Areas with concentrated poverty: 2006-2010, A Bishaw

Tags: American Community Survey, census tracts, poverty rates, Category III, U.S. Census Bureau, proportion, poverty areas, West Virginia, South Carolina, New Hampshire, geographic areas, Margin of error, poverty rate, population, Census Bureau, families, annual family income, socioeconomic characteristics, living in poverty, target poverty areas, poverty thresholds, poverty threshold, Family Income, New Mexico, Federal Reserve System, New Jersey, poverty status, Percent error, money income, category IV, error Estimates, Concentrated Poverty, poverty levels, tracts, family, 20 percent
Content: Areas With Concentrated Poverty: 2006­2010 American Community Survey Briefs
People living in poverty tend to be clustered in certain neighborhoods rather than being evenly distributed across geographic areas. Measuring this concentration of poverty is important because researchers have found that living in areas with many other poor people places burdens on low-income families beyond what the families' own individual circumstances would dictate. Many argue that this concentration of poverty results in higher crime rates, underperforming public schools, poor housing and health conditions, as well as limited access to private services and job opportunities.1 In recognition of these burdens, some government programs target resources to communities with concentrated poverty. Many of these programs use the Census Bureau's definition of "poverty areas" (census tracts with poverty rates of 20 percent or more).2 Using the 5-year poverty rate estimates from the American Community Survey (ACS), this report analyzes demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of census tracts by categorizing the tracts into four categories based on their 1 See for example, The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: case studies from Communities across the U.S.A., A joint Project of the Community Affairs Offices of the Federal Reserve System and the Metropolitan Policy Program at the Brookings Institution. (Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, 2008). 2 For example, the developmental disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in Section 103(a) allows Basic State Grant projects whose activities or products target poverty areas to receive as much as 90 percent in federal support and the New Market Tax Credit (NMTC) program, enacted in December 2000 as part of the Community Renewal Tax Relief Act, defines eligibility as projects in census tracts with a poverty rate of at least 20 percent.
poverty rate levels.3 Category I includes census tracts with poverty rates less than 13.8 percent.4 Category II includes those with poverty rates of 13.8 percent to 19.9 percent. Category III includes those with poverty rates of 20.0 percent to 39.9 percent, and Category IV includes those tracts with poverty rates of 40.0 percent or more. Like previous census publications, in this report census tracts with poverty rates of 20 percent or more (tracts in category III and category IV) are referred to as "poverty areas." This report is an update of the special reports on areas with concentrated poverty, prepared to show the distributions and characteristics of the U.S. population by the levels of poverty of the census tracts in which they live. The previous two reports used data collected using the long forms of the 1990 and 2000 decennial censuses. Table 1 shows the distribution of people in census tracts by poverty levels for the nation, regions, and states and the District of Columbia. Figure 1 displays the proportion of people living in poverty areas (tracts with poverty rates of 20 percent or higher) by state. 3 The ACS collects and releases data by calendar year for geographic areas that meet specific population thresholds. One-year estimates are published for areas with populations of 65,000 or more, 3-year estimates for populations of 20,000 or more, and 5-year estimates for populations of almost any size. ACS 1-, 3-, and 5-year estimates are period estimates, which mean they represent the characteristics of the population and housing over a specific data collection period. Data are combined to produce 12 months, 36 months, or 60 months of data. 4 According to the 5-year ACS, the poverty rate for all people in the United States was 13.8 percent.
Issued December 2011 ACSBR/10-17 By Alemayehu Bishaw
U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Table 1. Distribution of People in Census Tracts by Poverty Levels and by State: 2006­2010
Area
All census tracts Margin of Number error (±)
U.S. total . . . . . 296,141,149 14,444 In poverty. . . . . 40,917,513 273,616
Category I (Less than 13.8%)
Margin of Percent error (±)
61.4
0.1
30.6
0.1
Category II (13.8­19.9%)
Margin of Percent error (±)
16.0
0.1
19.2
0.1
Category III (20.0­39.9%)
Margin of Percent error (±)
19.1
0.1
37.8
0.1
Category IV (40.0% or more)
Margin of Percent error (±)
3.5
0.1
12.4
0.1
Regions
Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . 53,322,411
4,205
70.5
0.1
11.1
0.1
14.9
0.1
3.4
0.1
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . 64,729,840
4,996
66.2
0.1
14.8
0.1
15.4
0.1
3.7
0.1
South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109,078,089
6,958
53.7
0.1
18.9
0.1
23.4
0.1
4.0
0.1
West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69,010,809
6,114
62.2
0.1
16.2
0.1
19.1
0.1
2.5
0.1
States
Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . 4,596,836
1,125
45.3
0.1
22.7
0.1
27.3
0.1
4.7
0.1
Alaska. . . . . . . . . . . . .
674,801
600
76.9
0.4
14.9
0.4
8.2
0.2
­
­
Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,110,304
1,960
57.4
0.1
14.5
0.1
22.9
0.1
5.2
0.1
Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . 2,790,794
1,253
39.4
0.1
24.2
0.2
32.0
0.2
4.4
0.1
California. . . . . . . . . . . 35,877,036
3,983
61.1
0.1
15.7
0.1
20.5
0.1
2.6
0.1
Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . 4,773,303
1,113
65.3
0.1
14.5
0.1
18.5
0.1
1.7
0.1
Connecticut. . . . . . . . . 3,434,901
939
78.9
0.1
9.6
0.1
8.8
0.1
2.7
0.1
Delaware. . . . . . . . . . .
856,004
460
73.2
0.3
17.4
0.3
7.9
0.2
1.6
0.1
District of Columbia. . .
551,331
292
47.8
0.4
17.5
0.4
26.5
0.4
8.2
0.3
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,107,049
2,209
61.2
0.1
18.4
0.1
17.8
0.1
2.6
0.1
Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . 9,204,793
1,852
52.3
0.1
18.2
0.1
26.0
0.1
3.5
0.1
Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,298,918
675
79.2
0.3
10.0
0.2
9.8
0.2
1.0
0.1
Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,496,581
701
59.0
0.2
26.9
0.2
12.6
0.2
1.6
0.1
Illinois. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,439,981
1,554
67.4
0.1
13.7
0.1
15.5
0.1
3.4
0.1
Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,219,801
1,705
63.5
0.1
16.3
0.1
17.3
0.1
2.9
0.1
Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,916,252
1,019
71.8
0.1
15.0
0.1
11.9
0.1
1.3
0.1
Kansas. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,725,175
949
68.0
0.1
15.3
0.1
14.6
0.1
2.1
0.1
Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . 4,157,077
1,299
42.9
0.1
20.4
0.1
32.2
0.2
4.4
0.1
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . . 4,302,475
1,008
45.4
0.2
19.0
0.1
28.9
0.1
6.6
0.1
Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,291,988
555
65.0
0.2
20.1
0.1
13.9
0.2
1.0
0.1
Maryland. . . . . . . . . . . 5,557,115
1,492
82.3
0.1
8.7
0.1
8.0
0.1
1.0
0.1
Massachusetts. . . . . . . 6,253,462
1,278
75.1
0.1
9.2
0.1
13.6
0.1
2.1
0.1
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . 9,726,785
1,521
61.3
0.1
14.7
0.1
18.3
0.1
5.7
0.1
Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . 5,119,104
873
77.2
0.1
11.0
0.1
9.2
0.1
2.7
0.1
Mississippi. . . . . . . . . . 2,845,365
962
29.1
0.2
25.2
0.2
36.6
0.2
9.1
0.1
Missouri. . . . . . . . . . . . 5,744,590
1,391
58.6
0.1
19.8
0.1
18.7
0.1
2.9
0.1
Montana. . . . . . . . . . . .
949,414
594
54.7
0.2
24.6
0.3
19.6
0.2
1.1
0.1
Nebraska. . . . . . . . . . . 1,744,704
764
70.1
0.2
16.0
0.1
12.4
0.1
1.6
0.1
Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,594,953
923
69.1
0.2
14.1
0.2
15.2
0.2
1.6
0.1
New Hampshire. . . . . . 1,273,957
577
86.4
0.2
8.6
0.1
4.5
0.1
0.5
0.1
New Jersey. . . . . . . . . 8,544,303
1,395
80.0
0.1
7.9
0.1
10.4
0.1
1.7
0.1
New Mexico. . . . . . . . . 1,970,838
842
39.8
0.2
22.3
0.2
33.6
0.2
4.3
0.1
New York. . . . . . . . . . . 18,710,113
2,408
62.2
0.1
13.1
0.1
19.9
0.1
4.8
0.1
North Carolina. . . . . . . 9,013,443
1,647
51.0
0.1
22.3
0.1
23.4
0.1
3.3
0.1
North Dakota. . . . . . . .
636,048
356
72.1
0.2
13.9
0.2
12.0
0.2
2.0
0.1
Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,199,642
1,889
63.1
0.1
14.5
0.1
17.4
0.1
5.0
0.1
Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . 3,559,437
1,143
46.2
0.2
23.7
0.1
27.3
0.2
2.7
0.1
Oregon. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,688,745
1,131
56.0
0.2
24.2
0.1
18.4
0.1
1.4
0.1
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . 12,199,544
1,948
70.6
0.1
11.3
0.1
14.0
0.1
4.1
0.1
Rhode Island. . . . . . . . 1,014,029
440
72.5
0.2
5.8
0.2
19.3
0.2
2.4
0.1
South Carolina. . . . . . . 4,369,147
1,000
47.4
0.2
21.2
0.2
27.7
0.2
3.6
0.1
South Dakota. . . . . . . .
771,100
483
64.0
0.2
18.7
0.2
11.9
0.3
5.5
0.1
Tennessee. . . . . . . . . . 6,075,066
1,579
47.7
0.1
21.9
0.1
26.1
0.1
4.3
0.1
Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,707,679
2,678
50.2
0.1
17.2
0.1
26.6
0.1
6.0
0.1
Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,613,440
707
76.5
0.1
11.1
0.1
10.1
0.1
2.3
0.1
Vermont. . . . . . . . . . . .
600,114
338
74.6
0.2
15.9
0.2
8.5
0.2
1.1
0.1
Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,595,386
1,493
74.4
0.1
13.7
0.1
10.3
0.1
1.7
0.1
Washington. . . . . . . . . 6,430,231
1,573
67.6
0.1
16.0
0.1
14.9
0.1
1.6
0.1
West Virginia. . . . . . . . 1,789,092
785
37.0
0.2
32.0
0.2
28.6
0.2
2.4
0.1
Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . 5,486,658
1,381
73.7
0.1
13.3
0.1
9.7
0.1
3.3
0.1
Wyoming. . . . . . . . . . .
532,245
409
79.2
0.4
13.5
0.3
7.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
­ Represents or rounds to zero. Note: Details may not sum to totals due to rounding. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006­2010 American Community Survey.
2
U.S. Census Bureau
Figure 1.
AK
Percentage of the People Living in Poverty Areas
by State: 2006­2010
WA OR ID
MT WY
NV
UT
CA
CO
AZ NM
ND MN
SD
WI
NE KS
IA IL MO
OK TX
AR MS LA
NH ME VT
NY
MA
MI
PA
IN
OH
WV VA KY
RI CT NJ DE MD DC
NC
TN
SC
Percentage of people living
AL
GA
in poverty areas
Less than 10.0
10.0 to 19.9
20.0 to 29.9
FL
30.0 or more
HI Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006­2010 American Community Survey.
Geographic Distribution About 77.4 percent (229.2 million) of the 296.1 million people in the United States resided in census tracts with poverty rates less than 20.0 percent, while 22.6 percent (67 million) lived in poverty areas (tracts with poverty rates of 20.0 percent or more).5, 6 On the other 5 The estimates in this report (which may be shown in text, tables, and figures) are based on responses from a sample of the population and may differ from actual values because of sampling variability or other factors. As a result, apparent differences between the estimates for two or more groups may not be statistically significant. All comparative statements have undergone statistical testing and are significant at the 90 percent confidence level unless otherwise noted. 6 According to the 2010 Census, the total U.S. population count was 308.7 million. The 2006­2010 American Community Survey 5-year data estimated the total U.S. population at 304.0 million people, of which 296.1 million were included in the poverty universe.
hand, approximately half of the people in poverty (50.2 percent) lived in poverty areas. Table 1 summarizes the percent of the total population living in each category by state.7 Regionally, the Northeast had the largest proportion (70.5 percent) of people residing in category I tracts, followed by the Midwest (66.2 7 Of the 72,254 total number of census tracts, 42,383 are in category I, 11,574 are in category II, 14,823 in category III, and 3,474 in category IV.
percent).8 In the West and South, 62.2 percent and 53.7 percent of the population resided in such low poverty tracts, respectively. On the other hand, the South had a larger proportion of people (27.4 percent) living in poverty areas than any other region, followed by the West (21.6 percent). 8 The Northeast region includes the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The Midwest region includes the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The South region includes the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, a state equivalent. The West region includes the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
U.S. Census Bureau
3
The Midwest and Northeast had 19.0 percent and 18.4 percent of the population residing in poverty areas, respectively. At the state level, the distribution of people residing in tracts by category varies widely. The proportion of people living in tracts with low poverty (category I) ranged from approximately 86.4 percent in New Hampshire to 29.1 percent in Mississippi. In 10 states (Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Utah, and Wyoming), more than three-fourths of the population resided in census tracts with poverty rates less than 13.8 percent. In ten other states, (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia) and the District of Columbia, less than half the population resided in tracts with low poverty rates (category I). The proportion of people residing in poverty areas (category III and category IV) ranged from 45.7 percent in Mississippi to 5.0 percent in New Hampshire. Although Mississippi had the largest proportion of people residing in poverty areas (45.7 percent), in 14 other states and the District of Columbia, more than one-fourth of the population resided in tracts with poverty rates of 20 percent or more.9 Among the states with the lowest percent of people residing in poverty areas, six states (Alaska, Delaware, Maryland, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Wyoming) 9 Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia had more than 25 percent of their population reside in tracts in categories III and IV.
had less than 10 percent of the population living in such areas. Table 2 shows the distribution of people, families, and households in census tracts by poverty level and selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Figure 2 shows the distribution of people by poverty level, race, and ethnic origin. Since it is not feasible to produce a readable tract level U.S. map in this report, like in previous reports, the District of Columbia is used as an example to demonstrate the distribution of economically diversified population within city boundaries (Figure 3). Age Composition According to the ACS 5-year estimate, children under age 18 made up 24.6 percent of the total population, while adults 18 to 64 years old made up 62.8 percent and people 65 years and older made up 12.6 percent. Table 2 shows that age group distributions among the different categories vary considerably. The proportion of children in category IV tracts was higher (28.9 percent), compared with the proportions in categories III and II (26.4 percent and 24.1 percent), respectively. Children made up less than one-fourth (23.9 percent) of the total population in category I and category II. Conversely, the proportion of people 65 years and older was larger in tracts with lower poverty rates as compared with tracts with higher poverty rates. The proportion of older people in category I (13.3 percent) was higher than the proportion in other categories.
People in Poverty Nationally, 13.8 percent of the U.S. population was in poverty, according to the estimate from the 5-year ACS data. The proportion of people living in poverty varied across categories. Nearly half (49.0 percent) of the 10.3 million people residing in category IV tracts lived in poverty, while a little more than a quarter (27.3 percent) of the 56.6 million in category III were in poverty. The proportions of people in poverty in categories I and II were 6.9 percent and 16.7 percent, respectively. Race and Ethnic Origin As shown in Table 2, the racial composition of the U.S. population was 74.2 percent White, 12.3 percent Black, 0.8 percent American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.7 percent Asian, 0.2 percent of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander, and 5.5 percent of Some Other Race. Approximately 2.4 percent of people reported Two or More Races. Hispanics, who can be of any race, comprised 15.8 percent of the total population.10 10 Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or singlerace concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-incombination concept). The body of this report (text, figures, and tables) shows data using the first approach (race alone). Use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches.
4
U.S. Census Bureau
Table 2. Distribution of People, Families, and Households by Poverty Level of Census Tracts and Other Selected Characterisitics:1 2006­2010
Characteristics PEOPLE United States. . . . . . . . .
Category I (Less than 13.8%)
Margin
of error
Estimates
(±)
61.4
0.1
Category II (13.8­19.9%)
Margin
of error
Estimates
(±)
16.0 0.1
Category III (20.0­39.9%)
Margin
of error
Estimates
(±)
19.1 0.1
Category IV (40.0% or more)
Margin
of error
Estimates
(±)
Total
Margin
of error
Estimates
(±)
3.5 0.1 296,141,149 14,444
Region
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181,881,914
Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.7
Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.6
South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.2
West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.6
56,537 47,305,181
0.1
12.5
0.1
20.2
0.1
43.6
0.1
23.6
43,430 56,644,210
0.1
14.1
0.1
17.6
0.1
45.1
0.1
23.3
54,200 10,309,844
0.1
17.7
0.1
23.1
0.1
42.5
0.1
16.7
24,495 296,141,149
0.1
18.0
0.1
21.9
0.1
36.8
0.1
23.3
14,444 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Age
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181,881,914
Under 18 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.9
18 to 64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62.8
65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3
56,537 47,305,181
0.1
24.1
0.1
63.0
0.1
12.9
43,430 56,644,210
0.1
26.4
0.1
62.5
0.1
11.1
54,200 10,309,844
0.1
28.9
0.1
62.6
0.1
8.5
24,495 296,141,149
0.1
24.6
0.1
62.8
0.1
12.6
14,444 0.1 0.1 0.1
Educational Attainment
Population 25 years
and older. . . . . . . . . . . 124,298,726
Less than high school, no
diploma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6
High school, diploma. . . . . . . . . . .
26.8
Some college/no degree. . . . . . . .
21.1
Associate's degree . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2
Bachelor's degree or higher. . . . . .
34.2
36,788 31,313,635 28,442 35,092,898 36,690
0.1
18.2 0.1
25.9 0.1
0.1
32.6 0.1
32.4 0.1
0.1
21.1 0.1
19.4 0.1
0.1
7.3 0.1
6.2 0.1
0.1
20.8 0.1
16.2 0.1
5,472,401 15,141 196,177,660 18,393
34.0 0.2 31.1 0.2 17.3 0.1 4.8 0.1 12.8 0.1
14.6
0.1
28.8
0.1
20.7
0.1
7.6
0.1
28.3
0.1
Race and Hispanic Origin
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181,881,914
White alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81.0
White, not Hispanic . . . . . . . . . .
74.4
Black alone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2
American Indian and Alaska
Native alone (AIAN). . . . . . . . . . .
0.5
Asian alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific
Islander alone (NHPI). . . . . . . . .
0.2
Some Other Race alone . . . . . . . .
3.4
Two or More Races. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Hispanic (any race). . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7
56,537 47,305,181
0.1
73.2
0.1
62.1
0.1
13.0
43,430 56,644,210
0.1
58.8
0.1
43.3
0.1
23.3
54,200 10,309,844
0.1
43.0
0.1
26.3
0.1
38.1
24,495 296,141,149
0.2
74.2
0.1
64.8
0.1
12.3
14,444 0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1
0.9 0.1
1.5 0.1
2.1 0.1
0.1
3.6 0.1
3.4 0.1
3.2 0.1
0.8
0.1
4.7
0.1
0.1
0.2 0.1
0.2 0.1
0.1 0.1
0.1
6.6 0.1
10.2 0.1
11.1 0.1
0.1
2.5 0.1
2.6 0.1
2.4 0.1
0.1
18.7 0.1
27.2 0.1
29.5 0.1
0.2
0.1
5.5
0.1
2.4
0.1
15.8
0.1
Poverty
Poverty universe1 . . . . . 181,881,914
Not in poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93.1
In poverty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9
56,537 47,305,181 43,430 56,644,210 54,200 10,309,844 24,495 296,141,149 14,444
0.1
83.4 0.1
72.7 0.1
51.0 0.1
86.2
0.1
0.1
16.7 0.1
27.3 0.1
49.0 0.1
13.8
0.1
Work Experience
Civilan population in
labor force 16 years
and older. . . . . . . . . . . 98,212,314
Worked full-time, year-round. . . . .
65.0
Worked less than full-time, year-
round. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32.7
Did not work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
See footnote at end of table.
40,196 24,227,261 38,201 27,090,654 53,323
0.1
61.8 0.1
58.0 0.1
0.1
34.8 0.1
37.1 0.1
0.1
3.4 0.1
4.8 0.1
4,327,616 17,693 153,857,845 102,651
46.7 0.2
62.8
0.1
45.9 0.2 7.4 0.1
34.2
0.1
3.1
0.1
U.S. Census Bureau
5
Table 2. Distribution of People, Families, and Households by Poverty Level of Census Tracts and Other Selected Characterisitics:1 2006­2010--Con.
Category I (Less than 13.8%)
Category II (13.8­19.9%)
Category III (20.0­39.9%)
Characteristics
Margin
Margin
Margin
of error
of error
of error
Estimates
(±) Estimates
(±) Estimates
(±)
FAMILIES
Family Type
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,931,859 124,722 11,969,590 44,835 13,271,205 58,416
Married-couple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80.4
0.2
70.7 0.2
59.9 0.2
Male householder, no spouse
present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7
0.1
8.0 0.1
9.6 0.1
Female householder, no spouse
present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.9
0.1
21.4 0.1
30.5 0.1
Category IV (40.0% or more)
Margin
of error
Estimates
(±)
2,081,664 11,447 43.2 0.3 10.6 0.2 46.2 0.2
Total
Margin
of error
Estimates
(±)
76,254,318 230,785
74.3
0.2
6.8
0.1
18.9
0.1
Family Income
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,931,859 124,722 11,969,590 44,835 13,271,205 58,416
No income. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.4
0.1
0.9 0.1
1.6 0.1
Under $10,000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8
0.1
4.6 0.1
8.1 0.1
$10,000 to $29,999. . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5
0.1
20.8 0.1
28.8 0.2
$30,000 to $49,999. . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1
0.1
22.5 0.1
23.0 0.1
$50,000 to $99,999. . . . . . . . . . . .
37.0
0.1
35.1 0.1
28.2 0.1
$100,000 or higher . . . . . . . . . . . .
34.3
0.1
16.0 0.1
10.3 0.1
2,081,664 11,447 3.1 0.1 16.9 0.2 38.9 0.3 19.1 0.2 16.9 0.2 5.0 0.1
76,254,318 230,785
0.8
0.1
3.7
0.1
16.1
0.1
18.4
0.1
34.6
0.1
26.5
0.1
Number of Children in Family
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,931,859 124,722 11,969,590 44,835 13,271,205 58,416
No children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55.2
0.1
54.9 0.1
51.0 0.1
1 or 2 children. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36.6
0.2
36.0 0.2
37.4 0.2
3 or 4 children. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7
0.1
8.4 0.1
10.5 0.1
5 or more children. . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5
0.1
0.7 0.1
1.1 0.1
2,081,664 11,447 44.7 0.2 38.7 0.3 14.2 0.2 2.4 0.1
76,254,318 230,785
54.1
0.1
36.7
0.2
8.5
0.1
0.7
0.1
HOUSEHOLDS
Tenure
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,481,047 120,635 18,591,314 50,080 21,397,812 68,835
Owned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74.8
0.2
62.1 0.2
49.7 0.2
Rented. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25.2
0.2
37.9 0.2
50.3 0.2
3,765,823 15,920 114,235,996 248,114
31.1 0.2
66.6
0.2
68.9 0.2
33.4
0.2
Food Stamps
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,481,047 120,635 18,591,314 50,080 21,397,812 68,835
Receiving food stamp/SNAP. . . . .
4.7
0.1
11.3 0.1
18.7 0.1
Not receiving food stamp/SNAP . .
95.3
0.1
88.7 0.1
81.3 0.1
3,765,823 15,920 114,235,996 248,114
30.7 0.2
9.3
0.1
69.3 0.2
90.7
0.1
1 poverty status is determined for individuals in housing units and noninstitutional group quarters. The poverty universe excludes children under age 15 who are not related to the householder, people living in institutional group quarters, and people living in college dormitories or military barracks. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006­2010 American Community Survey.
Whites and Asians were more likely to live in tracts with lower poverty rates than in tracts with higher poverty rates. In contrast, Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, and those reporting "Other Races" were over-represented in tracts with higher poverty rates and under-represented in tracts with lower poverty rates. Of the 181.9 million people living in category I tracts, 81.0 percent
were White, 7.2 percent were Black, 5.5 percent Asian, 3.4 percent were of Some Other Race, and 2.3 percent Two or More Races. Hispanics, who can be of any race, made up 10.7 percent of category I population. Of the 10.3 million people residing in category IV tracts, 43.0 percent were White, 38.1 percent Black, 3.2 percent Asian, 11.1 percent were Some Other Race, and 2.4 percent reported Two or More Races. Figure 2 shows the
distribution of people by specific race, ethnic origin, and categories. Among the races, Asians have the largest proportion (71.4 percent) of people residing in category I tracts, followed by Whites (67.1 percent). Blacks have the smallest proportion of people (36.0 percent) living in this category. The proportion of Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, and people reporting Some Other Race
6
U.S. Census Bureau
Figure 2. Distribution of People by Race and Ethnicity and by Poverty Level of Tracts: 2010 (Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/acs/www/)
Category-I
Percent
100
2.0
90
15.2
80 15.8 70
60
10.8 36.3
Category-II 2.3 9.1 14.0
35.7
12.3
Category-III
2.7 20.2 16.8
7.1 35.6
Category-IV
3.4 20.7 16.6
6.5 32.9
3.5 19.1 16.0
50
40
67.1
30
20
16.9 36.0
18.7 36.6
71.4
60.3
19.2 38.1
59.3
18.9 41.7
61.4
10
0 White alone
Black alone
American Indian and Alaska Native alone
Asian alone
Native Hawaiian Some
and Other
Other
Pacific Race alone
Islander alone
Two or
Hispanic
More Races (of any race)
All people
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006­2010.
living in poverty areas were 47.1 percent, 44.8 percent, and 42.7 percent, respectively. These racial groups had higher proportions of individuals living in poverty areas than other groups. Asians (16.3 percent) and Whites (17.2 percent) had smaller proportions of people residing in these areas. Educational Attainment Nationally, of the 196.2 million people aged 25 years or older, approximately 35.9 percent had at least an associate's degree,
while 20.7 percent had some college education but no degree, 28.8 percent completed high school, and 14.6 percent had less than a high school education. The composition of educational attainment varies across categories. As Table 2 shows, the proportion of people with at least an associate's degree ranged from 42.4 percent in category I tracts to 17.6 percent in category IV tracts. The proportion with less than a high school diploma varied from 9.6 percent
in category I tracts to more than one-third (34.0 percent) of people in category IV tracts. Of the 35 million people residing in category III tracts, one in four (25.9 percent) did not complete high school, compared with one in three (34.0 percent) among the 5.5 million individuals living in category IV tracts. Work Experience Nationally, of the civilian population 16 years and older in the labor force, 62.8 percent worked fulltime, year-round in the past year,
U.S. Census Bureau
7
Figure 3. Percentage of People in Poverty in the Past 12 Months for the District of Columbia by Census Tract: 2006­2010 Maryland
Virginia
Percentage of people living below poverty level 40.0 or more 20.0 to 39.9 13.9 to 19.9 Less than 13.8 No data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006­2010 American Community Survey. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see .
34.2 percent worked part-time, and 3.1 percent did not work at all. Table 2 shows that larger proportion of people in category I (65.0 percent) had worked full-time, yearround as compared with the proportions in other categories. The proportions in category II, category
III, and category IV were 61.8 percent, 58.0 percent, and 46.7 percent, respectively. Category IV had a higher proportion of people who did not work at all (7.4 percent) compared with other categories.
Types of Family Approximately 74.3 percent of 76.3 million U.S. families were marriedCouple families. The proportions of families with male householder, no spouse present and female householder, no spouse present were 6.8 percent and 18.9 percent, respectively. More than one-half of the families in categories I, II, and III were married-couple families while only 43.2 percent of families in category IV tracts were married couples. Female householder families represented about 14 percent of families in category I tracts, but 46.2 percent of families in category IV tracts. Number of Children in Family Among family households in the United States, more than one-half (54.1 percent) did not have children living with them. More than onethird (36.7 percent) of families had 1 or 2 children, and 9.2 percent had 3 or more children living in the family. In categories with low levels of poverty, the proportion of families with no children was higher than in the categories with high levels of poverty. The proportion of families with no children was 55.2 percent in category I, 54.9 percent in category II, 51.0 percent in category III, and 44.7 percent in category IV. In categories with high levels of poverty the proportion of families with 3 or more children was greater than in categories with lower poverty levels. The proportion of families with 3 or more children was higher in category IV (16.6 percent) than in category III (11.6 percent), category II (9.1 percent), and category I (8.2 percent).
8
U.S. Census Bureau
How Poverty Is Measured Poverty status is determined by comparing annual income to a set of dollar values called poverty thresholds that vary by family size, number of children, and age of householder. If a family's before tax money income is less than the dollar value of their threshold, then that family and every individual in it are considered to be in poverty. For people not living in families, poverty status is determined by comparing the individual's income to his or her poverty threshold. The poverty thresholds are updated annually to allow for changes in the cost of living using the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U). They do not vary geographically. The ACS is a continuous survey and people respond throughout the year. Since income is reported for the previous 12 months, the appropriate poverty threshold for each family is determined by multiplying the base-year poverty threshold (1982) by the average of monthly CPI values for the 12 months preceding the survey month. For more information, see "How Poverty Is Calculated in the ACS" at .
Family Income Approximately 4.5 percent of all U.S. families had an annual family income of less than $10,000, 34.5 percent had between $10,000 to less than $50,000, and 61.1 percent had $50,000 or more annually. The data in Table 2 reveals considerable differences among the categories in the distribution of people by family income. In category I, about 70 percent of the people had annual family income of $50,000 or more. The proportion of people with income above $50,000 was 51.1 percent, 38.5 percent, and 21.9 percent in categories II, III, and IV, respectively. Compared with other categories, significantly higher proportion of families in category IV (20.0 percent) had annual family income below $10,000. The proportion of families with income less than $10,000 for families in categories I, II, and III were 2.2 percent, 5.5 percent, and 9.7 percent, respectively.
Tenure According to the 5-year ACS data, 66.6 percent of the estimated 114.2 million occupied housing units in the United States were owned by residents, while 33.4 percent were rented. Among the different tract categories, the proportion of homeowners ranged from 74.8 percent in category I to 31.1 percent in category IV. Owners comprised about 62.1 percent and 49.7 percent of the total occupied housing units in category II and category III, respectively. Food Stamp/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Benefits (SNAP) Of the total 114.2 million occupied U.S. households, 9.3 percent received food stamp/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This proportion varies considerably by categories. Tracts in category IV had the largest proportion (30.7 percent) of people who received food
stamp/SNAP benefits compared with category I (4.7 percent), category II (11.3 percent), and category III (18.7 percent). Source and Accuracy Data presented in this report are based on people and households that responded to the ACS between 2006 and 2010. The resulting estimates are representative of the entire population. All comparisons presented in this report have taken sampling error into account and are significant at the 90 percent confidence level unless otherwise noted. Due to rounding, some details may not sum to totals. For information on sampling and estimation methods, confidentiality protection, and sampling and nonsampling errors, please see the 2010 ACS Accuracy of the Data document located at .
U.S. Census Bureau
9
What Is the American Community Survey? The American Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide survey designed to provide communities with reliable and timely demographic, social, economic, and housing data for the nation, states, congressional districts, counties, places, and other localities every year. It has an annual sample size of about 3 million addresses across the United States and Puerto Rico and includes both housing units and group quarters (e.g., nursing facilities and prisons). The ACS is conducted in every county throughout the nation, and every municipio in Puerto Rico, where it is called the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Beginning in 2006, ACS data for 2005 were released for geographic areas with populations of 65,000 and greater. For information on the ACS sample design and other topics, visit .
Notes The Census Bureau also publishes poverty estimates based on the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC). Following the standard specified by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in Statistical Policy Directive 14, data from the CPS ASEC are used to
estimate the official national poverty rate, which can be found in the report Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010, available at . For information on poverty estimates from the ACS and how they differ from those based on the CPS
ASEC, see "Differences Between the Income and Poverty Estimates From the American Community Survey and the Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey" at .
10
U.S. Census Bureau

A Bishaw

File: areas-with-concentrated-poverty-2006-2010.pdf
Author: A Bishaw
Author: U.S. Census Bureau
Subject: American Community Survey Briefs
Keywords: acsbr10-17
Published: Thu Jan 5 14:26:27 2012
Pages: 10
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