Front matter Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving, CT Clotfelter

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Content: This PDF is a selection from an out-of-print volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research Volume Title: Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving Volume Author/Editor: Charles T. Clotfelter Volume Publisher: University of Chicago Press Volume ISBN: 0-226-11048-6 Volume URL: http://www.nber.org/books/clot85-1 Publication Date: 1985 Chapter Title: Front matter "Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving" Chapter Author: Charles T. Clotfelter Chapter URL: http://www.nber.org/chapters/c6771 Chapter pages in book: (p. -14 - 0)
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Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving
Bfl A National Bureau of Economic Research Monograph
Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving Charles T. Clotfelter The University of Chicago Press Chicago and London
CHARLETS. CLOTFELTEisRprofessor of Public Policy studies and economics and vice-provost for academic policy and planning at Duke University.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London 0 1985 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved. Published 1985 Printed in the United States of America 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85
5 4321
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Clotfelter, Charles T. Federal tax policy and charitable giving.
(National Bureau of Economic Research monograph)
Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. income tax-United States-Deductions-Charitable
contributions-mathematical models. 2. Corporations-
United States-Charitable contributions-Mathematical
models. 3. Voluntarism-United States-Mathematical
models. 4. Charitable bequests-United States-
Mathematical models. I. Title. 11. Series.
H 54653.D4C56 1985
336.2'06
84-1 6336
ISBN 0-226-11048-6
National Bureau of Economic Research
Officers Franklin A. Lindsay, chairman Richard Rosett, vice-chairman Eli Shapiro, president
David G. Hartman, executive director and corporate secretary Charles A. Walworth, treasurer Sam Parker, director offnance and administration
Directors at Large Moses Abramovitz George T. Conklin, Jr. Jean A. Crockett Morton Ehrlich Edward L. Ginzton David L. Grove Walter W. Heller Saul B. Klaman
Franklin A. Lindsay Roy E. Moor Geoffrey H. Moore Michael H. Moskow James J. O'Leary Peter G. Peterson Robert V. Roosa
Richard N. Rosett Bert Seidman Eli Shapiro Stephen Stamas Lazare Teper Donald S. Wasserman Marina v.N. Whitman
Directors by University Appointment Marcus Alexis, Northwestern Albert Ando, Pennsylvania Charles H. Berry, Princeton James Duesenberry, Harvard Ann F. Friedlaender, Massachusetts Institute of Technology J . C. LaForce, California, Los Angeles Paul McCracken, Michigan
James L. Pierce, California, Berkeley Nathan Rosenberg, Stanford James Simler, Minnesota James Tobin, Yale John Vernon, Duke William S. Vickrey, Columbia Burton A. Weisbrod, Wisconsin Arnold Zellner, Chicago
Directors by Appointment of Other Organizations
Carl F. Christ, American Economic Association Robert S . Hamada, American Finance Association Gilbert Heebner, National Association of Business Economists Robert C. Holland, Committeefor economic development Stephan F. Kaliski, Canadian Economics Association Douglass C. North, Economic History Association
Rudolph A. Oswald, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations G. Edward Schuh, American Agricultural Economics Association Albert Sommers, The Conference Board Dudley Wallace, American Statistical Association Charles A. Walworth, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
Directors Emeriti Arthur Burns Emilio G. Collado Solomon Fabricant Frank Fetter
Thomas D. Flynn Gottfried Haberler George B. Roberts Murray Shields
Boris Shishkin Willard L. Thorp Theodore 0. Yntema
Relation of the Directors to the Work and Publicationsof the National Bureau of Economic Research 1. The object of the National Bureau of Economic Research is to ascertain and to present to the public important economic facts and their interpretation in a scientific and impartial manner. The board of Directors is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the work of the National Bureau is carried on in strict conformity with this object. 2. The President of the National Bureau shall submit to the Board of Directors, or to its Executive Committee, for their formal adoption all specific proposals for research to be instituted. 3. No Research Report shall be published by the National Bureau until the President has sent each Member of the Board a notice that a manuscript is recommended for publication and that in the President's opinion it is suitable for publication in accordance with the principles of the National Bureau. Such notification will include an abstract or summary of the manuscript's content and a response form for use by those Directors who desire a copy of the manuscript for review. Each manuscript shall contain a summary drawing attention to the nature and treatment of the problem studied, the character of the data and their utilization in the report, and the main conclusions reached. 4. For each manuscript so submitted, a special committee of the Directors (including Directors Emeriti) shall be appointed by majority agreement of the President and Vice Presidents (or by the Executive Committee in case of inability to decide on the part of the President and Vice Presidents), consisting of three Directors selectedas nearly as may be one from each general division of the Board. The names of the special manuscript committee shall be stated to each Director when notice of the proposed publication is submitted to him. It shall be the duty of each member of the special manuscript committee to read the manuscript. If each member of the manuscript committee signifies his approval within thirty days of the transmittal of the manuscript, the report may be published. If at the end of that period any member of the manuscript committee withholds his approval, the President shall then notify each member of the Board, requesting approval or disapproval of publication, and thirty days additional shall be granted for this purpose. The manuscript shall then not be published unless at least a majority of the entire Board who shall have voted on the proposal within the time fixed for the receipt of votes shall have approved. 5 . No manuscript may be published, though approved by each member of the special manuscript committee, until forty-five days have elapsed from the transmittal of the report in manuscript form. The interval is allowed for the receipt of any memorandum of dissent or reservation, together with a brief statement of his reasons, that any member may wish to express; and such memorandum of dissent or reservation shall be published with the manuscript if he so desires. Publication does not, however, imply that each member of the Board has read the manuscript, or that either members of the Board in general or the special committee have passed on its validity in every detail. 6. Publications of the National Bureau issued for informational purposes concerning the work of the Bureau and its staff, or issued to inform the public of activities of Bureau staff, and volumes issued as a result of various conferences involving the National Bureau shall contain a specificdisclaimer noting that such publication has not passed through the normal review procedures required in this resolution. The Executive Committee of the Board is charged with review of all such publications from time to time to ensure that they do not take on the character of formal research reports of the National Bureau, requiring formal Board approval. 7. Unless otherwise determined by the Board or exempted by the terms of paragraph 6,a copy of this resolution shall be printed in each National Bureau publication. (Resolutionadopted October 25, 1926, as revised throughSeptember30, 1974)
To my parents James and Caroline Clotfelter
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Contents
Preface
xi
1.
Tax Policy and Support for the Nonprofit
Sector: An Overview
1
2.
Contributions by Individuals: Estimates of
the Effects of Taxes
16
3.
Contributions by Individuals: Simulating
the Effects of Tax Policies
100
4.
Volunteer Effort
142
5.
Corporate Contributions
171
6.
Charitable Bequests
222
7.
Foundations
253
8.
Charitable Giving Behavior and the
Evaluation of Tax Policy
273
Appendix A
289
Appendix B
290
Appendix C
29 1
Appendix D
293
Appendix E
295
Appendix F
299
Appendix G
300
References
301
Author Index
315
Subject Index
317
ix
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Preface In answer to a question about the possible effects of eliminating the charitable deduction in the nation's income tax, Ronald Reagan replied that Americans "are the most generous people on earth" and that they would remain so without a deduction (Wall Street Journal, 7 July 1982, p. 4). The question was prompted by one of several major proposals for reforming the U.S. tax system, a low-rate comprehensive income tax. Indeed, concern over economic incentives, the effects of inflation, tax compliance, and distributional equity appears to have reached a new level in the United States. From 1976 to 1983 an average of one major tax bill was enacted every two.years, and there is mounting discussion of comprehensive tax reform. As the question to the president suggests, one source of concern amid these actual and potential tax changes is the effect they will have on charitable giving. This question is a particularly important topic now, following recent cuts in federal social-welfare expenditures. In fact, the philanthropic sector has long shown a keen interest in tax provisions affecting their support and operation. This book concerns the relation between federal taxes and charitable giving. Its objective is to present and discuss econometric evidenceon this relationship in order to assist in the evaluation of tax policy. The aim of the book is not to make policy recommendations, however, but rather to provide evidence and a framework for analysis of policy. I attempt to review the body of applied econometric analysis in the area and to extend that analysis in several areas using four basic sets of data. One of these data sets has been used previously to study charitable giving. Two others have has been adopted for the present study to include the most recent data on contributions. A fourth has not previously been analyzed for this purpose. In addition to this statistical estimation, I present results based on computer simulations of charitable giving, one of which is a revised xi
xii Preface version of a model used in a previously published paper. Because of the technical nature of many of the issues dealt with, some parts of the text cannot be made fully accessible to all readers. Where such technical topics are unavoidable, I have attempted to include more generally comprehensible discussion in hopes that the book can be of use to those not trained in economics and statistical methods. The National Bureau of Economic Research provided the major support for this book. I am also grateful for the support I received from Drake University, where I am employed, and from the University of North Carolina, where I spent a sabbatical semester. Throughout the project, I have benefited from the able and industrious research assistance of Susan Cowan and from the skillful manuscript preparation of Dante Noto and Patsy Terrell. In addition, I received assistance from Richard Bostic, Mark Gallo, William Long, Mayre Loomis, Stan Paskoff, and Allyson Tucker. Karl-Heinz PaquC, Thomas Petska, Thomas Rosen, and Roy Wyscarver provided me with useful unpublished data. For helpful comments and discussions, I am grateful to Elizabeth Boris, Arthur Clarke, Daniel Feenberg, Daniel Frisch, Pamela Gann, H. Gregg Lewis, Ralph McCaughan, Richard Schmalbeck, John Siegfried, B. J. Stiles, Emil Sunley, and members of the tax group at the National Bureau. In addition, I have benefited from many discussions I have had over the past decade with my coauthors on papers dealing with individual charitable giving: Martin Feldstein, Lester Salamon, and Eugene Steuerle. Finally, I am grateful to Lucile, James, and John Clotfelter for their indulgence over the period I have worked on this project.

CT Clotfelter

File: front-matter-federal-tax-policy-and-charitable-giving.pdf
Title: Front matter "Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving"
Author: CT Clotfelter
Author: Charles T. Clotfelter
Published: Tue Jan 1 00:00:00 1985
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