Flora of Nandan Kanan Sanctuary: Medicinal plants with their role in Health care, S Kumar, D Dash

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[Kumar & Dash, 3(4): April, 2012] ISSN: 0976-7126
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES Flora of Nandan Kanan Sanctuary: medicinal plants with their role in health care Sanjeet Kumar* and Dhanalaxmi Dash Department of Life Science, Regional Institute of Education (NCERT) Bhubaneswar, (Odisha) - India
Abstract The present study reflects the major medicinal flora of Nandan Kanan Sanctuary, a small Protected Area along the Kanjia Lake, in the district of Cuttack, Odisha, India. The survey reveals that there were 61 plant species belonging to 40 different families highlighted the floral wealth of the sanctuary.The dominant floristic components were Aerva lanata, Biophytum sensitivum, Christella dentate, Heliotropium indicum, Hyptis suaveolens, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellirica, Pongamia pinnata, Cassia fistula, Polygonum barbatum, Lygodium flexuosum, Mimosa pudica, Leonotis nepetifolia etc. The details of these plants in terms of local name, family, plant part(s) used, chemicals present and their use in health care such as malnutrition, Communicable Diseases, metabolic disorder and other miscellaneous effects has been listed. The implications of this study in terms of sustainable use by the local community, conservation, and education have been discussed. Key-Words: Medicinal plant, Health care, Conservation, Sustainable use, environmental education
Introduction Biodiversity provides humankind enormous direct economic benefits, an array of indirect essential services through protected areas and plays a prominent role in modulating ecosystem functions and stability1 The forests has been the source of invaluable medicinal plants since the time man realized the importance of preventive and curative properties of plants and started using those in human health care. Living close to nature, traditional societies have acquired unique knowledge about the use of wild flora and fauna, most of which are unknown to the people who live away from such natural ecosystem such as forests. The old traditional Indian system of medicines is one of the most ancient medicinal practices known to the word derives maximum formulations from plants and plant extracts that exist in the forests. The value and importance of this tradition knowledge is now being increasingly acknowledged all over the world. As such the pharmaceutical industries are trying to investigate and confirm the efficacy of many medicines and toxins used by traditional communities. Thus realizing the potentiality of wild species in health care, the inventory of plants occurring in any given area has been realized and often felt necessary2. * Corresponding Author E.mail: [email protected]
Even the protected areas do play a vital role in the sustainable use of biodiversity besides conservation. Under this back ground, the present study has been conceptualized to study the medicinal flora of a small protected area, the Nandan Kanan Sanctuary of Odisha. The specific objectives of the study are: i) to find out the major medicinal flora of the sanctuary and ii) to know the plant parts , chemical constituents and their uses in traditional healthcare. Methodology Study Site The Nandan Kanan Sanctuary, an unique, deciduous forest, covering about 437 ha with latitude of 20° 24' 25" N and longitude of 85° 49' 30" E is situated in Cuttack district of Odisha, India, 40 meters above MSL. Amidst the lush green Chandka forests and along the bank of Kanjia Lake stands Nandan Kanan, a beautiful park that got its name from "Nandan Van" meaning the "Garden of the God". It was established in the year 1960. The Botanical Garden established in the year 1963 spreading over 173 acres, is situated in the sylvan setting of the moist deciduous forest of the sprawling green Nandan Kanan Sanctuary standing between two wetlands (Plate-1). In the year 1979, the park together with the lake and the Botanical Garden were declared as a sanctuary3.Though Nandan Kanan is famous for White Tiger & Lion Safari, different
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Explorer Research Article CODEN (USA): IJPLCP species of mammals, birds, reptiles and other faunas also indicate its richness in faunal diversity that attracts large number of tourists and naturalists from India and abroad. Collection of Information The Field Studies were carried out during the years 2009 to 2011 in different seasons to collect major medicinal flora. The plant samples were collected from Nandan Kanan Sanctuary (Botanical garden and Zoological Park) and from the banks of the Kanjia Lake. The plants were identified by the authors following the flora books4,5. The medicinal uses of plants identified were ascertained through the survey of literature and interaction with local inhabitants, detail of which has been reflected in Tables 1-4. The information pertaining to bioactive compounds / active principles present in the plant parts were found out through literature survey, details of which have been listed. In Tables 1-4. For each plant species, its botanical name, local name(s), plant part(s), phytochemical(s) present along with medicinal uses have been described. Plate 1 : Geographical location of Nandan Kanan Sanctuary Results and Discussion Identification of plant species / floral resources has always been realized for their sustainable use besides conservation. In the present study, 61 plant species belonging to 40 different families having some medicinal value(s) were identified (Table 1- 4). For each plant species, its botanical name, local name(s), plant part(s) in use, phytochemical(s) present along with medicinal value has been described. Among the plant species, trees were the dominant (34 %) followed by herbs (30 %) and climbers (23 %). Shrubs represented the lowest number of species (Fig: 1). Fabaceae was the dominant family followed by Apocyanaceae (Fig: 2) as far as the number of plant
[Kumar & Dash, 3(4): April, 2012] ISSN: 0976-7126 species are concerned. Some important medicinal plants such as Peperomia pellucida, Saraca asoca and Evolvulus alsinoids etc has been depicted in plate 2 and 3. Regarding the role of these plants in health care is concerned, 11 species quite useful for malnutrition have been recorded (Table-1) Fifteen plant species (Table-2.) are good against metabolic disorder such as gastrointestinal ailments, asthma, jaundice, diabetes etc.For example, fresh leaves of Gudmari (Gymnema sylvestre) are very effective for diabetes. Twenty four plant species were useful against Communicable diseases and microbial infections. (Table-3) and from these species, 5 were common to both Botanical garden (BG) and Nandan Kanan Zoological area (NZA) (Table-3). Twenty one plant species were useful against Non-Communicable diseases, 8 of these species were seen both in the Botanical Garden and Zoological Park. From the total plants species about 30 % have their leaves used against different diseases and infections. Leaf juice of Leonotis nepetifolia is used against Malaria. Leaves of Paederia foetida and Pergularia daemia are useful against diarrhea and lever disorder respectively. Leaf of Lygodium flexuosum is very effective against eczema. Roots and fruits from 15 % and 13 % of plant species are used for treatment of a variety of infections. Fruits powders of Guazuma ulmifolia (Fig -3) are good as antiseptic and for anticancer activity. Stems are of the least use. Active principle(s) and chemicals present in these plant part(s) include mostly alkaloids, phenolic compounds and glycosides, details of which have been presented in the Tables as well. Hyoscyamine present in Datura stramonium acts against dandruff. Scopotetin from Evolvulus alsinoids acts as a hair growth enhancer. Coumarin present in Ageratum conyzoides is active against fever and gastrointestinal aliments. As a whole; it seems the Nandan Kanan Sanctuary is a rich reservoir of plant species having high medicinal values. Besides conservation and sustainable economic use of this rich wealth by the local community, being a restricted area (sanctuary) there is a need to highlight the importance of these plants in health care as large number of tourists and nature lovers reaching several lakhs in a year do visit this sanctuary. Further these resources can be used6 by the students, practioners and researchers who are interested or engaged in the development, evaluation and use of herbal medicines. Moreover, sanctuary along with its plant and animal resources provides an ideal situation for environmental education, both in formal and non formal sectors. As floral wealth is vanishing at a rapid rate due to climate change, habitat loss, invasion of exotic species and other factors8, Sanctuaries and National parks provide
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ideal sites for conservation9 as in the present case. It is interesting to note that recently, 72 herbaceous plant species7 having some medicinal values has been recorded from an urban environment, the campus of Regional Institute of Education, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
Acknowledgement The Authors wish to thank the Director, Nandan Kanan Sanctuary for providing necessary support for the study and The Principal, Regional Institute of Education, Bhubaneswar for encouragement. We thanks Prof. M.K.Satapathy, Head, Dept. of Science, RIE for going through the manuscript.
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Apocynaceae Fabaceae Combretaceae Asteraceae Convolvulaceae
Climber
23%
Tree
34%
Herb
Shrub
30%
13%
Tree Shrub Herb Climber
Number of plant species
7 6 6
5
4 3 3 2
3
2
2
1
0 Family
1
2
Fig. 1: Floral Biodiversity of (major medicinal plants) Nandan Kanan Sanctuary
Fig. 2: Dominant families among the identified species
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Table 1: Plants having Nutritional values
Plant species Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) Euphorbia hirta (L.) Evolvulus alsinoids (L.) Heliotropium indicum (L.) Murraya Koenigii (L.) Argyria nervosa (Burm.f.) Bojer. Calamus latifolius Roxb. Tinospora cardifolia ( Thunb.) Miers. Lagerstroemia parviflora Roxb. Xantolis tomentosa (Roxb.) Raf. Phonix sylvestris Roxb.
Local Name Satabari Chitakutei
Family Asparagaceae Euphorbiaceae
Plant parts Whole plant Root
Bioactive compounds Asparoside13 Euphorbins, Rutin and Oxaltes20
Location BG BG, NKZ
Krishna
Convolvulacea Whole Scopotetin , BG
Onkranta e
plant
Scopolin21
Hatisundha Boraginaceae Root
Pyrrolizidine BG alkaloids22
Bhrusunga Rutaceae
Leaf
Mundanoi Convulvulacea Root
Carbozole alkaloids34 Caffeic acid42
BG, NKZ BG
e
Betakoli Areaceae
Fruit
Different
NKZ
types of
Guluchi
Menispermace Stem
phenolic compounds43 Berberine49
NKZ
ae
Salora
Lythraceae
Flower Different
BG
types of
NKZ
Glycosides58
Kanta
Sapotaceae
Fruit
Rich of
BG
Baula
Phenolic compounds70
Khajuri
Areaceae
Fruit
Betaamyrin71
NKZ
(NKZ ­ Nandan Kanan Zoological Park, BG- Botanical garden)
Uses Plant used in Night blindness. Roots are used as nourishment for feeding mother when production of milk comes down Whole plant juice with mustard oil is used as Hair Growth Enhancer Root with honey is taken as vitamin for Iron Deficiency by woman against anemia during pregnancy Leaves are used as Curry leaf Roots are used in Sexual Weakness Fruits are eaten as good source of Nutrients for Health Stems are used as Tonic for good Health Flowers are source of good Honey Wild edible fruits Fruits are edible and juice is used as Tonic
Table 2: Plants used to cure Metabolic Disorder / Non-Communicable Diseases
Plant species
Local Name
Family
Plant
Bioactive
Location
Ageratum conyzoides Pokusunga
Asteraceae
parts compounds Leaf Coumarin11
BG, NKZ
(Linn.)
Biophytum sensitivum Lokachana,
Oxalidaceae
Whole Isoorinetin14
BG
(L.) DC.
Chhotalajakuli
plant
Cissampelos aprieara (L.) Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br.
Pitusing Anantmula
Menispermaceae Leaf Asclepiadaceae Root
Tetrandrine17
BG
Different types
of Saponin23
BG
Uses used to treat fever and Gastrointestinal ailments Whole plant is used as Antitumor activity Leaves are used in Asthma Roots are used in Kidney problems
Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 3, Issue 4: April: 2012, 1631-1642 1637
Explorer Research Article CODEN (USA): IJPLCP
[Kumar & Dash, 3(4): April, 2012] ISSN: 0976-7126
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Peperomia pellucida (L.)HBK. Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Coccinia grandis (L.) J.Voigt. Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott. Sesbania cannabina (Retz. Pers.) Wrightia tinctoria Roxb. Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Morinda tinctoria Roxb. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. Gymnema sylvestre Roxb.
Baidanka Ghusuripan Badi Pokasunga Ban Kundri
Fabaceae Piperaceae Asteraceae Cucurbitaceae
Seed L-Dopa28
BG
powder
Whole Xanthone
BG
plant glycosides30
Leaf Sesquiterpene NKZ, BG lactones33 Fruit Beta- carotene45 NKZ
Gajapipli Dhanicha
Araceae Fabaceae
Fruit High contains of
flavonoids48
BG
Leaf Different types
of alkaloids50
BG
Koruan Debdaru
Apocynaceae
Leaf A terpenoid :
BG
Wrighitial53
Sterculiaceae Fruit Rich of
BG
Polyphenolic acid57
Achhu Jamukoli
Rubaceae Myrtaceae
Fruit Different types NKZ of terpenoids60
Seed Jabosine-366
NKZ
Meshasringi, Asclepiadaceae Leaf Gymnemic
BG
Gudmari
acid75
(NKZ ­ Nandan Kanan Zoological Park, BG- Botanical garden)
Seeds are used to cure Parkinson diseases Whole plant is used to cure Abdominal pain Leaves are used to treat Rheumatism Fruits have Antihistaminic potential and good for Diabetic patients Fruits are used in Diabetes Leaves juice is taken in Contraceptive problems Leaves are used against Jaundice Fruits are used as Antiseptic and also used as AntiCancer Fruits are used in Relive Pain in the gout Seed powder is good for Diabetes Fresh leaf is used to control Diabetic
Table 3: Plants acting against Microbial Infections / Communicable Diseases
Plant species Aerva lanata (L.) Argemone Mexicana (L.)
Local Name
Family
Paunsia Saga Agora, Bonai
Amaranthaceae Papaveraceae
Plant Bioactive compounds Location parts
Whole Beta- sitosterol10 plant
NKZ,BG
Seed Pancorione12
BG
oil
Uses Used against Cholera. Seed oil is used to cure Skin diseases
Christella dentate Kokkodi Forssk.
Datura stramonium (L.)
Duddura
Leaf Thelypteridaceae
Different types of Saponin16
Solanaceae
Leaf juice
Hyoscyamine18
NKZ, BG BG
Leaves paste is applied for Skin disease Leaves juice is applied as Antidandruff
Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 3, Issue 4: April: 2012, 1631-1642 1638
Explorer Research Article CODEN (USA): IJPLCP
Dipteracanthus prostrates (Poir.) Nees.
Nakachana Acanthaceae
[Kumar & Dash, 3(4): April, 2012] ISSN: 0976-7126
Root Lignin glycosides19
BG, NKZ Root paste used in Syphilis.
Hyptis suaveolens Gondri (L.)Poit.
Lamiaceae
Leaf Different alkaloids
NKZ, BG Leaves are used to
and reach of phenolic
cure diarrhea and
compounds24
Itching problems
Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T.Aiton. Leonotis nepetiifolia (L.) R.Br. Paederia foetida (L.) Mant.
Dudhilata Kantasia Pasaruni
Apocynaceae Lamiaceae Rubiaceae
Root Pentacyclic triterpenoide25 Leaf Leonurine26
Leaf juice
Iridoid glycosides29
BG NKZ BG
Roots help to cure Scabies Leaves are used to treat Malaria Leaves are used to cure Diarrhea
Sida acuta Burm.f. Bariari, Kulposh
Malvaceae
Whole Indoloquinoline plant alkaloids32
NKZ
Lygodium
Mahajaala, Lygodiaceae
flexuosum (L.) Sw. Indrajaal
Xanthium strumarium (L.)
Kothu, Ban Asteraceae Gokhra
Leaf Lygodinolide36
BG
Seed Carboxyatractyloside41 BG
Whole plant is used in usually Elephantiasis and Dandruff Leaf paste is applied to cure Eczema Seeds are used as Anti-helmintic
Lippia javanica
Naguari
(Burm.f.) Spreng.
Verbenaceae
Whole Different types of plant terpenoids51
NKZ
Whole plant is used as Mosquito repellent
Ventilago
Chadaikuli Rhamanaceae
denticulate Willd.
Stem Anthocyanin and
BG
bark phenolic compounds52
Bark is used in Dysentery and stomach pain
Alastonia scholaris Chatyana (L.)
Apocynaceae
Leaf Different types of alkaloids54
Leaves are applied NKZ, BG in Skin infections
Cassia fistula (L.) Sonari
Pongamia pinnata Karanja (L.) Pierre.
Suregada multiflora (A.Juss.),Baill.
Khakra
Caselpinaceae
Leaf Rich of Tannin and Saponin55
Fabaceae
Seed Oleic acid62
Euphorbiaceae Root Diterpenoids65
NKZ, BG NKZ NKZ
Leaves paste is used in Skin infections Seed oil is used as Insecticidal and also used in Skin infections Roots are used in Skin Infection
Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 3, Issue 4: April: 2012, 1631-1642 1639
Explorer Research Article CODEN (USA): IJPLCP
[Kumar & Dash, 3(4): April, 2012] ISSN: 0976-7126
Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Am.
Arjuna
Terminalia bellirica Roxb.
Bahada
Terminalia chebula Harida Retz.
Combretaceae
Bark Rich of Triterpenoids67
Combretaceae Bark Bellericosides68
Combretaceae
Fruit and bark
Rich of Phenolic compounds69
NKZ BG BG
Bark paste is applied in Skin Infection Bark is Useful in Leucoderma Fruits powder is used to cure Typhoid
Pterocarpus
Piasla
marsupium Roxb.
Fabaceae
Bark Different types of
NKZ
phenolic compounds72
Bark is used to cure Elephantiasis
Spathodea
Turi
campanulata
Beauv.
Bignoniaceae
Leaf n-hexandecanoic acid73
NKZ
Anti-microbial activity and used in Skin Infections
Azadirachita
Nemo
indica (L.) Adelb.
Meliaceae
Leaf Limonoids, Azadirachtin74
BG and NKZ
Fresh leaf juice is used to treat different types of Skin infections
(NKZ ­ Nandan Kanan Zoological Park, BG- Botanical garden)
Table 4: Plants having miscellaneous effect on Health
Plant species
Local
Family
Plant
Bioactive
Location
Uses
Name
parts
compounds
Boerhavia diffusa (L.) Pueuni saga Nyctaginaceae Root
Liiroseddrin15
BG, NKZ diuretic and expectorant
Mimosa pudica (L.) Lajakuli
Mimosaceae
Whole plant
Tubulin27
NKZ, BG Plant decoction with milk is taken to treat Bleeding in Piles
Pergularia daemia Forssk.
Utrali
Asclepiadaceae Leaf
2-acetylphenol31 NKZ
Leaves are useful in Liver disorder
Costus speciosus (J.Konig.) Sm.
Keu Kand Zingiberaceae. Rhizome Glutathione35
BG
Rhizomes are used as paste on Inflammation parts of body
Monstear deliciosa Liebm.
Ceriman
Araceae
Whole Different types BG
plant
of Oxalate37
Whole plant parts are used in different types of Inflammation
Polygonum barbatum Paniakheu Polygonaceae Leaf (L.)
Sitosterone38
NKZ, BG Leaf paste is used as Anti- inflammation
Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 3, Issue 4: April: 2012, 1631-1642 1640
Explorer Research Article CODEN (USA): IJPLCP
Sida cordifolia (L.) Bisiripi
Malvaceae
Leaf
Triumfetta neglecta Nichardia Tiliaceae
Root
Wight.
Butea suprava Roxb. Naipalaso Caesalpinaceae Leaf
Entada rheedii Spreng. Passiflora foetida (L.)
Gila, Hanuman Lata Gandha tamala
Fabaceae
Seed
Passifloraceae Leaf
Dillenia indica (L.)
Oau
Mimusops elengi (L.) Baula
Dilleniaceae Sapotaceae
Stem bark Fruit
Saraca asoca (Roxb.), Asoka De.wild.
Casealpinaceae Flower
Strychnos nux-vomica Kochila (L).
Narangi crenulata Roxb.
Benta
Loganiaceae Seed
Rutaceae
Bark
[Kumar & Dash, 3(4): April, 2012] ISSN: 0976-7126
Different types of glycosides39 BG
Leaves are used in Nasal congestion aching
Different types of phenolic compounds40 Stigmasterol44
BG NKZ
Rheediinosides46 BG
Roots are used as Cooling agent Leaves are used as Aphrodisiac Seeds are used in Inflammation
High level of Saponin47
NKZ
Leaves are used to reduce Sleeping problems
Betulinaldehyde BG 56
Bark is used as Cooling agent
Taraxerol59
NKZ, BG Fruits are edible and used as purgative
3-4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, Catechin63 Strychnine64
BG
Flowers are used in
painful menses
NKZ, BG Seeds are used to reduce swelling
Different types BG of phenolic compounds61
Bark is useful in vitiated conditions of Pitta
Percentage
Percentage of uses
35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% leaf
Root Whole plant
Fruit Seed Plant Parts
Bark Flow er Stem
Fig. 3: Plant parts (Percentage) used having medicinal values
Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 3, Issue 4: April: 2012, 1631-1642 1641
Explorer Research Article CODEN (USA): IJPLCP
[Kumar & Dash, 3(4): April, 2012] ISSN: 0976-7126
Plate 2 : a.)-Leaves of Peperomia pellucida, b.)- Flowers and leaves of Lippia javanica, c.)- Flowers of Saraca asoca, d.)- Fruit pods of Mucna pruriens
Plate 3 : e.)- Flowers of Cassia fistula, f.)- Flowers of Evolvulus alsinoids, g.)- Fruits of Terminalia bellirica
Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 3, Issue 4: April: 2012, 1631-1642 1642

S Kumar, D Dash

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