overturning of oil tankers, in the sea, are an example of the turmoil that such a spill can create. Although a majority of oil spills occur occasionally, but they receive considerable attention on account of the obvious environmental damage. This is manifested by the
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dead as well as oiled seabirds and marine mammals, together with acute impacts that such episodes leave particularly at the aesthetic and hygienic sense of the community living on the sea side. There are several
industries that discharge specific oil and grease related and other hazardous effluents, the description of which is beyond the scope of this paper.
TABLE 5: NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR DRINKING WATER QUALITY
A. Physical
Properties / Parameters Standards Values
Properties / Parameters
Standard Values
Colour
15 TCU
Total hardness as
< 500 mg/L
Taste
Non Objectionable/Acceptable
CaCO3
Odour
Non Objectionable/Acceptable
TDS
< 1000
Turbidity
< 5. NTU
pH
6.5 ­ 8.5
B. Chemical Parameters Inorganic Aluminium (Al) mg/L Antimony (Sb) Arsenic (As) Barium (Ba) Boron (B) Cyanide (CN) Fluoride (F)* Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) Nickel (Ni)
mg/Litre 0.2 0.005 (P) 0.05 (P) 0.7 0.3 0.05 1.5 0.05 0.5 0.001 0.02
Inorganic Cadmium (Cd) Chloride (Cl) Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu) Nitrate (NO3)* Nitrate (NO2)* Selenium (Se) Residual chlorine Zinc (Zn)
mg/Litre 0.01 < 250 0.05 2 3 (P) 3 (P) 0.01 (P) 0.2-0.5 at consumer end 0.5-1.5 at source 5.0
Organic Pesticides mg/L Phenolic compounds (as Phenols) mg/L
mg/Litre Not found Not found
Organic
mg/Litre
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (as PAH g/l
Not found
Radioactive
mg/Litre
Alpha Emitters bq/l or pCi 0.1
Radioactive Beta emitters
mg/Litre 1
C. Bacterial Properties / Parameters All water intended for drinking (e.Coli or Thermotolerant Coliform bacteria)
Standards Values Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample
Properties / Parameters
Standard Values
Treated water in the distribution system (E. coli or Thermotolerant Coliform and total Coliform bacteria)
Must not be detectable in any 100 ml sample
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TABLE 6: TYPICAL ORGANICS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATERS
Constituents BOD (biochemical oxygen demand COD (chemical oxygen demand) TOC (Total organic carbon) O&G (oil and grease)
Unit
Typical Concentrations
Low
Medium
mg/L
110
190
mg/L
250
430
mg/L
80
140
mg/L
50
90
High 350 800 260 100
Since, wastewater may contain various potentially hazardous components, the municipal authorities must be observant of the collection and disposal of wastewater. Table 7, presents an alphabetically sorted list of these pollutants, together with, the proposed standards set by
the National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan, as quoted by Ahmed [2] and Ejaz et al [3]. The latter give an assessment of effluent streams discharging into River Ravi in Lahore, Pakistan.
TABLE 7: LIST OF PROPOSED STANDARDS FOR WASTEWATER
Parameters Ammonia (mg/L) BOD Days (mg/L) COD (mg/L) Chloride as Cl (mg/L) Cadmium (mg/L) Chromium (Trivalent & Hexavalent) (mg/L) Copper (mg/L) Chlorine (mg/L) Detergents (mg/L) Modified Benzene Alkyl Sulphae MBAS Fluoride as F (mg/L) Iron (mg/L) Lead (mg/L) Manganese (mg/L) Mercury (mg/L) Nickel (mg/L) Oil and Grease (mg/L) Phenolic Compounds as Phenol (mg/L) pH value Suspended Solids (mg/L) Sulphates (mg/L) Sulphide (mg/L) Temperature 0C Total Dissolve Solids (mg/L) Zinc (mg/L)
Proposed Standards 40 80 150 1000 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 0.5 1.5 0.01 1.0 10 0.1 6.0-10.0 150 600 1.0 40 3500 5.0
The River receives heavy loads of untreated domestic and industrial effluents; and is, therefore, acting as a wastewater carrier. Its waters are used for irrigation and livestock and other purposes. This is in contravention of the mandatory National Standards of Wastewater shown in Table 7. The same standards are also applicable to wastewater and industrial effluents discharged in Hyderabad and Karachi.
5. RESULTS & DISCUSSION The areas around these two cities are affected by several air and water, as well as noise related environmental problems. River Indus is the main source of drinking, agricultural and industrial consumptions. It has three barrages, namely Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri in the Province of Sindh [5]. These barrages have several canals and water courses through which the water is diverted to various regions of Sindh including Hyderabad and
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Karachi. The River Indus ultimately drains into the Arabian Sea, adjoining Karachi, which is the hub of industries of various kinds. Hyderabad draws its waters from canals emerging from the Kotri barrage. However, the rural pollution, depends essentially on dug well or watercourses for drinking and domestic purposes. Similarly, the main source of water supply to Karachi is also a canal from the Kotri barrage. This canal, Known as the Kalri Baghar, feeds the famous Kenjhar Lake, which acts as a reservoir of water for Karachi. Air & Water Pollution in Hyderabad: Most of the people of Hyderabad live and work in the rural areas of
Sindh. For livelihood, they depend on agriculture, which is the backbone of the economy of Pakistan. River Indus, apart from scanty rain fall, is the main sources of their survival. The air in the rural areas is essentially clean and satisfies all environmental guidelines. There is a shortage of surface water in general, and the groundwater is essentially saline, except in the neighborhood of river, and the water distributor channels spread over the area. However, the conditions of air and water in the urban areas of Hyderabad are a matter of great concern. Table 8 shows air quality data, in selected, urban areas of Hyderabad.
TABLE 8: AIR QUALITY DATA OF HYDERABAD, 2013
Site Tilk Chari SITE Area Shahbaz Building
Time Average Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min
Oxides of Nitrogen
CO CO2
SO2 O3
PM2.5
NO NO2 NOx
(ppm) (ppm) (ppb) (ppb) (ppb) (ppb) (ppb) (ug/m3)
3.63 355.50 29.17 6.08 35.25 34.21 27.42 *44.54
4.8
372
35
11
42
38
36
*49
2.5
329
24
0
31
30
22
*40
1.98 294.54 18.17 5.50 23.67 18.08 15.25 *37.83
2.3
302
28
9
35
22
28
*44
1.5
287
14
2
20
14
2
*30
2.20 294.21 22.96 5.50 28.46 17.92 15.38 *31.50
2.5
302
28
9
33
22
31
*38
1.8
287
17
3
21
14
1
*28
PM10 Noise
(ug/m3) (dB)
*120.42 *128 108
*70.29 82 58
110.92 63.33
*129
77
95
52
83.42 49.96
89
55
78
45
Comparing air quality of Hyderabad, as shown in Table 6, with the National Environmental Quality Standards for Ambient Air (Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, 2010), it is noted that all except the presence of particulate matter are satisfied at all the three locations. The PM2.5 values at Tilk Chari and Shahbaz Building are above the permissible levels. They major reason for the presence of this pollutant, is the gases emitted from heavy traffic of automobiles, consuming fossil fuels in the area. Similarly the MP10, values at Shahbaz Building are also in excess of the acceptable levels. The traffic noise, particularly in the urban areas, is yet another matter of grave concern, particularly in the residential and office areas of Tilk Chari and Shahbaz Building. The highest noise level is at Tilk Chari, which is most congested
residential and commercial area. However the limit of noise level at Shahbaz Building is very close to the upper limit, and needs to be reduced to an acceptable limit. Surprisingly, the level of noise at the Site Industrial area is acceptable. The results of the chemical analysis of drinking and tap water, in the eight selected urban areas of Hyderabad, are presented in Table 9. This table clearly indicates that in most of the area, the values of chemical constituents, like Arsenic, Barium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinc are above the acceptable level. Similarly, the values of Nitrates and Fecal Coliforms are also not permissible. Furthermore, all the constituents, which do not satisfy the Waste Water Standards displayed in Table 9, are marked by an asterisk.
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TABLE 9: DRINKING / TAP WATER TESTING DATA, HYDERABAD
Physical Parameters Liaquat Colony Memon Hospital Tilk Chari, St .Mary's High School Hali Road Opp. police station Site Nazeer Hussain Hospital Shah Gi Hotel Jail Road Govt. Elementary College Kali Mori
Site
Quality
Chemical Constituents µg/l (ppb)
Fecal CFU/100 ml Misc. Mg/L (ppm)
Taste Odour Turbidity (NTU) TDS (mg/L) Conductivity (µS/cm) pH Hardness (mg/L) E.Coli Fecal Coliform Total Cliform Flouride Chloride Nitrate Sulphate Arsenic (AS) Barium (Ba) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu) Iron (Fe) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) Nickel (Nil) Selenium (Se) Silver (Ag) Zinc (Zn)
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
*6.19 *11.6 0.95
*12
0.43 *14.5 3.39
462
472
489
467
495
480
590
764
787
815
778
825
799
903
8.15 195 *4 *10 *14 0.43 126.10 *10.53 119.40 *16.50 *122.23 ND ND *13.94 8.32 *0.11 *30.35 *0.04 *3.86 *7.27 0.00 *8.77
8.11 200 *2 *25 *27 0.65 101.50 *4.03 133.35 *15.34 *137.74 ND *8.07 *12.85 19.03 *1.61 *92.79 *0.16 *11.92 *8.21 0.08 *7.40
8.03 197 *5 *10 *15 0.41 113.83 *6.90 103.28 *16.34 *108.37 ND ND *14.38 13.42 *0.07 *49.65 *0.03 *5.63 *10.38 0.01 *8.79
8.04 190 *2 *15 *17 0.25 108.13 *5.13 129.03 *13.89 *114.88 0.14 ND *47.77 8.81 *187.56 *37.48 *0.81 *12.52 *8.37 1.01 *21.70
7.7 200 *4 *35 *39 0.50 127.50 *5.50 133.48 *15.63 *149.29 ND ND *16.01 9.67 *0.78 *36.14 *0.04 *4.83 *8.94 0.00 *10.34
7.82 194 *2 *45 *47 0.50 124.85 *4.90 136.15 *17.29 *119.45 ND ND *3.29 10.96 *0.24 *50.63 *0.05 *5.87 *8.48 ND *1.94
8.36 210 *5 *54 *59 0.58 98.48 *4.50 125.93 *16.92 *128.05 ND ND *19.87 7.92 *2.49 *28.78 *0.08 *19.58 *7.41 0.03 *2.08
Ok Ok *20.7 *7280 *12140 *8.73 1778 *20 *95 *115 0.83 *6005.13 *151.35 850.23 *35.96 *87.64 0.51 *8.84 *39.34 22.53 *0.57 *64.11 *0.11 *47.17 *55.78 0.60 *1.19
Similarly, Table 10 shows, the analysis of Wastewater, generally disposed of in the city. The values of most of the metal ions, such as Chromium, Nickel, Iron, Manganese, Lead and the Zinc are higher than the
recommended concentrations specified by the National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan. The values of TSS, COD and BOD are also very high. All these constituents are identified by an asterisk in the table.
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TABLE 10: WASTE WATER DATA OF SELECTED SITES IN HYDERABAD 2013
Site Quality pH TSS TDS (mg/L) BOD COD Nitrate (NO3-) mg/L (ppm) Sulphate (SO42-) mg/L) (ppm) Sulphide (S2-) NH3 Oil/Grease Chlorine Phenolic compounds (as Phenols) Chloride Fluoride Silver (Ag) µg/l (ppb) Copper (Cu) µg/l (ppb) Nickel (Ni) µg/l (ppb) Zinc (Zn) µg/l (ppb) Iron (Fe) µg/l (ppb) Manganese (Mn) µg/l (ppb) Cobalt (Co) µg/l (ppb) Barium (Ba) µg/l (ppb) Chromium (Cr) µg/l (ppb) Arsenic (As) µg/l (ppb) Selenium (Se) µg/l (ppb) Cadmium (Cd) µg/l (ppb) Mercury (Hg) µg/l (ppb) Lead (pb) µg/l (ppb)
Veterinary Hospital, Hyderabad 8.22 *421 1127 *292 *540 16 254 0.57 27 8 0.41 0.07 724 3.2 0.93 *254.5 *73.54 *35.62 *42.58 *375.20 25.81 423.50 *27.07 12.01 82.14 ND *0.37 *77.68
Sray Ghat,, Hyderabad 8.14 *270 856 *153 *260 8 193 0.42 14 3 *0.62 0.01 496 4.6 1.24 *107.21 *21.79 *115.47 *11.27 *112.16 9.46 93.16 *42.33 2.37 ND *2.39 *0.62 *25.90
Air & Water Pollution in Karachi: Karachi is the port city of Pakistan. It faces the Arabian Sea in the southwest. It the capital of the Province of Sindh; and in terms of population, Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan; and is
also the hub of socioeconomic activity, and industrial outfits. The air and drinking water, as well as the waste water together with industrial effluents are highly polluted. Table 11 depicts the Air Quality of Karachi.
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TABLE 11: AIR QUALITY DATA OF KARACHI
Site Time
Clifton II Chundrigar Garden Police HQ SUPARCO Korangi SITE Area Nazimabad Civic Centre Baloch Colony Karimabad
Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min Mean Max Min
CO (ppm) 2.97 4.66 1.76 3.50 5.2 2.1 3.50 4.6 2 2.95 35 1.7 3.20 4.3 2.3 3.06 4.3 2 3.30 4.1 2.8 3.11 4.4 2.3 3.92 6.2 2.3 3.86 5.2 2.5
CO2 (ppm) 342.85 395 312 309.47 338 38 338.61 375 315 286.98 378 51 446.22 521 398 429.98 524 325 344.43 395 308 348.23 420 325 457.73 507 426 334.37 398 312
Oxides of Nitrogen NO NO2 NOx (ppb) (ppb) (ppb)
44.31 12.86 57.16
89
18
103
25
10
37
20.27 9.86 30.12
43
16
50
-1
5
12
38.85 10.24 49.08
48
19
63
29
5
34
23.12 32.97 56.09
35.3 52.8 73.7
17.4 8.7 32.1
44.31 12.86 57.16
89
18
103
25
10
37
45.66 10.00 55.66
85
16
95
31
5
37
80.41 14.04 94.45
203
19
220
20
7
31
21.91 14.42 36.33
27
26
46
19
10
30
22.66 40.22 62.88
34.6 64.4 84.9
17.1 10.6 33.5
42.49 11.45 53.82
85
16
98
24
6
36
SO2 (ppb) 16.90 25 10 24.74 39 8 26.82 32 16 32.85 51 23 22.11 37 10 25.21 46 8 24.57 41 12 15.69 19 12 35.16 41.9 21 19.92 30 12
Ozone (ppb) 9.18 30 1 15.43 30 6 20.93 38 5 35.46 60 25 29.22 39 20 29.93 236 3 13.28 33 0.8 61.24 76 50 14.37 36 1 14.64 29 6
PM10 (µg/m- 3) 64.06 78 50 81.93 101 65 97.86 128 61 94.34 118 9 82.12 *152 52 119.22 *167 75 94.33 *130 62 4.39 25.7 0.4 99.98 *123 79 117.40 *154 73
PM 2.5 (µg/m3) *26.72 *32 *20 *33.41 *44 *25 *35.79 *50 *26 *30.74 *46 *22 *25.28 *36 *16 *57.53 *130 *20 *62.08 *130 *25 *90.95 *127 *70 *43.94 *67 *24 *69.02 *156 *24
Noise (dB) 56.56 66 50 *68.64 89 54 *69.08 79 55 58.89 72 50 68.18 80 52 67.30 78 52 *68.46 81 55 35.94 55 20 *80.41 149 51 *66.52 79 53
In comparison to Air Quality Standards specified in Table 3, it is observed that in all the sites of Karachi the dB2.5 values related to respirable particulate matter are above the specified acceptable limits. However, the respirable MP10 particulate matter is high in Korangi, Site area, Nazimabad, Baloch colony and Karimabad. This and other studies [6] clearly indicates that Karachi has a serious problem of excessive amounts of traffic emitting smoke through vehicular and industrial sources.
Furthermore the sources of traffic noise in Karachi are also damaging to ears, particularly in areas, such as Chundrigar Road, Garden Police HQ, Nazimabad, Baloch colony and Karimabad Table 12, presents a summary of the drinking and tape water supplied to the residents of Karachi. There are altogether 9 locations, well spread over Karachi, from which the samples were selected.
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TABLE 12: DRINKING / TAP WATER TESTING DATA, KARACHI
Physical Parameters Civic Center Jaccob Lines Sector-33 Korangi Saudabad, Malir Rashedabad North Nazimabad Kemari Bin Qasim Orangi Town
Site
Quality
Chemicals Constituents µg/l (ppb)
Fecal CFU/100 ml Misc. Mg/L (ppm)
Taste Odour Turbidity (NTU) TDS (mg/L) Conductivity (µS/cm) pH Hardness (mg/L) E.Coli Fecal Coliform Total Cliform Flouride Chloride Nitrate Sulphate Arsenic (AS) Barium (Ba) Cadmium (Cd) Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu) Iron Fe) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury(Hg) Nickel (Ni) Selenium (Se) Silver (Ag) Zinc (Zn)
Ok Ok 0.62 542 902 8.02 210 *3 *22 *25 0.7 *305.5 2.57 256.65
Ok Ok 0.44 *1112 *1852 7.36 350 *5 *35 *40 *1.85 *588.1 *125.25 396.4
Ok Ok 0.89 565 942 7.65 201 *8 *65 *73 0.6 *360.6 2.65 267.08
Ok Ok 1.09 802 1335 7.32 411 0 *35 *35 0.42 *424.5 *85.53 332.78
Ok Ok 1.39 412 689 7.24 206 *3 *32 *35 0.58 *256.9 *20.17 335.73
Ok Ok 2.3 556 927 8.25 208 *5 *10 *15 0.53 *340.4 *4.87 245.68
Ok Ok 2.1 515 856 7.68 262 *3 *12 *15 0.42 206.73 *9.03 149.28
Ok Ok 0.92 734 1267 7.8 190 *4 *15 *19 0.48 142.65 1.70 197.38
Ok Ok 1.49 840 1350 7.8 280 *12 *35 *47 0.35 *250.36 2.47 65.47
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND *13.77 *13.06 ND
*51.28 *31.36
*0.74 *0.16
*37.69 ND
*239.61 *291.16
38.33 11.18
*4.07 *0.23
ND *32.50
*0.44 *2.11
*33.28 *6.30
*8.78 *14.03
ND
0.02
*1074.1 *197.58
*46.38 *0.00 ND *31.02 3.98 *0.22 *86.90 *0.55 *2.03 *6.52 ND *21.40
*50.45 *59.12 *36.74 *156.28 *195.53
ND
ND
ND
ND *0.11
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
*158.58 *13.12 *14.55 *115.13 *83.61
3.28 1.31 0.59 11.13 8.43
ND
ND
ND
ND *1.21
*183.01 *152.69 *159.76 *32.60 *28.79
*0.07 *0.19 ND *0.10 *0.18
*92.56 *6.54 ND *7.49 *22.71
*10.81 *7.34 *5.10 *10.18 *6.02
ND
0.78
ND
ND
0.09
*44.37 *5.20 *10.88 *71.93 *39.10
*60.24 *1.11 ND *80.23 5.27 *0.83 *89.68 *0.12 *11.99 *0.89 0.07 *16.22
The presence of Ecoliforms and Arsenic in drinking water supplies are a matter great hygienic concern. The same is true for excessive concentrations of metallic elements. All these are marked b an asterisk in the table. Similar situation is depicted by the analysis of wastewater. The results of the analysis are shown in Table 13. The amounts of BOD, COD, and TSS are exceedingly high. Similarly, the concentrations of metallic elements of
Copper, Chromium, Nickel, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc are also above the acceptable limits. Mostly, the wastewater is discharged directly into the sea. However, some of the effluents are partly treated, while the others are untreated, and eventually find their way to coastal waters. This causes coastal pollution, and degradation of the natural ecosystem of the area.
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TABLE 13: WASTEWATER ANALYSIS OF KARACHI Site
Essa Nagri Rashedabad Quaidabad, Bin Qasim Town Kalaboard, Malir Tow n Muzafrabad Colony Landhi Town Drig Road Shahfaisal Town Power House Chorangi, New Karachi Shadman Town, North Nazmabad Golimar, SITE Ayesha Manzil, Gulberg Town Zaman Town, Korangi Maripor, Kemari Tow n Akhtar Colony, Jamshed Town Islam Chock, Orangi Town
Quality
pH
6.14 8.75 8.42 6.73 8.19 8.36 8.2 7.83 7.95 8.9 6.5 8.53 7.76 8.09
TSS
321 *452 *167 805 245 *521 *193 56 *264 42 89 *158 *203 140
TDS
590 832 478 1284 932 1393 750 802 1077 605 911 620 480 691
BOD
*215 *432 *248 *877 *389 *663 *397 *184 *309 *113 *175 *356 *278 *320
COD
*740 *1570 *670 *3300 *1100 *2250 *1420 *670 *1230 *260 *440 *760 *940 *830
Nitrate (NO3-)
4.6 3.2 8.4 53.7 11.9 25.6 0.9 5.7 14.2 1.6 2.4 9.8 21.5 17.3
Sulphate (SO42-)
217 396 420 *742 187 337 402 156 267 95 59 167 356 240
Sulphide (S2-)
0.81 0.72 0.5 *1.23 *1 0.94 0.65 0.27 0.11 0.13 0.72 0.87 0.7 0.43
NH3
9 11 17 37 *40 25 24 3 6 7 11 15 8 21
Oil/Greace
7 5.4 2.1 *14.2 3.7 *11 6.4 1.7 3 2.9 5.3 1.1 1.8 3.7
Chlorine
0.53 0.16 0.2 0.94 0.71 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.45 0.73 0.17 0.1 0.1 0.24
Phenolic compounds as Phenols
*0.08
*0.13
*0.04
*0.27
*0.1
0.05 0.04 0.07 0.09 0.09 0.08 *0.12 0.07 0.01
Chloride
659 720 503 *2770 *1240 *1510 320 456 720 291 360 624 398 510
Fluoride
1.7 2.4 1.3 5.7 2.1 5.6 0.9 0.83 3.7 1.9 1.2 2.4 1.6 0.4
Silver (Ag)
0.05 2.29 1.07 0.80 0.92 0.02 ND 0.87 0.03 0.35 0.13 0.16 ND ND
Copper (Cu)
*168 *224 *2656 *2786 *2638 *256 *34.9 *40.3 *105 *105 *41. *60. *66.8 *63.
Nickel (Ni)
*9.9 *63. *288. *352.0 *372.5 *58.7 *11.4 *8.55 *50. *30. *20. *21.4 *11.9 *11.
Zinc (Zn)
*103 *109 *1634 *1634 *1747. *173. *170. *24.5 *60. *51. *86. *27.2 *37.5 *34.
Iron (Fe)
*22 *174 *72.93 *205.1 *86.24 *50.1 *22.3 *21.2 *47.4 *39.6 *19.5 *20.1 *10.5 *6.5
Manganes (Mn)
*365 *360 *791.0 *2751. *447.3 *149 *447. *352. *582 *603 *283 *298 *106. *77.0
Cobalt (Co)
8.61 9.55 49.05 49.92 54.42 6.84 1.87 1.86 8.57 4.31 3.76 3.95 2.33 1.06
Barium (Ba)
78.7 294. 1653. 156.7 172.6 99.25 1828 107. 2947 106. 9069 68.6 61.6 51.9
Chromium (Cr)
*133 *834 *2954 *3135 *3338 *2629 *100. *58.1 *124. *127. *102. *100. *53. *37.8
Arsenic (As)
ND 0.59 8.61 8.11 10.19 ND ND ND ND ND 1.35 1.91 ND ND
Selenium (Se)
316. 971. 751.1 589.4 615.5 289.4 842. 1054 674. 540. 922. 891. 596. 404.
Cadmium (Cd)
*5.0 *1.6 *5.74 *8.18 *10.6 *6.58 *6.46 *9.9 *7.9 *1.8 *2.8 *3.2 *5.25 *2.7
Mercury (Hg)
*2.2 *2.62 *4.28 *4.41 *4.61. *1.57 *1.48 *7.38 *1.08 *1.9 *1.4 *1.4 *0.35 *1.75
Lead (Pb)
*124 *66.0 *189.8 *224.0 *226.2 *28.2 *15.3 *9.08 *20.7 *34. *14. *10. *8.49 *36.3
The above analysis reveals that there is a mix up of municipal and industrial wastewaters in the sewerage system of Karachi. The high concentration of metallic elements signifies closeness to metal extraction industries, as well as processing of the famous leather tanneries in Karachi. 6. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS This paper, which is essentially based on the secondary data collected from reliable and authentic sources of information, scattered in files of relevant organizations; and draws conclusions on the quality of environmental pollution in the light of National and World Standards. All kinds of pollution, witnessed in Sindh, are also common in many parts of Pakistan [9]. Suggestions for remedies for this nuisance are well spread in the
international literature. For Hyderabad and Karachi, which are polluted to various degrees of deleterious elements, are of particular interest in both the places, it is pertinent to keep the air clean, devoid of excessive amounts of respirable particulate matter, and other harmful pollutants. Reducing annual average particulate matter (PM10) concentrations from levels of 70 µg/m3, to the WHO guideline level of 20 µg/m3, could reduce air pollution-related deaths by around 15%. Furthermore, this would also reduce emissions of CO2, the greenhouse gas, which traps the heat; and is the chief cause of climate change. It may be noted that the main source of this gas is manifested by coal power generating plants, which are the biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions. Limitation of particulate matter and the control of green house gases will also make progress for development
QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY RESEARCH JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, VOLUME 13, No. 1, JAN-JUN. 2014 13
goals related to sustainable development in cities and the energy sector. In this regard, WHO has projected reduction in air pollution indicators as markers of development; and further suggests on sharing information on successful approaches, on methods of exposure assessment and monitoring of health impacts of pollution. The same needs adherence in all parts of Pakistan. Attention should, also be focused on the nuisance of harmful noise in some areas. The effect of noise varies according to working environment, in a particular area. However, some people or more sensitive than others. Normal conversation is about 55 dB. In general sounds above 85 are harmful. The severity depends on how long and how often one is exposed to them. In commercial and industrial area, the noise level ought to be restricted between 65 and 75 dB; and these limits must not be exceeded. The drinking water ought to be hygienically safe. It should be free from Ecoliform bacteria, excessive amounts of Nitrates, Chlorides, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Manganese, Mercury Nickel, Selenium, Zinc and so forth. The wastewater including industrial waste should be treated, and the deleterious substances be removed before disposing off the effluent. The municipal wastewater, after treatment can be used for gardening, tree plantation or agriculture. However, under no circumstances, the industrials effluents should be directly disposed of into the sea. It is recommended that in order to circumvent some of the environmental concerns, efforts must be made to legislate and implement regulations in this context. However, in adverse conditions, the latest National Standards of Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency should be followed. But, in the absence of specific standards in this regard, the guidelines of World Health Organization, and/or United States Environmental Protection Agency should be consulted for further guidance. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author gratefully acknowledges the help provided by Space & Upper Atmosphere Research Committee (SUPARCO), National Environmental Information Management System (NEIMS), and many other agencies, in sharing the data on chemical analyses, for the research, on environmental pollution, conducted at Isra University, Hyderabad. REFERENCES [1] Abbasi, A.A., Marri, H.B. and Nebhwani, M. (2010) Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile industries: An empirical study. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. 30 (1), pp. 35-44.
[2] Ahmed (1998) Environmental Engineering Laboratories. A-One Publishers, Lahore, Pakistan. [3] Ejaz, N., Hashmi, N. H., Ghumman, A. R. (2011) Water quality assessment of effluent receiving streams in Pakistan: A case study of River Ravi. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. 30(3), pp.383-396. [4] Hutton, G. (2011) Air Pollution: Global Damage Costs of Air Pollution from 1900 to 2050. Copenhagen Consensus on Human Challenges, Copenhagen Consensus Centre, Denmark. [5] Kazi, A. (2014) A review of the assessment and mitigation of Floods in Sindh, Pakistan. Natural Hazards, Vol. 7(1), pp. 839-864. [6] Khan, M. W., Memon, M. A., Khan, M. N. and Khan M. A. (2010): Traffic noise pollution in Karachi. Pakistan. Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Vol. 9(3), pp. 114-120. [7] Metcalf and eddy, Inc. (1991) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse. McGraw-Hill Education, New York. [8] PEPA (2010) National Environmental Quality Standards for Ambient Air, Drinking Water Quality and Noise. Pakistan Environmental Protection Council, Islamabad, Pakistan. [9] PEPA (2013) Position Paper for Environmental Quality Standards of Noise in Pakistan. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Islamabad, Pakistan. [10] Shiklomanov, I. (1993). Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resource. Oxford University Press, New York. [11] UNEP (2002) Vital Water Graphics: An Overview of the State of the World's Fresh and Marine Water. United Nations Environmental Programme, Nairobi, Kenya. [12] US EPA (2009) Air Quality Index. Office of the Air Quality and Standards Outreach and Information Division, Triangle Park, North Carolina. [13] US EPA (2012) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). United States Environmental Protection Agency. Washington. [14] WHO (1980) Recommendations of Noise Exposure Limits: Environmental Health Criteria. Division of Environmental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. [15] WHO (2014) Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health, Fact sheet No 313. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. [16] Yao Mu and Xinzhi Mu (2013) Energy conservation in the Earth's crust and climate change. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 63(2), pp150­160. [17] WWW.Wikipedia (2014) Atmosphere of the Earth.
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