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Ethics in Sport GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS
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"It was with sport that I learned everything I know about ethics" A. Camus Ethics in Sport GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS
Ethics in Sport Guidelines for Teachers The present document has been published by the Luso-Illyrian Institute for Human Development as part of its cooperation with the National Plan for Ethics in Sport, in Portugal, and forms part of the LEDs Play module from the LED on Values Programme. Its content is stimulated by the praise for ethics in sport in the Code of Sports Ethics promoted by the European Council, the European Sports Charter and the UNESCO International Charter of Physical Education and Sport. It is also a result of the European Parliament
resolution proposal on the European Dimension in Sport. Teachers in general and Physical Education teachers in particular are central figures in the educational process. It is the responsibility of teachers to guide and transmit ethical values, whether in the specific context of Physical Education classes or in School Sports activities, or in a larger context such as education and citizenship, in which sports education can play an essential role. This responsibility is also shared by the schools to which they are attached, insofar as they represent a community of practice, development and sharing. In this sense, the "Guidelines for Teachers" presented here are aimed at enhancing the framework for teachers in carrying out their pedagogic work among their students, particularly younger individuals, from the point of view of education for values and sports ethics. Starting from a conceptual approach, different support tools are supplied so that teachers can operationalise their activity within education towards ethics through the practice of sport, further improving their educational intervention. www.ilidh.org
What is ethics and what is its purpose? Ethics refers to ethos - principle, basis, foundation - a set of archetypes, models and values that form the character of each person and they translate, through action, into their way of being. Ethics is thus the set of norms of behaviour and ways of life through which human beings
tend to realize the value of the good. Why ethics in sport and in Physical Education? Ethics, as a system of values, helps us to be aware that we cannot live in any manner whatsoever, that in life not everything is permitted and that our behaviour has consequences for others and for the society that we help to create. The same vision should be applied to the practice of physical and sports activities Physical Education in schools, involving multiple sports activities, also praises the plurality and multidimensionality of these practices and the content which is their teaching and learning
object. This content extends beyond the development of physical qualities and motor and sporting abilities, and guides teachers in terms of the need to develop other aspects which are more connected with the individual as a whole, such as education for health and education for values. In this sense, physical and sporting activities
, due to the singular capital they possess, can and should also be used with a view to develop ethics as a system of values linked to sporting and educational phenomenon.
What are the values of sport? Institutionally, the following principles can be identified as being the structuring values of sport:
International Fair-Play Committee
International Olympic Committee
Performance and achievement: performance should always be linked to the effort used to achieve objectives. Rules: performance is worthwhile if done in compliance with the rules. Equal opportunities: without exception, everyone has access to sports, enjoying within it the same rights and the same duties. Practice (and competition) conditions must also be the same for different athletes and no prior benefit should be given to some over others. Respect: need to show tolerance and acceptance to all those involved in sport and outside it. Health: sporting activities and behaviour associated with these should never jeopardize the health and well-being of athletes and their teammates/opponents.
Joy of effort: young people
develop and practise physical, behavioural and intellectual skills by challenging themselves and each other in physical activities, movement, games and sport. Fair play: Fair play is a sports concept, but it is applied worldwide today in many different ways. Learning fair play behaviour in sport can lead to the development and reinforcement of fair play behaviour in the community and in life. Respect for others: When young people who live in a multicultural world learn to accept and respect diversity, and practise personal peaceful behaviour, they promote peace and international understanding. Pursuit of excellence: A focus on excellence can help young people to make positive, healthy choices, and strive to become the best that they can be in whatever they do. Balance between body, will and mind: Learning takes place in the whole body, not just in the mind, and physical literacy and learning through movement contribute to the development of both moral and intellectual learning.
Ethics in Sport In addition to the values that are potentially associated with it, sport is neutral because ... - It can promote ethical values... or the contrary. - It can promote the development of a positive self-image and respect for others... or the contrary. - It can strengthen the community... or the contrary. - It can promote socialisation, the development of new friendships and their strengthening, reinforcing healthy lifestyles and stimulating community participation
and social cohesion
, or... on the contrary, it can promote violence, doping, cheating, and winning at any cost. It depends on the stakeholders involved in guiding sport as a tool for the development of ethics and values. Teachers of physical education, a school discipline where sport plays a key role, are key stakeholders, and as such they should take responsibility for the transmission and strengthening of ethical values in the educational process developed: - Because they are stakeholders attached to the educational and training framework of sporting practice. - Because of the leadership position which they take in the educational process stimulated by sporting activity. - Because of the potential example they can offer students. - Because of their responsibility for the implementation of curriculum objectives related to ethics in sport. Because of the role in the construction of the student's identity, taking as drivers for their vocational and career guidance. Teachers must also assume responsibility for preventing and resolving conflicts
that promote and reduce the following behaviour: PREJUDICE | RACISM | HOMOPHOBIA | VIOLENCE | Gender stereotypes
DOPING | BULLYING | CORRUPTION / COMBINATION OF RESULTS
Code of Sports Ethics The Code of Sports Ethics promoted by PNED-IPDJ identifies the responsibilities of teachers and educational institutions from the point of view of education for values and ethics through the practice of sport. Commitment to Sports Ethics Responsibilities of Teachers and Educational Institutions Teach and transmit the values of Sports Ethics to students. Give value through their technical notations to the aspect of the values of sports ethics. Recognize the activities of the School and University Sports as a means of promoting sports ethics within the educational community. Promote, disseminate and practise the global teaching of Human Values
where sport ethically practised serves as a tool and a special means to achieve this.
Programme guidelines What do Physical Education curricula have to say on values and ethics in sport in the different Educational Cycles? Identify the scope of sports ethics as one of four purposes: Promote understanding and the application of principles, processes and organizational problems and participation in different types of physical activities, from the perspective of cultural events and continuing education
, emphasizing in particular: · Ethics and the sporting spirit. · Personal and collective responsibility
, cooperation and solidarity. · Hygiene and personal and collective safety. · Civic awareness in preserving the conditions for carrying out physical activities, especially the quality of the environment. Also recognize the importance of ethics from the point of view of preventing deviant behaviour: Critically analyse general aspects of ethics in the participation in Sports Physical Activities, linking the social, economic, political and other interests with some of its "perversions", namely: · Early specialisation and early exclusion or dropout. · Doping and risks to life and/or health. · Violence (of spectators and athletes) v. sporting spirit. · Corruption v. sporting truth.
What do Physical Education curricula have to say on values and ethics in sport in the different Educational Cycles?
Generally, the contents of this material in each of the educational Cycles make reference to the following goals, through which we can also identify the following values:
GENERAL OBJECTIVES Cooperating in learning and organisation situations, choosing actions conducive to success, safety and good relational environment in the activity of the class.
IDENTIFIED VALUES Cooperation
Relating with warmth and respect for their classmates, both in the role of teammates as well as that of opponents.
Warmth and Respect
Introducing initiatives and personal development proposals for individual and group activity
, and showing interest and objectivity in those presented by their classmates. Taking the opportunity and interest to support the efforts of classmates, promoting mutual aid to support the improvement and satisfaction of self and other(s). Accepting the support of classmates in self improvement efforts, and the options of the other(s) and the difficulties shown by him/her/them. Participate in a committed manner to improving their ability in different types of activity, aiming to perform appropriate actions with correction and opportunity.
Initiative and Participation Mutually aiding Solidarity Engagement
Foster sportspersonship and fair play, with respect to the rules of the activities and all those involved.
Sportspersonship and Fair Play
Taking on commitments and responsibilities for organisation and preparation of individual and/or group activities, and their inherent tasks, and fulfilling these with commitment and pride. Agreeing on group decisions and tasks with classmates with fairness and respect for individual requirements and possibilities. Analyse and interpret the holding of selected physical activities, and apply knowledge regarding technique, organisation and participation, sports ethics, etc.
Commitment and Responsibility Citizenship and Democratic Spirit Justice and Honesty
It is also noted that in some curricular content, with regard to certain specific sports disciplines, there is a need to know the ethics of the fighter (Combat), the ethics of the Judoka (Judo), the ethics of the player (the Portuguese Stick game) and the ethics of the shooter (Archery).
Responsibility of the teacher How to educate for ethical values in and through sport? BEING A TEACHER... Need to establish oneself as an EXAMPLE The student is the mirror of the teacher!
Need to represent and express certain values to your students!
Understanding Tolerance Autonomy Justice
Rigour Respect Equity Commitment
How to educate for ethical values in and through sport? BEING A TEACHER... Need to understand SCHOOL SPORTS COMPETITION as a sporting event
that is part of the EDUCATIONAL PROCESS and not its end product! Competition should be understood as an educational, participatory and social tool, in addition to being a valid instrument for transmitting values. The objective associated with competition should be to create favourable and positive habits and attitudes regarding the practice of sport and the actual act of competing. Educational competition should: · Be imbued with the playful spirit. · Be open, not discriminating against anyone for any reason. · Promote full respect for the rules, others, the space and the self. · Stimulate personal and group effort. · Not just be about results, and this also involves personal and collective development. Need to understand COMPETITION not only in its formal and regulatory sense, but as an activity with great educational potential which could and should be stimulated within DIFFERENT CIRCUMSTANCES AND TASKS carried out within the classroom context.
Pedagogy as an example "Is my behaviour as a teacher exemplary in promoting ethical values with those with whom I relate? In what way do I influence my students?" The following questions are intended to help teachers realize the impact their behaviour has on students. They are derived from ethical principles which should be important for teachers and the educational process they are involved in. · Are my comments and actions appropriate with regard to the beliefs and experiences of students? · Do I try enough to understand the expectations and viewpoints of the students? · Does my physical posture show a desire to dominate? Or, on the contrary, does it demonstrate a readiness for dialogue? · What relationship do I establish between tolerance and discipline? · Are my students afraid of me? · Do my students respect me? · Am I fair and impartial in the decisions I make? · How well do I know my students as individuals? What evidence do I have to base this knowledge on? · Can I motivate my students by differentiating their profile and goals? · Do I develop a positive atmosphere for the development of the skills that I am teaching? · Are the motivational guidelines I give my students task- or ego-based? · What is my reaction when a student makes a mistake? · Do I invite my students into the different decision-making processes? · How much power do I have over my students and how do I use this? Am I doing the right thing? Why?
It is important that all teachers have the habit of carrying out a self analysis process concerning the suitability of their behaviour in terms of their educational impact. To correct ethically inappropriate behaviour, the teacher should consider taking the following steps for reflection and action: · Admit the possibility that we make mistakes. · Identify honestly and sincerely which mistakes have been made and what forms of prejudice have been developed as a result. · Identify specific actions that reflect the mistakes made and which alternatives can be used. · Request the support of other colleagues so that they can help to find a solution for the mistakes made, prevent them and correct them. The focus and awareness of teachers regarding the importance of their role as an educational agent must be ongoing.
FAIR PLAY? Will I be educating them through sporting activity?
Pedagogy as an example 5 topics to improve the educational intervention of the teacher 1. Keep in mind the educational aims How can I educate for values? What do I want to achieve from my actions? Recommendation 1: based on the characteristics of the group, identify the personal, interpersonal and civic goals which you wish to see be achieved. 2. Promote dialogue How can I include the students in the reflections connected with their involvement in the activity and their resulting learning? Recommendation 2: during the dialogues which take place during the lessons, stimulate discussions using certain questions to guide these dialogues to enable students to reflect on their view of things. 3. Use language which promotes closeness, trust and understanding How should I communicate in front of different publics and different students? It is adults who should adapt their language to the ability and understanding of children and young people. For example, instead of signalling the need to "learn how to work as a team!", an expression which, without concrete examples of what you want, ends up being too vague, finish the statement by saying, for example, "look at where your teammates are before continuing the game". Recommendation 3: be careful with words, keeping what you say logically simple, asking at the end if your message has been understood. 4. Take time to plan for the future and reflect on the past How can I maintain control and carry out my educational aims? Planning and organising the teaching-learning process
is very important, such as consulting, discussing and reflecting with the students on the goals and the importance of the contents worked on or to be worked on. In this way, it is important to ask how students experience and understand the games, Learning activities
and their relationship between each other. Recommendation 4: visualise the holding of classes and imagine a space for reflecting and discussing with the students. Predict the type of questions which may be used to guide the resulting discussion. 5. Stimulate being responsible and proactive How can I guide the students to assume responsible behaviour? How can I guide the students in their transformation from passive individuals to active individuals? Recommendation 5: assign different responsibilities when organising classes (forming groups, packing up material, taking on the role of "captain" or "referee"). All the students should take on all the roles, and they should also be responsible for managing the schedule of tasks.
Teaching of values
Operationalising values in the pedagogy of physical and sporting activities. Sports training factors / Motor task constraints We can recognise the existence of 5 factors and/or constraints which can be pedagogically and methodologically altered when carrying out different motor tasks. These can also be understood according to the prevalence and impact of the corresponding stimulus. From the point of view of the objectives and skills to be developed, a single task always involves all of these factors/constraints. However, it is those involving the psychological and social factors (regarding the affective and emotional as well as sociocultural constraints), as criteria for success in the applied tasks, which mean that motor practice involves a more wide-ranging set of educational goals
Sociocultural constraints SOCIAL TRAINING Affective and Emotional Constraints PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAINING
Bio-informational Constraints TACTICAL TRAINING
Bio-mechanical Constraints TECHNICAL TRAINING
Bio-physiological Constraints PHYSICAL TRAINING
The content associated with each of the factors/constraints mentioned may be limited to the following areas: CONTENT WORKED ON IN PRACTISING PHYSICAL AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES
Motor qualities. Technical and tactical qualities.
Psychological qualities (knowledge of capabilities and limitations, spirit to overcome, self-control or discipline). Personal, interpersonal and civic qualities (healthy habits, autonomy, creativity, freedom, solidarity and ecology).
Adapted from Gimйnez, Abad & Robles (2009)
In line with this multifaceted nature of sporting activity, the contents of the different aspects may be considered and used as an educational aim.
How to operationalize the psychological and social factors of the motor tasks in the practice of sport and physical activity
carried out in Physical Education? It is important to understand the dynamics and the communicative potential of sporting activities as a starting point The types of sporting activities may be described in terms of how the practitioners relate to each other. It is through the different forms of interaction that cooperation practices (communication) and opposition (counter-communication) can be carried out which may form the basis for different sporting disciplines, in addition to situations where responsibility is strictly individual. These forms of communication
promote different types of interaction between the practitioners and show the potential for the development of different and more personal or more social values and skills.
Presence of communication praxis
Absence of communication praxis
Communication and counter-
communication (motor) communication (motor)
Cooperation with teammates
Opposition against opponents
Cooperation and Opposition Teammates/s and Opponent/s
"Solitary" Action Adapted from Parlebas (2001)
Which values can be worked on in classes and how can these be shown? An example of the indicators and evidence based on the so-called universal values
, from the Social Literacy model (iLIDH, 2014).
Respect for self
Acceptance of healthy behaviour and rejection of harmful conduct.Students show
willingness to take care of themselves (hygiene, rest, food) and do this in a disciplined manner.
Acceptance of and fulfilment of tasks and functions which are assigned within the class and in the lessons.
Students undertake their functions and duties with pride and discipline in an exemplary manner.
Autonomy Self-control Overcoming Respect for others
Confidence and independence in terms of their behaviour and responsibilities. Balanced emotional management. Constant resilient effort to improve their performances and behaviour. Acceptance and understanding, without prejudice, of the different conditions of peers and their diversity.
Students have confidence in their abilities and carry out the proposed tasks without the need of support from others. Students control their emotions when the situation is tense or adversarial, and are capable of recognising their own mistakes. Students strive to do more and better and persevere, not surrendering when faced with negative results or performances. Students accept others as individuals, understanding their qualities and difficulties.
Involvement and selfless support of others in different conditions.
Students support those with greater difficulties and support teammates and opponents when they make mistakes.
Joint action by all to achieve a common goal.
Students value the group and recognise the importance of joint action to achieve common purposes.
Development of a positive affective relationship with peers.
Students establish, nurture and develop friendships within their sporting context.
Respect for space
Care for the environment and surrounding materials.
Students look after their training and game areas, as well as the materials which they use and which are part of the game.
Respect for standards
Being just when complying with established standards.
Students respect and follow the rules of the game and the decisions linked to it.
Starting and carrying out the proposed tasks.
Students can take the initiative and enjoy participating.
Teaching of values What other intervention strategies
can be used for the development of ethical values in Physical Education lessons? · Observation/discussion of example situations (positive and negative) occurring during the lessons and their respective solutions. · Joint resolution/reflection of ethical dilemmas that promote reflection in students with regard to certain behaviour and situations. · Identification and instructional strengthening of the psychological and social component of each exercise (individual/collective, cooperation/opposition and the values associated with each aspect of praxis). · Use of dialogue as a tool (frequent use of "debriefing" of values developed in practice). · Carrying out "Role-playing"/"Role changing" exercises, particularly stimulating the responsibilities of each individual within the group-team. · Use of rituals and demonstrative expressions of warmth and respect for others and for the practice space (as is done in martial arts
& Combat Sports). · Use of great athletes and their image and message and their promotion as inspirational examples. · Organisation of school events where competition is playful with few selection criteria. · Contracts/commitment between teachers and students
concerning the fulfilment of behaviour goals for both. The Ethics Commitments made available by PNED can be used for this (See "Pedagogy Resources" at http://www.pned.pt).
Teaching of values Which games and exercises should be used to promote values through practice? Believing that the practice of sport should be carried out in perfect harmony with the principles of ethics and that values, human relations
, social inclusion
, the encoded fight and equality of opportunities have been shown to be fundamental aspects of sporting heritage, the LED's Play -Playing with Ethics Module emerges, which seeks to be a tool for the development of essential values to be simulated and experienced, both within sport and within society. The LED's Play - Playing with Ethics Module seeks to provide support for teachers, coaches, sporting agents, those responsible for clubs and other educators in carrying out the following objectives with students and practitioners of the most varied sporting disciplines, particularly those who are younger: · Promote and develop personal and social skills
to improve intra- and interpersonal behaviour and attitudes, in relationships between peers, responsibility, friendship, mutual aid, well-being, self-confidence and reflexivity. · Promote the understanding of sporting values to be felt and activated in a sustained manner within society. The LED's Play - Playing with Ethics Module is based on an experiential learning
methodology, which represents an enlarged perspective which highlights experiences favouring authentic learning as a necessary basis for the acquisition of important skills for human development and which includes the methodological and pedagogic proposals in this document. You can find different exercise suggestions on the LED on Values Programme website (www.ledonvalues.org) as well as on the PNED website (www.pned.pt) which are carried out to develop values in sport and personal, interpersonal and civic skills. These suggested exercises include stimulated discussion/reflection on values and skills developed - the "debriefing" - which is considered to be an essential tool. In addition to the proposed exercises, which praise the co-operative, meaningful and inclusive aspects of motor games (and which are therefore targeted at a younger audience, these can also be used when involved in a more general way in lessons of more advanced educational cycles), it is possible to extend the spirit of the LED's Play - Playing with Ethics Module to any other task and sporting context. In this sense, any exercise, if pedagogically guided, has the potential to be used as an educational tool for values and ethics in sport. Given this, the wealth inherent in different situations, training and competition can be enhanced by the application of the Experiential Learning methodologies promoted by this module.
FOUNDATION OF Sport as a tool
HABITS AND BEHAVIOURS
With the institutional support of:
An initiative of: With funding from:
Move for values
website: www.ledonvalues.org email: [email protected]
website: www.pned.pt email: [email protected]
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