Easy access: The reference handbook for writers, ML Keene, KH Adams

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Content: DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES TO ACCOMPANY Easy Access The Reference Handbook for Writers Second Edition Michael L. Keene The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Katherine H. Adams Loyola University New Orleans Exercises Written by Mary Alice Hardy Southwestern Michigan College Mayfield Publishing Company Mountain View, California London · Toronto
Copyright © 1999 by Mayfield Publishing Company All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission of the publisher, except for instructional purposes in conjunction with the companion textbook, Easy Access: The Reference Handbook for Writers, Second Edition, by Michael L. Keene and Katherine H. Adams (Mayfield Publishing Company, 1999). International Standard Book Number: 0-7674-0669-9 Manufactured in the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mayfield Publishing Company 1280 Villa Street Mountain View, California 94041
CONTENTS Exercise 1: Sentence Fragments 1 Exercise 2: Sentence Fragments 3 Exercise 3: Sentence Fragments 5 Exercise 4: Comma Splices 7 Exercise 5: Comma Splices [revise as two sentences] 9 Exercise 6: Comma Splices [revise as a compound sentence] 11 Exercise 7: Comma Splices [revise with a semicolon or colon] 13 Exercise 8: Comma Splices [revise as a complex sentence] 15 Exercise 9: Run-On Sentences [revise as two sentences] 17 Exercise 10: Run-On Sentences [revise as a compound sentence] 19 Exercise 11: Run-On Sentences [revise as a complex sentence] 21 Exercise 12: Sentence Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices 23 Exercise 13: Sentence Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices 25 Exercise 14: Sentence Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices 27 Exercise 15: Sentence Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices 29 Exercise 16: Comma Errors in Compound Sentences 32 Exercise 17: Comma Errors with Clauses and Introductory Elements 34 Exercise 18: Comma Errors with Essential and Nonessential Elements 36 Exercise 19: Comma Errors in Series 38 Exercise 20: Comma Errors 40 Exercise 21: Comma Errors 42 Exercise 22: Sentence Fragments, Run-Ons, Comma Splices, and Comma Errors 44 Exercise 23: Use of Apostrophes 46 Exercise 24: Use of Parentheses 48 Exercise 25: Pronoun Reference 49 Exercise 26: Verb Tense and Form 51 iii
Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 1: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. It may be missing either a subject or a verb, or it may begin with a subordinating word or phrase. Identify Sentence Fragments Label the numbered word group C if it is a complete sentence or F if it is a sentence fragment. Example C She is a strong woman. F Although she is a strong woman. ______ 1. Although I live only a hundred miles from Chicago. ______ 2. I've never seen the Chicago Bulls play basketball. ______ 3. I may regret this someday. ______ 4. If I knew where to buy tickets. ______ 5. Because the tickets are so expensive. ______ 6. I think about it but don't take action. Revise Sentence Fragments In the following paragraph, correct the sentence fragments. Example The Indianapolis Pacers have received a lot of attention. Because Larry Bird is their coach. Correction The Indianapolis Pacers have received a lot of attention because Larry Bird is their coach. Small World I live in South Bend, Indiana. I live two miles from the University of Notre Dame. While I live two hours away from Chicago, home of the Chicago Bulls. Wherever I go. I see people wearing clothes honoring these two institutions. On a bus in Guatemala, I saw a young man wearing a Notre Dame T-shirt. Not far from him, I saw a boy with a Bulls cap. Since I felt so far from home.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 1: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS (continued) I was puzzled. I could not understand the conversations of the other passengers on the bus. Because they spoke Spanish. Yet, the man wore an ND T-shirt. I drive past Notre Dame almost every day. I wondered what he thought. When he wore that shirt. What did Notre Dame mean to him?
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 2: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. It may be missing either a subject or a verb, or it may begin with a subordinating word or phrase. Identify Sentence Fragments Each of the numbered items contains two or three word groups. If all the groups are complete sentences, write C in the blank. If even one of the groups is incomplete, write F (for fragment) in the blank. Example C She is a strong woman. She can bench-press 200 pounds. F Although she is strong, she couldn't move the piano without help. Very strong help. ______ 1. Living only a hundred miles from Chicago. I think I should see the Chicago Bulls play basketball sometime. ______ 2. I live only a hundred miles from Chicago. Wanting to see a Bulls' game. Wanting to see the great Michael Jordan. ______ 3. Where would I buy tickets? I don't know where to call. ______ 4. If I knew where to buy tickets, I might just go. Even if it was very expensive. ______ 5. Because the tickets are so expensive. And not knowing where to call. I just think about what I'm missing. ______ 6. Life offers so many choices. I don't always know what to do. I may just be wishy-washy. Revise Sentence Fragments In the following paragraphs, correct the sentence fragments. Example The Indianapolis Pacers have received a lot of attention. Because Larry Bird is their coach. Being a popular athlete in Indiana. Correction The Indianapolis Pacers have received a lot of attention because Larry Bird is their coach. Bird is [OR He is] a popular athlete in Indiana.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 2: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS (continued) Round Trip: Indiana to Boston Larry Bird is Indiana's prize basketball player. He comes from a little town in southern Indiana. He played for Spring Valley High School. Becoming, even then, a local legend. Although his family couldn't afford a car to go to the games and had to depend on rides. He attended two other colleges before finally establishing himself as a top college player at Indiana State in Terre Haute, Indiana. Including a brief stay at Indiana University playing for Bobby Knight. Bird changed the reputation of Indiana State basketball so much that students began to call the sport "Larry Bird Ball." Earvin "Magic" Johnson, one of the few college players to offer real competition and beat Bird in college. Eventually, Bird ended up playing professionally for the Boston Celtics. Making games at the Boston Garden sell-out events. Propelling the Celtics from the cellar to a season of 61 wins and 21 losses. He played in every game that first year. Averaging 21.3 points per game. He helped the Celtics become three-time NBA champions. Earned the Most Valuable Player Award three times for regular-season play. Played twelve times in NBA all-star games. His career average was 29.9 points per game. He retired from play at the end of the 1991­1992 season. Because of back problems. Now he is back in Indiana coaching the Indiana Pacers. Turned the Pacers' record around during his first year of coaching. How must it feel to be so skillful and successful?
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 3: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. It may be missing either a subject or a verb, or it may begin with a subordinating word or phrase. Identify Sentence Fragments Each of the numbered items contains two word groups. If both groups are complete sentences, write C in the blank. If even one of the groups is incomplete, write F (for fragment) in the blank. Example C She is a strong woman. She can bench-press 200 pounds. F Although she is strong, she couldn't move the piano without help. Very strong help. ______ 1. Some people think that having a superior intelligence is necessary. To be a successful college student. ______ 2. College instructors and psychologists who study learning do not agree. They say success comes to those who are willing to work as long as it takes. ______ 3. Motivation is not always easy. Many factors influence a student's motivation level. ______ 4. Some students are bothered by procrastination. The habit of putting things off until the last minute or until it is too late. ______ 5. Often, a strong vision of a goal helps. Helps students avoid procrastination and helps motivate them to complete their work. ______ 6. Because having a goal helps keep students on track. I always write out my goal for each class, for each semester, and for my whole college experience. Revise Sentence Fragments In the following paragraphs, correct the sentence fragments. Example Some psychologists say that procrastination is a form of perfectionism. Not starting a task and not having enough time, the perfect excuses for not doing a perfect job. Correction Some psychologists say that procrastination is a form of perfectionism. Not starting a task and not having enough time are the perfect excuses for not doing a perfect job.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 3: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS (continued) Marshmallow Research What qualities help a student succeed in college? According to a study conducted at Stanford University by Walter Mischel. Impulse control may be the most important quality a student can have. Resisting impulse, the root of emotional self-control. In the study, researchers told four-year-olds. That they could have a marshmallow for a treat. The marshmallow was placed on a table where the child could see it. The child could have the marshmallow immediately. However, if the child waited 15 minutes. Until the researcher returned from an errand, he or she could have two marshmallows. About one third of the children ate the one marshmallow almost immediately after the researcher left the room. About two thirds of the children waited until the researcher returned. So that they could have two marshmallows. Some sang or covered their eyes to help resist temptation. Later, when these children were teenagers. They were studied again. The marshmallowresisters were more self-confident. Less likely to give up. They could deal with stress and pressure. Also, able to delay gratification when working toward a goal. The marshmallow-grabbers were not as well adjusted or as successful. Still had trouble putting off gratification. As I read about this study in Daniel Goleman's book emotional intelligence. I thought about my own ability to delay gratification. My college degree is proof. That I can delay gratification. But sometimes, when I play computer games for hours. Instead of pursuing my goals. I feel like a four-year-old marshmallow grabber.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 4: COMMA SPLICES A comma splice is two or more independent clauses connected with only a comma. Identify Comma Splices If a numbered item is a complete sentence and is correctly punctuated, write C in the blank. If it is a comma splice, write CS in the blank. Example CS I love the aroma of coffee, I can't stand to drink it. C Although I love the aroma of coffee, I can't stand to drink it. ______ 1. Lake Michigan provides miles and miles of beautiful beaches, and it touches four states. ______ 2. It is the world's sixth largest lake, it covers 22,300 square miles. ______ 3. Lake Michigan, the third largest of the Great Lakes, is the only one that is entirely inside the United States. ______ 4. It separates the state of Michigan into two parts, the upper part of Michigan is called the Upper Peninsula or the UP. ______ 5. Native Americans who lived on the lake's shores called it Michi-guma, which means "big water." Revise Comma Splices In the following paragraph, correct the comma splices. Example Many rivers flow into Lake Michigan. The Chicago River once flowed into the lake, however, its course was reversed, and now it flows out of the big water. Correction Many rivers flow into Lake Michigan. The Chicago River once flowed into the lake. However, its course was reversed, and now it flows out of the big water.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 4: COMMA SPLICES (continued) A Warm Welcome I drive past truck stops, McDonald's, Pizza Hut, and other local stores. I make a left turn off the Red Arrow highway down a little, tree-lined blacktop road, I drive a few minutes until it looks like I could drive right into Lake Michigan. I stop and park my car. In front of me, the lake stretches as far as I can see, looking left and right, I can see only water. Today it's bathed in bright sunlight, it shines brilliantly like a fairy-tale land where you can pick up jewels and put them in your pocket. I step out of my car and hear the waves crashing gently onto the sand--steadily, rhythmically. I feel the hot sand on my bare feet, it clings to my skin. Above, the sky is clear, bright, and blue, it is vast like the lake. All of it seeps into my skin, my eyes, my ears, even my nose. I become like the lake, warm and bright and vast, rhythmic and steady. I have what I came for.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 5: COMMA SPLICES A comma splice is two or more independent clauses connected with only a comma. Identify Comma Splices If the numbered item is a complete sentence and correctly punctuated, write C in the blank. If it is a comma splice, write CS in the blank. Example CS Susan Loves books, she just doesn't like to read them. C Although Susan loves books, she doesn't like to read them. ______ 1. Many college students studying to be teachers don't like to read, they avoid it whenever possible. ______ 2. They try to pass classes without reading the assignments, they skim and use Cliffs Notes. ______ 3. Although they themselves don't read much, it will one day be their job to help students learn to read, reason, and solve problems. ______ 4. As teachers bring these poor attitudes into their classrooms, reading scores may fall even more. ______ 5. If you've been to a big bookstore (a "superstore") lately, you know that people are buying books. ______ 6. A funny thing is happening with these books, ten percent of the people in this country account for approximately three-fourths of the books read. Turn Comma Splices into Two Sentences In the following paragraphs, correct each comma splice by making it into two sentences. Example Dr. Bernice Cullinan studied a group of fifth graders, half of them read four minutes a day or less. Thirty percent read two minutes a day or less. Ten percent didn't read at all. Correction Dr. Bernice Cullinan studied a group of fifth graders. Half of them read four minutes a day or less. Thirty percent read two minutes a day or less. Ten percent didn't read at all.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 5: COMMA SPLICES (continued) What Do You Think? Jane M. Healy thinks children often aren't able to think as well as they should. She talks about this problem in a book she has written, Endangered Minds. A disinterest in reading and poor reading skills are part of the reason for children's poor thinking skills. Many thinking and problemsolving skills are required to comprehend written information. Healy describes a study of 443 students entering college, half were reading below ninth-grade level, however, only 80 of those students thought they needed help with reading. In the initial stages of learning to read, the child learns to sound out and recognize words, however, around third or fourth grade, the emphasis switches to understanding the meaning of words. When children can read the words but don't understand what they read, they merely "bark at print." Many parents blame schools for the problems children have with reading, teachers blame parents. The causes of our country's reading problems are numerous, fewer and fewer people enjoy reading. Fewer people have the patience to do the thinking required to comprehend the written word. Those who exercise and work out in order to strengthen their bodies should expand their exercise program, our minds need to be strengthened too.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 6: COMMA SPLICES A comma splice is two or more independent clauses connected with only a comma. Identify Comma Splices If the numbered item is a complete and correctly punctuated sentence, write C in the blank. If it is a comma splice, write CS in the blank. Example CS Spring is a time to be happy, it also means a lot of work needs to be done. C Although spring is a time to be happy, it also means a lot of work needs to be done. ______ 1. Flowers need to be planted, old leaves from the previous fall may even need to be raked. ______ 2. My roommate wants to fill a big pot with geraniums for the porch, but I just want to wash and clean my car until it shines. ______ 3. A convertible drove past the house playing loud music, it hurt my ears. ______ 4. After I gave my mother a flat of petunias for Mother's Day, she let them die on the porch. ______ 5. Even though I love the warm weather and sunshine, I sometimes dread the work it involves. Turn Comma Splices into Compound Sentences In the following paragraph, correct each comma splice by adding a coordinating conjunction to create a compound sentence. Coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet. Example He loved her cheerful petunia bed, the lilies made him feel depressed. Correction He loved her cheerful petunia bed, but the lilies made him feel depressed.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 6: COMMA SPLICES (continued) Pomp and Circumstance Every year, the college used to schedule graduation to take place on the college lawn in early May, but if it was cold or rainy, the ceremonies were moved into the gymnasium. Finally, the graduation planners got in touch with reality, they scheduled it inside. Having graduation inside gave the planners a realistic reference point, they could plan a memorable gymnasium graduation. The graduation committee added dramatic lighting, bright, sunny pictures of our campus were flashed on a backdrop over the speaker's platform. In former ceremonies, the flat floor of the gym minimized the audience's view of the graduates, the new processional path included a slightly raised platform in front. Everyone had a good view of his or her graduate, a huge monitor in the front left corner of the room also showed the speakers and the graduates receiving their diplomas. The ceremony still looked and felt dignified, everyone now had a good view of the room. There was only one strange piece of planning: after the ceremony, the school mascot, a giant bird, led the graduates out of the gymnasium with a silly little dance.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 7: COMMA SPLICES A comma splice is two or more independent clauses connected with only a comma. Use a Semicolon or Colon to Correct Comma Splices In the following essay, correct each of the comma splices with either a semicolon or a colon. (Usually, you would not use these punctuation marks so many times in one essay.) Example Roberto didn't trust his biology instructor, he thought he was in it only for the money. The instructor had a haughty attitude, however, Roberto knew he was learning a lot in the class. Correction Roberto didn't trust his biology instructor; he thought he was in it only for the money. The instructor had a haughty attitude; however, Roberto knew he was learning a lot in the class. Born to Teach Formal education is not a perfect process. Yet, college offers a lot, a structure and teachers that students would be hard pressed to find on their own. I assume that students, as well as teachers, have mixed desires and obligations. As a teacher, I have a coordinator, a dean, a president, and a Board of Trustees who hold me accountable. I'm also accountable to myself and to my students. Sometimes, students complain that they want less homework, easier tests, and an easier grading scale, however, students also want course credits. For those credits to have value, the community must believe that a reasonable amount of learning takes place in our classes. Learning usually requires some reading, studying, and work. If teachers make classes too easy, we lessen the learning and make course credits worthless. So, as the instructor, I must strike a delicate balance in order to satisfy the students, the college, and the community. Whatever class I teach, I feel obligated by duty and course content to teach certain skills and certain pieces of information. But content skills and information are not my only goal, for me, one of the major accomplishments of higher education is that students begin to know more fully their own minds and hearts. Every class offers this option, as you study your subject matter, you can
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 7: COMMA SPLICES (continued) study yourself. You can learn how to develop your strengths and how to live with your weaknesses. I don't know how to teach this side of learning as well as I know how to teach punctuation and reading, I try to live it in my own learning and teaching, and I hope it comes through. The real reason I stay in teaching is not that I believe everyone needs to learn a particular body of knowledge, it is that every semester I see that certain students "get it." Sometimes, I notice them discovering the power of their own intellect or thinking and solving problems at a new level of competence and creativity. Sometimes, a student tells me, "I learned a lot about myself when I wrote that essay," or "I've discovered I can comprehend reading a lot better than I used to," or "I finally figured out how to study." In addition to my pleasure of being a part of my students' learning, I continue to learn myself, I continue to feel my intellect grow stronger and my own mind expand. When I was a college student, I sometimes complained, "I'm too busy doing my schoolwork and passing tests to learn anything." I know from experience that having enough time is a problem for college students. But if you are always too busy to learn about yourself, you aren't getting your money's worth. Ten years from now, you will have forgotten many of the facts you learned to pass certain classes, but the information you acquired about yourself will always be yours to add to your competence as an employee, a parent, and a friend. Also, self-knowledge will add to your happiness and your sense that life is meaningful. Don't miss this opportunity--go for it!
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 8: COMMA SPLICES A comma splice is two or more independent clauses connected with only a comma. Turn Comma Splices into Complex Sentences If the numbered item is a complete and correctly punctuated sentence, write C in the blank before the number. If it is a comma splice, write CS in the blank before the number. Then rewrite the comma splice as a complex sentence, using the subordinating word or phrase that is in parentheses at the beginning of the example. Example CS (because) Cooking is fun, you get to eat the results. Cooking is fun because you get to eat the results. C (because) Cooking is fun but requires patience and knowledge. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______ 1. (because) Stella knows a lot about cooking, she's been doing it since she was five. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 2. (although) Stella knows a lot about cooking, her sister Rachel doesn't even know how to make oatmeal or toast. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 3. (while) Stella began reading cookbooks in second grade, Rachel read comic books and books about sports. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 4. (if) A person needs a strong interest in cooking to become a creative and interesting cook. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 5. (although) Most people love crispy fried potatoes, they don't know how to make them. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 6. (so that) A heavy cast iron skillet is needed, the potatoes can cook at a high temperature. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 8: COMMA SPLICES (continued) ______ 7. (because) Pie crust can be very tricky to make, it requires a gentle touch. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 8. (since) I am an expert pizza maker, pizza is my favorite food. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 9. (once) You get used to a delicious homemade pizza, you don't want to order out again. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 10. (even though) I began to grow my own basil and oregano, I could buy them at the supermarket. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 11. (although) Adding fresh herbs, freshly grated cheese, and homemade tomato sauce to a homemade pizza crust is a heavenly experience. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 12. (although) Italian Delight serves wonderful lasagna, it is not as good as mine. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 9: RUN-ON SENTENCES A run-on (or fused) sentence is two or more independent clauses that are not separated with a punctuation mark or a coordinating or subordinating word or phrase. Identify Run-On Sentences If the numbered item is a complete and correctly punctuated sentence, write C in the blank. If it is a run-on sentence, write RO in the blank. Example RO I love the aroma of coffee I can't stand drinking it. C Although I love the aroma of coffee, I can't stand drinking it. ______ 1. Sometimes, I think finding a writing topic is the most difficult part of the writing assignment it can take hours. ______ 2. Students sit in front of their blank papers or blank computer screens they chew their pencils. ______ 3. They twist strands of hair or pull on their earlobes they don't get anything written. ______ 4. The lucky student spends only fifteen or twenty minutes in this manner while others may spend an hour or two. ______ 5. This method is not pleasant or productive and often produces feelings of guilt. Turn Run-On Sentences into Two Sentences In the following paragraphs, correct the run-on sentences by adding a period and a capital letter to turn them into two sentences. Example Some students write a few lines on their paper then they loudly scrunch up the paper and start again. They may do this over and over the wastebasket fills with balls of notebook paper. Correction Some students write a few lines on their paper. Then they loudly scrunch up the paper and start again. They may do this over and over. The wastebasket fills with balls of notebook paper.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 9: RUN-ON SENTENCES (continued) Getting Unstuck Often, when students receive a writing assignment, they spend a lot of time stuck trying to figure out what to write. There is a way to get unstuck that has an extremely high success rate it is called freewriting. To freewrite, simply write and keep writing for a set period of time. You may decide to start with ten minutes and work up to longer periods. If you run out of things to say, write, "I can't think of anything to say." While freewriting, you should not worry about punctuation, spelling, or organization you shouldn't even worry about whether your writing makes sense or not. Freewriting could be called "thinking on paper." It produces both brilliance and junk and all kinds of thoughts in between it also keeps your thoughts moving. Thinking without writing often keeps us stuck. It is not uncommon to keep thinking the same thought over and over again. While working on an essay assignment, we often think, "I can't think of anything to write about I can't think of anything to say." It takes a stubborn freewriter to write that thought more than once. You may start out whining about your frustrations: "I can't think of anything to write." But the next sentences often move you forward a tiny bit "I don't want to get too personal. I wrote about baseball the last time. I guess this time, I could write about baseball too if I changed the focus. I could write about minor league baseball and how few minor league players ever make it into the majors." Sometimes, it takes only a paragraph or two to get unstuck, sometimes, it takes much longer. The next time you are stuck with a writing assignment, try freewriting the next time your thinking is in a rut for any reason, try freewriting. See where the point of a pencil can take your thinking.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 10: RUN-ON SENTENCES A run-on (or fused) sentence is two or more independent clauses that are not separated with a punctuation mark or a coordinating or subordinating word or phrase. Identify Run-On Sentences If the numbered item is a complete and correctly punctuated sentence, write C in the blank. If it is a run-on sentence, write RO in the blank. Example RO She loves movies however, she did not see Titanic. C She loves movies, but she did not see Titanic. ______ 1. Titanic was released in 1997 it cost between $200 million and $300 million to make. ______ 2. Most people say the photography is wonderful; however, some people complain of sappy dialogue. ______ 3. The movie tells the true story of a beautiful, real-life, luxury ship that hits an iceberg and sinks off the coast of Newfoundland. ______ 4. The ship sank in 1912 the movie shows actual pictures of Titanic as it looks today two and a half miles under the sea. ______ 5. The moviemakers tried to create a ship with the same plush interior as the real Titanic the addition of a love story between Rose and Jack is total fiction. Turn Run-On Sentences into Compound Sentences In the following paragraphs, turn the run-on sentences into compound sentences by adding either a comma and a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon. Coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet. Example Titanic cost more to make than any other film the images the movie presents are remarkable. Correction Titanic cost more to make than any other film; the images the movie presents are remarkable.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 10: RUN-ON SENTENCES (continued) Titanic Success or Titanic Joke? The movie Titanic was what is called a blockbuster. Immediately after its release, scores of people flocked to the theaters. It was not uncommon that first week to find the theaters sold out people were turned away. Yet, not everyone liked this popular movie. A friend of mine hated it however she doesn't like to mention it. She explains, "People tend to be a little touchy about their taste I don't talk about it." She is right one woman responding to a negative Internet review said, "You people are sick." Another woman said, "You must be very sad if you don't like this movie." For the minority who did hate the movie, support is also available. A number of Internet sites are devoted to negative critiques of Titanic. "Ack! Why I Hated Titanic," "BOAT (Brotherhood of Anti-Titanic)," and "Down with Titanic" are examples of Web-site names "Story of Mediocrity" is an example of an article title. The author of this article claims that Titanic was indeed an emotional story his main emotion, however, was laughter. He calls the film pathetic and says it was not worth a big laugh, only a few chuckles. Fans of the movie find these critiques difficult to take we know different people have different tastes, but most of us think that our taste is best.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________
EXERCISE 11: RUN-ON SENTENCES A run-on (or fused) sentence is two or more independent clauses that are not separated with a punctuation mark or a coordinating or subordinating word. Turn Run-On Sentences into Complex Sentences If the numbered item is a complete and correctly punctuated sentence, write C in the blank. If it is a run-on sentence, write RO in the blank. Then rewrite it as a complex sentence, using the subordinating word or phrase that is in the parentheses at the beginning of the example. Example CS (because) Cooking is fun, you get to eat the results. Cooking is fun because you get to eat the results. C (because) Cooking is fun but requires patience and knowledge. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______ 1. (although) I love a clean house I don't always like to do the work required. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 2. (because) Cleaning the refrigerator is a disgusting job there is bound to be some moldy, green food hidden in some corner. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 3. (once) I pull all the little plastic containers off the shelves then I open them and sniff the contents. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 4. (even though) It can be a rude shock to my nose I can't seem to trust my eyes. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 5. (after) I finally finish the job then I feel good. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 6. (since) I hate cleaning the refrigerator I wait too long between cleanings. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 11: RUN-ON SENTENCES (continued) ______ 7. (because) One job is even worse than cleaning the refrigerator it is dirtier and smellier. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 8. (even though) Changing the cat litter is the worst job it doesn't take long to do. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 9 (since) The cat book says to change the litter every day and clean out the litter box with vinegar water. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 10. (because) Housekeeping is never finished I don't feel good about doing it. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Rewrite the next two run-on sentences twice. (a) In the first sentence, put the clauses in the order that requires a comma between them. (b) In the second sentence, put the clauses in the order that does not require a comma between them. 11. (when) I finished my housework I felt proud. a. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ b. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 12. (if) I make a schedule of household tasks I am more likely to get them done. a. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ b. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 12: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES Identify Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices If the numbered item is a complete and correctly punctuated sentence, write C in the blank. If it is a run-on sentence, write RO in the blank. If it is a comma splice, write CS. If it is a sentence fragment, write F. Example F Michael Jordan has won many records. Winning his sixth NBA championship in 1998. C Coach Phil Jackson said it was "the best performance I've seen by Michael Jordan in a critical situation in a critical series." ______ 1. In the final match of his sixth NBA championship, Michael Jordan saved the game by sinking a basket during the final 5.2 seconds of the game for a 87­86 victory over the Utah Jazz. ______ 2. Jordan has a reputation for being an outstanding athlete. But an ordinary, nice guy off the court. ______ 3. As a basketball player, Jordan is very exposed he tries to keep his private life private. ______ 4. He is a successful ad man too. ______ 5. Selling everything from sneakers to hamburgers and hot dogs. Revise Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices In the following paragraphs, correct the sentence fragments, run-ons, and comma splices. Example She said she had never heard of Michael Jordan, he couldn't believe her. He thought she was teasing him. She was not. Correction She said she had never heard of Michael Jordan. He couldn't believe her. He thought she was teasing him. She was not.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 12: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES (continued) The Pitchman You don't have to be a sports fan to know. That Michael Jordan is one of basketball's greatest players. You just need ears. However, you might not know that Jordan is also one of the greatest product pitchmen of all time. If you were to list the products he has endorsed. It would be a very long list. In an article in The New Yorker, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., describes Jordan's career as a salesman. Coca-Cola was his first big endorsement product, he signed a contract with them at twenty-two. He signed the Coke contract in 1985, there have been many more since then. He has endorsed some little-known products McDonald's and Nike are two of his well-known endorsements. The relationship between Jordan and his corporate sponsors is a simple form of mutual benefit. Jordan helps sell a product, the product makes Jordan more famous. Jordan's success at promoting products is complex, his athletic abilities help make him successful, but basketball skills alone do not make a man popular. Jordan says, "When I come in contact with people, I think they see me being a genuine person. I get along with everybody. I'm a people person, yet I understand the game of corporate America and what they try to project." "He just has amazing instincts," says David Falk, his sports agent. Eventually, celebrities lose their freshness. It hasn't happened to Jordan yet, he keeps expecting it to happen. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., says that part of Jordan's job is to maintain his popular image: "Being Michael Jordan has become his principal line of work."
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 13: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES In the following paragraphs, correct the sentence fragments, run-ons, and comma splices. Example The challenges a college student encounters are numerous they aren't just academic. Correction The challenges a college student encounters are numerous. They aren't just academic. Academics and Alcohol In the fall of 1997, two United States college students from two different colleges died from binge drinking at campus-related events. Scott Krueger was a student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Benjamin Wynne was a student at Louisiana State University. Both students died of alcohol poisoning, both students died as a result of fraternity parties. Although deaths from alcohol poisoning are dramatic and disturbing. They are also easy to overlook. Most of us do not know anyone who has died in that manner. We say it can't happen to us. And our drinking is not a problem. Yet, many medical experts believe that binge drinking is a serious health and safety problem, especially for college students. Binge drinking is usually defined as frequently having many drinks at one time--five for men and four for women. Statistics from the Harvard School of Public Health show that binge drinking is common (Kalb and McCormick 33). Close to one half of college students under 23 engage in binge drinking. (The number falls to 28% for students over 24.) However, some groups binge more than others, males are more likely to binge-drink than females. White students are more likely to binge-drink than nonwhites. The highest number of binge drinkers is found in fraternities and sororities, 84% of these students report that they have engaged in binge drinking. The number of binge drinkers is high, those who are binge drinkers tend to believe that binge drinking is even more common than it actually is. A survey at Duke University showed that the average student believed that 96% of all students consumed alcohol at least once a week, in
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 13: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES (continued) reality, only 50% of students drank once a week (Johnson 3). Because binge drinkers tend to have friends who are binge drinkers. They don't have an accurate sense of how many students drink. They seem to believe that everybody does it. In the Harvard study, those who reported engaging in bingeing behavior also reported engaging in other negative behaviors. Large percentages said they had driven while intoxicated or ridden with an intoxicated driver. They were more likely to engage in unprotected sex, they reported engaging in behavior while drunk that they later regretted. A Duke University survey questioned Duke students. About their drinking habits over a two-week period. Four times more binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers reported they had performed poorly on a test or an important assignment during that time. Six times more binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers reported missing class. These problems are in addition to the tragedy of alcohol-related traffic deaths. Campus drinking is a complicated issue for college deans. College students need to learn to be responsible about drinking. If alcohol is forbidden on campus. Students may drink just as much off campus. Yet, a responsible academic institution needs to address the issue of drinking behavior. A total ban does not work.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 14: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES In the following paragraphs, correct sentence fragments, run-ons, and comma splices. Example Losing control from time to time. Fortunately, the consequences are usually not too serious. Correction Most of us lose control from time to time. Fortunately, the consequences are usually not too serious. The Smart Response "I don't know what got hold of me, I just lost it." All of us have probably felt or said such a thing, sometimes, our rational, thinking brain just seems to disappear. Daniel Goleman describes this phenomenon in his book Emotional Intelligence. Calling it emotional, or neural, hijacking. Goleman described a man. Who planned to rob an empty apartment one afternoon. However, the robber's plans were disturbed. The two women who lived in the apartment came home unexpectedly while he was still there. He was leaving, one of the women vowed to help the police find him. He panicked and killed both women in a frenzy. Fortunately, most of our emotional hijackings are not this serious, we just fly off the handle or forget to follow through with our plan. We "lose it," the limbic brain sees an emergency, the thinking brain does not even have time to assess the situation. Not all hijackings are unpleasant. A joke can be very funny, we can lose control with laughter. This knowledge does not mean that we should abandon the feeling part of our brain. Sometimes we find ourselves in a true life-threatening situation. Where split-second action is required. Neural hijacking can be a life-saving warning. However, many of us are similarly hijacked because of small perceived insults. A friend may accidentally imply that we did something stupid. In the so-called insult situation, the opposite of fast action is needed. We need to take our time.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 14: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES (continued) Imagine a number of possible responses. Ask ourselves what the consequences of each response would be. If I blow up at this person, I may lose a friend. If I eat to feel better. I let my friend's meanness take me off my diet. If I go for a walk, I may cool down, feel better, and get exercise too. The trick is to recognize that an accidental insult is not a life-threatening situation and think through the options. Only you can prevent neural hijacking in your brain.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________
EXERCISE 15: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES
Label each of the following numbered items. If it is a complete and correctly punctuated sentence, put C in the blank by the number. If it is a run-on, put RO in the blank. If it is a comma splice, put CS in the blank. If it is a sentence fragment, put F in the blank. Revise each run-on, comma splice, or sentence fragment on the blank lines below it. Example CS My favorite punctuation mark is the dash, I have to be careful that I don't use it too much. My favorite punctuation mark is the dash. I have to be careful that I don't use it too much.
______ 1. The sometimes painful difficulty of knowing when a sentence is complete and when it is a fragment or a run-on. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 2. It is sometimes difficult to ascertain whether a sentence is complete or whether it is a fragment or a run-on. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 3. I can always recognize a complete sentence, but sometimes I can't tell the difference between a run-on and a fragment. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 4. There are many styles of complete sentences, there are simple sentences, compound sentences, complex sentences, and complex-compound sentences. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 5. Although I have been speaking and writing English for many years, I still have some trouble with punctuation, especially commas. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 6. Punctuation is an entertaining challenge to me, I love trying to decide where to put those expressive little dots and marks. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 7. A semicolon, that fancy period that is sometimes mistaken for a fancy comma. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________
EXERCISE 15: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES (continued)
______ 8. Do you ever use a colon, it almost always goes after a complete sentence. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 9. I have trouble proofreading my own work I know what I mean when I read it. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 10. I have trouble proofreading my own work because I know what I mean when I read it. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 11. Because I know what I mean when I read my own work, I have trouble proofreading it. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _______12. It is important to proofread, one can avoid many small errors. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 13. I occasionally browse through books on punctuation, they help keep me confident. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 14. Continue to review punctuation rules until you are very confident. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 15. I am very confident, I review often. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 16. Because I review often, I am very confident when I punctuate my essays and letters. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 17. As I get more writing practice, I get better at punctuation. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 15: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, AND COMMA SPLICES (continued) ______ 18. I write much more these days, I am getting better at punctuation and grammar. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 19. However, writing is never going to be easy, not as long as I am trying to communicate complicated and important ideas. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ ______ 20. Writing will never become completely easy, there are too many important and complicated ideas involved. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 16: COMMA ERRORS IN COMPOUND SENTENCES In a compound sentence (one with two independent clauses), a comma needs to precede the coordinating conjunction and separate the two clauses. Identify and Correct Comma Errors Read the following numbered examples, paying particular attention to the coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet). If the sentence is correctly punctuated, write C in the blank. If the sentence is missing a comma, add the comma. Example _ Michael hates to read and he hates to take tests. _ His mom says, "If you hate school so much, why don't you quit school and get a job and find your own place and see how you like that?" Correction _ Michael hates to read, and he hates to take tests. C His mom says, "If you hate school so much, why don't you quit school and get a job and find your own place and see how you like that?" ______ 1. A writing assignment can be difficult and stressful. ______ 2. You must find a writing topic and then write the required number of pages. ______ 3. Students say, "My life is boring and I don't have anything interesting to write about." ______ 4. However, one student wrote an interesting essay on making toast and another student wrote a humorous essay on how to butter up an instructor. ______ 5. It is always wonderful to find a topic you are excited and enthusiastic about. ______ 6. It is also reassuring to know and remember that essays can be written from boring and unexciting topics as well. ______ 7. I wrote a paragraph assignment once about my furnace and another time I wrote about an unusual bathroom. ______ 8. Some topic is better than no topic and getting a C is better than getting an F. Add Necessary Commas in Compound Sentences In the following paragraph, add the missing commas before coordinating conjunctions in compound sentences.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 16: COMMA ERRORS IN COMPOUND SENTENCES (continued) The Basement Monster I'm afraid of my furnace. Hissing and banging sounds travel up from the basement as the furnace struggles to heat the main and second floors. The boiler has gauges and valves to measure frightening things like pressure and temperature and I have to add water when a gauge tells me it's low. When I have it worked on by the repairman, I always ask him a lot of questions to find out what is the worst thing that could happen. He says, "If the boiler burns dry, the furnace might crack but it won't blow up." That's good news yet when I come home and hear the hissing, I experience a momentary feeling of anxiety. I remind myself of the repairman's words and manage to calm down a bit. I'm learning to live with the basement dragon but he's not my friend.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 17: COMMA ERRORS WITH CLAUSES AND INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS A comma should set off an introductory word, phrase, or clause unless there would be no chance of misreading. Identify and Correct Comma Errors Read the following sentences, paying particular attention to the subordinating conjunctions, subordinating clauses, and introductory clauses. If the sentence is correctly punctuated, write C in the blank. If it is missing a comma after an introductory element, add the comma. Example _ Although Michael hates to read he loves to play games on his computer. _ There is one game he loves even though it requires a lot of reading. Correction _ Although Michael hates to read, he loves to play games on his computer. C There is one game he loves even though it requires a lot of reading. ______ 1. As I tried to do my algebra homework I kept thinking about getting finished and being able to play. ______ 2. I kept thinking about getting finished and being able to play as I tried to do my algebra homework. ______ 3. When I do algebra problems I feel that I am just too stupid. ______ 4. I feel that I am just too stupid when I do algebra problems. ______ 5. I love to play Dungeon Deliverance on my computer because it is difficult but possible to win. ______ 6. Because it is difficult but possible to win I love to play Dungeon Deliverance on my computer. Add Necessary Commas after Clauses and Introductory Elements In the following paragraphs, add commas that are missing after introductory phrases and dependent clauses. Flow Can you remember a time when learning and performing were pure happiness and pure contentment? If you can you probably have experienced "flow." Flow often happens when a person is learning something that she really wants to learn. For that reason flow often happens in sports
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 17: COMMA ERRORS WITH CLAUSES AND INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS (continued) and games. While in the flow state an athlete is said to be "in the zone." In his book Peak Learning Ronald Gross defines flow as "a state of concentration that amounts to absolute absorption in an activity." When we are in flow we aren't worried about what others think. We aren't bored because the work is too easy or frustrated because it's too hard. To avoid boredom and frustration the challenge presented by the learning activity needs to match the competency level of the learner. Flow can also happen in the classroom. But students' frequent complaints about school indicate that flow doesn't happen often in an academic environment. Although certain conditions are necessary for flow to happen the student can control these conditions somewhat. Besides needing a match between challenge and skills the learner needs to feel some control over the situation. Even though clear goals help raise the possibility of achieving flow good feedback is also needed. Because the learner in a flow experience concentrates intensely she is not self-conscious and not aware of time. Flow comes out of inner desire instead of outer prompting. If you're taking a class you hate can you ever experience flow? Maybe. Even though you may have no desire to learn the basics of cell biology, for example, you may take great pleasure in your ability to comprehend the reading material and connect it to what you already know. Just as a body-builder can find great pleasure in lifting at a higher level a student can feel pleasure in a higher level of memory and comprehension. Beating the instructor's test can be as rewarding as going to a higher level in a computer game or winning a championship. You may complain about the demands of school, but if you are able to remember even one experience of flow you know it feels good. You can make college more rewarding and fun if you work to incorporate flow into your classroom learning experiences.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 18: COMMA ERRORS WITH ESSENTIAL AND NONESSENTIAL ELEMENTS A word or phrase added to a sentence to describe a person or a thing should be set off with commas only if it is not essential--that is, if it is simply incidental information. Identify and Correct Comma Errors Read the following sentences, paying particular attention to essential (or restrictive) and nonessential (or nonrestrictive) elements. If the sentence is correctly punctuated, write C in the blank. If a nonessential element is not set off, add the necessary comma or commas. Example _ The Magic Theatre located one block from here is showing Titanic. _ The new theater with the mural by David Hockney has been nominated for a design award. Correction _ The Magic Theatre, located one block from here, is showing Titanic. C The new theater with the mural by David Hockney has been nominated for a design award. ______ 1. The girl with the white boots and two ponytails ordered a cheeseburger and fries from room service. ______ 2. Emma wearing two ponytails and long white boots went shopping at the Mall of America the world's largest mall. ______ 3. Give a message to that girl wearing the gold ring in her nose. ______ 4. Geri also known as Ginger decided she didn't want to belong to the club anymore. ______ 5. The girl in the Armani suit with the closet full of designer clothes is called Posh by a few of her closest friends. ______ 6. The Prince of Wales visited Mel, Geri, and the rest of the club. Add Necessary Commas to Set Off Nonessential Elements In the following paragraphs, add commas that are needed to set off nonessential elements.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 18: COMMA ERRORS WITH ESSENTIAL AND NONESSENTIAL ELEMENTS (continued) The Magic Fix The phrase "inner city" doesn't exactly make a person think of fun and glamour. But Earvin "Magic" Johnson former NBA basketball star is investing some of his millions in inner-city business ventures. He has opened multiplex theaters aptly named the Magic Theatres in Houston, Los Angeles, and Atlanta. The Atlanta theater located in a community of mostly Hispanics and African Americans focuses commercial attention on communities that have been regularly ignored by investors and developers. Johnson's investments don't stop at movie theaters. He has invested in restaurants and coffee chains, such as T.G.I. Friday's and Starbucks. Along with friends Janet Jackson and Jheryl Busby, he has purchased a bank in a mainly African American area of Los Angeles. Johnson has always wanted to be an entrepreneur (business owner). His father a prime example of a committed worker is said never to have missed a day in his 30 years at a GM plant. Johnson began to dream of having his own company as a kid after meeting two Lansing real-estate developers models of respected and admired black businessmen. Johnson believes that he is helping the Black Community. The theater in Houston employs 120 workers, and minority contractors were hired to help build the theater. Still, the major goal of inner-city investment is profit. If these businesses supported by Johnson are successful, he will earn even more money. There are critics. Charles Barkley player for the Houston Rockets says, "It doesn't matter how many businesses we open in the black community; we have to address real problems." Yet, for some observers, providing jobs and bringing cash into the community does begin to address real problems.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________
EXERCISE 19: COMMA ERRORS IN SERIES Commas should separate all elements in a series of three or more. Read the following essay, paying particular attention to coordinating conjunctions. Insert commas where they are needed to separate elements in a series. Mall Madness Some girlfriends wanted to go shopping. "Should we go to the North American Super Mall or the Mall in the Forest or the Snowy Mountain Mall?" asked Amanda. "Let's go to the Snowy Mountain Mall," said Diane to Amanda Bryn and Carrie. "Sounds cool to me," said Amanda. "Now, we just need to decide whether to drive my 1999 Mustang convertible to fly up on Mountain Air Express or to rent kayaks and paddle up the River of Consumer Bliss." "I have an idea," said Bryn. "Let's drive my dad's van. Then we'll have plenty of room, and we can take Stacy too. We can save money and show off those new stripes I just had put on the side of the van." So it was decided. They would drive to the Snowy Mountain Mall stay at the Snowy Mountain Youth Shopper Hostel shop eight hours a day at the mall and swim and work out nights in the hostel pool and gym. When they arrived, they couldn't decide where to shop first. Would they go to Vickey's Secret Underwear Superstore the Smelly Body Lotion Outlet the GAP in Intelligence Sportswear Clinic or the Sport Clothes for Limited Creativity Showroom. The Smelly Body Lotion Outlet won as their first shopping-stop choice. Amanda and Bryn were sniffing bottles of bubble bath. "Which do you like best?" asked Bryn, "The apple or the orange or the banana?" "None of those," answered Amanda. "I prefer the kiwi grapefruit. The Dandelion Clover Melody and the Western Omelette are tied as my second favorite scents." Carrie walked over to Amanda and Bryn. "Isn't this place just the yummiest the coolest and the sexiest?" she asked.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 19: COMMA ERRORS IN SERIES (continued) "Way yummy way cool and way sexy," they answered. "But," added Carrie, "we can't stay here all day. I need a new tattoo." "Maybe we could all get tattoos," replied Bryn. "Let's go to one of the shops and look at designs." "Do you want to look at tattoos before we even look at platform boots nose rings and midriffbaring tops?" "Oh, for sure," answered Bryn. "If we don't act fast, our tattoos won't be healed before we get home. What will it be--Homer's House of Tattoos the Tattooery or the Body Art Emporium?" And so it went all day long. This account could continue, but you see the picture hear the song and feel the joy of girlfriends at the mall.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 20: COMMA ERRORS In the following sentences, insert commas where they are needed. I Remember Sometimes trouble remembering can seem a college student's worst enemy. Students feel they have no control over what they remember. Researchers agree somewhat. The brain's decision to retain or forget a piece of information is often unconscious. The hippocampus decides. The hippocampus is a small structure located deep in the brain's center. According to a Newsweek article (Chernin 42) the hippocampus evaluates which new information to keep based on two criteria: Does it have emotional significance? Can it be connected to things we know already? Most of us can think of examples in our own lives. When Steve sees the girl who dumped him his body instantly remembers how hurt angry and disappointed he felt. Toni who owns every Pearl Jam album ever made checks the Pearl Jam Web sites often and named her car Pearl will easily remember which Pearl Jam member sang the national anthem at last night's NBA championship game. Toni's mother who isn't much of a Pearl Jam fan won't. For Toni this information fulfills both memory criteria of the hippocampus. Pearl Jam has emotional significance for her and she can connect it to things she already knows. She already knows Eddie Vedder's name. In fact her brain contains a vast network of Pearl Jam information to connect with this new information. Efficient students will can use this memory information to improve their learning. For example in Biology 101 students need to learn the characteristics of the six major land biomes. "Helpless Hank" whines about the challenge: "I can't have positive feelings about land biomes. They're boring. I have no previous information about land biomes to connect this to." However "Creative Kelly" puts brain and memory information to good use as she studies biology. She already has positive emotions about the taiga biome and a small web of information from watching
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 20: COMMA ERRORS (continued) Northern Exposure the TV show. She has information and positive emotions about the temperateforest biome because she lives in it. She is able to connect in this way with all the biomes. "Artstudent Arturo" activates positive emotions by making a beautiful map of the land biomes in the United States. He feels proud when he looks at it. Many smart students are able to use information about memory to make their study behaviors better. Can you?
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________
EXERCISE 21: COMMA ERRORS In the following letter, insert commas where they are needed. Dear Mr. President: I've been reading about the war on drugs and I'm concerned that we are not winning this war. We aren't winning and too many people are getting hurt. An article in the May 14, 1998, issue of Rolling Stone has helped me to focus my concerns about this issue. I am not a regular reader of Rolling Stone but the two gentlemen interviewed in this article seemed especially knowledgeable and thoughtful. The most serious concern of the article is stated in the title "Is the Drug War Racist?" It starts with some disturbing statistics. Thirteen percent of the United States population and 13% of monthly drug users in the United States are African American. Yet 35% of the people arrested for drug-possession are African Americans. African Americans constitute 55% of those convicted and 74% of those sentenced to prison ("Is the Drug War Racist?" The Sentencing Project, 1992). The number of African Americans in state prisons for drug charges rose 465% between 1986 and 1991. One reason for this racial disparity in the prisons is the disparity in sentencing for two similar drug-related crimes. As you know the federal mandatory minimum sentence for someone caught selling five grams of crack cocaine is five years which is the same as the mandatory minimum sentence for someone caught selling 500 grams of powder cocaine. Crack-cocaine dealers tend to be African American and powder-cocaine dealers tend to be white. This difference causes discrimination between black and white drug offenders. These policies would not be so terrible if the imprisoned drug sellers were being rehabilitated so that they could leave prison ready to lead safe creative law-abiding lives. Instead prison often trains them to become even more successful and violent criminals. Both society and the imprisoned lose. This inequality might be excusable if it were helping the drug situation in this country but that doesn't seem to be the case.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 21: COMMA ERRORS (continued) Criticizing the war on drugs is not easy for a public official to do as he or she will probably be accused of being soft on drugs. But you don't have to run for re-election. Why don't you take a courageous stance? Give the war on drugs a new game plan. Remember the old saying: If you do what you've always done you'll get what you've always had. When it comes to drugs what we have is not what we want.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 22: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, COMMA SPLICES, AND COMMA ERRORS In the following essay, correct sentence fragments, run-on sentences, comma splices, and comma errors. The Talk Do you remember learning about sexuality from your parents? If you are a parent, do you remember teaching your children about sexual matters? How did it go, was there room for improvement? Many parents find it difficult to talk to their children about issues of sexuality. Naturally curious, children having all kinds of questions that can embarrass adults around them. Often, when parents do address questions about sex. They do so in only one conversation, sometimes known as "the talk." Yet, like so many things we learn about throughout our lives. Learning about sexuality is a process that takes years. One conversation is a good start to opening up communication, however, it's not enough in and of itself. Many experts recommend that parents take advantage of teachable moments. While the family is watching TV or listening to the radio. To point out examples in advertising or regular programming, that might send mixed messages or confuse a child or an adolescent. By bringing these things up parents give their children a chance to ask questions of a reliable adult who will give them accurate information, and encourage healthy values. If children are able to ask their parents questions about sexuality. When they are young, they are more likely to come to their parents when they are teenagers. Beginning to explore dating relationships. Every year more than one million teenagers become pregnant in the United States, by twelfth grade more than half of young people are sexually active. Parents who worry about these alarming statistics can take action. Communicating with their children early and keeping the door open to talking about sexuality in the years to follow. If parents lack confidence, there are a number of
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DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES TO ACCOMPANY EASY ACCESS
Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 22: SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, RUN-ONS, COMMA SPLICES, AND COMMA ERRORS (continued) helpful books and videos to help them use correct terminology and discuss sensitive issues. Even if you are not a parent yet, it isn't too early to educate yourself. Reading about sexuality and sex education right now can help prepare you to teach your children, by increasing your knowledge, and helping you make informed decisions about your own sexuality.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 23: USE OF APOSTROPHES Apostrophes are used to indicate possession and contractions. Choose the Correct Version of the Word Read the numbered items below. Choose the correct word from the parentheses and write it in the blank. 1. (babies/baby's) Her _________ clothes were scattered all over the house. Everyone says __________ really change the way you live. 2. (its/it's) The cat ate __________ food, but __________ still not totally recovered from __________ surgery. 3. (who's/whose) __________ books are these and __________ going to take responsibility for all these lost items? 4. (your/you're) I love __________ project, but I think __________ crazy if you think __________ relationship with the instructor will help you get an A. 5. (there/their/they're) __________ will be many more discussions before __________ able to make __________ decision whether to go __________ or __________ or __________ on __________ vacation. Correct the Apostrophe Errors In the following letter, correct errors in the use of apostrophes and in the spelling of possessives and plurals, if necessary. Example The student's left class so quickly that many students belongings were left on chairs and tables. Correction The students left class so quickly that many students' belongings were left on chairs and tables.
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DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES TO ACCOMPANY EASY ACCESS
Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 23: USE OF APOSTROPHES (continued) Dear Mom, Im glad your coming up for parents weekend. Its too bad Dad has to stay home and work on Grandmas bike. There are so many things happening on and around the Southwestern campus that I know he would like to do. However, Ill just focus on place's that I think you would enjoy. There are three mall's in this town. Its a tough call, but I think your going to like Orchard Mall best. I thought we could check them all. There will be time on Fridays schedule to make a quick mall trip. Its fairly easy to get through these official reception's quickly, so we can do the others on Saturday and Sunday. If your able to, bring Sams lacrosse equipment for me and Bills sports coat. Then, on your way out of town, stop at Billy Clarks bakery and bring me one of my favorite chocolate cakes and a dozen chocolate chip cookies. I'll pay you back by taking you to Millies Place, a spectacular ice cream store near campus. Also, I have two dining hall pass's so that you can sample my dorms famous recipes. I'm sure your going to love that. I cant wait to see you. Drive carefully, and don't forget to bring me Jennys photo.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 24: USE OF PARENTHESES Read the following parentheses-containing sentences. If there are no punctuation or capitalization errors and the parentheses are used correctly, put C in the blank. If there are errors, correct them. Example _ Botanists have developed a lot of new apple varieties (Empire, for example) in recent years. _ Apple pie should be made with a rather tart apple (Never use Red Delicious.). Correction C Botanists have developed a lot of new apple varieties (Empire, for example) in recent years. _ Apple pie should be made with a rather tart apple. (Never use Red Delicious.) ______ 1. The annual meeting of the Apple Pie Elite, (APE) will take place on the Friday after the autumnal equinox. (September 22) ______ 2. Genevieve Jackson has a secret ingredient, (rum), that she will not reveal to any other APE members. ______ 3. This year's meeting will be held in the Orchard Inn (Formerly called the Cider Press Inn.) in downtown Millersburg. ______ 4. Lulubell Gracewell has not told anyone that her much-praised pie comes from a recipe she found at an Internet site, (www.pierecipe.com) ______ 5. Jameston Curlee has impressed all tasters with his flaky crusts (he uses lard) and his sensitive touch with cinnamon. ______ 6. Curlee also likes to collect new and unusual varieties of apples; Empire (a cross between McIntosh and Red Delicious) is his favorite. ______ 7. Gala and Fuji (Of Japanese ancestry) are relatively new varieties. ______ 8. Every fall, APE members visit their favorite apple orchards (Treemendous Fruit Farm, for example), markets, and roadside stands. ______ 9. Members use the standard apple pie ingredients, (cinnamon and sugar), and they experiment with exotic and unusual ingredients (rosemary, for example). ______ 10. On the afternoon of the annual meeting, pie samples will be available to visitors. Tickets ($5.00) must be purchased in advance. Call Jameston Curlee (233-3PIE) for more information.
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DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES TO ACCOMPANY EASY ACCESS
Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 25: PRONOUN REFERENCE Pronouns need to refer clearly to their antecedents and agree with them in number. Identify and Revise Errors in Pronoun Reference If the pronoun reference is clear, write C in the blank. If the pronoun reference is incorrect or confusing, revise the sentence. Example _ Janet and Judith both like their dad's new car. _ Janet and Judith are both excellent students. When their report cards came, she took hers to her mom's office. Correction C Janet and Judith both like their dad's new car. _ Janet and Judith are both excellent students. When their report cards came, Janet [OR Judith] took hers to her mom's office. ______ 1. Each of the children in the Jones family watch their favorite TV talk show. ______ 2. When Mr. and Mrs. Jones finally decided to call a family meeting to discuss TV viewing, especially of one violent crime show, it had to be postponed. ______ 3. Mrs. Jones watched the Jerry Springer Show with her children. Two guests began to yell at each other. Her children sat on the edges of their chairs with their mouths slightly open. One threw a chair at another. Later, she told her husband, "It was awful!" ______ 4. The children watched their mother's reaction and knew its present policy was going to be changed. ______ 5. She allowed them to watch Oprah Winfrey's program; she is sensitive to good childdevelopment principles. ______ 6. She asked each child to name their favorite TV program. Revise Errors in Pronoun Reference In the following essay, correct the errors in pronoun reference. Example The Jerry Springer Show comes on late at night, and the guests are obnoxious. This keeps me from watching it. Correction The Jerry Springer Show comes on late at night, and the guests are obnoxious. Those guests keep me from watching the show.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 25: PRONOUN REFERENCE (continued) Jerry The Jerry Springer Show is controversial. A writer, in Newsday magazine, called it "very possibly the worst program in the history of television." His viewers call it funny and hilarious. I find it a bit embarrassing. Rolling Stone magazine, in a lengthy article on Springer, reports that he did not start out as a TV talk-show host. He first earned a degree in political science; then he attended the Northwestern Law School. When Bobby Kennedy ran for president, he worked in the campaign. At age twenty-seven, he barely lost a race for United States Congress from Ohio. At age thirty-three, he became mayor of Cincinnati. He was called the Boy Mayor. After that, he waged an unsuccessful campaign to become governor of Ohio. After this, he became a television-newsman. He won an Emmy for that before becoming a talk-show host. He started by interviewing well-known public figures, such as Jesse Jackson. Later, he began to specialize in sexier guests, such as male dancers. In 1994, when a new executive producer took over the show, it got wilder and wilder. But until 1996, when it changed owners, the violence was edited out. The new executive producer wanted it so that it was "interesting with the sound off." People appear on the Jerry Springer Show to tell it to the world. The producers get about 4,000 calls a week from them. Can you imagine that? Springer says, "The truth is, I've never met a person who couldn't be a guest on my show. They don't exist in the world. Most of us would choose not to. I am among those." I too am among those. But it goes on. I wonder if it will still be going on by the time you read this essay. Can you answer this question: who is he?
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DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES TO ACCOMPANY EASY ACCESS
Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 26: VERB TENSE AND FORM Verb tenses should be appropriate to the sequence of actions being described, and the proper form of verbs should be used. Identify and Revise Errors in Verb Tense and Form Read each of the following numbered items. If it has no verb problems, write C in the blank. If there is an error in the use of a verb, correct it. Example _ Janet and Jeff break up right before their anniversary. _ Jeff break two dates in one week. Correction C Janet and Jeff break up right before their anniversary. _ Jeff breaks two dates in one week. ______ 1. Ending a relationship encourage some people to reexamine their ideas about what love means to them. ______ 2. Teresa and Michael are breaking up, and she act as though nothing is wrong. ______ 3. But when she talk to her mother, she and her mother talk of the pain that goes with a breakup. ______ 4. Geof, my former soul-mate and best friend, are leaving the party with someone else. ______ 5. The end of love relationships bring grief. Revise Errors in Verb Tense and Forms In the essay below, correct the verb errors. Example Steve goes into a shell when a relationship go bad for him. Correction Steve goes into a shell when a relationship goes bad for him.
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Name: __________________________________ Section: _________________________ Date: ___________________ EXERCISE 26: VERB TENSE AND FORM (continued) Hard to Do Recently, the man I have been dated for six months stopped calling. When I called him the first time, he said he can't talk. When I call him a week later, he say we were headed in different directions; he need to go on without me. It was the old "I needs my space" routine. I had been dump. In his book Rebuilding, Bruce Fisher describe the joint process of dumping and being dumped. Most breakups, he say, have had a "dumper" and a "dumpee." (Only a few relationships have end through a mutual decision.) Fisher chooses the facetious terms "dumper" and "dumpee" deliberately. Although a few people find the two terms offensive, for most people they give perspective and even the beginning of acceptance of the situation. Fisher explains that there is a dumper dynamic and a dumpee dynamic. As it turns out, I had responding like a typical dumpee: I had feeling rejected. From what I can gather, my ex-boyfriend is responding like a typical dumper: he feeling guilty. Right after I read the article, I has this slim piece of comfort. I not alone, and I responding normally to the situation. Fisher suggests I remind myself that just because one particular person has decided that I not the partner for him, it does not mean that I unlovable or that anything is wrong with me. I may need to make a conscious effort to remember this lesson from time to time. Fisher, in his work with numerous divorced people, has noticed that the dumper and dumpee are often much more alike than they imagines. After the worst part of either rejection or guilt passed, the two people tend to describe the relationship similarly. They both provide a similar diagnosis of the problems in the relationship. They both admit that they contribute to the problems in the relationship. Knowing these patterns doesn't eliminate my feelings of sadness and loss, but it do help me face the loss with more hope and confidence.
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DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES TO ACCOMPANY EASY ACCESS

ML Keene, KH Adams

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