Evaluation Method for uation Met Eval Technical Indicators chnical Ind Te in Ultimate Frisbee Ulti t, MAB Burato, BS Silva, FR Costa¹, LA Mercandante

Tags: evaluators, MARCOS V. EUZEBIO MARIO A. B. BURATO, Ultimate Frisbee, reliability and validity, sports scientist, technical indicators, Evaluation Method, Tiago G. Russomanno�, Kappa Cohen, Educational and Psychological Measurement, TIAGO G. RUSSOMANNO, null hypothesis, LUCAS A. MONEZI, BRUNO S. SILVA, almost perfect agreement, interpretation, Iuri Scremin, University of Brasilia, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Lucas A. Monezi�, Faculty of Physical Education, team sports, Mario A. B. Burato�, game analysis, Felipe R. Costa�, University of Campinas, Luciano A., The Ultimate, sports experts, World Flying Disc Federation, young team sport
Content: evaluation method for Technical Indicators in Ultimate Frisbee Tiago G. Russomanno№ | Lucas A. MoneziІ | Iuri Scremin № | Marcos V. Euzebio№ Mario A. B. Buratoі | Bruno S. Silvaі | Felipe R. Costa№ | Luciano A. Mercandanteі Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasilia, Brazil№, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Campinas, BrazilІ, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Campinas, Brazilі. Ultimate is a young sport compared with other team sports like soccer and basketball. The ultimate Frisbee has some peculiarities that make the game very interesting, one of them is that is a no contact game. The aim of this work was to analyze the reliability and validity of technical indicators in the ultimate Frisbee. A survey was applied to 5 experts in Ultimate Frisbee with an experience of 5 years at least in the sport as a player or a coach. This survey aimed to validate technical indicators for game fundaments in a way to standardize the language between experts and no experts. The results of the survey were used by group of sports experts to elaborate a protocol of variables to be analyzed and validated the methodology for game analysis of some basic technical indicators measured by 3 selected evaluators. The reliability of the observations between evaluators were tested using the Kappa Cohen Test. The test was conducted in pairs for all evaluators and the measurement of agreement was 0.867 (±0.031). The Kappa Cohen values for comparison between evaluators and intra evaluators were very high, showing that the chosen protocol can be applied to evaluate the technical indicators of the Ultimate Frisbee. KEYWORDS: Ultimate Frisbee, game analysis, team sports. 056 evaluation method FOR TECHNICAL INDICATORS IN ULTIMATE FRISBEE
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 INTERNational Association OF Computer Science IN SPORT (IACSS) CONFERENCE
INTRODUCTION Ultimate Frisbee is a young team sport compared to other sports like soccer and rugby. Originally created in the US in 1903, the young sport had a fast development and spread across the US limits, through the South America and Europe, with the creation of national federations. Today the sport is ruled by the World Flying Disc Federation that was only recognized by the IOC in 2015, making the ultimate Frisbee now eligible for including in the Summer Olympic Games. The main difference between the Ultimate and the others team sports is that the ultimate Frisbee is a non-contact team field sport played with a flying disc. The Ultimate is characterized by being a game of opposition and cooperation where there isn't a judge to signal any kind of penalties or infractions, while as trial actions are performed by the players themselves, and this fact brings uniqueness to Ultimate. Participants should always cherish the Game Spirit, which is the highest rule of Ultimate. This rule refers to respectful and ethical behavior that should exist among the players because it is up to them the responsibility to point out violations. This is a game with well-defined rules and a number of strategies to achieve scoring and to avoid suffering points and strategies are created to recover possession of the disc. As any other team sport the main objective is to make goals, using basics fundaments to score. For the game to have progression, the disc must be released until a player receive' it in the end zone, featuring a point.
to standardize the language between experts and no experts. The results of the survey were used by group of sports experts to elaborate a protocol of variables to be analyzed and validated the methodology for game analysis of some basic technical indicators. Therefore, three evaluators were chosen between the group of sports experts (n= 9). The validation protocol was divided in 2 days. First day, the protocol was discussed between the experts until there was no doubt about the technical indicators that will be used. After the discussion, the protocol was applied by the three elected evaluators. Dvideo system (Figueroa, 2003), was used for to game analysis. In the first session 5500 frames of a world championship game were used to evaluate the technical indicators standardized by the experts. The frequency of analyses was 7,5 Hz. The standardized technical indicators chosen were 14 and include the pull, complete pass, backhand, forehand, hammer, incomplete pass by interception or error, height of reception (upper head; torso; lower), type of reception (pancake, frontal, one hand), diving (bid or layout) and assistance. In the second day, the evaluators individually measured another game of the world championship 2015 to test the reliability and validity of the measurements between evaluators. This time they measured 9000 frames. The results of the technical indicators of the 3 evaluators were compared using the Kappa Cohen Test.
Despite some peculiarities of being a game without physical contact, their basic fundamentals resemble to other court games, and consequently the strategies adopted in Frisbee were adapted from other modalities. Once, there are few studies about the dynamics of the game and about the performance of the players that could be used to improve team performance in Ultimate Frisbee. The aim of this work was to analyze the reliability and validity of technical indicators in the ultimate Frisbee. METHODS A survey was applied to 5 experts in Ultimate Frisbee with an experience of 5 years at least in the sport as a player or a coach. This survey aimed to validate technical indicators for game fundaments in a way
After 1 month the same 3 evaluators were invited to measure the same game and the same 9000 frames using the same protocol, at this time the aim was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the intra subjects measure. For the comparison we used the Kappa Cohen Test again. RESULTS The results show that during the game analysis we had 4 pulls and 3 goals, the USA team had 38 complete passes, 5 incomplete passes, considering that 27 were backhand and 16 forehand, against the Great Britain team that had 30 complete passes, 7 incomplete passes, considering that 21 were backhand, 15 forehand and 1 hammer. The score was 3x0 for USA. The reliability of the observations between evaluators
TIAGO G. RUSSOMANNO | LUCAS A. MONEZI | IURI SCREMIN | MARCOS V. EUZEBIO MARIO A. B. BURATO | BRUNO S. SILVA | FELIPE R. COSTA | LUCIANO A. MERCANDANTE
057
were tested using the Kappa Cohen Test. The test was conducted in pairs for all evaluators and the measurement of agreement was 0.867 (±0.031). The results of
the first measurement(test) were compared with the 1-month later measurement(retest) for reliability for the 3 evaluators as shown on the tables 1,2 and 3.
Evaluator1: test x retest
Symmetric Measures Value Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb
Measure of Agreement
Kappa
.961
N of Valid Cases
254
.013
33.323
a. Not assuming the Null Hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.
Approx. Sig. .000
Evaluator2: test x retest
Symmetric Measures Value Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb
Measure of Agreement
Kappa
.852
N of Valid Cases
232
.026
28.523
a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.
Approx. Sig. .000
Evaluator3: test x retest
Symmetric Measures Value Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb
Measure of Agreement
Kappa
.806
N of Valid Cases
239
.028
27.999
a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.
Approx. Sig. .000
The interpretation of the kappa value by Altman (1991) shows that values between 0.81-1.00 are considerable almost perfect agreement. Therefore, in both case, the Kappa Cohen values for comparison between evaluators and intra evaluators were very high, showing that the chosen protocol can be applied to evaluate the technical indicators of the Ultimate Frisbee.
DISCUSSION The value of agreement found in this study shows that the technical indicators chosen were very strong to define some variables that can be affected by evaluators subjective measurement in the system. Indicating that the chosen protocol was very well set up for the sport (Ultimate Frisbee) with the participation of experts and sports scientist. The methodology applied in this study
058 EVALUATION METHOD FOR TECHNICAL INDICATORS IN ULTIMATE FRISBEE
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COMPUTER SCIENCE IN SPORT (IACSS) CONFERENCE
demonstrated a good reliability and validity to measure technical indicators in this event. With this results for reliability the game analysis based on the previous technical indicators chosen can be performed for a whole game, providing a powerful tool for evaluation of the technical indicators of a match. Consequently, a greater understanding of the game can be improved using this protocol by different sports scientist and sports informatics.
CONCLUSION This kind of data can be used to understand the dynamics of the game and improve the knowledge behind the ultimate Frisbee. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate a whole match, and compare the results between teams. Those results need to be combined with other potential application in sports and exercise.
REFERENCES: Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. educational and psychological measurement, 20, 37-46. Figueroa, P. J., Leite, N. J., Barros, R.M.L, (2003).Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 72, 155165. Altman, D. G. (1991). Practical Statistics for Medical Research. London: Chapman y Hall.
TIAGO G. RUSSOMANNO | LUCAS A. MONEZI | IURI SCREMIN | MARCOS V. EUZEBIO MARIO A. B. BURATO | BRUNO S. SILVA | FELIPE R. COSTA | LUCIANO A. MERCANDANTE
059

MAB Burato, BS Silva, FR Costa¹, LA Mercandante

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