Freshwater Aquaculture Species for the Northeast, J Buttner, G Flimlin, D Webster

Tags: culture, Northeast, Joe Buttner, recirculating systems, food fish, Photograph, James Haynes, Fathead minnows, Morone saxatilis, minnows, Pocketbook Black, blue catfish, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, Tilapia Barramundi Discus, fathead minnow, Red swamp crayfish, hybrid striped bass, Chris Bartlett, euryhaline fish, Prospective growers, Common carp, commercially viable, Commercial Species, Department of Natural Resources, fingerlings, Maryland Cooperative Extension, commercial fish feed, Aquatic plants, Grass carp, ornamental fish, Yellow perch, Channel catfish, Aquaculture Network Information Center, Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, Rainbow smelt, Maryland Sea Grant College, Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center, West Virginia, freshwater mussels, Muskellunge, West Virginia University Extension Service, commercial viability, National Fish Hatchery, commercial operation, culture protocols, Extension Service, White Sulphur Springs, aquaculture species, Salem State College Gef Flimlin, commercial production, West Virginia Department of Natural, University of Maryland, culture procedures, Kenneth Semmens, potential, Culture methods, Maine, Rainbow trout, College Park, Maryland
Content: NRAC Publication No. 102-2008
University of Maryland, 2113 Animal Science Building College Park, Maryland 20742-2317 Telephone: 301-405-6085, FAX: 301-314-9412 E-mail: [email protected] Web: http://www.nrac.umd.edu
Freshwater Aquaculture Species for the Northeast Joe Buttner, Salem State College Gef Flimlin, Rutgers Cooperative Extension Don Webster, Maryland Cooperative Extension
Introduction Many aquatic animals and plants are cultured commercially in the northeastern United States, while others have been grown for restoration or for use in research. Finfish, shellfish, aquatic plants, and other organisms are cultured commercially and recreationally for food, bait, stocking, research, bioassay tests, ornamental markets, and classroom use. Table 1 lists 56 species or varieties of freshwater animals and plants cultured in the region. No one species dominates production: an animal or plant cultured successfully in one system or location may prove impractical or unprofitable in another. This fact sheet describes major species currently in commercial production, those that have shown potential, and others now under experimental investigation. The descriptions summarize culture methods and regulatory considerations. Applicable regulations for proposed operations, particularly those that would employ non-native species or culture in public waters, can be obtained from extension agents and specialists in your state. For a list of aquaculture extension contacts by state and current State Situation and Outlook Reports, consult the NRAC website (http://nrac.umd.edu).
Current Commercial Production 1. Species and hybrids of trout, including rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown Salmo trutta), and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) -- All are cold-water fish, which require well-oxygenated water below 65°F. Pennsylvania and New York are the leading producers in the region. While most trout are grown in flow-through systems, some culturists reuse their water and a few use cages or ponds. Rainbow Trout are marketed for stocking and as food fish. Brown, brook, and hybrid trout are most frequently stocked for recreational fishing, though some are also sold as food. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) (Photograph by Joe Buttner)
2. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) -- Native to the eastern United States and better suited to aquaculture conditions than their Pacific coast relatives, the Atlantic salmon has become an important aquaculture species in the region with most aquaculture located in New England, particularly Maine. Juvenile Atlantic salmon are grown in freshwater, usually raceways or recirculating systems, and released as smolts in streams to enhance natural populations or stocked in net pens floated in coastal waters with substantial flushing where they are grown to market-size. Smolts may be produced in freshwater hatcheries as part of an integrated operation or purchased from approved suppliers. (See Marine Aquaculture Species for the Northeast, Fact Sheet 103-2008.)
4. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) -- Cultured widely in the region, the channel catfish is the most important aquaculture species in the U.S. Most channel and blue catfish are raised in the southern U.S. in ponds five to twenty acres in size. Cage culture is also practiced to a lesser extent. Catfish can survive a wide range of temperatures and will tolerate brackish water. Commercial culture in the Northeast may be limited to the mid-Atlantic region because catfish grow best above 80°F. Throughout much of the Northeast, the culture season is too short for commercial success. Brown bullheads are a popular recreational and food fish in the Great Lakes basin. They grow well at temperatures encountered in the Northeast and do best in turbid waters. Farmers in the Northeast grow and market bullhead for direct consumption, as research and instructional aids, and for stocking in private ponds. Fingerlings and feeds are commercially available for both catfish and bullheads.
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (Photograph by Chris Bartlett, Maine Sea Grant College Program/University of Maine Cooperative Extension) 3. Several species of minnows, including fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluntnose minnow (P. notatus), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), creek chub, (Semotilus atromaculatus) -- Widely grown in the region, minnows are usually raised in ponds. Ponds are typically fertilized with an organic material such as soybean meal or wheat sorts, which stimulates the growth of algae. The resulting plankton bloom is eaten by the fish. Some growers use a low protein, commercial fish feed, which minnows feed on and which indirectly serves as a fertilizer when uneaten or excreted as feces. potential markets exist for minnows as live-bait or as bioassay and research animals. They are also useful in ponds for control of mosquito larvae. Since minnows are not destined for direct human consumption, culturists have fewer regulations. Fathead minnows are the most commonly cultured live-bait in the region. Golden shiners are larger and more attractive to anglers, but less hardy. In much of the Northeast, they require two growing seasons to attain marketsize and reproduce, unlike fathead minnows which grow to market-size and reproduce in one season.
Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) (Photograph by Joe Buttner) 5. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis), white bass (M. chrysops), and hybrid striped bass (M. saxatilis x M. spp.) -- Hybrid striped bass aquaculture is a growing industry in the Northeast. Most commonly cultured are crosses of hybrid striped bass with other fish in the genus Morone such as the Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) white bass, white (Photograph by Joe Buttner) perch (M. americana), or yellow bass (M. mississippiensis). Hybrid striped bass usually have a deeper body, shorter tail, and more sloped head than the striped bass.
2
Striped bass, hybrids, and relatives tolerate a wide range of temperatures and salinities, from fresh to salt water. As warm water fish, they grow best at 75-80° F; they are cultured commercially in ponds, flow-through systems, and cages, with some production in recirculating systems. Length of growing season is one factor that determines where they can be raised profitably.
6. Comet or goldfish (Crassius auratus), koi (Cyprinus carpio), and ornamentals such as discus (Symphysodon sp.) -- These ornamentals are commonly cultured in Koi (Cyprinus carpio) (Photosmall ponds, tanks, and graph from www.ag.auburn. recirculating systems. Out- edu/fish) door culture units may be covered in winter to protect fish from the cold. Production of ornamental fish for the aquarium trade is substantial, but diffuse and modest-scale with much occurring in basements and garages. Ornamentals are marketed live so survival during harvest, handling, and shipping is very important. Because appearance is critical, care must be taken to ensure fish are not only healthy, but aesthetically appealing. The market is highly competitive and well established, with large-scale production centered in wholesale companies; niche marketing that provides services as well as fish locally is also profitable.
7. Yellow perch
(Perca flaves-
cens) -- An ex-
tremely popular
food fish in the
northern U.S.,
this species is
hardy and can
be trained to
accept pelleted
feeds. Yellow perch are grown for direct human consump-
Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (Photograph by James Haynes, SUNY Brockport)
tion and for stocking in ponds. Production occurs mainly
in small ponds. Perch may also be grown in cages, tanks,
and recirculating systems.
Economics of perch culture should be assessed care-
fully, particularly if fingerlings are purchased rather than
produced.
8. Several species of gamefish, including panfish (Lepomis spp., P o m o x i s Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) spp.), large- (Photograph by Joe Buttner) mouth and smallmouth bass (Micropterus spp.), and walleye (Sander vitreus) -- Culture methods vary among species. In most cases, fish farmers purchase or hatch eggs and rear fry to fingerling size. Fingerlings are then sold and stocked for recreational fishing. Some fingerlings may be retained and reared to an advanced fingerling size or to market-size for direct human consumption in niche markets (e.g., sportsmen clubs and ethnic markets that pay premium prices for live fish of preferred species). Fingerling sunfish, bass, and walleye are normally produced in fertilized ponds where they feed on zooplankton. At one to two inches in length, fingerlings are routinely harvested for sale or habituated to prepared feed. Once trained to accept pelleted feed, fingerlings may be grown to larger size in tanks, ponds, cages, or recirculating systems. Culture procedures for most of these gamefish are relatively well defined. 9. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and other tilapia (e.g., Sarotherodon sp.) -- Cultured commercially throughout the U.S., tilapia are hardy, grow rapidly, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and are readily accep- (Photograph from www.ag.auburn. ted by consumers. All edu/fish) tilapia are cichlids, tropical fish that require warm water to survive. If water temperatures fall below 50 to 55°F, tilapia will die. In the Northeast, most tilapia culture is done in recirculating systems. Harvested fish are usually marketed live in Asian areas, where they command a premium price. 10. Crayfish (Orconectes spp. and Procambarus spp.) -- These crustaceans represent a significant aquaculture industry with growth potential in the Northeast. Most culture occurs in small, shallow ponds where the crayfish feed on natural vegetation; this natural food may be supplemented with hay or other grain by-products. Crayfish are harvested with traps or a seine.
3
Orconectes are often grown with fathead minnows in a polyculture system (two or more species grown in one system) and marketed as bait. Procambarus are cultured in the mid-Atlantic region for direct consumption in local markets. 11. Aquatic plants -- A variety of aquatic plants are cultured commercially and used widely for garden ponds, restoration efforts, and direct human consumption. Many species are produced in the Northeast, typically in small ponds, shallow raceways, or as part of integrated recirculating systems. Often growers provide their clientele with technical assistance, service, and other organisms (e.g., ornamental fish) in addition to plants. The personalized attention provided by growers of aquatic plants to their customers allows for success of small to modest size operations. Prospective growers must carefully assess their markets, work ethic, and interpersonal skills. Potential Commercial Species 1. Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) -- This exotic euryhaline fish inhabits waters from Australia to Southeast Asia. One company in Massachusetts has cultured it commercially since 2004. Fingerlings at 0.5 g each are imported from Australia and reared in recirculating systems supplied with freshwater that is kept above 100 mg/L hardness and alkalinity. Fish require approximately a year to attain market-size of 1.5 lb. While commercially viable, the likelihood of securing a dependable supply of fingerlings and duplicating the setup employed in Massachusetts is unlikely. 2. White sucker (Castostomus commersonii) -- Fish are captured during their spring spawning run by some White sucker (Castostomus commerlive-bait producers sonii) (Photograph by James Haynes, in the north central SUNY Brockport) U.S.; eggs are then stripped, fertilized, and incubated, with hatched fry reared in ponds. Suckers grow faster than golden shiners and in one growing season attain a size desired by bass and pike anglers. Market size and culture methods require further research. 3. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) -- Carp are an important foodfish in Asia and around the world, though with minimal demand in the U.S. Technology to culture
carp in ponds is available and the fish is well-suited to conditions throughout the Northeast. The principal obstacle is poor consumer acceptance. Carp could provide a dependable supply of fish for use in value- Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) added products such (Photograph from www.ag.auburn. as surimi and fish edu/fish) sausage, although these products require inputs which could adversely affect profitable culture. 4. Grass carp (triploid), or white amur (Ctenopharyngodon idella) -- Occasionally stocked in ponds to control aquatic vegetation, grass carp survives well and grows rapidly. Only sterile triploids Grass carp (Ctenopharyndshould be used. Laws regu- godon idella) (Photograph lating its importation and use from ww.ag.auburn.edu/fish) vary among states. Culturists should consult their Department of Natural Resources or its equivalent before importing or stocking fish, as interstate transport in violation of state law could be a federal offense. Experimental Species 1. Walleye (Sander vitreus) -- Prized throughout the northern U.S. as a premier food fish, walleye are generally marketed as advanced fingerlings, although some are sold as food fish. Fingerlings can be trained to accept pelleted food and a few growers are producing walleye in ponds and cages. Growers in the Northeast could benefit from advances in walleye culture. Walleye (Sander vitreus) (Photograph by James Haynes, SUNY Brockport)
4
2. Shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), and paddlefish (Polydon spathula) -- Shovelnose sturgeon and paddlefish are being cultured by the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources to enhance natural populations. In other regions of the U.S., sturgeon and paddlefish are cultured commercially as food, for roe as caviar, and fingerlings for the aquarium trades. Many regulatory hurdles preclude commercial production of these fish in the Northeast.
3. Prawns (Macrobrachium spp.) -- These subtropical crustaceans do not survive when water temperatures fall below approximately 55°F. Post-larval to adult Macrobrachium are grown Prawns (Macrobrachium spp.) in fresh water. In the North- (Photograph from www.ag. east their culture potential is auburn.edu/fish) limited by climate to pond culture in summer and recirculating systems; culture methods are well defined, but economic viability in the region is questionable.
4. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) -- Under investigation as a potential live-bait in Maine and New Hampshire, this fish has mostly been cultured in ponds and tanks. A commercial operation has recently started in Maine, but culture procedures have not been standardized and commercial viability remains to be demonstrated.
5. Muskellunge (Esox
masquinongy) and other
members of the pike fam-
ily -- The West Virginia
Department of Natural Re-
sources cultures these fish
for enhancement of natural
populations. Fingerlings are typically raised on zooplankton in fertilized ponds and then fed minnows or conditioned to accept pel-
Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) (Photograph by Kenneth Semmens, West Virginia University Extension Service)
leted food. While culture
protocols are fairly well developed, commercial viability
remains to be demonstrated.
6. Mussels (Lampsilis spp., Villosa spp., and others) -- Limited production is currently used for restoration and enhancement purposes. With many freshwater mussels endangered, threatened, or already extinct, the National Fish Hatchery at White Sulphur Springs in West Virginia
has investigated protocols to spawn and culture these mussels. Although potential markets exist for mussels to produce pearls and to be used in toxicity testing, at this time it does not appear prudent to recommend their culture as an option to prospective growers.
7. Turtles and frogs -- Occasionally considered as potential aquaculture species, both groups are maintained successfully at zoos and aquariums. Limited production exists globally. Culture methods, regulatory considerations, and commercial viability are problematic.
Baby frogs (Photograph by Joe Buttner)
8. Microalgae -- Several species are cultured in tanks under carefully controlled conditions as a food for small animals (e.g., zooplankton, freshwater mussels). A few are grown en masse in tropical/subtropical regions as dietary supplements for the health-food industry, and some interest and potential exists for biofuel products. Attractive from ecological and nutritional perspectives, algae culture requires research to define methods and determine commercial viability.
For More Information Several relevant fact sheets are available on the culture of different species from the North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (www.ncrac.org) and Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (www.msstate.edu/dept/ srac). The fact sheets are accessible and may be downloaded from Center websites. The Aquaculture Network Information Center (http://aquanic.org) provides access to many aquaculture resources.
Acknowledgments This work was conducted with the support of the Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center, through grant number 2004-3850014589 from the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This fact sheet was prepared with assistance from the Maryland Sea Grant College.
5
Table 1. Freshwater animals and plants cultured in the northeastern United States. Importance in the Northeast (M=major species, S=secondary species, D=demonstration species, E=experimental species) and systems used (P=pond culture, T=tank culture, C=cage culture, R=recirculating systems) are indicated.
Common Name Fish Shovelnose Sturgeon Paddlefish Muskellunge Rainbow trout Brown trout Brook trout Tiger trout Atlantic salmon Rainbow Smelt Fathead minnow Bluntnose minnow Creek chub Golden shiner Emerald shiner Blue catfish Channel catfish Brown bullhead Grass carp (triploid) Common carp Koi Comet (goldfish) White sucker Largemouth bass Smallmouth bass Bluegill sunfish Hybrid sunfish Pumpkinseed Black crappie White crappie Yellow perch Walleye Striped bass White bass
Scientific Name Scaphirhynchus platorynchus Polyodon spathula Esox masquinongy Oncorhynchus mykiss Salmo trutta Salvelinus fontinalis S. fontinalis x S. trutta Salmo salar Osmerus mordax Pimephales promelas Pimephales notatus Semotilus atromaculatus Notemigonus crysoleucas Notropis atherinoides Ictalurus furcatus Ictalurus punctatus Ameiurus nebulosus Ctenopharyngodon idella Cyprinus carpio Cyprinus carpio Crassius auratus Castostomus commersonii Micropterus salmoides Micropterus dolomieu Lepomis macrochirus Lepomis macrochrius x L. cyanellus Lepomis gibbosus Pomoxis nigromaculatus Pomoxis annularis Perca flavescens Sander vitreus Morone saxitilis Morone chrysops
Importance
System
E
T,P
E
T,P
D
P
M
T,R,P,C
M
T,R,P,C
M
T,R,P,C
S
T
S
R,T
D/S
P,T
M
P
S
P
S
P
S
P
S
P
D
P
S
P,C
S
P
D
P
D
P,T,R
S
P,T,R
S
P,T,R
S
P
S
P,T,R
S
P,T,R
S
P,T,R
S
P,T,R
S
P,T,R
S
P,T
S
P,T
S
P,T,R,C
S
P,T,R
S
P,T,C
S
P,T,C
6
Table 1, continued. Common Name Fish, continued Hybrid striped bass Tilapia Barramundi Discus and other ornamentals Reptiles Diamondback terrapin Various turtle species Crustaceans Crayfish Red swamp crayfish Freshwater prawns Mussels Mucket Three ridge Purple wartyback Northern Riffleshell Plain pocketbook Wavy-rayed lamp mussel Pocketbook Black sandshell Pistolgrip Notched Rainbow Rainbow Various Vegetation Algae
Scientific Name
Importance
System
Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops
M
Oreochromis niloticus and/or Sarotherodon sp. S
Lates calcarifer
S
Symphysodon sp.
D
P,T,R,C R R P,T,R
Malaclemys
E
T
E
T
Orconectes spp.
M
P
Procambarus clarkia
S
P
Macrobrachium rosenbergii
E
P,R
Actinonaias ligamentina
E
T,R
Amblema plicata
E
T,R
Cylonaias tuberculata
E
T,R
Epioblasma torulosa rangiana
E
T,R
Lampsilis cardium
E
T,R
Lampsilis fasciola
E
T,R
Lampsilis ovata
E
T,R
Ligumia recta
E
T,R
Tritogonia verrucosa
E
T,R
Villosa constricta
E
T,R
Villosa iris
E
T,R
S
P,T
Neochloris oleoabundans
E
T
Bracteacoccus grandis
E
T
Phaeodactylum tricornutum
E
T
Oocystis sp.
E
T
7

J Buttner, G Flimlin, D Webster

File: freshwater-aquaculture-species-for-the-northeast.pdf
Title: FS-102-Freshwater species
Author: J Buttner, G Flimlin, D Webster
Author: Sandy Rodgers
Published: Wed May 7 15:25:07 2008
Pages: 7
File size: 0.31 Mb


, pages, 0 Mb

For the Love of Ants, 6 pages, 0.94 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com