From Romanticism to the 98 Recent Criticism of Nineteenth Century Spanish Literature, DL Shaw

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Content: ARTICULO BIBLIOGRAFICO FROM ROMANTICISM TO THE 98 RECENT CRITICISM OF nineteenth century SPANISH LITERATURE DONALD L. SHAW University of Virginia In what follows I am indebted primarily to the annual bibliographies of the Modern Language Association of America, to those of The Year's Work in Modern Language Studies compiled by Professors Bly and Hemingway, to those of La Revista de Literatura compiled by Marfa del Carmen Simon Palmer and for the Romantic period to those of Professor Dendle in successive editions of The Romantic Movement edited by D. D. Erdman (New York, Garland, 1980 and later). Two other bibliographical items of interest are: D. S. Zabatsky, «An Annotated Bibliograyhy of Nineteenth Century Catalan, Galician and Spanish Author Bibliographies» in Hispania 65, 2, 1982, 212-23 and M. D. Jacobson, The Origins of Spanish Romanticism: A Selected annotated bibliography, Lincoln, Ne, Society of Spanish and Spanish American Studies, 1985. Though the latter contains more than two hundred items, it is incomplete even on some central figures and users should be prepared to amplify it from sources such as those cited above. GENERAL On the ideological background to much of nineteenth century literature J. L. Abella.n's Historia critica del pensamiento espa- - 95 -
ESPA5'A CONTEMPOR1NEA no!, IV, Liberalismo y romanticismo (1808-73), Madrid, EspasaCalpe, 1984 is indispensible. A parallel work in some ways is Jesus Longares, La ideologia religiosa del liberalismo espaiiol (1808-1843), Real Academia de Cordoba, 1979 with much documentation on the all-important religious question. Francisco Villacorta Bafios, Burguesia y cultura, Madrid, Siglo XXI, 1980 interestingly surveyed the public life of the many important writers who found administrative positions after 1808, in glaring contrast to most of their twentieth century colleagues. Also deserving of mention, in view of the growing vogue for women's studies, is Maria del Carmen Simon Palmer's list of «Escritoras espafiolas del siglo XIX» en Censo de escritores, Madrid, CSIC, 1983. Some useful work has been done on the nineteenth century press. Every literary biographer and historian of literature is going to have to check with Alison Sinclair, Madrid Newspapers 1661-1870, Leeds, W. S. Maney, 1984 for accurate details of the journalistic activities of Garcia Gutierrez, Mesonero, Breton, Campoamor, Pastor Diaz, Alarcon and a dozen more major writers including Gald6s. Sinclair's work is supplemented by G. Cazotte, La presse periodique madrilene entre 1871 et 1885, Montpellier U. P., 1982 with details of more than 900 publications. On romantic periodicals we now have the monumental work of Alberto Gil Novales, La prensa en Ia revoluci6n liberal, Madrid, Universidad Complutense, 1983; for a list of contents see Dendle 1985. Of related interest is Lee Fontanella, La imprenta y las letras en la Espana romantica, Berne, P. Lang, 1982 which attempts to survey the impact, chiefly on prose, of technological advances such as engraving and other forms of illustration. Among the major romantic periodicals the 65 numbers of El Artista are now available (Especial Libras, Madrid, 1982) in three volumes edited by Angel Gonzalez and Francisco Calvo. An important event was the publication of Romanticismo y realismo edited by Iris Zavala, Barcelona, Grijalbo, 1982 in the series Historia critica de la literatura espanola. Its almost 750 pages gather together many of the major articles we generally use on the period from romanticism to naturalism and on authors from Larra and Espronceda to Galdos and Clarin. On a more limited scale Giovanni Allegra surveys in La viii.a y las surcos, Seville U. P., 1980 (first published in Italian, 1975) the traditionalist current in Spanish literature from Bohl von Faber to Becquer. - 96-
FROM ROI\IANTlCISM TO THE 98 This is an important area: Javier Herrera's cognate Los origenes de[ pensamiento reaccionario, an indispensible account of anti-liberal ideas in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, long out of print, is due to be issued this year by Alianza. On the novel in general Juan Ignacio Ferreras's Catdlogo de novelas y novelistas espaiioles del siglo XIX, Madrid, Catedra, 1979 has been supplemented by Antonio Labandeira Fernandez's «Identificaciones en un catalogo de novelas y novelistas del siglo XIX» Revista de Estudios Hispdnicos, 16, 1982, 279-90. Rafael Rodriguez Marin's La novela de[ siglo XIX, Madrid, Playor, 1982 was too short to do more than survey the field. More specifically, Victor Oimette «Monstrous Fecundity, the Popular Novel in Nineteenth Century Spain», Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, 9, 1982, 383-45 reviewed the fortunes of the folletin and the novela por entregas, while German Gull6n, La nave/a coma acto imaginativo, Madrid, Taurus, 1983 published studies of Alarcon, Becquer, Gald6s and Clarin, laying greater stress on their creative imagination than on their allegiance to mimesis. Birute Ciplijauskaite's La mujer insatisfecha, Barcelona, Edhasa, 1984 puts the theme of adultery in La gaviota, La regenta and Fortunata y Jacinta in the wider context of novels by Mme. de Stael, Georges Sand, Flaubert, Tolstoy and Fontane. Finally Soledad Miranda Garcia's Religion y clero en la gran novela espaiiola del siglo XIX, Madrid, Pegaso, 1982 is a rag· bag of bits and pieces, above all from Gald6s, on attitudes to the Church and dogma, church organization and the social impact of religion in writers from Fernan Caballero to Blasco Ibanez. On drama Jesus Rubio Jimenez attempts to survey El teatro del siglo XIX, Madrid, Playor, 1983 in 157 pp. with uninspiring results. The break-through here is the Catdlogo de obras de teatro espanol del siglo XIX published by the Fundaci6n Juan March, Madrid, 1986 with details of works of hundreds of dramatists in alphabetical order of their surnames. Lou Charnon-Deutsch's The Nineteenth Century Short Story, London, Tamesis, 1985 is not a general survey. The author discusses costumbrismo and then analizes individual themes and techniques in selected stories chiefly by Alarcon, Pardo Bazan and Clarin in order to show how the short story moved on from observation of the real world and simplified moral categories to greater sophistication. Ana Luisa Baquero's «El cuento popular en el -- 97 -
ESPANA CONTEMPOR.\NEA siglo XIX», Anales de la Universidad de Murcia, 43, 1984-5, 361-80 is more descriptive, on examples from Fernan Caballero, Coloma, Narciso Campilla and Valera. ROMANTICISM The most striking aspect of criticism of nineteenth century Spanish literature in the early 1980s has been the great resurgence of interest in romanticism, heralded by the monumental Historia de la literatura espanola, IV, El romanticismo, by J. L. Alborg, Madrid, Gredos 1980 and of Vicente Llorens's El romanticismo espanol, Madrid, Castalia, 1979. If at the interpretative level Llorens is content to try to relate romanticism with liberalism, Alborg provides a masterly account of various approaches to the movement making it plain that we have left behind for ever the concept of romanticism enunciated by Peers and introducing a new level of debate. The most important single contribution to the debate since Alborg's book has been Russell Sebold's Trayectoria de[ romanticismo espanol, Barcelona, Grijalbo, 1983. Sebold postulates a «first» romantic group (including Melendez Valdes, Cadalso, Jovellanos, Cienfuegos and Trigueros) active between 1770 and 1800 and a «second» group in the nineteenth century in which «s6lo se exager6 la ornamentaci6n romantica de tipo externo sin que su visi6n del mundo variase por ello». This large claim has not passed unchallenged. Apart from the discussion of pre-romanticism by Joaquin Arce in La poesia del siglo ilustrado, Madrid, Alhambra, 1981, Rinaldo Froldi in «Literatura 'preromantica' o literatura 'ilustrada'», 2.0 Simposio sobre el P. Feijoo y su siglo, II, Oviedo, Centro de Estudios del siglo XVIII, 1983, 477-82 argues strongly that the period of Sebold's «first» romantic group should be seen as pre-eminently ilustrado and perceived quite differently from the way Sebold sees «La filosofia de la ilustraci6n» in the third chapter of his Trayectoria. Meanwhile, E. Inman Fox in «La amarga realidad and the Spanish Imagination» in Essays on Hispanic Literature in Honour of E. L. King, eds, S. Molloy and L. Fernandez Cifuentes, London, Tamesis, 1983, 73-78 and «Apuntes para una teoria de la moderna imaginaci6n literaria espaiiola» in Homenaje a J. A. Maravall, Madrid, Centro de Investigaciones Sociol6gicas, 1986 throws into - 98-
FROM ROMAl'Provo, UTah, edited by John Rosenberg. Caldera is also the General Editor of Serie Tramoya (Rome, Bulzoni) which now includes David Gies's critical edition of Grimaldi's La pata de cabra issued in 1987. The same critic's book on Grimaldi: Theater and Politics in 19th Century Spain, Cambridge U. P., due out in 1988, will represent a huge step forward in our understanding of the conditions surrounding the production of major romantic plays. Piero Menarini and others in El teatro romdntico espaiiol 1830-50, Bologna, Atesa, 1982 listed authors, titles and translations of plays performed with other hitherto unavailable factual information. Also from Italy, Patricia Garelli's Breton de las Herreras, Imola, Galeati 1983 offers a compact account of Breton's theatre between 1824 and 1863, his general autlook and views on comedy. Finally, I will mention S. Garcia Castaneda's «Los hermanos Asquerino o el uso y ma! uso del drama hist6rico» in Teatro Romantico Spagnolo, Bologna U. P., 1983, 23-42. - 99
ESPANA CONTEl\lPORANEA Interest is growing in Rivas's theatre. The discovery and publication in Anuario de Filologia Espanola, 1, 1984, 393-465 of his lost Ataulfo prompted Rosalia Fernandez Cabez6n's comparative «Ataulfo vista por dos tragicos» Castilla (Valladolid), 8, 1984, 95-100 on Rivas and Agustin de Montiano and an analytical comentary on Rivas's play in Hispanic Review, 55, 1987 (forthcoming) by D. L. Shaw. Rivas's early evolution as a dramatist has been discused cogently by Caldera in «De Aliatar a Don Alvaro», Cuadernos de Filologia (Valencia), 3, 1983, 5-31 also in Romanticismo, 1, 1982, 109-25. Jose Escobar and Anthony Percival in «De la tragedia al melodrama», Romanticismo, 2, 1984, 141-46 discuss El Duque de Aquitania as moving in that direction. Caldera and Shaw have both produced editions of Don Alvaro (Madrid, Taurus, 1986 and Madrid, Castalia, 1986 respectively). Caldera's edition, reproducing the acting text from the Biblioteca Municipal, predictably emphasizes Rivas's development. Shaw strongly argues the anti-providentialist interpretation of the play suggested independently by Enrique Navas Ruiz and Richard Cardwell. On the staging of the play Rene Andioc's «Sabre el estreno de Don Alvaro», in Homenaje a Juan L6pez-Morillas, eds. Jose Amor and David Kossoff, Madrid, Castalia, 1982, 63-86 is essential, with -at last- reliable information and much else on the Madrid theatre scene at the time. As far as his poetry is concerned, there is a valuable new edition of his Romances hist6ricos by Salvador Garcia Castaneda, Madrid, Catedra, 1987. Given the latter's sesquicentenial, work on Espronceda has been scarcer than on Larra. However, there is a new general monograph, Jose de Espronceda, Nebraska-Lincoln U. P. 1985 by Ricardo Landeira who, after correctly criticizing existing criticism, sets the record straight on themes but is short on Real Analysis. By far the best short introduction to Espronceda in English is Cardwell's introduction to his Espronceda. El Estudiante de Salamanca and other Poems, London, Tamesis, 1981. Landeira's inadequate bibliography is amplified by D. J. Billick, Jose de Espronceda. An Annotated Bibliograhy 1834-1980, New York, Garland, 1981 with nearly 500 items, henceforth an indispensible research tool. Stephen Vasari's «Aspectos politico-religiosos de la ideologia de Espronceda», Bulletin Hispanique, 82, 1980, 94-149 together with Russell Sebold's «El infernal arcana de Felix de Montemar», Hispanic Review, 46, 1978, 447-64 both take us a long way beyond Marrast. J. C. Paulino - 100 -
FROM RO~IANTICISM TO THE 98 in «La aventura interior de don Felix de Montemar», Revista de Literatura, 44, 88, 1982, 57-67 recognizes the poet's self-liberation from «historical» romanticism but does not carry his analysis nearly as far as Sebold. Margaret Rees's Critical Guide to El Estudiante de Salamanca, London, Grant and Cutler, 1979 is compact and full of sound doctrine. J. L. Picoche in «El grupo substantivo-calificativo en las primeras obras poeticas de Espronceda», Romanticismo, 2, 1984, 66-73 closely analyzes vocabulary to reveal the contrast with the later work. El diablo mundo remains rather neglected. Mary Lee Bretz in «El diablo mundo and Romantic Irony», Revista de Estudios Hispdnicos, 16, 1982, 257-74 applies Fr. Schlegel's views to show how the poet attempted to «move beyond despair». Thomas E. Lewis's «Contradictory Explanatory Systems in Espronceda's Poetry», Ideologies and Literature, 4, 17, 1983, 11-45 is more stimulation on the poet's social and metaphysical outlook. But both articles merely scratch the surface. There are four rather light-weight essays on Sancho Saldana in G. Guntert and J. L. Varela (eds.) Entre pueblo y corona: Larra, Espronceda y la novela hist6rica del romanticismo, Madrid, Universidad Complutense, 1986 together with a more interesting one by Maria Martin on «Aspectos linguisticos de la novela historica espafiola: Larra y Espronceda» (179-210) using a very profitable contrastive approach. Equally useful are the characteristics of the romantic historical novel in Spain identified by Enrique Rubio in «Novela historica y folletin», Anales de Literatura Espanola (Alicante), 1, 1982, 269-81. Work on Larra has been considerable. There are eleven essays in the forthcoming Provo symposium already mentioned and four more on El doncel de don Enrique el Doliente in the collection edited by Guntert and Varela just mentioned. The best essay in this book, however, is Varela's on Larra's political stance presenting him, as in the same autor's Larra y Espana, Madrid, EspasaCalpe, 1983 as a «realista moderado». This view has been strongly criticized by Doris Ruiz Ortin in «Discriminaciones acerca de Larra», Revista de Occidente, 32, 1984, 116-22 and by Jose Escobar in «Larra durante la ominosa decada» Anales de Literatura Espanola (Alicante), 2, 1983, 233-49. Ruiz Ortin in her Politica y sociedad en el vocabulario de Larra studies key-words to underpin Larra's «adscripci6n al romanticismo social», totally transcending Luis Lorenzo Rivero's descriptive and pedestrian Larra: lengua y estilo, Madrid, - 101 -
F.SPANA CONTE~f PORANEA Playor, 1977. There is much to think about here and the debate seems still open. Another major book is Revision de Larra (cProtesta o revoluci6n?), Annales Litteraires de l'Universite de Besanc;on, 283, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1983 with sundry articles (see Dendle 1984) and a selected bibliography. Also worthy of notice is Lieve Behiel's «El criteria de la verosimilitud en Ia critica literaria de Larra», Castilla (Valladolid), 8, 1984, 25-36 analyzing in illuminating detail the evolution of the concept in Larra's criticism. Russell Sebold in «Comedia clasica y novela moderna en las Escenas matritenses», Bulletin Hispanique, 83, 1981, 331-77, makes a gallant attempt to connect costumbrismo and realism via Mesonero to the comedia de costumbres of the XVIII century. J. I. Ferreras, in a note to his article on the sociology of the Generation of 1868 mentioned below, sharply rebuts this approach to Mesonero and strongly recommends instead Enrique Rubia's Costumbrismo y folletin, Instituto de Estudios Alicantinos, 1979 on the work of Antonio Flores, in whom Ferreres sees a much clearer link to later fiction. Marfa Alonso Cabezas, for her part, in «Costumbrismo y realismo social», Revista de Literatura, 44, 88, 1982, 69-96 prefers Modesto Lafuente to Mesonero as a precursor of the realists. The debate is continued by Leonardo Romero Tobar, «Mesonero Romanos: Entre costumbrismo y novela», Anales def Jnstituto de Estudios Madrileiios, 20, 1983, 243-59 and Enrique Rubio, «Costumbrismo y novela en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX», Anales de Litcratura Espaiiola (Alicante), 2, 1983, 457-72 arguing for more interest in later. COSTUMBRISMO Except for Zorrilla, work on other romantic major writers has been thin. Carmen Iranzo's Antonio Garcia Gutierrez, Boston, Twayne, 1980 hardly does more than tell the story of the plays. In contrast Jose Escobar's «Anti-romanticisrno en Garcia Gutierrez», Romanticismo, I, 1983, 83-94 documents the dramatist's later ideology by reference to Juan Lorenzo. Picoche has followed his long and detailed monograph on Gil y Carrasco of 1978 with an edition of El Senor de Bembibre, Madrid, Castalia, 1986, with a solid introduction based on his book. Inexplicably Plaza y Janes and Catedra have also produced editions (1985 and 1986). Picoche has - 102 -
FROM RO~IANTICTSM TO THE 98 also produced a very competent edition of Hartzenbusch's Los Amantes de Teruel, Madrid, Alhambra, 1980 with clear account of its sources, structures etc. and critical opinions. These now include Kay Engler, «La psicologia de Eros en Los Amantes de Teruel», Hispanofila, 70, 1980, 1-15 on the presentation of love with much reference to Ortega, Paz and others, but failing to see the existential aspect. Alejandro Amusco's «La poesia de Antonio Ros de Olano» in Anales de Literatura Espanola (Alicante), 2, 1983, 25-56 recues from oblivion the work of a distant practitioner or the «deformaci6n grotesca» later to reappear in the esperpentos of ValleInclan. Astonihingly, Aniano Pena's edition of Zorrilla's Don Juan Tenorio, Madrid, Catedra, 1979 is now in its eighth printing. A glance at the bibliography shows that there is little critical interest in the play in the 1960s and 1970s except for the editions by S. Garcia Castaneda, F. Garcia Pavon and J. L. Varela. Pena distressingly exhumes Peer's exploded theory of a link between romanticism and Golden Age traditions, which makes the articles of David Gies, «Jose Zorrilla and the Betrayal of Spanish Romanticism», Romanistisches Jahrbuch, 31, 1980, 339-46 and «Don Juan contra Don Juan», Actas de[ VII Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas, Rome, Bulzoni, 1983, ed. Guiseppe Bellini, 545-51 doubly welcome. He cogently argues that the Golden Age pattern of sin and repentence is precisely what makes Don Juan Tenorio exceptional within Spanish Romantic theatre. By contrast, Carlos Feal's «Conflicting Names, Conflicting Laws», Publications of the Modern Languages Association of America, 96, 1981, 375-83 is a general account of the play making no real advance in its interpretation. The other noteworthy contributions recently were Robert Ter Horst's «Ritual Time Regained in Zorrilla's Don Juan Tenorio», Romanic Review, 70, 1979, 80-93 thoughtfully reconsidering the play's ending along with aspects of Don Juan's character and his attitude to time, and Gustavo Perez Firmat's «Carnival in Don Juan Tenorio», Hispanic Review, 51, 1983, 269-81 chiefly on the letter and the wager, justifying certain anomalies in the play by reference to carnival time. A final footnote is provided by John Dowling's «El anti-Don Juan de Ventura de la Vega», Actas de[ Sexto Congreso internacional de Hispanistas, Toronto U. P., 1980 eds. A. M. Gordon and E. Rugg, 215-18 on El hombre de[ mundo as a kind of counterblast to Don Juan Tenorio. - 103 -
ESPANA CONTEMPORJ\NEA POST-Ro MANTICISM There are not many items. A useful article is Claude Poullain's «Romanticismo de acci6n y Romanticismo de evasion», Iris (Montpelier), 2, 1981, 163-202 covering, among others, Campoamor, Ruiz Aguilera, Arnao, Ferran and Becquer and charting the course of mid-century poetry towards intimismo. It should be read with the introduction to Cardwell's edition of Icaza (see below). In describing the quite different stance of Nufiez de Arce in «El Camino cerrado de Nunez de Arce», Anales de Literatura Espaiiola (Alicante), 2, 1983, 491-508 Jorge Urrutia makes the interesting point that another link between the intimismo of Becquer and that of fin de siglo verse was provided by Notas i11timas by Ricardo Maly de Banos published in the same year, 1875, as Gritos de Combate. Thereafter pro and anti-intimista positions hardened. The same critic reexamines Campoamor's critique of romantic poetry in «Reconsideraci6n de la poesia realista del siglo XIX» in his Reflexion de la literatura, Seville U. P., 1983, 85-114. The centenary of Avellaneda was marked by Homenaje a G. Gomez de Avellaneda, Miami, Universal, 1981 eds. Rosa Cabrera and Gladys Zaldivar. It contains the predictable section on her feminism, also stressed by Beth Miller in her Women in Hispanic Literature, California U. P., 1983. Equally predictable the best section was on her prose, with six useful articles. Hugh Harter in his Avellaneda, Boston, Twayne, 1981, points out that there has not been a serious study of her work for half a century and that her fiction is ripe for re-evaluation. His study is comprehensive but chiefly thematic. We need more analysis. Lucia Guerra offers instead a feminist reading of Sab and Dos rnujeres in «Estrategias femeninas [en] Ia obra de Avellaneda», Revista Iberoamericana, 132, 3, 1985, 707-22. In the same number Felix Machacatorres in «Munio Alfonso de la Avellaneda» sees the play as combining romantic and neoclassical elements. Reference to Avellaneda's novels serves to introduce other writing on post-romantic fiction. Monroe Hafter in «Catalina Coronado as novelist», Kentucky Romance Quarterly, 30, 1983, 403-15, uses chiefly Jarilla (1850) and La Sigea (1854) to suggest that the period was not barren of good novelists. Presumably the best was Fernan Caballero on whose first novel Susan Kirkpatrick breaks new - 104 -
FRO~! RO\I.\NTICIS\I TO THE 98 ground in «Gender and Genre in La Gaviota», Publications of the Modern Languages Association of America, 98, 1983, 324-40 by interpreting Montesinos's intuition of Fernan's ambivalence as «a problem of gender». Noel Valis in «Eden and the Tree of Knowledge in Clemencia», Kentucky Romance Quarterly, 29, 1982, 251-60 shows how the novel is structured around three symbolic trees. Another mid-century novelist in more obvious process of rescue is WencesIao Ayguals de Izco. Ruben Benitez's excellent general study of Ayguals, Madrid, Porrua, 1979 has been followed by Renale Reglin's Wenceslao Ayquals de /zco, Frankfurt, Verruet, 1983 (in German) dealing more specifically with individual novels. Maria Bruguera Nadal briefly studies Pobres ·" Ricos en La Bruja de Madrid, Castellon de la Plana, Diputaci6n Provincial, 1981. The centenary of Becquer's death in 1970 and the years just after saw the appearance of more than twenty books on him. There have been fewer so far in the 80s. The most important is Russell Sebold's Becquer, Madrid, Taurus, 1982 collecting 27 previously published articles many out of print and hard to find, along with a fine bibliography. A pity he did not rescue J. Frutos's invaluable «La formaci6n literaria de Becquer» in Revista Bibliogrdfica y Documental, 4, 1950, 77-99. I have not seen Yolanda Montalvo, Las voces narrativas en las leyenclas de Becquer, New York U. P. 1983 and on individual leyendas have found only A. Rodriguez and S. Mangini, «El amor y la muerte en las ojos verdes», Hispan6fi{a, 86, 1986, 69-73 in the theme as archetypal. On the poetry, Juan M. Diez Taboada, «Textos olvidados de Bccquer», Revista de Literatura, 43, 86, 1981, 63-83 exhumed a new rima and two versions of «Una mujer me envenen6 el alma». On influences, Alfred Ro· driguez and Tomas Ruiz «Una fuente probable de la rima LII de Becquer», Modern Philology, 77, 1980, 382-91 show its similarity to a poem by Coronado. Fernando Ortiz in «La estirpe de Becquer», Fin de siglo, 1982, 37-46 traces the impact on him of Lista, Rodri5uez Zapata, Marmol, Decarrete and Pongilioni. Angel Gonzalez and Tomas Ruiz, «Presencia de Espronceda en la rima LXXII», Romance Notes, 22, 1981, 146-50 trace that of «El Canto de Teresa» and the opening of El cliablo munclo. On Becquer's own influence J. M. Diez Taboada and Fatima Diez, «Becquer y Salvador Rueda», Revista de Literr..wra, 43, 85, 1981, 159-60 offer an example. Disar pointingly Pedro de la Pena's «El Becquer no romantico», Cuader- - 105 -
ESPA'ii \ COJ'\TE\IPORAKF..\ nus Hispanomnericanus, 402, 1983, 51-68 turns out to be a verbose dithyramb. Julian Palley in «Becquer's Disembodied Soul», Hispanic Review, 47, 1979, 185-92 slightly redeveloped in his The Ambiquous Mirror, Valencia, Albatros/Hispan6fila, 1983 and Kessel Schwartz «Becquer and Hypnagogic Imagery», Symposium, 37, 1983, 202-15 carry forward the line of criticism begun by Hartsook in 1967 studying oneiric and other subliminal aspects of Becquer's imagery connected with sleep. On individual rimas, A. Gargano «Sulla rima XXIX di Becquer», Strwnenti Critici, 15, 1981, 472-84 and «Para una lectura de la rima XXVII», Romanticismo, 2, 1984, 14-28 provide close and illuminating readings. On Becquer's poetics, David Herzberger, «The contrasting Poetic Theories of Poe and Becquer», Romance Notes, 21, 1981, 323-28 notes the latter's less faith in the communicative power of language and emphasis on the pre-literal proces. On the other hand, An· tonio Prieto in Coherencia y relevancia textual, Madrid, Alhambra, 1980, 252-95 re-examines Becquer's poetics in contrast to those of the Renaissance poets and to Unamuno's theories. Eugene del Vecchio's «Becquer's Poetico Recinto», Hispania, 67, 1984, 554-59 is original on the harmony of Gothic architecture as an objective correlative for Becquer's poetic ideal. Prior to the centenary of the death of Rosalia de Castro in 1985 the only significant book-length study was Matilde Robatto's Rosalia de Castro y la condicion femenina, Madrid, Parten6n, 1981 both on Rosalia's own feminine condition and her views on that of women in her time. The centenary produced a number of books I have not seen including the Actas do Congreso Internacional de estudios sobre Rosalia de Castro, Santiago de Compostela U. P. 1986, E. Montero, Rosalia de Castro, Madrid, Silex and a collection of essays Rosalia de Castro. Unha obra no aswnida, La Corufia, Xistral, both 1985. There was a hommage in lnsula, No 463 with six articles including a most interesting one by D. Gamallo Fierros on Rosalia and Unamuno and one by Dario Villanueva with a newly discovered poem in Castilian. Marina Mayoral's Rosalia de Castro, Madrid, Catedra, 1986 contained four general lectures on life and themes based on her 1974 book. The latter had been hailed by Catherine Davies, in the best article of recent years, «Rosalia de Castro, criticism 1950-80», Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 61, 1983, 211-20 as the first serious analysis of Rosalia's work. Hence Xesus - 106 -
FROM ROMAKTICISl\l TO THE 98 Alonso Montero, En torno a Rosalia, Madrid, Jucar, 1985 a rag-bag of scraps of «criticism» from the past is virtually worthless. Scholarship is served, however, by the work of Antonio Odriozola, Rosalia de Castro: Guia Bibliogrdfica, Pontevedra, Universidad Menendez y Pelayo, 1981 also in Nuevo Hispanismo, 1, 1982, 259-83. Catherine Davies has gone on to publish inter alia «A importancia de 'Cantares gallegos'», Grial, 82, 1983, 443-52 on their daring Gallegan nationalism and «Rosalia de Castro's Later Poetry and AntiRegionalism in Spain», Modern Language Review, 79, 1984, 609-19 on the angry response to her defence of Gallegan identity. Among other articles, Gonzalo Corona Mazol, «Una lectura de Rosalia», Revista de Literatura, 44, 1982, 25-62 is curiously introductory so late in the day. Miguel D'Ors, «Situacion de Rosalia de Castro en la poesfa», Revista de Literatura, 46, 92, 1984, 73-91 discusses «Cenicientas las aguas» to situate her between romanticism and postromanticism. Robert Harvard, «Saudades as structure in En las orillas de! Sar», Hispanic Journal, 5, 1, 1983, 29-41 sees nostalgia for Galicia, for love and for religion as the basis of the collection's thematics. On the same book, Martha La Follette Miller, «Aspects of Perspective in En las orillas def Sar», Kentucky Romance Quarterly, 29, 1982, 273-82 is skillfull on the manipulation of perspective in «Era apacible el dia». Julian Palley, «Two Mourning Dreams», Hispan6fila, 82, 1984, 21-27 commented briefly on «A mi madre» and <(En suefios te di un beso» (also in his The Ambiquous Mirror, above). Pierre Jourdan discusses themes and techniques in «Les Ecos nacionales de V. Ruiz Aguilera» and «L'ecriture clans les Ecos nacionales» in Iris (Montpellier), 4, 1983, 55-90 and 5, 1985, 53-77. For the rest, on post-romantic theatre I have found only Charlotte Stern <(Actors, Characters and Spectators in Tamayo's Un drama Nuevo», Theatre Journal, 31, 1979, 70-77 on the <(inner» and «outer» plays and R. G. Sanchez «Un drama nuevo», Hispanic Review, 48, 1980, 435-47 seeing it chiefly as a vehicle for melodramatic acting. A superbly documented article by J. Rubio Jimenez, «La censura teatral 1840-1868», Segismundo, 18, 1984, 193-231 shows the government, the church and the army all deeply involved. - 107 -
ESPANA CONTEMPORANEA REALISM AND NATURALISM A highly critical and stimulating consideration of the present state of studies was German Guillon's «Perspectivas criticas en torno a la novela del siglo XIX espanol», Insula, 446, 1984, 1 and 14 calling for radical modernization. How not to take this advice was illustrated by Enrique Miralles's La novela espafwla de la Restauraci6n, Barcelona, Puvill, 1979 which contained pseudo-semiotics at its worst. Mariano Lopez's «Los escritores de la Restauracion ante la Espana de su tiempo», Cuadernos Americanos, 228, 1, 1980, 137-46 documented their awareness with ·scrappy quotations. More important was Narrativa de la Restauraci6n (1984), 4 in the Did.logos de Amsterdam, Amsterdam U. P. series with six essays. Most interesting are the general ones on the sociology of the Generation of 1868 and on Art for Art's Sake in a wider group (the others are on pre-1868 Pereda, Galdos Tormento and Miau, Clarin's «La conversacion de Chiripa» and Palacio Valdes's La aldea perdida). Jeremy Medina's Spanish Realism, Potomac, Maryland, Porrua Turanzas, 1979 was a splendid account of the theories underlying realism and naturalism with discussion of representative novels from writers ranging from Alarcon to Blasco Ibanez. Heriberto del Pozo's La decadencia de la familia aristocrdtica (etc), Miami, Universal, 1984 examined the theme in novels by Pereda, Gald6s, Palacio Valdes, Coloma and others but, oddly, not Pardo Bazan. Ignacio Javier Lopez, in Caballero de novela, Barcelona, Puvill, 1986 illuminatingly studies donjuanismo in the novel after 1860 with a lucid account of the process by which the myth evolved. Laureano Bonet's Literatura, regionalismo, lucha de clases, Barcelona U. P., 1983 attempts to relate aspects of the literary creation (and certain literary events) relevant to Gald6s, Pereda and Narciso Oller to the regional diversity of Spain and the special outlook of the Catalonian bourgeoisie. I have not been able to see Jose Maria Martinez Cachero, El naturalismo, Madrid, Taurus, 1980 or Nelly Clemmessy, «Sur la question du naturalisme en Espagne», Cahiers d'Etudes Romanes (Aix), 8, 1983, 41-57. The great mass of new writing is predictably on Gald6s, Clarin and Pardo Bazan. But some significant work has been done on their contemporaries. On Pereda, John Akers in «Pereda: An Annotated Bibliography of Critical Works », Mester, 9, 1980, 3-20 up-dates - 108 -
FROM ROMAl\!TICISM TO THE 98 Anthony Clarke's 1974 Manual de bibliografia. So in another way does Jose M. Gonzalez Herran, La obra de Pereda ante la critica literaria de su tiempo, Santander, Ediciones Estudio, 1983. This massive book discusses individually the critical reception of each of Pereda's works and the novelist's reaction. We learn a great deal about nineteenth century criticism. 1983 marked the hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Pereda's birth and hence saw two triffling homage volumes (by the Ateneo de Madrid and by Libreria Estudio, Santander), the latter, like the one on Rosalia de Castro mentioned above, full of rubbish from the past. More serious was Nueve lecciones sabre Pereda, edited by Herran and Benito Madariaga, Santander, Instituci6n Cultural, 1985 with essays by the leading critics both on the main novels and on Pereda's relationship with costumbrismo, Naturalism and the fin de siglo. Among recent articles is a very fine one by Helmutz Hatzfeld «El problema del impresionismo en Sotileza», Thesaurus, 34, 1979, 84-93 on the nature of some of the observed detail. Matias Montes Huidobro, «Un relato femenino», Hispan6fila, 75, 1982, 17-31 is a careful study of the heroine in Sotileza as rather sado-masochistic. John Ackers, «Pereda's Pedro Sanchez», Nephiloloqus, 68, 1984, 375-79 discusses novelties in the narrative strategy and sees it as a reversal of Penas arriba. On the latter novel, Mario Ford Bacigalupo, «The Process of Conversion in Pefias arriba», Hispan6fila, 71, 1981, 23-40 identifies four key experiences and relates them to the standard pattern of conversion. I have not been able to see Noel Valis's re-examination of Penas arriba in Romanistisches Jahrbuch, 30, 1979, 298-308. Alarcon has not been so well served. Filomena Liberatori's I tempi e le opera di Pedro Antonio Alarcon, Naples, Instituto Universitario Orientale, 1981 is the best book since Montesinos, full of sound doctrine, but short on analysis of fictional technique. Cyrus De Coster sharply criticizes in the Hispanic Review, 51, 1983, 472-75 all five current editions of El sombrero de tres picas, which justifies the publication of the excellent critical guide to the novel by David Hook (London, Grant & Cutler, 1984) which deals compactly with Alarc6n's sources and craftmanship and (sometimes critically) with prior criticism. Ignacio Javier Lopez, «Alta comedia, realismo y novela en Alarcon», Anales de Literatura Espanola (Alicante), 4, 1985, 197-215 persuasively relates El Capitan Veneno to the contemporary bourgeois theather. The same critic in «Humor y decoro en El Capitan Veneno», Boletin de la Real -· 109 -
ESPANA CONTEMPORANEA Academia Espanola, 65, 1985, 213-36 brings many new ideas, includ ing parallels with La desheredada, no less! On Valera, Matilde Galera Sanchez's, Juan Valera, politico, C6rdoba, Diputaci6n Provincial, 1983 is as its title suggests, biographical and extra-literary, but full of absorbing detail. Rafael Porlan's, La Andalucia de Valera, Seville, U. P., 1980 was in the old-fashioned, bad, discursive and unscholarly tradition. Roberto Lott, «Pepita Jimenez and Don Juan Tenorio», Hispan6fila, 78, 1983, 21-31 sees the plot of the former as a kind of inversion of that of the latter. This is interesting, but not quite convincing, since both situations are conventional ones. G. Grant MacCurdy, «Mysticism, Love and Illumination in Pepita Jimenez», Revista de Estudios Hispdnicos, 17, 1983, 325-34 usefully reviews Luis's evolution following Jung and Neumann. Carlos Feal, «Pepita Jimenez o del misticismo al idilio», Bulletin Hispanique, 86, 1984, 473-83 argues that Valera does not fully succeed in harmonizing divine and human love at the end. Geoffrey Stagg, «Pepita Jimenez, the Shadow of Cide Hamete Benengeli», Iberia, ed. R. Goetz, Calgary U. P., 1985, 117-26 studies Valera's Cervantine narratorial stance. Roxanne Marcus, «An Application of Jungian Theory [to] Juanita la larga», Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispdnicos, 3, 1979 again uses Jung to defend the presentation of Dona Ines. The indefatigable Noel Valis examines «The Use of Deceit in Juanita la larga», Hispanic Review, 49, 1981, 317-27 to show that the novel is in essence a «gentle ironic, burlesque... fairy tale». Gilbert Paolini, «Interacci6n del mundo artistico y psicol6gico en Dona Luz», Anales de Literatura Espanola (Alicarrte), 2, 1983, 409-17 examines the classical and oriental legends to which the novel is related. Pablo de Barco, «Genio y figura de Juan Valera», Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, 388, 1982, 191-196 draws sharp attention to the author's defective portrait of mid-century Brazilian life. On the little known short stories, Bernardo Suarez in «Examen de la cuentistica de Valera», Explicaci6n de Textos Literarios, 14, 2, 1985-6, 35-45 is too general and not sufficiently on the stories themselves. In Palacio Valdes y el mundo social de la Restauraci6n, Oviedo, Instituto de Estudios Asturianos, 1983, Guadalupe G6mez Ferrer quarries the novel for social history. Noel Valis, «Palacio Valdes's First Novel», Romance Notes, 22, 1980, 317-21 suggests that El Senorita Octavio (1881) shows Palacio as more radical in his opinions than later. Daniel Pageau, «Elements pour une lecture de La her- - 110 -
FROM ROMANTICISM TO THE 98 numa San Sulpicio», lberoromania, 16, 1982, 95-109 explains how by exploiting stereotypes and middle class received ideas Palacio wrote a besHeller. Jennifer Wood's «APV's La fe», Hispanic Journal, 1, l, 1985, 51-57 merely traces the evolution of Padre Gil. Noel Valis, The Novels of Jacinto Octavio Picon, Bucknell, Pa, U. P., 1986 uses a traditional life-and-works approach dealing with the eight novels chiefly in chronological order holding a balance between a frank assessment of the novelist's secondary position and an attempt to retrieve him from neglect. And so to the big three. Discussion of recent criticism of them will perforce be selective; since 1980 work on Gald6s alone includes almost twenty books quite apart from the torrent of articles. We should perhaps begin by mentioning Hensley Woodbridge, Benito Perez Gald6s. An Annotated Bibliography for 1975-1980, Watertown, Mass., General Microfilm Co., 1982 with many hard to find items. Anthony Percival's Caldas and his Critics, Toronto U. P., 1985 attempts to give a reasoned account of Gald6s criticism from the novelist's own time to about 1975 (and, less completely, to about 1982). Percival groups the material according to critical approaches with an introduction to each approach: a work of scholarship and a superb check-list. The 1980s began with Brian Dendle's Caldas. The Mature Thought, Lexington, Kentucky U. P., 1980 on the last three serie of the Episodios Nacionales and Gald6s's «ordering of the past» in terms of a «vision born of the present». Also in 1980 appeared Jacques Beyrie's three-volume Gald6s et son myth, Paris, Librairie Champion, analyzing in relentless detail Gald6s's life, intellectual formation and evolution as seen in his work up to 1880. This supercedes Berkowitz and will be mined -primarily for informationfor years to come. Also in three volumes was William H. Shoemaker's The Novelistic Art of Gald6s, Madrid, Albatros/Hispan6fila, 1980. Excluding for some quaint reason the Episodios, it provides a workmanlike introduction to the man and his art followed by chapters on each individual novel with a plot-summary, discussion of criticism and Shoemaker's own comments. The effect is rather old-fashioned compared to Stephen Gilman's much-praised consolidation of several decades of work in his Gald6s and the Art of the European Novel, 1867-87, Princeton U. P., 1981 (in Spanish: Gald6s y el arte de la novela europea, Madrid, Taurus, 1985). This is the best major book in English on Gald6s. It leads up the more - 111 -
ESPA~A CO'\ITEMPORA'l!EA than 150 pages on Fortunata y Jacinta, the core of the volume, via a consideration of the «Historical» novelist, a second part up to Lo prohibido and two splendid chapters on Gald6s's reading and his use of it. Stephen Miller's El mundo de Gald6s, Santander, Sociedad Menendez y Pelayo, 1983 makes a valiant attempt to relate Gald6s's literary theory to a wide arc of works. Its weakness lies in an attempt to force the novelist into a so-called «Tradici6n socio-mimetica nacional» in which we recognize a critique on Gilman's approach. Peter Bly's Gold6s's Novel of the Historical Imagination, Liverpool, Francis Cairns, 1983, is, like Dendle's book also on the mature Gald6s, he of the «serie contemporanea» from La desheredada to La raz6n de la sinraz6n, seeing the novels as «special kinds of historical novels» as well as social and psychological studies. Eamonn Rodgers, From Enlightment to Realism: The Novels of Gald6s 1870-1887, Dublin (Privately printed?), 1987 overlaps Bly's group 1 of the «Contemporary» novels, tracing Gald6s's development as he responds to the intellectual revival of the 60s and 70s and to the failure of the revolution of 1868. The main novels treated are Dona Perfecta, La desheredada, El amigo Manso, Tormento and Fortunata y Jacinta. Jose Luis Mora Garcia's, Hombre, sociedad y religion en la novelistica galdosiana (1888-1905), Salamanca U. P., 1981, shows Gald6s trapped within a rather timid bourgeois frame of reference, seeking to criticise but also to maintain a traditional stance so that in the end «El mensaje produce efectos contradictorios». Robert Kirsner, Veinte anos de matrimonio en la novela de Gald6s, New York, Eliseo Torres, 1983 studies Gald6s's fascinated if slightly ironic vision of the institution from La sombra to Fortunata y Jacinta. Alicia Andreu's, Gald6s y la literatura popular, Madrid, Sociedad General Espanola de Libreria, 1982 studies the growth of the stereotype of the «mujer virtuosa» in Spanish «pop» literature from the mid-1830s to Gald6s second manner and shows that it was not entirely absent from La dcsheredada and Tormento. Diane Urey in Caldas and the Irony of Language, Cambridge U. P., 1982 examines ironic portraiture, setting and narration to show once more how adept Gald6s was at breaking «the conventions of representational interpretation» and evading the possibility of any final reading of his work. Specifically in the early novels, Maria Pilar Aparici Llanas, Las .... 112 -
FROM ROMANTICISM TO THE 98 novelas de tesis de BPG, Barcelona, CSIC, 1982 covers Dona Perfecta, Gloria and La familia de Leon Roch, situating them between costumbrismo and realism proper and emphasizing the religious question. Brian Dendle completes his earlier book with Gald6s. The Early Historical Novels, Missouri U. P., 1986 placing the first two series of Episodios in context and commenting on each novel separately. Geoffrey Ribbans, Reflections of Gald6s's Concept of Realism, Liverpool U. P., 1986 (a lecture) is really on his constant experimentation with narrative strategies. Among general works I have not been able to see is Sebastian's de la Nuez's, Gald6s (1843-1920), Las Palmas, Mancomunidad, 1983. Of individual novels Fortunata y Jacinta receives most attention. See Peter Bly, Conflicting Realities, London, Tamesis, 1984, four different critics on part III, chapter 4, and German Gull6n (ed.) Fortunata y Jacinta, Cabildo de Gran Canaria, 1982. Marie Wellington's, Marianela, New York, Senda Nueva, 1984 has five essays, two directly on the novel and the others on possible sonrces and influence and the parallel between Pablo and Rafael of the Torquemada novels. Peter Ely's, La de Bringas, London, Grant & Cutler, 1981 in an excellent Critical Guides series is first class, useful also for Tormento, with a specially good account on the unreliable narrator. A new edition of the novel by Alda Blanco and Carlos Blanco Aguinaga contains incisive insights within an obtrusive marxist-feminist framework. In The Early Stages of Composition uf Gald6s's Lo prohibido, London, Tamesis, 1983, James Whiston transcribes and analyzes the two prilimiuary drafts re· vealing highly significant changes. Interest in Gald6s's theater continues. Theodore Sackett, a major Gald6s bibliographer, now offers Gald6s y las mascaras, Verona, lnstituto di Lingue e Letterature Straniere, 1982 a bibliography on his theather including contemporary reactions very different from our own. Hensley Woodbridge in Anales Galdosianos, 18, 1983, 136-38 amplifies the listings and Michale Schinas in his review in Revista de Estudios Hispdnicos, 20, 1986 adds Stanley Finkenthal, El teatro de Gald6s, Madrid, Fundamentos, 1980 and Carmen Menendez Onrubia, Introducci6n al teatro de Gald6s, Madrid, CSIC, 1983. The former is an over-simplified account of the relation of the plays to the society of the time and is restricted to themes. The latter, more ambitiously, tries to relate them to Gald6s's private personality, to society and to morality, while examining why -113 ·
ESPANA CONTEMPORANEA they tend to fail as theater. Specific aspects of her argument, e.g. on Gald6s's use of crowded-tage scenes and his handling of pace in the plays, are of genuine interest. Fernando Hidalgo's Electra en Sevilla, Sevilla, Ayuntamiento, 1985, ably studies both the play itself and the circunstances of its stagings in Madrid and Seville. The Kentucky Romance Quarterly, 31, 2, 1984 was a Gald6s number with a dozen essays chiefly by well-known critics, all but one on his fiction. Before passing to Pardo Bazan mention may be made of Mariano L6pez-Sanz's, Naturalismo y espiritualismo en la novelistica de Gald6s y Pardo Bazan, Madrid, Pliegos, 1985. It suffers severely from a narrow view of Naturalism but is to some degree justified by its treatment of the later novels, though even here the approach is in no sense really comparative. For bibliographical information on Pardo Bazan see Robert Scari, Bibliografia descriptiva de estudios sabre EPB, Valencia, Albatros/Hispan6fila, 1982. By far the most important book recently was Maurice Hemingway, EPB: The Making of a Novelist, Cambridge U. P. Challenging the standard critical approaches Hemingway stresses EPB's evolution away from the depiction of the external world towards the novel of psychological analysis. Very insightful. In an earlier article «Grace, Nature, Naturalism and Pardo Bazan», Forum for Modern Language Studies, 16, 1980, 341-49 he took issue with Mariano L6pez's interpretation of Los pazos de Vlloa (Revista de Estudios Hispdnicos, 12, 1978, 353-71) arguing that EPB's views were rather Augustinian and that Grace was wholly absent. R. C. Boland, «Religion and Nature in Los pazos de Ulloa», Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispdnicos, 5, 1981, 209-15 chiefly on don Julian, also rebuts L6pez, seeing Nature not as depraving but as benign. Dario Villanueva, «Los pazos de Vlloa, el naturalismo y Henry James», Hispanic Review, 52, 1984, 121-39 is also chiefy on the priest and on EPB's modification of authorial omniscience ante-dating H. James. Carlos Peal has followed his characteristically Freudian reading of the novel (1971) with «Religion y feminismo en la obra de EPB» in J. Amor and D. Kossoff (eds.), Homenaje a Juan Lopez Morillas, Madrid, Castalia, 1982, 191-207 and «La voz femenina en Los pazos de Ulloa», Hispania, 70, 1987, 214-21. The former suggests that EPB sought a synthesis between love and conventional religious attitudes while the latter is on the ambiguous femaleness of the narrative viewpoint in Los - 114 -
FROM ROl\L\.NTlClS:\{ TO THE 98 pazos. He partly coincides with Elizabeth Ordonez, «i..Y mi nifia? Another Voice in Los pazos de Ulloa», Discurso Literario, 3, 1985, 121-31 in viewing the novel as much concerned with the oppression of women. Also on Los pazos are Juan Solanas, «Estructura y simbolismo en Los pazos .. .», Hispania, 64, 1981, 199-208, Ronald Quirk, «The Structure of Los pazos ... », Hispanic Journal, 4, 1982, 81-86 and Clark Colahan with Alfred Rodriguez, «Lo g6tico en Los pazos... », Modern Philology, 83, 1986, 398-404. The first identifies the major symbols and how they fit into the structuring framework of the text; the second sees the patterning of the episodes in terms of re-emphasis after chapter 11; the third, highly original, sees the novel as based by EPB on a deliberate parody of the gothic novel. If true, this would seriously affect our reading of it. Elizabeth Ord6fiez, «Paradise regained, Paradise lost», Hispanic Journal, 8, 1, 1986, 7-18 is on the conflict of female desire and patriarchal society in La madre naturaleza. Compare the comments on Gabriel with Gene Forrest's in «Insolaci6n and the G. Pardo de la Lage controversy», Neophilologus, 71, 1987, 81-9 almost a footnote to Hemingway, emphasizing the ambiguity of both Pardo de la Lage and the narrator's stance towards him. Mariano Lopez, «A prop6sito de La madre naturaleza», Bulletin Hispanique, 83, 1981, 79-108 stands by his earlier article but also foregrounds a Freudian interpretation of Gabriel. Jose Sanchez Reboredo, «EPB y la rea.lidad obrera», Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, 351, 1979, 567-80 emphasizes the originality, and the limitations, of Pardo Bazan's picture of proletarian life. On the short stories, Juan Paredes Nufiez expands part of his earlier study in La realidad gallega en los cuentos de EPB, La Corufia, Sada, 1983 concluding that the emphasis is on barbarism. Lou Charnon-Deutsch, «Naturalism in the Short Fiction of EPB», Hispanic Journal, 3, 1, 1981, 73-85 though stressing the author's «eclectic» general stance, identifies La dama joven as her «most representative example of environmental determinism». 1980's criticism of Clarin began with Benito Varela Jacome's, Alas «Clarin», Madrid, EDAF, 1980 a rather summary, old-style, general review of his life and work. More original was Noel Valis, The Decadent Vision in Leopoldo Alas, Baton Rouge, Lousiana State U. P., 1981, restricted to the two novels and applying to them a broad interpretation of Decadentism owing something to A.E. Carter. The approach is ridden rather hard but the book as a whole -- 115 -
ESPANA CONTEMPORANEA offers valuable insights, especially into Su unico hijo. Yvan Lissorgues was publishing at the same time his two-volume Clarin politico, Tolouse, Le Mirail, U. P., 1980 and 1981 introducing, classifying and commenting on Clarin's non-literary journalism (except for a chapter in vol. II). It was a basic contribution to the exploration on Clarin's extra-literary ideology. Lissorgues followed it in 1983 with La pensee philosophique et religieuse de Leopoldo Alas (Clarin), Paris, CNRS, still based on the journalism, but now probing into his world-view, analyzing him seriously as a philosophical thinker with a restless mind, conscious of the mysterious dimensions not open to positivistic or empirical investigation. Mariano Maresca in Hip6tesis sabre Clarin, Granada, Diputaci6n Provincial, 1985, also on Clarin's thoughts in the context of the history of Spanish intelectually reformist ideas, is so full of abstraction and generalization that Clarin tends to get lost. Gonzalo Sobejano's, Clarin en su obra ejemplar, Madrid, Castalia, 1985 returns to the creative work, especially in chapters 3 and 4 on the short fiction and the novels, seeing Alas essentially in a post-romantic perspective. It is for these chapters that the book will be read. Jose Maria Martinez Cachero, Las palabras y las dias de Leopoldo Alas, Oviedo, CSIC, 1984 has eighteen soberly detached chapters on Clarin's life and work insisting on the «dato util» rather than on way-out interpretation, a view much to be recommended. The Actas of the Barcelona International Congress of 1984 have been edited by Antonio Vilanova as Clarin y su obra, Barcelona P. P., 1985 with fourteen essays, about half on La Regenta. Also in 1987 have been published the Actas of the Oviedo International Symposium as Clarin y La Regenta en su tiempo, Oviedo U. P. On La Regenta itself, Sergio Beser in Clarin y La Regenta, Barcelona, Ariel, 1982 offers his own pithy and informed introduction and eight essays, three of them already well-known, and a bibliography of work on La Regenta, alas only up to 1977. Maria Jose Tintore, La Regenta de Clarin y la critica de su tiempo, Barcelona, Lumen, 1987, describes and documents the critical reception of the novel, with a bibliography of nineteenth century criticism. Letras de Deusto, 15, 1985 was a homage to Clarin with ten contributions chiefly on La Regenta, Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, 415, 1985, also carried a section on his work with six items. Miscellaneous items on late nineteenth century literature include three interesting books by Lily Litvak: Transformaci6n in- - 116 -
FRml RO!\IA'>TICISM TO THE 98 dustrial y literatura en Espana 1895-1905 and El sendero del tigre, both Madrid, Taurus, 1980 and 1986 together with Musa libertaria, Barcelona, Bosch, 1981. The first chronicled the negative reactions to the nascent industrialization of Spain by the young noventayochistas; the second was on the craze for exoticism in fin de siglo Spain as a rebellion against conventionalism; the third was on anarchist writing between 1880 and 1913. All are full of curious data. There has been some work on Ganivet, notably Judith Ginsburg's, Angel Ganivet, London, Tamesis, 1985, the first general book in English, competent but not deeply probing. Javier Herrero, with great lucidity exposes the reactionary implications of Ganivet's concept of «Virgin Spain» in «Radical Traditionalism in Angel Ganivet», Homenaje a Juan Lopez Morillas, eds. Jose Amor and David Kossoff, Madrid, Castalia, 1982, 247-56. Francisco Garcia Sarria, «Pio Cid como antinovela y prenivola», Actas del VII Congreso de la Asociaci6n Internacional de Hispanistas, ed. Giuseppe Bellini, Roma Bulzoni, 1982, 511-17 was incisive on its «particularidades narrativas innovadoras». Richard Cardwell has edited Francisco Icaza's, Efimeras y lejanias, Exeter Hispanic Texts, 1983 with an important preface postulating a «quiet revolution» in Spanish poetry in the 1880s and 1890s. Extremely important is Jesus Rubio Jimenez, Ideologia y Teatro en Espaiia 1890-1900, Zaragoza, Portico, 1982. His approach is historical and sociological rather than strictly literary. Setting the decade's theatre in the contexts of European movements he examines systematically the impact of Zola, Maeterlinck, Ibsen and Strindberg and attempts at theater reform. Maria Martin Fernandez, Lenguaje dramdtico y lenguaje ret6rico, Caceres, Extremadura U. P., 1981 studies dramatic discourse in Echegaray, Cano, Selles and Dicenta. Finally one must not overlook Solomon Lipp's, Francisco Giner de las Rios, Ontario, Wilfrid Laurier U. P., 1986 a very welcome first study in English on this seminal figure. No treatment such as this by a single hand can hope to do justice to the torrent of books and articles which has been flowing out since 1979-1980. With apologies to the specialists in the various areas, this inadequate survey is offered in the hope that it will be occasionally save colleagues a little leg work. - 117 -

DL Shaw

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