Creative classroom experience using Pecha Kucha to encourage ESL use in undergraduate business courses: A pilot study, PM Tomsett, MR Shaw

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Content: International Multilingual Journal of Contemporary Research June 2014, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 89-108 ISSN: 2372-4846 (Print) 2372-4854 (Online) Copyright © The Author(s). 2014. All Rights Reserved. Published by American Research Institute for Policy Development Creative Classroom Experience Using Pecha Kucha to Encourage ESL Use in Undergraduate Business Courses: A Pilot Study Dr. Paula May Tomsett1 and Michael Robert Shaw2 Abstract In an East Asian-based interNational College that offers undergraduate degrees with globally relevant courses across the disciplines of business administration, international finance, tourism, hospitality, and entertainment management, subjects are delivered in English, and undergraduate students engaged in the delivery of English speaking presentations through the use of original Pecha Kucha presentations. Pecha Kucha has been introduced as part of a range of multimodal teaching methods designed to enhance creative and innovative problem solving as well as encourage extemporaneous English speaking. This preliminary study was based on an end of semester survey of 35 students in the third year of a four-year undergraduate degree. All students were English Second Language (ESL) and they reported that they felt the course Learning Outcomes were achieved in an innovative and meaningful way as displayed by their ability to explain the course material in a clear and concise way while making creative presentations in English. They also noted that the Pecha Kucha approach was interesting and fun, elements commonly encouraged in general education that can also be beneficial in tertiary level education. This paper reviews some of the literature in the fields of multimodality and methods of teaching/learning and uses comments from the students who participated to support its conclusions. The results indicate the usefulness of Pecha Kucha and supports continuing to use this method of presentation where different aspects of learning including cognitive outcomes, creative challenge, and conceptual challenge are given priority. Keywords: Pecha Kucha, multimodal teaching, business management education, classroom teaching, and English learning 1 PhD (La Trobe, Australia), M.Mktg. (Monash, Australia), International College of I-Shou University, Department of International Business Administration, No. 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Dashu District, Kaohsiung City 84001, Taiwan. R.O.C., TEL: 886-7-6577711 ext. 8714 CELL: 0975046697, E-mail: [email protected] 2 Fellow AMSRS, MA (Monash, Australia), Grad Dip Mktg (Monash), BSC Hons (Monash). E-mail: [email protected]
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1. Introduction "Educators must ask themselves, to what degree do I deliberately promote creativity?" Susan Keller-Mathers, Building Passion and Potential for Creative Learning in Higher Education (Keller-Mathers, 2011) Multimodal teaching methods have long been used in teaching to enhance creative and innovative problem solving (Trott, 2012). Simply defined for general use "multimodal" is the use of several methods, modalities, or maxima in some activity (Merriam-Webster, 2012), however scholarship academics have defined multimodal activities as those that combine two or more semiotic systems, and which Anstey & Bull (2010) list five semiotic systems; linguistic, visual, audio, gestural and spatial. From a teaching perspective texts and written or visual materials are described as multimodal when there is an interaction between the verbal and visual (Kress & van Leuwen, 2001), and when students learn through the use of more than one sense, that is, auditory, visual and tactile (Tomsett & Trott, 2012) all of which encompass the five semiotic systems mentioned earlier. Using multimodal techniques requires all the skills of teaching and provides creative opportunities in the classroom for both teachers and students (Matthewman, Blight, Davies, & Cabot, 2004). In an East Asian-based university, an international college offers four-year undergraduate degrees with globally relevant courses across a range of businessoriented disciplines with international business administration that includes marketing and management concentrations, international finance, tourism and hospitality, and entertainment management. All courses are delivered in the English language. The college aims to keep the curriculum relevant to world's best education and business practices. The students are primarily of Chinese ethnicity and have been educated in a Confucian education system which has a strong emphasis on rote learning in order to pass the "one chance" university entrance process (Marginson, 2011), which is further reinforced by the buxibans or cram schools where students are trained to pass exams (Kuo, 2006; Liu, 2012). Passing exams is also seen as a way of improving one's social status (Choi & Nieminen, 2012; Marginson, 2011) which may explain the emphasis placed on supplementing formal education with cram school tuition.
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This system does not support students to "think", for instance there is a fundamental difference between the Asian and Australian teaching methods (Ramsay, 2011; Yang, 2011) that emphasizes this, nor does it adequately prepare them for life in a multi-lingual business environment. For several decades it has been noted that new graduates suffer from the reality shock of having no marketable skills when they enter the job market (Tomsett & Shaw, 2012). The subject students selected for this Current Research were enrolled in an international program delivered in English, with teachers from many countries. To overcome some of the problems associated with a lack of everyday use of English by the students, the programs aimed to encourage them to engage in extemporaneous English speaking and delivery of English speaking presentations. This paper focuses on the use of original Pecha Kucha presentations to achieve both a knowledge outcome and support English language usage. It is not proposed to discuss the literature into the nature and effects of the buxiban system in the Asian education sphere here but it is acknowledged as an influencing factor on the student expectations of classroom learning when they reach tertiary level (as reported by the students in this study as well). This paper also reviews some of the literature in the fields of multimodality and methods of teaching and learning with emphasis on creative experiences that encourage the use of a second language, in this instance English. 2. literature review The general literature in the fields of multimodality and methods of teaching/learning is very extensive. A brief search of scholarly articles reveals more than 70,000 online that mention using multimodal methods in business teaching, consequently the review here has been limited to a brief overview of multimodal teaching followed by an introduction to the discourse on teaching and learning with specific reference to ESL and the history of the Pecha Kucha presentation approach in business and education. Texts and other written or visual materials can be described as "multimodal" when there is an interaction between the verbal and visual (Kress & van Leuwen, 2001).
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However, in truly multimodal teaching students learn through the use of the auditory, visual and tactile sensory modalities, utilizing more than one of these, and this calls on all the skills of teaching as well as consideration of the different learning styles of students (Harmer, 1998). Learning styles are those internal processes used by students to comprehend the information around them that could be used to promote effective learning, for example, processing material by reading newspapers (visual), listening to talking books (auditory), and creating posters (kinesthetic) (ITTO, 2013). Multimodal teaching offers creative opportunities for teachers and students alike (Matthewman, et al., 2004). Teachers have various roles, that of instructor, organizer, prompter, assessor, discussion leader, mentor and resource, and the expectation of most students in the Confucian education mindset is that they will be taught using traditional teaching tools such as instruction, organization, prompting, mentoring and assessment, which is more conducive to memorization than the expression of thought (Kember, 1996; Marambe, Vermunt, & Boshuizen, 2012; Yang, 2011). The teacher as a participant discussion leader will get students' attention but the teacher as a resource is a little more difficult to implement in this environment and with second language teaching situations as the students are often embarrassed to ask questions or offer comments in a language they do not feel comfortable with, or may simply suffer from shyness (Artyushina, Sheypak, & Khovrin, 2011). Equally, identifying learning styles is difficult, therefore, classes must include activities that not only cover the four language skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening, but also address different learning styles by using visual, auditory, and if possible kinesthetic material, although the latter is often difficult to achieve in large classes of 50 or more students, as is often required in East Asian universities (authors' personal expereince). Whilst able to adopt a range of teaching roles, the identification of the learning styles of students is more difficult as the students are not always communicative; they are more accepting of information without question (Phillipps 1990 as reported by Ramsay, 2011), although there is some evidence this is changing amongst mainland Chinese students, as opposed to other East Asian students where it has been observed, and confirmed anecdotally by many colleagues, that this behavior continues to prevail. Therefore, classes must include activities that not only cover the four language skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening, (Abbasi, Siddiqi, & Azim, 2011) but also address the potential learning styles by using multimodal methods (Tomsett & Trott, 2012).
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By incorporating material that addresses this variety of learning styles a teacher can call on the student's own creativity to assist the learning process and encourage thinking. From the extant literature it has become apparent that an agreement amongst educators, academics and teachers of a definition for creativity in either the classroom or the business environment is a little way off (Kerr & Lloyd, 2008) there are neverthe-less a number of definitions which can be used for a general understanding of the concept, such as a standard dictionary definitions like "the ability to make new things or think of new ideas" (Merriam-Webster, 2012) or a more business oriented definition, "the ability to produce work that is novel (i.e., original, unexpected), high in quality, and appropriate (i.e., useful, meets task constraints)" (Sternberg, Kaufman, & Pretz, 2011, as cited by SchmidtWilk, 2011). Perhaps more importantly in business education creativity is the ability of employers to allow employees to engage in "valuable activities for improvement at their own initiative" (Miller, 2000, as cited by Driver, 2001) and teaching university students in a second language offers opportunities to use creative teaching modalities to encourage students to freely use that second language not only in their written communications but very importantly in oral communications, thus experiencing improvement on their own recognizance (Ryman, Porter, & Galbraith, 2009). In this pilot study to gauge the possibility of including a Pecha Kucha style presentation into business courses taught in English in a primarily ESL environment as a significant part of the assessment, a path toward the task achievement of English speaking was provided in a creative environment that essentially pushed students into thinking about the topics for discussion, in two distinct ways, (1) identifying relevant visual images that they must use, and then (2) speaking to those images to convey an understanding of the business concept being presented. 2.1 Teaching and Learning A dilemma for all teachers when designing the pedagogical aspect of course content is striking a balance between teamwork and individual activities. There is no doubt that employers want graduates who can function in the real world with the skills and a disposition to work with a range of people (Campbell, Heriot, & Finney, 2006) from varying cultures, educational backgrounds and experiences, in a team environment.
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However, in many instances employees must also have second language skills that enable them to perform as individual presenters in all manner of business situations. Much of a student's real world knowledge comes from curriculum-based skills, but these and the ability to actively participate in an employment situation either as part of a team or as an individual is a function of pedagogy. It has been said that "curriculum is a group of related courses, usually in a specific field of study, whereas pedagogy is the art of teaching" (Campbell, et al., 2006, p. 325) and like all arts, using multimodal teaching is a pedagogical method that encourages students to think and solve problems in innovative and creative ways (Trott, 2012), whether working in teams or individually. Doherty and Hilberg (2007) found that achievement gains could be made when teachers organized classrooms into diversified activity settings which the students who were less proficient in the English language benefitted most. This requires new skills or concepts to be applied in classroom situations and the Pecha Kucha style presentation is an instructional activity that effectively facilitates this learning for individuals (Klentzin, Paladino, Johnston, & Devine, 2010). Using Pecha Kucha is a useful presentation format to improve the quality of student presentations (Beyer, 2011) and improve oral communication competence (Lehtonen, 2011). 2.2 Pecha Kucha Pecha Kucha as a presentation format has been known for a decade and has been used at universities in Australia as the preferred presentation style in Masters Programs. It has also been used as a presentation format since the 2008 Australian Market and Social Research Society Annual Conference (Sunderland, 2008). An investigation of the subject revealed that Pecha Kucha, often wrongly described as Japanese, was conceived by two British Architects, Mark Dytham and Astrid Klein, in Tokyo Japan, in February 2003, as an event for young designers to meet, network, and display their work in public (Pecha Kucha, 2013). The presentation format or style was designed to keep presentations concise and to encourage audience attention.
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Presentations are generally limited to 20 slides, each shown for only 20 seconds (set up to automatically advance), for a total time of 6 minutes and 40 seconds. Few words are used with relevant pictures and graphics being the order of the day (Artyushina, et al., 2011) for the PowerPoint (this is a registered name for software owned by Microsoft) content. Pecha Kucha (pronounced pe-chuk-cha, more commonly heard as pe-cha-ku-cha) comes from the Japanese phrase for the sound of `chit chat'. There have been some variations of the original Pecha Kucha format; the 2009 Australian Market and Social Research Society Annual Conference asked speakers to use no more than 30 slides for 30 seconds each, automatically advanced (AMSRS, 2013). This worked well as an alternative conference paper presentation to tighten 20 minutes of presentation time to 15 minutes reducing the possibility of speakers going over time, and ensuring 5 minutes for questions. Pecha Kucha has proved to be an interesting and fast-paced way of presenting in all manner of forums. In 2008 the National Environmental health Association introduced Learning Laboratory sessions at its annual conference which included Pecha Kucha sessions; a survey of attendees reported that Pecha Kucha was considered as "a novel way of using PowerPoint in presentations" and was voted as a favorite session (NEHA, 2008). Industry organizations and universities have also adopted the Pecha Kucha style of presentation, such as at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information science and technology (Hardin, 2010) and the University of Salford's 6th Education in a Changing Environment Conference, Creativity and Engagement in Higher Education conference in 2011 (Downing & Martindale, 2011; Hass, 2011). The Pecha Kucha presentation method is very effective as a cure for `death by PPT', which refers to a common disease at conferences and in classrooms brought about by boredom and fatigue when too many and too complex PowerPoint slides are used. Pecha Kucha presentations as used in the classroom are also a form of creative revision where each student helps other class members by giving a personal perspective, with researched evidence, on a selected topic. In this study common business terms were used as the topic for the Pecha Kucha presentations.
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Effective oral communication is an essential skill in employees and this can be transferred from a tertiary education environment if it has been encouraged as part of the learning process (Guo, 2009; Stovall & Stovall, 2009). To ensure these skills are enhanced and to encourage use of the second language in the classroom Pecha Kucha is providing a unique, creative, and fun way for students to overcome fear or shyness of speaking in class. 3. The Research The use of Pecha Kucha in the classroom as a learning and assessment method was trialed amongst junior (third year) undergraduates. After the students had made their presentations they were given detailed feedback on their presentation and video recordings of their Pecha Kucha presentation was available to each student. They were then asked to provide their thoughts and opinions on the use of Pecha Kucha for creative/artistic expression as a metaphor to understand and/or make sense of concepts, theories, models, or topics in a business administration course delivered in English. The students qualitative data was collected through the use of open-ended questions which asked students to relate, in writing, their Pecha Kucha experience based on their use and incorporation of classroom content into their presentations along with any specific comments and suggestions for future use. The aim of the research was to ascertain whether students felt that the Pecha Kucha method of presentation and assessment was appropriate but also whether the support provided in the classroom through presentation tips and speaking activities were valuable and in what ways. This was very important as the results of the research would inform future development of creative classroom and assessment activities to encourage ESL students to communicate their ideas and understanding of business concepts, theories and models. If this research could provide sufficient evidence that students would not only enjoy such a presentation method but also, from their own self-assessment, enhance their ability to learn about complex business ideas, that would be justification enough for conducting the research.
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3.1 Subjects The subjects of this study were students in a class of 35 juniors (3rd year students) in a Business English course in an undergraduate business administration program in East Asia. The students were aged 18 years and over and most had attained the legal adult voting age of 20 years. The students were mostly of Chinese ethnicity and should all have had advanced English proficiency for the course of study they are enrolled in, however, for most their `conversational' English language was intermediate level only, as judged by TEFL standards (ITTO, 2013). As observed over two years of teaching and assessment, the authors noted that students showed little interest in domestic or world current affairs and a term project was designed to encourage not only use of English but also to engage students in researching a single business topic. Students in the program were generally attentive during classes but many slept or napped in the class breaks, as observed by the authors and anecdotally reported by many teachers in Australia, United States of America, Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China. This appears to be a more common practice amongst students schooled in Asian cultures. The students in this study came from a rigid Confucian elementary and secondary schooling system that required them to sit for hours and listen to the teacher, and where there has been little or no engagement with the students. Paired and group work that allows students to talk in class has been very popular but there a reluctance to voluntarily participate in oral communication in the formal part of classes was observed. 3.2 Scope of Research Undergraduate students in an East Asian-based international business administration program delivered in the English language were given the task of preparing and presenting in Pecha Kucha style their understanding of a single business term. There were a number of learning outcomes set for the students upon completion of the course and those that related to this task were that they should be able to: 1. define and use a selection of terms commonly used in business communications; and,
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2. use English business conversation skills in a range of business communication situations, such as presentations. A list of business terms was developed from a variety of textbooks used by colleagues. Students were given a key word, plus a brief description as a guide only; they could deviate from the description, provided the key word was the focus of the presentation and that it related to "doing business". The full list of key words is shown in Table 1. These topics were allocated to the individual students by ballot. The size of the class necessitated the presentations being made over two three-hour classes, and this was also allocated by ballot. A sample of the descriptions provided for the key words used is shown in Table 2; the full list is available from the authors. Table 1: List of Key Words (Business Terms) for Pecha Kucha Presentations Accounting, Annual Report, Asset, Bar graph, Bottom line, Business Plan, Capital equipment, Centralization, Corporation, Customer, Data, Decentralized, Direct mail, Distributor, Entrepreneur, Feasibility (study), Franchise, Gatekeeper, Goodwill, HRM, Market niche, Marketing research, Marketing plan, Merchandise , Perception, Profit and Loss statement, Quality, Retailing, Semantics, Target market, Team building, Telemarketing, Triple Bottom Line, Wholesale, Zoning
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Table 2: Sample of Key Words (Business Terms) with Description for Pecha Kucha Presentations
Capital Equipment Assets such as vehicles that generally depreciate, or lose value over time.
Centralization Authority is not delegated to managers at lower levels.
Corporation
An incorporated business and a separate legal entity from its owners.
Distributor
A business that buys products from manufacturers for resale to retailers.
Entrepreneur
Someone who starts and runs his or her own business; often considered a positive risk-taker.
Feasibility (study)
Evaluating two or more possible alternatives and recommending one ­ often a third alternative is "do nothing".
Franchise
A business that involves an ongoing relationship with a parent company, usually including a shared trade name and a franchise fee.
Gatekeeper
The person or people (audiences) with the power to decide whether your message is sent on to other audiences.
Goodwill
Value of a business beyond its tangible assets, including reputation and patronage. Also, trust between parties.
HRM
Managing the human resources in the organization.
Marketing Plan
A plan that identifies the market for a product or service and the methods by which the business will approach and sell to that market.
Marketing Research
Finding out about how big the market is for your business -- how many potential customers there are, how much they spend, and who/ what your competition is.
Profit and Loss A financial statement, also known as a P&L or an Income Statement,
Statement
which shows a business's income and expenses.
Triple Bottom Line
People, planet, profit.
In the weeks leading up to the Pecha Kucha presentations students were given pedagogical support through a number of approaches and procedures. These included discussion of speaking and presentation tips , including classes encompassing conversations, oral business communications skills, presentations (opening, body, conclusion, handling questions, and tips on putting it all together), as well as detailed information on the format for the Pecha Kucha and assessment. Students were also engaged in speed speaking exercises and role-plays, and exposed to examples of other Pecha Kucha presentations by students at an Australian university, demonstrations and opportunities to plan and work on their presentations during class, as well as practice in small groups. Furthermore, eight speaking tips chosen from the dozens in the literature and from various speaking organizations such as Rostrum and Toastmasters, of which seven were applicable to the Pecha Kucha presentations, were demonstrated and used in classroom exercises.
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Table 3 in the Results section lists the seven applicable speaking tips along with the number of student choices for each tip as the most useful tip for them, which forms part of the self-evaluation described in the data collection section. There were twenty PowerPoint slides created by each student, with more than 700 images, and all showed an artistic or creative side of the students. They sourced images from historical records, current internet sites, and personal records, including those of family and friends. Two examples of the creativity of the presentations are shown in Figure 1, where the top slide was for the topic, Distributor, and the second for Marketing Research. Students provided a list of all sources or references for the images used.
DISTRIBU TOR
Figure 1: Examples of Pecha Kucha PowerPoint Content
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3.3 Data Collection
As part of the overall assessment of students' performance in the course they were asked to evaluate their own performance in the Pecha Kucha by describing which presentation tip helped them most in the preparation and execution of their Pecha Kucha presentations and why, specifically, "Consider all the speaking tips provided in classes. Choose one that you used for your Pecha Kucha presentation and explain how you used that tip". Students handwrote their responses, which were then transcribed, verbatim, into an MSWord document for analysis of recurring themes or ideas related to the student's experience in preparing the topic and the Pecha Kucha presentation.
In addition to the self-assessment evaluation described above the students were also asked to complete an open-ended question which asked them for their "comments or suggestions for using Pecha Kucha in teaching" and these latter responses added further insights into the value of Pecha Kucha to the students.
3. Results
The selection of a speaking tip by students as one they used in the preparation and delivery of their Pecha Kucha presentations covered all seven of the tips discussed in class. The most popular speaking tip was Practice! Practice! Practice! Table 3 describes the tips and shows the number of response choices.
Table 3: Respondent Choice of Speaking/Presentation Tip
Speaking/Presentation Tip Description If it is difficult for you to speak, it also difficult for listeners to understand. The shortest distance between two people is a smile. Don't assume people will be listening when you say something important, they don't know it is important until you have said it. Practice, practice, practice! Relax. Don't apologize. Gain experience. Total
Responses 4 6 1 14 5 3 2 35
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An insightful response from one student expressed the view that in this country students are "afraid to speak to an audience", while other students mentioned being "nervous", and acknowledged that being afraid to speak had an effect on the audience, "when you afraid to speak, then audience can't understand what you are talking about". They also expressed how they used the various speaking and presentation tips to overcome their fears. Practice not only eliminated nervousness for many students but also built self-confidence, "if you prepare enough you will not be afraid when you are presenting". Amongst the ways students overcame their nerves was to "smile at the audience" as they had learnt in class that the audience will return a smile, and a smile offers encouragement. Students observed that smiling at the audience seemed to "relax" them and even if nerves overtook for a moment, continuing to "smile while gathering [ones] thoughts kept the attention [of the audience]" as they waited for the next few words to come to them or the next slide to be displayed. The concept of practicing was clearly adopted by the majority of the students who related it to how they not only prepared their Pecha Kucha presentations, but also as a tool for ensuring the content was complete and made sense. By thinking about the pictures that related to the topic students were able to better understand the topic, and they also recognized where content needed to be amended, "I can make some adjustments with my content". Practicing gave students confidence to slow down and not rush through the presentation, "I tried to speak slowly and softly to convey the information clearly and completely". Several students quoted the conventional wisdom that "practice makes perfect" and clearly some very shy and quiet students who were usually too timid to speak in class were able to build enough confidence to use the microphone. Students used a variety of methods to practice including presenting in front of the mirror, recording practice sessions, and practicing for friends and family, and even for the family pet!
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Smiling, relaxing, gaining experience, and not apologizing resonated with students as ways of improving self-confidence and presentation skills. Although one student articulated the use of the speaking tip that "a common mistake is to think people will be listening when you say something important" as a significant tip because the topic was an ordered set of content for a business document and the responding student incorporated oral cues, "this is important" in the Pecha Kucha presentation to alert the audience to the importance of certain sections of the particular business document (that was the subject of their Pecha Kucha). The Pecha Kucha was clearly seen as an innovative presentation format from the number of students that reported it as "a fresh way to present", and the need to practice because they "would not be able to read notes", had made them organize their presentations. Being organized kept the "logic [of the topic] in my mind" and finding "good examples for the Pecha Kucha" made the theories easier to understand from a presenter's perspective. It was also noted by some students that the audience could also better remember the content when interesting or funny images were used. All of the comments from students affirmed that the goal of the Pecha Kucha presentations as a form of creative revision where students help the other class members by giving a personal perspective, with researched evidence of the topic, was achieved. To reinforce this students found creative ways of using images, for example, one student used a picture taken with a teacher known to all the students, to help the audience remember the "topic", which was specifically taught by the teacher in the picture. While most of the students used internet sources for the images (appropriately referenced on the last slide of their Pecha Kucha presentation) some used scanned historical documents, personal photographs including those of family and friends, original images taken using cell phones and cameras, or created a diagram or model to illustrate a concept related to their assigned topic. When asked for `comments or suggestions for using Pecha Kucha in teaching' there was a strong sense of achievement, although some students who have relied on the group for support in the past and were forced to perform outside their comfort zone were still obviously challenged by individual assessment, "maybe we can try team-work next time". Overcoming the fear of presenting was also strongly conveyed.
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Being forced to prepare a presentation that they could not read, even though speaker's cards would be allowed, made students aware of the importance of (1) being prepared, (2) using English, and (3) practicing to build self-confidence. The responses related to these three aspects of having to speak are summarized below. 1. Preparation · Learned a lot about the topic when preparing presentation · Helpful for organizing thinking · Importance of practicing more before the presentation · Stimulated creative thinking about the topic 2. Using English · Good way to practice English · Good training for speaking to the main point in a presentation · Speaking English with no notes 3. Self-confidence · Nervousness overtaken by the fun of the experience · Self-doubt turned to success / things are not so difficult as imagined · Sense of accomplishment/achievement/success · Good speaking skill training · Good way to learn how to present · A fresh experience · Fun! (mentioned by several students This last point, Fun! affirmed the importance of giving students an opportunity to play with ideas and use their natural creative abilities. This was a very positive affirmation of the use of Pecha Kucha in Business Studies education where some concepts and ideas are not ones derived from common experience.
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5. Conclusions and Further Research The students who participated in this pilot project using Pecha Kucha in classroom learning and course assessment enjoyed the task even though they were challenged by it and expressed a real fear of speaking in front of peers and their teacher. It was an individual presentation task, which was confronting for many of the students who are more used to having team support for classroom presentation-Type Projects. From a teaching and assessment perspective the Pecha Kucha presentation content was for the most part appropriate and many of the students showed considerable creativity and some artistic ability in the design of their presentations. The students that participated in this use of original Pecha Kucha presentations to explain their understanding of a range of business concepts felt that the learning outcomes of defining and using a selection of terms common in business communications and using English business conversation skills were achieved in an innovative and meaningful way. Their presentation skills were enhanced and the students reported a higher sense of achievement. They also reported having had more fun. These comments lead to a belief that the future of education pedagogy will be based not only on innovative and creative delivery by teachers but more importantly providing students with the opportunity to use their creativity by participating in innovative classroom activities. 5.1 Future research The result of the use of Pecha Kucha in this pilot study has led to its inclusion as part of a suite of multimodal pedagogical methodologies now employed in business courses delivered in English. A quantitative survey of 25 questions developed with colleagues who use arts-based metaphorical creations is now being used to collect feedback from students to develop a substantial research database. A body of work (Artyushina, et al., 2011; Klentzin, et al., 2010; Lehtonen, 2011; Mahdavi, 2011; NEHA, 2008; Tomsett & Trott, 2012) is being created that suggests Pecha Kucha as a pedagogical modality for enhancing understanding of concepts and theories, as well as building the self-confidence of students, has a place in classroom teaching, particularly when it is used to encourage skills in a second language.
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There is also evidence in business that the Pecha Kucha format is welcomed for boardroom presentations and employment interviews; a Pecha Kucha competition was incorporated into the annual Careers Conference, Postgraduate Futures 2011, organized by the University of Salford in Manchester (http://pgblog.careers.salford.ac.uk/postgraduate-futures-2012/postgraduate-futures2011/). Albert Einstein (Beyer, 2011) is quoted as having said that the supreme art of the teacher is to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge. To encourage teachers to adopt creative modalities more research to gather the thoughts and opinions of students on the use of original, creative/artistic expression as a metaphor to understand and/or make sense of concepts, theories, models, or topics in business administration courses must continue as it will inform education with knowledgebased outcomes and encourage use of a second language in the learning environment, ultimately providing the business sector with creative and innovative employees who have confidence in using both their primary and second language. 6. References Abbasi, M. H., Siddiqi, A., & Azim, R. U. A. (2011). Role Of Effective Communications For Enhancing Leadership And Entrepreneurial Skills In University Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(10), n/a. AMSRS. (2013). Australian Market and Social Research Society Retrieved January, 2013, from http://www.amsrs.com.au Anstey, M., & Bull, G. (2010). Helping teachers to explore multimodal texts. Curriculum & Leadership Journal 8(16). Artyushina, G., Sheypak, O., & Khovrin, A. (2011). Developing Student Presentation Skills at the English Language Classes through PechaKucha. Paper presented at the 2011 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON) ­ "Learning Environments and Ecosystems in Engineering Education", Amman, Jordan. Beyer, A. M. (2011). Improving Student Presentations: Pecha Kucha and Just Plain PowerPoint. Teaching of Psychology 38(2), 122-126. Campbell, N. D., Heriot, K. C., & Finney, R. Z. (2006). In Defense of Silos: An Argument Against the Integrative Undergraduate Business Curriculum. Journal of Management Education, 30(2), 316-332. Choi, S. H.-J., & Nieminen, T. A. (2012). Factors influencing the higher education of International students from Confucian East Asia. Higher Education Research & Development, iFirst, 1-13. Doherty, R. W., & Hilberg, R. S. (2007). Standards for Effective Pedagogy, Classroom Organization, English Proficiency, and Student Achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 101(1), 24-34.
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Matthewman, S., Blight, A., Davies, C., & Cabot, J. (2004). What Does Multimodality Mean for English? Creative Tensions in Teaching New Texts and New Literacies. Education Communication and Information, 4(1), 153-176. Merriam-Webster. (2012). Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary Retrieved 1 January, 2012, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary NEHA. (2008). National EnvironMental Health Association Annual Educational Conference & Exhibition Survey Results. Journal of Environmental Health, 71(5), 64. Pecha Kucha. (2013). Pecha Kucha 20 x 20 Retrieved January, 2013, from http://www.pechakucha.org/ Ramsay, B. (2011). Tertiary Learning Analysis of Vietnam Students. Journal of International Academic Research, 11(1), 37-43. Ryman, J. A., Porter, T., & Galbraith, C. (2009). Disciplined Imagination: Art and Metaphor in the Business School Classroom. International Journal of Education and the Arts, 10(10), 1-25. Schmidt-Wilk, J. (2011). Fostering Management Students' Creativity Journal of Management Education, 35(6), 775-778. Stovall, D. C., & Stovall, P. S. (2009). Professional Accountants: Void of "Soft Skills"? The Business Review, Cambridge, 14(1), 99-104. Sunderland, K., (Managing Editor). (2008). Research News (Vol. 25). Sydney, Australia: AMSRS. Tomsett, P. M., & Shaw, M. (2012). Employment Readiness Of University Graduates: A Pilot Study Of Ability To Use Word Processing Software. Paper presented at the 2012 Symposium on Global Business Operation and Management (CD-ROM publication ISBN 978-986-7339-71-3), 3 May 2012, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Tomsett, P. M., & Trott, D. C. (2012). Pecha Kucha Presentations and Arts Based Pedagogy in International Business Education Paper presented at the 2012 Conference on Applied English Teaching, Proceedings of the 2012 Conference on Applied English, Prof. and Chair Hui-Fang Shang (Editor), I-Shou University, Taiwan, 11 May 2012. Trott, D. (2012). Building Bridges to "Knowhere": Arts-Based Pedagogy in Management Education. Yang, R. (2011). Self and the other in the Confucian cultural context: Implications of China's higher education development for comparative studies. International Review of Education, 57(3-4), 337-355. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11159-011-9208-x

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