Co-opetition, BJ Nalebuff, A Brandenburger, A Maulana

Tags: Oskar Morgenstern, John von Neumann, Contract Rules, Frequent-Flyer programs, Merrill Lynch Complementors, win-win, GM, creating value, War and Peace, Game Theory, Novell Co-opetition Manual for Coopetition Leadership, Peace Cooperation, loyal customers, Freelancing, Perceptions, Federal Government, added value, Rules Questions, added values, State Government, Administrators, Publishers, Multiple Choice, Private enterprise, market Competitors, Hyde Competitive, Changing the Game
Content: Co-opetition Barry Nalebuff Yale School of Management New Haven, CT 06520 Version 5/7/96
Business is war and peace Cooperation in creating value Competition in dividing it up Not cycles of War, Peace, War ... Simultaneously War and Peace "You have to compete and cooperate at the same time" Ray Noorda, Novell Co-opetition
Manual for Coopetition Leadership secrets of Attila the Hun? St. Francis of Assisi? How to cooperate without being a saint compete w/o killing the opposition Game Theory
Game Theory Game theory analyzes the interplay between competition and cooperation Founders: John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern (1944) The field has been gaining increasing attention » 1994 Nobel Prize » FCC spectrum auctions » Application by management consultants
Are we playing a game? Everything is a Game Citibank deciding whether to issue a credit card. Credit card scoring Engineer versus Manager Physics and Game Theory Newton's Third Law
Business as a Game Chess, poker, sports? » Not win-lose » No rule book » People change the game » Game is made up of 5 PARTS » Archimedes lever » Success comes from playing the right game
The Game of Business Who are the players? » Customers, Suppliers, Competitors Plus Providers of complementary products and services » Hardware and software » Cars and auto loans » VCRs and HBO » Intel and ProShare
The Value Net CUSTOMERS
COMPETITORS
COMPANY
COMPLEMENTORS
SUPPLIERS
Competitors & Complementors A player is your complementor if customers value your product more when they have the other player's product than when they have your product alone. A player is your competitor if customers value your product less when they have the other player's product than when they have your product alone.
Complementors & Competitors: The Supply Side A player is your complementor if it's more attractive for a supplier to provide resources to you when it's also supplying the other player than when it's supplying you alone A player is your competitor if it's less attractive for a supplier to provide resources to you when it's also supplying the other player than when it's supplying you alone
The Supply Side: Examples Compaq & Dell compete with each other for the latest Intel chip complement each other in defraying Intel's R&D costs American & Delta compete with each other for landing slots and gates complement each other in defraying Boeing's R&D costs
University's Net CUSTOMERS Students, Parents, Companies, Federal Government, State government, Donors
COMPETITORS Other colleges, Freelancing faculty, private enterprise, Hospitals, Museums
THE UNIVERSITY
COMPLEMENTORS Other colleges, K--12 education, Computers, Housing, Airlines, Hotels, Cultural activities, Kinkos, Local employers
SUPPLIERS Faculty, Staff, Administrators, Publishers (books, journals, online services), Donors
multiple roles: Jekyll and Hyde Competitive threat or complementary opportunity? » movie theaters & video rentals » Traditional & Internet booksellers (BookZone) » "paperless" office » ATM machines
Multiple Roles: Making Markets Antique stores in Paris Theater, music, & dance on and off Broadway Toys R Us & McDonald's & Discovery Zone? Complementors in making the market Competitors in dividing the market
Friend or Foe? Friends Customers, Suppliers, Complementors Foes Competitors
The Competitive Mindset The bias: » Customers and suppliers have to choose between opportunities with us and with others » We're taught to think in terms of constraints, trade-offs, substitution To correct the bias: Think complementor as well as competitor
Using Game Theory Founders: John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern (1944) Equations vs. Experience Power--yours and others--is determined by the structure of the game Added values, Rules, Perceptions, and Boundaries
The Card Game Adam has 26 red cards 26 people each have 1 black card A red card and a black card together are worth $100 Who will get what?
Barry's Version Barry tries the game back at Yale He loses 3 black cards Pie is smaller by $300 Is everyone worse off? Examples: NFL, Nintendo
The NFL Today St. Louis Cardinals --> Phoenix LA Rams --> St. Louis Baltimore Colts --> Indianapolis Cleveland Browns --> Baltimore Houston Oilers --> Nashville? Phoenix Cardinals --> ?
Multiple Choice Which company has the largest stock market value? A) Sony B) Nissan C) Nintendo
Multiple Choice
Which company has the largest stock market value?
A) Sony
2.2 trillion yen
B) Nissan 2.0 trillion yen
C) Nintendo 2.4 trillion yen back in 1990--91
Added Value What you get is based on your added value Added value = total value with you minus total value without you It's what you bring to others
AV Analysis Adam's added value is $2,600 Each person with a black card has added value of $100 » Their total added value is $2,600 The game is symmetric
AV Analysis cont. Barry's added value is $2,300 But, each black card has zero added value So, Barry does much better » Bigger piece of smaller pie
What's Your Added Value? Egocentric vs. Allocentric Individual vs. Group It's a Wonderful Life Home Alone
Perception Games Perceptions are part of the game Texas Shoot-Out » One side states price » Other side says buy or sell » Shooter or Shootee? Different valuations
Texas Shoot-Out If you know the other side's value, go first If you are uncertain, better to go second
Boundaries of a Game One Big Game Chess Epson's Entry in Laser Printers
Allocentrism Added value » Put yourself in the shoes of others to assess your added value Rules » Put yourself in the shoes of others to anticipate reactions to your actions Perceptions » Put yourself in the shoes of others to see how they see the game
Irrationality Profits are not the only objective Pride, jealousy, fairness matter Ignore this, you can both lose Even if you think others are misguided, don't impose your rationality on them Allocentrism
Change the Game Getting the right mindset ... "Philosophers have only interpreted the world. The point, however, is to change it"
PARTS "Changing the rules" is only one of five levers The elements of a game players Added values Rules Tactics Scope PARTS is a complete set of levers: exhaustive, not mutually exclusive Method to out-of-the-box thinking
Players Becoming a player changes the game » The Heisenberg principle NutraSweet and HSC Gainesville, Norfolk Southern and CSX McCaw, Lin, and BellSouth
Pay Me to Play Competition is valuable: Don't give it away, Get paid to play
How to Get Paid Cash Contribution to upfront expenses Guaranteed sales contract Last-look Access to people access to information
4 Hidden Costs of Bidding You're unlikely to succeed--there are better uses of your time When you win the business, the price is so low you lose money The incumbent can retaliate--you end up trading high-margin for low-margin customers Win or lose, you establish a lower price--existing customers will want a better deal
4 More Hidden Costs of Bidding New customers will use the low price as a benchmark Rivals will use the low price you helped create as a benchmark It doesn't help to give your customers' competitors a better cost position Don't destroy a rival's glass house
More Players Bringing in Customers ­ Harnischfeger Suppliers ­Amex and Merrill Lynch Complementors ­The 3DO Company Competitors ­ Intel
Added Value Dangers of undersupply » Hole in the market » Lost sale --> lost relationship » Ill will Raising your AV » TWA Comfort Class » Frequent-flyer programs
Healthy Imitation "If everyone can do it, you can't make money at it" Copying products vs. imitating strategy win-LOSE + LOSE-win lose-lose win-win + win-win WIN-WIN
Loyalty Create Loyalty By Rewarding It -- Say thank you
Saying Thank You Say thank you in kind, not cash » frequent-flyer; insurance Save the best thank you for your best customers » cellular phones; teaser rates Say thank you in a way that builds your business » three-way calling; guest passes
More Thanks Say you're going to say thanks » American Express Allow your competitors to have loyal customers, too Don't forget to say thank you, even if you have a monopoly » cable television Say thanks to your suppliers, too » employee discounts, and more
Rules "When the rules of the game prove unsuitable for victory, the gentlemen of England change the rules." Rules structure negotiations between buyers and sellers Rules come from » custom » contractual arrangements » the government
Contract Rules In games with rules, you need to anticipate the reactions to your actions Games in business do have some rules » Most-favored-customer clauses » Meet-the-competition clauses How do MFCs change the game? » less incentive to negotiate » guaranteed cost parity
Contract Rules In games with rules, you need to anticipate the reactions to your actions Games in business do have some rules » Most-favored-customer clauses » Meet-the-competition clauses How do MFCs change the game? » less incentive to negotiate » guaranteed cost parity
GM and Ford Cards To whom do you want to charge a high price? A low price? What's in it for GM What's in it for Household Changing dynamics between GM and Ford Comparison to freq.-flyer programs
Strategic Rules Mass-Market Rules » Chrysler and Guaranteed Rebate » Frequent-Flyer programs and the GM Card Changing the Rules » Not written in stone » Saatchi & Saatchi
Tactics "Perception is Reality" Perceptions of the world, regardless of whether they are accurate, drive behavior Tactics are actions taken to shape other players' perceptions
Games in a Fog Establishing your credibility » The Peacock's Tail » New York Post & Daily News » Royalties » The FedEx guarantee » Locating a toxic-waste plant » ET -- the wrong call Preserving the fog » The cat in the bag » disagreeing to agree
Scope Is PART the whole? "No man is an Island" Recognize the links between games » Epson in laser printers Links through » Players » Added values (complements) » Rules (most-fav.-cust.) » Perceptions (threats, precedents)
Links between Games Added value links » "judo strategy" » Sega in 16-bit video games » Softsoap vs. Ivory Rules can link games » Long-term contracts » Package discounts Perceptions can link games » Corpus Christi and Beaumont » NutraSweet in Europe
Think Big There is always a larger game
Changing the Game: Players Questions What is your Value Net? What are the opportunities for cooperation and competition? Would you like to change the cast? What new players would you like to bring into the game? Who stand to gain if you enter? Who stands to lose?
Changing the Game: Added Value Questions What is your added value? How can you increase your added value? Can you create loyal customers and suppliers? What are the added values of the other players? Is it in your interest to limit their added values?
Changing the Game: Rules Questions Which rules are helping you and which are hurting you? What rules would you like to have in contracts with your customers and suppliers? Do you have power to make rules? Does someone have the power to overturn them?
Changing the Game: Tactics Questions How do other players perceive the game? How do these perceptions affect the play? Which perceptions would you like to preserve? Which ones would you like to change? Do you want the game to be transparent or opaque?
Changing the Game: Scope Questions What is the current scope of the game Do you want to change it? Do you want to link the current game to others? Do you want to delink the current game from other games?
Mental Traps Seeing only part of the game Failing to think methodically about changing the game Believing that success must come at others' expense Accepting the game as it is

BJ Nalebuff, A Brandenburger, A Maulana

File: co-opetition.pdf
Title: Co-opetition PowerPoint Slides
Author: BJ Nalebuff, A Brandenburger, A Maulana
Author: Barry Nalebuff
Subject: Business Strategy
Keywords: Co-opetition strategy business
Published: Sun May 12 23:46:04 1996
Pages: 60
File size: 0.22 Mb

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