HANSARD STYLE GUIDE, COF AUSTRALIA

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Content: COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 STYLE............................................................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 SPELLING....................................................................................................................................................... 1 2. ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS ............................................................................................... 3 2.1 ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 3 2.2 AMPERSAND .................................................................................................................................................. 3 2.3 AWARDS, GRADES, ORDERS AND TITLES ........................................................................................................ 3 2.4 CENTS............................................................................................................................................................ 3 2.5 COMPANY NAMES .......................................................................................................................................... 4 2.6 CONTRACTIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 4 2.7 COURTESY TITLES.......................................................................................................................................... 4 2.8 HONOURABLE ................................................................................................................................................ 5 2.9 INITIALS......................................................................................................................................................... 5 2.10 LATIN .......................................................................................................................................................... 6 2.11 MILLIONS, BILLIONS AND TRILLIONS ........................................................................................................... 6 2.12 NUMBER ...................................................................................................................................................... 6 2.13 STREETS ET CETERA..................................................................................................................................... 6 2.14 VERSUS ....................................................................................................................................................... 6 3. ACRONYMS AND COMPOUND NAMES................................................................................................... 7 3.1 ACRONYMS.................................................................................................................................................... 7 3.1.1 Use capital letters without full stops in acronyms and sets of initials................................................... 7 3.1.2 Some acronyms have become fully accepted as independent words ..................................................... 7 3.2 COMPOUND NAMES........................................................................................................................................ 7 3.3 BRACKETS ..................................................................................................................................................... 8 3.4 PLURALS........................................................................................................................................................ 8 3.5 POSSESSIVES.................................................................................................................................................. 8 4. THE FUNCTION OF CAPITAL LETTERS................................................................................................. 9 4.1 NAMES OF BODIES ......................................................................................................................................... 9 4.2 COMMONWEALTH, STATE AND TERRITORY GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS ................................................... 10 4.3 TITLES OF POSITIONS ................................................................................................................................... 11 4.4 DEGREES, ORDERS AND AWARDS ................................................................................................................. 13 4.5 SCHEMES, POLICIES, PROGRAMS ET CETERA................................................................................................. 13 4.6 CONVENTIONS, TREATIES, AGREEMENTS, CONFERENCES, SEMINARS ET CETERA.......................................... 14 4.7 HISTORICAL, POLITICAL AND sporting eventS.......................................................................................... 15 4.8 SPECIAL OCCASIONS .................................................................................................................................... 15 4.9 PLACE NAMES.............................................................................................................................................. 16 4.10 GROUPS OF PEOPLE.................................................................................................................................... 18 4.11 ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS................................................................................................................ 18 4.12 IDEOLOGIES ............................................................................................................................................... 19 4.13 WORDS DERIVED FROM PROPER NAMES ..................................................................................................... 19 4.14 SCIENTIFIC TERMINOLOGY......................................................................................................................... 20 4.15 TRADEMARKS............................................................................................................................................ 21 4.16 TITLES ....................................................................................................................................................... 22 4.16.1 Books, poems, plays, operas, ballets, brochures, musicals, films, songs, works of art, and radio and television programs ...................................................................................................................................... 22 4.16.2 Newspapers and magazines............................................................................................................... 22 4.16.3 Reports (including audit reports and reports of committees of the parliament) and white papers ... 22 4.16.4 Annual reports ................................................................................................................................... 23 4.16.5 Collections and exhibitions ............................................................................................................... 23 4.16.6 Web sites and webpages .................................................................................................................... 23 4.17 SACRED WRITINGS ..................................................................................................................................... 23 4.18 CAPITALS ASSOCIATED WITH PUNCTUATION.............................................................................................. 23
4.18.1 Hyphenated proper names................................................................................................................. 23 4.18.2 Colons................................................................................................................................................ 23 4.19 PARLIAMENTARY AND PUBLIC SERVICE TERMS ........................................................................................ 24 4.20 DEFENCE TERMS ........................................................................................................................................ 24 4.21 NEWSPAPER HEADLINES............................................................................................................................. 24 5. ITALICS.......................................................................................................................................................... 25 5.1 NAMES OF NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS ................................................................................................. 25 5.2 BOOKS, POEMS, PLAYS, BOOKLETS, HANDBOOKS, BROCHURES, OPERAS, BALLETS, MUSICALS, FILMS, LEAFLETS, WORKS OF ART, SONGS, COLLECTIONS, EXHIBITIONS, AND RADIO AND TELEVISION PROGRAMS ....... 25 5.3 SCIENTIFIC NAMES ....................................................................................................................................... 26 5.4 SHIPS, AIRCRAFT AND TRAINS...................................................................................................................... 26 5.5 DESCRIPTIVE LINES NOT PART OF THE NORMAL FORMS OF PROCEDURE ....................................................... 27 5.6 DO NOT USE ITALICS .................................................................................................................................... 27 6. LEGISLATIVE AND LEGAL TERMS....................................................................................................... 29 6.1 LEGISLATION ............................................................................................................................................... 29 6.1.1 Bills...................................................................................................................................................... 29 6.1.2 Proposed amendments to bills............................................................................................................. 30 6.1.3 Acts ...................................................................................................................................................... 31 6.1.4 Codes, ordinances and regulations ..................................................................................................... 32 6.2 CASES.......................................................................................................................................................... 32 6.3 COURTS ....................................................................................................................................................... 33 6.4 COMMISSIONS AND TRIBUNALS ................................................................................................................... 33 6.5 LEGAL TERMS AND OFFICE HOLDERS ........................................................................................................... 33 7. NUMBERS ...................................................................................................................................................... 35 7.1 GENERAL RULES .......................................................................................................................................... 35 7.1.1 One to nine .......................................................................................................................................... 35 7.1.2 Numbers following a noun................................................................................................................... 35 7.1.3 Ordinals............................................................................................................................................... 35 7.2 SPECIFIC RULES ........................................................................................................................................... 36 7.2.1 Addresses............................................................................................................................................. 36 7.2.2 Ages ..................................................................................................................................................... 36 7.2.3 Beginning sentences ............................................................................................................................ 36 7.2.4 Bills, acts and agreements ................................................................................................................... 36 7.2.5 Clock time ............................................................................................................................................ 37 7.2.6 Combination numbers ......................................................................................................................... 37 7.2.7 Compound expressions ........................................................................................................................ 37 7.3 CURRENCY .................................................................................................................................................. 38 7.3.1 Amounts in dollars in which the amount is less than one dollar (if expressed as dollars).................. 38 7.3.2 Amounts in dollars and cents in which the number of cents is less than 10 ........................................ 38 7.3.3 Amounts in cents.................................................................................................................................. 38 7.3.4 Amounts in exact dollars ..................................................................................................................... 38 7.3.5 Amounts in dollars and cents............................................................................................................... 38 7.3.6 Amounts at beginning of sentences...................................................................................................... 38 7.3.7 Millions, billions and trillions of dollars............................................................................................. 38 7.3.8 Foreign currency ................................................................................................................................. 39 7.3.9 United Kingdom................................................................................................................................... 39 7.3.10 Former currencies ............................................................................................................................. 39 7.3.11 United States cents, New Zealand cents ............................................................................................ 39 7.3.12 General .............................................................................................................................................. 40 7.4 DAYS AND DATES ........................................................................................................................................ 40 7.5 DECIMAL NUMBERS ..................................................................................................................................... 40 7.6 FRACTIONS .................................................................................................................................................. 41 7.7 HOURS AND MINUTES .................................................................................................................................. 41 7.8 IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS, CALL SIGNS AND STANDARDS ........................................................................... 41 7.9 INDEFINITE NUMBERS .................................................................................................................................. 42
7.10 LISTS ......................................................................................................................................................... 42 7.11 MEASUREMENTS........................................................................................................................................ 43 7.12 MILITARY FORMATIONS ......................................................................................................................... 43 7.13 PARTS OF BOOKS........................................................................................................................................ 43 7.14 PERCENTAGES ........................................................................................................................................... 43 7.15 RATIOS ...................................................................................................................................................... 44 7.16 RESULTS AND SCORES................................................................................................................................ 44 7.17 ROMAN NUMERALS.................................................................................................................................... 44 7.18 SIZES ......................................................................................................................................................... 44 7.19 TELEPHONE NUMBERS ............................................................................................................................... 45 7.20 THOUSANDS AND MILLIONS ....................................................................................................................... 45 7.21 YEARS AND SPANS OF YEARS ..................................................................................................................... 45 8. PUNCTUATION ............................................................................................................................................ 47 8.1 APOSTROPHE ............................................................................................................................................... 47 8.1.1 Nouns and indefinite pronouns............................................................................................................ 47 8.1.2 Plural nouns ........................................................................................................................................ 47 8.1.3 Singular nouns..................................................................................................................................... 47 8.1.4 Where possession is not defined .......................................................................................................... 48 8.1.5 Apostrophes in contractions ................................................................................................................ 49 8.1.6 Non-word plurals................................................................................................................................. 49 8.1.7 Possessive abbreviations ..................................................................................................................... 49 8.2 BRACKETS ................................................................................................................................................... 49 8.3 COLON......................................................................................................................................................... 50 8.3.1 Introducing lists, quotations et cetera ................................................................................................. 50 8.3.2 Introducing a statement ....................................................................................................................... 50 8.3.3 Prefacing direct speech or quotations................................................................................................. 50 8.3.4 Ratios................................................................................................................................................... 51 8.3.5 Titles and subtitles ............................................................................................................................... 51 8.3.6 Introductions........................................................................................................................................ 51 8.4 COMMA ....................................................................................................................................................... 51 8.4.1 Between adjectives............................................................................................................................... 51 8.4.2 Introductory adverbial clauses............................................................................................................ 52 8.4.3 Adverbs, adverb phrases and adverb clauses...................................................................................... 52 8.4.4 When linked by conjunctions ............................................................................................................... 53 8.4.5 Defining and non-defining clauses ...................................................................................................... 53 8.4.6 Names or titles of persons ................................................................................................................... 54 8.4.7 Nouns................................................................................................................................................... 54 8.4.8 Omission of words ............................................................................................................................... 54 8.4.9 Participles and participle phrases....................................................................................................... 54 8.4.10 Honorary titles or degrees................................................................................................................. 55 8.4.11 Clarifying groups of words or numbers ............................................................................................ 55 8.4.12 Use with `and', `or' or `et cetera' ..................................................................................................... 55 8.4.13 Ambiguities with single words or short phrases................................................................................ 55 8.4.14 Introducing quotations ...................................................................................................................... 55 8.5 ELLIPSIS....................................................................................................................................................... 56 8.5.1 Omission of words ............................................................................................................................... 56 8.5.2 Omission of paragraphs ...................................................................................................................... 56 8.6 EM RULE (DASH).......................................................................................................................................... 56 8.6.1 Parenthetical statements...................................................................................................................... 56 8.6.2 Change in structure of sentence .......................................................................................................... 56 8.6.3 Long lists in sentence........................................................................................................................... 56 8.6.4 Dramatic effect .................................................................................................................................... 57 8.6.5 Interruptions ........................................................................................................................................ 57 8.6.6 Interpolations ...................................................................................................................................... 57 8.7 EXCLAMATION MARK .................................................................................................................................. 57 8.7.1 True exclamations ............................................................................................................................... 57 8.7.2 Common parliamentary terms and interjections ................................................................................. 57
8.7.3 Irony or sarcasm.................................................................................................................................. 57 8.7.4 Pseudo-questions................................................................................................................................. 57 8.8 HYPHEN....................................................................................................................................................... 58 8.8.1 Compound words in Macquarie Dictionary ........................................................................................ 58 8.8.2 Compound words not in Macquarie Dictionary.................................................................................. 58 8.8.3 Compound words not in Macquarie Dictionary and not covered under the ambiguity rule............... 59 8.9 OBLIQUE STROKE (FORWARD SLASH)........................................................................................................... 63 8.10 PARAGRAPH............................................................................................................................................... 63 8.11 QUESTION MARK ....................................................................................................................................... 64 8.12 QUOTATION MARKS ................................................................................................................................... 65 8.13 SEMICOLON ............................................................................................................................................... 65 8.13.1 Single sentence from two or more clauses......................................................................................... 65 8.13.2 Before a conjunction.......................................................................................................................... 66 8.13.3 Separating clauses or phrases........................................................................................................... 66 8.13.4 Separating parallel clauses ............................................................................................................... 66 9. QUOTATIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 67 9.1 INCOMPLETE QUOTATIONS AND SHORT COMPLETE QUOTATIONS ................................................................. 67 9.1.1 Incomplete quotations ......................................................................................................................... 67 9.1.2 Short complete quotations ................................................................................................................... 68 9.2 LONGER DIRECT QUOTATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 69 9.2.1 Introduction of text .............................................................................................................................. 69 9.2.2 When speaker resumes......................................................................................................................... 69 9.2.3 Format ................................................................................................................................................. 69 9.2.4 Omission of words ............................................................................................................................... 70 9.2.5 Lengthy omissions ............................................................................................................................... 70 9.2.6 Incomplete quotations ......................................................................................................................... 70 9.2.7 Interruptions ........................................................................................................................................ 70 9.3 INDIRECT QUOTATIONS ................................................................................................................................ 70 9.4 QUOTATIONS FROM SONGS AND POEMS ....................................................................................................... 71 10. SPECIAL STYLE......................................................................................................................................... 73 10.1 COMPUTER AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TERMS ................................................................................ 73 10.2 DEFENCE TERMS ........................................................................................................................................ 76 10.2.1 Titles .................................................................................................................................................. 78 10.2.2 Aircraft names et cetera .................................................................................................................... 78 10.2.3 Military formations............................................................................................................................ 79 10.2.4 Names of ships and ADF facilities and bases.................................................................................... 79 10.3 HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS ............................................................................................................ 83 10.4 SCHEMES, POLICIES, PROGRAMS AND AGREEMENTS................................................................................... 84 10.5 PARLIAMENTARY AND PUBLIC SERVICE TERMS......................................................................................... 88 10.6 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES ................................................................................................................. 99 11. STYLE UPDATES ..................................................................................................................................... 113 11.1 STYLE UPDATE 1--MAY 2005 ................................................................................................................. 113 11.2 STYLE UPDATE 2--JUNE 2005 ................................................................................................................. 114 12. INDEX ......................................................................................................................................................... 115
1. INTRODUCTION This document sets out the principles of style used in Hansard chamber reports and committee transcripts. It sets out principles for punctuation, capitalisation, numbers and the like. The Hansard Style Guide takes precedence over the Macquarie Dictionary if there is a conflict. When you are working on transcripts, you may also need to refer to the following documents: · Hansard Committee Form Guide · Hansard Editing Guide · Hansard Editing Guidelines · House of Representatives Form Guide · Main Committee Form Guide · Senate Form Guide The following style related documents can be found in the style subfolder of the Hansard resources folder (Hansard Resources/Editing/Style): · Hansard Style Guide · style guide index · `Case citation.doc' · `Committee list.doc' · `Common pharmaceuticals.doc' · `Honourable detail.doc' To move between cross-referenced sections of this guide, click (or CTRL-click, depending on how your computer is set up) on the hyperlinks that appear at the end of some sections. 1.1 STYLE Hansard style is generally based on the Commonwealth Style manual and the Macquarie Dictionary but differs in some areas, mainly capitalisation, where there are inconsistencies. In preparing this document, we have consulted as many people as possible, including parliamentary chamber departments, academic specialists in English language and style and professional editors in the public and private sectors. We aim to achieve style consistency within reports and transcripts by setting out broad principles. We cover an unusually wide range of subject matter; transcription is often fragmented over a large number of staff; and we are required to meet very tight production deadlines. Consequently, we are not always able to be as flexible as we would like in adopting the preferred style of others. This practice is adopted in the interests of speed of production and consistency, not because we do not recognise that others may prefer a different style. Where clients suggest different styles, we will consider accommodating them wherever possible, but to follow individual preferences could often lead to delays in production or serious inconsistencies in or between reports and transcripts. A style panel meets regularly to consider our style principles and whether they are consistent with style developments in the publishing industry. 1.2 SPELLING The Macquarie Dictionary is Hansard's first point of reference for all spellings but not necessarily for capitalisation or style. If there is a conflict between Macquarie Dictionary and the style guide, follow the principles set out in the style guide. The Oxford Australian Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary (20 volumes located on the ground floor) can also be used to resolve issues. The following guidelines may help in using the dictionary:
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HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
· Where a spelling appears without a definition but with an arrow cross-referencing it to the main spelling, the main spelling should be used. For example, for `enquire', see `inquire'. · Where two spellings are given in the same entry (some words may be joined by an = sign) the first should be used. For example, if there is an entry for `adviser=advisor', Hansard would use `adviser'. · Use -ise, -isation and -ising endings (not -ize, -ization and -izing) when these are suffixes. Note, however, that -ize is needed in words which are not a suffix (for example: `prize', `size' and `seize'). · Use `our', not `or' in words such as `colour', `favour', `favourable', `honour', `honourable' and `labour'. (Note `Australian Labor Party' (the official spelling) but `Labour' for the equivalent parties in Britain and New Zealand.) There are many variations in the plurals of words. `Criteria' and `media', for example, are plural forms and are often incorrectly used as singular forms. Some Latin and Greek plural words are now well established in English as singular nouns and may be so used: for example, `data', `agenda'. Some words have an English plural as well as a foreign plural. Whichever plural is used by the speaker should be used: for example, `referenda', `referendums', `maxima', `maximums'.
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2. ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS
2.1 ABBREVIATIONS
A shortened form of a word that does not end with the same letter as the word itself is followed by a full stop:
Co.
Esq.
BUT
voc (vocational)
Hon. rec (recreation)
Inc. super (superannuation)
A shortened form of a word that ends in the same letter as the word itself is not followed by a full stop:
Ltd
Mr
Mrs Pty
Rtd
BUT Col.
[See also Courtesy titles, section 2.7 and Honourable, section 2.8.]
2.2 AMPERSAND
An ampersand should not be used in common phrases or in names of companies and organisations. The exceptions will be:
A&E
OH&S P&C PM&C P&O R&D
Note An ampersand should not be used in NHMRC as the council itself
does not use one.
[See also Company names, section 2.5 and Cases, section 6.2.]
2.3 AWARDS, GRADES, ORDERS AND TITLES
Do not use full stops or spaces:
ASO6
DLitt
EL1
MP
OBE
PhD
QC
SC
Hon. Daryl Williams AM, QC
BUT
SOG B
Note In a chamber turn heading Williams, Hon. Daryl, AM, QC and when putting up as a committee witness WILLIAMS, Hon. Daryl, AM, QC
[See also Degrees, orders and awards, section 4.4.]
2.4 CENTS
Use c, without a full stop or a space, for cent or cents after a figure:
1c
2c
20c
For example: The bank pays 1c in the dollar.
BUT They did not donate one cent. (as a concept)
[See also Currency, section 7.3.]
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2.5 COMPANY NAMES
Use the style used by the company:
BT McDonald's PepsiCo Standard and Poor's
JP Morgan One.Tel PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) Telstra Country Wide
BUT use the following shortened forms, regardless of what the company prefers:
Co.
Inc. Ltd Pty
Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd BUT Australian Ballet Company
News Ltd
[See also Ampersand, section 2.2.]
2.6 CONTRACTIONS
Contractions such as `don't' and `can't' may be used when the full words would sound stilted and in interjections and direct speech if said: Let's keep it that way. Can't you see what you're doing? You have read that report, haven't you? NOT You have read that report, have you not? (unless said) [See also Apostrophes in contractions, section 8.1.5.]
2.7 COURTESY TITLES
Use abbreviations or contractions only in the following cases when they appear as part of a
proper name:
Dr
Esq. Hon. Jr
Messrs
Mr
Mrs Ms
Rt Hon. Sr
When referring to `the Honourable' and `the Right Honourable', use:
Hon. John Howard Rt Hon. IMcC Sinclair Senator the Hon. Amanda Vanstone BUT the honourable member for Shortland
Courtesy titles not listed above, including `Professor', `Reverend' et cetera, should be set out in full in the text. For side names in committee transcripts, see Hansard Committee Form Guide.
[See also Abbreviations, section 2.1 and Honourable, section 2.8.]
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2.8 HONOURABLE
honourable (in full): · The honourable member is mistaken. · The honourable member for Lalor spoke earlier in this debate. · The honourable members opposite may have a different opinion. · The report to which the honourable senator refers has only just been released. · The honourable senator Kerry Nettle is not in the chamber. [Note: this is NOT interchangeable with Senator the Hon. Kerry Nettle is not in the chamber.] the Honourable (use `the Hon.'): In parliament: · prime ministers, federal ministers and parliamentary secretaries (current and former) · the Presiding Officers--the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the Senate · senators who have served for more than 10 years continuously Outside parliament: Commonwealth: · justices of the High Court · judges of the Federal Court · judges of the Family Court · presidential members of the Australian Industrial Relations Commission States and territories: · members of the Executive Council · members of the Legislative Council · Speaker of the Legislative Assembly (not ACT) · Leader of the Opposition (Tasmania) · judges of the Supreme Court · Chief Judge, Family Court (Western Australia) · President, Industrial Court (South Australia) the Right Honourable (use `the Rt Hon.'): In Australia: · For life: Doug Anthony, Sir Zelman Cowen, Malcolm Fraser, Sir Harry Gibbs, Ian Sinclair, Sir Ninian Stephen · While in office: lord mayors of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide and Hobart Outside Australia: · For UK and Northern Ireland, Canada and New Zealand, see `Honourable detail.doc' in Hansard Resources/Editing/Style. [See also Abbreviations, section 2.1 and Courtesy titles, section 2.7.]
2.9 INITIALS
Initials will not take full stops:
Mr TJ Smith HR Nicholls Society Dr DH Evatt Laurence H Meyer
BA Santamaria
Abbreviations containing two or more letters will not take full stops:
PO Box 5 12 BC 100 AD
PhD 8 am 2 pm
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2.10 LATIN
Abbreviations such as viz., etc., e.g., i.e., lb, oz and cwt should not be used. Use namely, et cetera and so on.
2.11 MILLIONS, BILLIONS AND TRILLIONS
Spell out million, billion and trillion; the abbreviation m ($200m) should not be used:
$200 million two billion people
$2 billion
$4 trillion
2.12 NUMBER
Use No. for number and Nos for numbers when followed by a figure: Appropriation Bill (No. 1) appropriation bills Nos 1 and 2 No. 1 grower of apples No. 1 priority This is No. 1 on the list BUT amendment (1) amendments (4) and (5) BUT To dial Optus, press the number 1.
2.13 STREETS ET CETERA
Words such as Mount, Street and Crescent should be spelt out, with an initial capital, when part of a proper name: Dampier Crescent Mount Isa Wall Street BUT corner of George and Hunter streets
2.14 VERSUS
Use v for versus in the names of court cases if certain that the names are of the appellant/plaintiff and the respondent/defendant:
R v Smith
Smith v Brown
If the speaker says `Smith and Brown', there is doubt as to the correct name of the case and the details cannot be verified, leave as said:
Smith and Brown
[See also Cases, section 6.2.]
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3. ACRONYMS AND COMPOUND NAMES
Often the best source for acronyms is the relevant department's web site and/or annual report, in which they are usually listed.
3.1 ACRONYMS You do not need to give the full name indicated by the acronym if it is not said. However, it is the editor's responsibility to check that the acronym used is correct.
3.1.1 USE CAPITAL LETTERS WITHOUT FULL STOPS IN ACRONYMS AND SETS OF INITIALS
ABC AIDS CLERP 9 DOFA FA18 FOI HIV-AIDS UK UNICEF
ACTION ALP COB DOTARS GATS ILO UN USA
ACTU CIF DFAT GATT RAAF UNESCO
BUT AiG MiB
EMILY's List
FaCS
Note The National Media Liaison Service is often referred to as aNiMaLS and should be so rendered.
3.1.2 SOME ACRONYMS HAVE BECOME FULLY ACCEPTED AS INDEPENDENT WORDS
Follow the Macquarie Dictionary in these cases, using lower case letters but with an initial cap in some cases:
anzac biscuits
radar
scuba
BUT Anzac Day
Qantas
[See also Words derived from proper names, section 4.13.]
3.2 COMPOUND NAMES
Compound names combine elements of two or more words, as opposed to acronyms which consist strictly of initial letters. For compound names use capital letters in accordance with the style of the relevant organisation:
AusAID Austel BPay ComSuper giroPost V/Line
AusIndustry Austrade Comcar CrimTrac LiveCorp WorkCover
AusInfo Bankcard Comcare Dasfleet ParlInfo
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For company names use the style used by the company: ACNeilsen PricewaterhouseCoopers BUT AUSTRAC (style used by organisation) NORCOM (style used by the Department of Defence) [See also Ampersand, section 2.2; Schemes, policies, programs and agreements et cetera, section 4.5, for an overview of this topic; and Schemes, policies, programs and agreements, section 10.4, for a list of schemes et cetera.]
3.3 BRACKETS
Brackets may need to be used in acronyms such as:
CE(EP) Act CE(RR) Act
SI(S) Act
BUT SIS legislation
3.4 PLURALS
Plurals are formed by adding s without using an apostrophe:
MPs PhDs
NCOs POWs
P3Cs
3.5 POSSESSIVES
Possessives are formed by adding pos s or s pos:
the AMA's letter
both FASs' qualifications
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4. THE FUNCTION OF CAPITAL LETTERS Initial capital letters are most commonly used to start sentences and to indicate proper names. Their other functions are also dealt with in this chapter. The modern trend is to use capital letters sparingly, usually only for full proper names. This is the principle Hansard follow. We follow the general principles of the Macquarie Dictionary and the Commonwealth Style manual, while differing on some details where there are inconsistencies. 4.1 NAMES OF BODIES Use an initial capital letter for the official title of specific bodies, or divisions and branches of bodies, or a proposed body that has been foreshadowed in a ministerial statement, second reading speech or the like. Commonwealth government branches and divisions take an initial capital; state government and other branches and divisions take lower case. There is no need to use an apostrophe in names of bodies. The full title of any body--even if not said--should be used when first mentioned in a speech. When only part of the title is mentioned thereafter it should take lower case. In Committee of the Whole in the Senate and in consideration in detail in the House of Representatives and the Main Committee the full name of a body need not be used if not said. Acronyms need not be expanded in a speech. Lower case should also be used when specific bodies are referred to in the plural: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Services, ATSIS Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency, the agency ASEAN+3 Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly, the legislative assembly Australian Embassy, France; Australian Embassy, Paris; the Australian embassy Australian Heritage Council (formerly Australian Heritage Commission) Australian High Commission, United Kingdom; Australian High Commission, London; the Australian high commission Australian Industry Group, Ai Group, AiG Australian National University, the ANU, the faculty of law of the Australian National University Australian Workers Union, the union Canberra Hospital, the hospital, the radiology department of the Canberra Hospital Canberra Institute of Technology, the institute City of Greater Lithgow (administrative body), city of Greater Lithgow (geographic area), the city Department of Defence and the Department of Family and community services, the departments Department of Family and Community Services, the family and community services department, the department, my department Embassy of the United States of America, the American embassy, the embassy Engineering Branch, Materiel Division, Department of Defence, the branch, the division Group of Eight countries, G8 the Labor opposition, the opposition Liberal Party of Australia and The Nationals, the Liberal and National parties, Liberal-National Party coalition/government, the parties Liverpool City Council, Liverpool council, the council Market Development Unit, the unit Moreton Shire Council, the shire council, the council National Farmers Federation National Water Commission Office of Asset Sales and Commercial Support (formerly the Office of Asset Sales and Information Technology Outsourcing), the office of asset sales, the office
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Port of Newcastle (administrative body), port of Newcastle (location), the port Queensland and New South Wales governments Refugee and Humanitarian Division, Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, the division Royal Commission of Inquiry into Drug Trafficking, the royal commission Shire of Moreton (administrative body), shire of Moreton (geographic area), the shire Standing Committee of Privileges, the committee St John's Anglican Church, the church Sydney Airports Corporation Ltd (SACL), the corporation United States congress, the congress Yarralumla Primary School, Yarralumla school, the school When the words `Australian', `of Australia', `Commonwealth', `International', `National', `Royal', `United Nations' or the name of an Australian state are the only words omitted from an official title or body, the remaining words should take an initial capital. As referred to above, the full title should be inserted the first time it is mentioned in a speech: Australian Army, the Army Australian Broadcasting Corporation, the Broadcasting Corporation, the corporation Australian Labor Party, the Labor Party, the party, my party Australian Loan Council, the Loan Council, the council Australian Medical Association, the Medical Association, the association Australian National Audit Office, the Audit Office Australian Taxation Office, the Taxation Office, the tax office Federal Court of Australia, the Federal Court, the court Law Society of New South Wales, the Law Society Reserve Bank of Australia, the Reserve Bank, the bank Royal Australian Air Force, the Air Force Royal Australian Mint, the Mint Royal Australian Navy, the Navy South Australian Housing Trust, the Housing Trust, the trust United Nations Security Council, the Security Council, the council Multilateral bodies and the bodies of other nation-states will take the Australian spelling: International Labour Organisation World Health Organisation World Trade Centre BUT United States Department of Defense 4.2 COMMONWEALTH, STATE AND TERRITORY GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS In addition to the preceding general rules use the following guidelines: If the portfolio name (or part thereof) appears before `department' it should be in lower case; if only part of the portfolio name appears after `department' it should be in lower case: Department of Defence, the defence department Department of Education, Science and Training, the education department, the department of education Department of Health and Ageing, the health department Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, the immigration department, the department of immigration Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, the department of industry, the industry department, the tourism department
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Department of the Environment and Heritage, the environment department Department of the Treasury, the treasury department BUT the Attorney-General's Department (its title), the Treasury Note the Education, Science and Training portfolio, the education portfolio BUT the Health and Ageing portfolio, the health portfolio, the Ageing portfolio BUT if the full name of the department or part of the name is used without the word `department', to avoid ambiguity use initial capitals: I sent it to Attorney-General's. Is this a problem for Immigration? We will have to ask Tax about that. The involvement of Transport is essential. We expect Customs to report on that matter. The committee will consider the Ageing portfolio. As state and territory government departments change their titles from time to time, it will be necessary to check the respective government web sites for current titles. Capitalise as per the state and territory government web sites. [See also Defence terms, section 10.2 and Parliamentary and Public Service terms, section 10.5.] 4.3 TITLES OF POSITIONS Use an initial capital letter for the holder of an official position when the full official name of the organisation appears as part of the title. Otherwise use lower case, provided no confusion or ambiguity is likely to arise. Acting Minister for Justice and Customs, the acting minister Administrator (of Norfolk Island, Christmas Island) Australian Ambassador to France; the Australian ambassador in Paris, the Australian ambassador, the ambassador Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, the Australian high commissioner in London, the Australian high commissioner, the high commissioner Australian Statistician, the Statistician Chairman of the Commonwealth Banking Corporation, the chairman, the chairman of the corporation Chair of the Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee, the chair, the chair of the committee Chairman of the Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, the chairman, the chairman of the committee Chief Executive Officer of the Confederation of Australian Sport, the chief executive officer Chief Government Whip, the Deputy Opposition Whip, the whip Chief Scientist, the scientist Commissioner of Taxation, the taxation commissioner, the commissioner Director-General, Recruiting; the director-general Director of Public Prosecutions, the director First Assistant Secretary, Higher Education Division; the first assistant secretary Foreign Minister Downer, Defence Minister Hill, the foreign minister, the defence minister former Minister for Industrial Relations (if correct full title)
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General Manager of BHP, the BHP general manager, the general manager German Ambassador to Australia, the ambassador Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security, the inspector-general Leader of the Opposition, the opposition leader, the leader, my leader Lord Mayor of Sydney, the lord mayor Managing Director of Dalgety Ltd, Dalgety's managing director, the managing director Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Reconciliation Minister for Education, Science and Training, the education minister, the minister for education, the minister Minister for Defence, former Minister for Defence, former defence minister, former Minister Reith Minister for Foreign Affairs, the foreign minister, the minister Minister for Health and Ageing, the minister for health, the health minister, the minister for ageing BUT the Ageing minister (otherwise ambiguous) Minister representing the Minister for Defence Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Trade, the parliamentary secretary President of the ACTU, the president Pro-Vice-Chancellor Secretary of the Senate Select Committee on Superannuation and Financial Services Secretary to/of (NOT for) the Department of Defence, the secretary, the secretary to/of the department Sex Discrimination Commissioner, the commissioner BUT You know, Minister, that that is not true. We wrote to Minister Hill about this. However, note that the following are considered as the full titles: the Chief Justice the Chief Minister the Clerk the Premier the President (of any country), President elect Jackson the President (of Australia) (foreshadowed) the Prime Minister Lower case should be used when official positions are referred to in the plural: Mr Justice Murphy and Mr Justice Mason, the justices the Premier of New South Wales and the Premier of Tasmania, the premiers the Prime Minister of Australia and the Prime Minister of Israel, the prime ministers the Secretary to/of (NOT for) the Department of Defence and the Secretary to/of the Department of the Treasury, the secretaries [See also Parliamentary and Public Service terms, section 10.5; Defence terms, section 10.2; and Legal terms and office holders, section 6.5.]
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4.4 DEGREES, ORDERS AND AWARDS
Follow the Macquarie Dictionary for the capitalisation of degrees, orders and awards. Sometimes you may have to look up the abbreviation (for example, MA) to find whether to use capitals or not:
Bachelor of Science Certificate III in Youth Work Doctor of Letters Master of Science Medal of the Order of Australia Queen's Counsel Victoria Cross
bachelor's degree diploma Doctor of Philosophy master's degree Order of Australia Senior Counsel
[See also Awards, grades, orders and titles, section 2.3.]
4.5 SCHEMES, POLICIES, PROGRAMS ET CETERA [See also Schemes, policies, programs and agreements, section 10.4; and Compound names, section 3.2.] Use initial capitals for the full proper name of schemes, policies, programs, plans, strategies and initiatives BUT NOT for names of benefits, funds (unless the fund is a body with staff) and payments (BUT use an initial capital for names of payments that are not otherwise words-- for example, Newstart allowance, Austudy payment). Also use initial capitals for proposed schemes, policies, programs, plans, strategies and initiatives that have been foreshadowed in a ministerial statement, second reading speech or the like. A Fairer Medicare: Better Access, More Affordable; A Fairer Medicare the A New Tax system (policy), the new tax system Charter of Budget Honesty Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) Financial Assistance Grants (FAGs) Scheme International Monetary Fund, IMF (a body with staff) Lifetime Health Cover Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO) Natural Heritage Trust R&D Start VET in Schools Work for the Dole BUT beyondblue (the national depression initiative) national competition policy (NCP) Use lower case for part names of schemes, programs, agreements et cetera. On occasions the names of prospective schemes will be mentioned. Use upper case for prospective schemes or programs until their titles can be verified. When the words `scheme' or `program' et cetera are used on their own, use lower case: The program will cost $4 billion over three years. Also, upper case for the words `scheme' or `program' et cetera should not be used unless they form part of the title: Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme Financial Management Improvement Program BUT Home and Community Care (HACC) program Work for the Dole scheme (or program)
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Youth Allowance program BUT youth allowance/payment 4.6 CONVENTIONS, TREATIES, AGREEMENTS, CONFERENCES, SEMINARS ET CETERA Use initial capital letters for the full name of conventions, treaties, conferences, seminars et cetera. Use initial capitals for the full names of agreements that are in force, and render those not yet in force in lower case. Do not follow Macquarie Dictionary: Antarctic Treaty, the treaty Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement, Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement, US-Australia Free Trade Agreement, AUSFTA, the free trade agreement Australia-Zimbabwe free trade agreement, Zimbabwe-Australia free trade agreement (a hypothetical agreement) ANZUS treaty, Security Treaty between Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America Beyond Survival (seminar) Convention on International Trade in endangered species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice, the declaration Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Fifth ASEAN Summit Geneva convention General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, GATT (for goods) General Agreement on Trade in Services, GATS (for services) ILO Committee of Experts, the committee ILO Convention 96, the convention International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the convention International Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (the London dumping convention) International Labour Conference, the conference International Year for the World's Indigenous People Kyoto protocol (BUT Kyoto Protocol for transcripts for the Joint Committee on Treaties) Register of the National Estate South Pacific Forum, the forum Timor Sea Treaty Townsville peace agreement Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, Treaty of Amity and Cooperation United Nations Charter, UN Charter, the charter United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement, US-Australia Free Trade Agreement, Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement, Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, AUSFTA, the free trade agreement World Heritage World Heritage Committee World Heritage convention World Heritage List World Heritage listed World Heritage listing Zimbabwe-Australia free trade agreement, Australia-Zimbabwe free trade agreement (a hypothetical agreement)
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4.7 HISTORICAL, POLITICAL AND SPORTING EVENTS Use initial capital letters for a historical or political event, period or document. Lower case should be used for the common noun used thereafter and for the plural. the Battle of Britain, the battle Black Thursday the Boer War the Boxer Rebellion the Brisbane Line Christmas Day the Cold War BUT a cold war D-Day BUT D-day for the students the Dark Ages the Depression, the Great Depression (in the 1930s) Doha Round Federation (that is, the founding of the Australian Commonwealth), since Federation BUT Brazil is a federation the First World War, World War I the French Revolution the Great Leap Forward (China) the Great Society (Johnson administration) the Gulf War, Gulf War II the Industrial Revolution BUT an industrial revolution the Iron Age the Kennedy Round the Korean War the Long March (China) the Magna Carta the Marshall Plan the Melbourne Cup the Monroe Doctrine the New Deal October 12 (the event, not the date) Olympic Games, the games, Beijing Games, Beijing Olympic Games, the Beijing Olympics, the Olympics, Olympic symbols, 2008 Games, Beijing Games Paralympic Games, the Paralympics the Pentagon Papers the Renaissance the roaring twenties the Russian Revolution, the revolution Seattle Round BUT millennium round September 11 (the event, not the date) the Six-Day War Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race the Truman Doctrine Uruguay Round the Vietnam War World War II, the Second World War, the war, the two world wars 4.8 SPECIAL OCCASIONS Use capital letters for recognised special times: Anzac Day April Fools' Day Ash Wednesday Australia Day Centenary of Federation Christmas Day
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Clean Up Australia Day the Fourth of July Good Friday International Year of Microcredit Lent National Wool Day New Year's Day Picnic Day Queen's Birthday Ramadan Red Nose Day Senior Citizens Week Show Day St Patrick's Day Yom Kippur 4.9 PLACE NAMES Use an initial capital letter for a generally recognised geographical area (see Macquarie Dictionary). The list below includes examples not covered by Macquarie Dictionary. Also, use a capital when referring to a specific street, place, building, property et cetera by name but not when using the common noun thereafter as a substitute for a specific proper name: Asia-Pacific Asia-Pacific region Australian Capital Territory, the Capital Territory, the ACT, the territory Badgerys Creek Batemans Bay, the bay Birdsville Track, the track Cape York, the cape Captain Cook's Cottage, the cottage Casselden Place Central Australia Central Coast (of New South Wales) Central Queensland the Centre, the Red Centre Channel Country Cobourg Peninsula, the peninsula Como House, the house the Continent (of Europe but not others) Cooper Creek (formerly Cooper's Creek) Coral Sea, the sea Corio Bay, the bay Cunninghams Gap National Park, the gap Dandenong Ranges, the ranges the Deep North (of Queensland) the Deep South (of the USA) the East East Asia eastern Europe Eastern States the equator Eyre Peninsula the Far East the Far North (of Queensland) Far North Queensland Fishermens Bend Fitzroy Gardens, the gardens Fitzroy Crossing, the crossing Fort Denison, the fort George Street, the street Golden Mile Golden Triangle
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Great Barrier Reef, Barrier Reef, the reef Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, the marine park, the park Great Dividing Range, Dividing Range, the range Greater Lithgow the Great Southern (Western Australia) Gulf Country Gulf of Carpentaria, the gulf Gulf States Hume Highway, the highway Indochina Indo-European Iron Triangle (comprising Port Augusta, Port Pirie and Whyalla) Jenolan Caves, the caves Jervoise Bay Jervis Bay Kakadu National Park, the park Kembla Building, the building King George Sound Kings Highway Kokoda Trail/Track, the trail, the track Korean peninsula electorate of La Trobe La Trobe Library La Trobe University Latrobe (Tasmania) Latrobe River Latrobe Valley Lake George, the lake the Lodge the Middle East Mount Beauty Mount Isa Mrs Macquarie's Chair, Mrs Macquarie's Point Murray-Darling Basin Murray River, Darling River, Murray and Darling rivers, Murray- Darling river system, Murray-Darling river Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area 19th parallel Norfolk Island, the island North Asia, North-East Asia the North Atlantic North Coast (of New South Wales) Northern Queensland, North Queensland North Shore (area of Sydney) North Star North West Cape North West Shelf Northern Australia Northern Hemisphere the Northern Rivers Northern Tasmania Northern Territory, the Territory, Territorians Pacific Islands (a specific group of islands), Pacific islands (general) Panama Canal, the canal Pearl Harbor Persian Gulf, the gulf Princes Highway Recherche Bay (NOT Research Bay) Rushcutters Bay St Albans, St Marys Sapphire Coast South Coast (of New South Wales) South-East Asia, South Asia Southern Hemisphere Spencer Gulf
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Sunraysia the Sunshine Coast Sydney Harbour, the harbour Sydney Harbour Bridge, Harbour Bridge, the bridge Sydney Harbour Tunnel, Harbour Tunnel, the tunnel Sydney Opera House, Opera House Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport, Sydney airport Sydney West airport the Third World Thredbo Village, the village Tinaroo Falls, the falls the Top End (of the Northern Territory) the Track (Darwin to Alice Springs road) Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Warragamba Dam, the dam Western Australia, WA Note a Western Australian BUT the West Australian newspaper Western District western Europe Western Sydney World Trade Centre
4.10 GROUPS OF PEOPLE
When groups of people and institutions are referred to in a collective sense follow the Macquarie Dictionary for capitalisation: the bar the bench the church, in the collective sense BUT the Uniting Church in Australia the establishment the fourth estate the press the state (in a national sense or in the sense of a country considered as a political community)
4.11 ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS
Follow the Macquarie Dictionary capitalisation when referring to the name of an ethnic or religious group:
Aboriginal, Aboriginals, Aborigine, Aborigines (use whichever the member or senator uses) for Australian Aborigines
aboriginal, aboriginals, aborigine, aborigines (use whichever the member or senator uses) for the original inhabitants of any other country (Macquarie Dictionary)
Arab(s) Maori(s)
Christian(s) Moslem(s)
Jew(s) Muslim(s)*
* Use whichever is said. If not clear, prefer Muslim; if both used, be consistent and use Muslim.
BUT capitalise `Indigenous' when it refers to the original inhabitants of Australia--as in `Indigenous Australians' and `Indigenous communities'. It needs no capitals when used in a general sense to refer to the original inhabitants of other countries. [See Commonwealth Style manual, 6th edition.]
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4.12 IDEOLOGIES
Follow the Macquarie Dictionary capitalisation when referring to an ideology. If the word does not appear in the dictionary, use the following rules:
Use an initial capital letter when the name is derived from a person:
Fraserism Keynesian Leninist(ism) Marxism McCarthyist(ism) Reaganomics Stalinist Thatcherism
Use lower case when the name is not derived from a person:
communist (ism) green, greenies
dries socialist (ism)
fascist (ism) tory wets
BUT East, Eastern bloc Nazi, Nazism West, Western world, Westerner
4.13 WORDS DERIVED FROM PROPER NAMES
In this section the Macquarie Dictionary style for capitalisation should NOT be followed. Do not use an initial capital for common words derived from proper names:
anzac biscuit bathurst burr brazil nut chinese wall clayton's policy doberman pinscher draconian epsom salts french poodle freudian german measles gladstone bag homeric jersey cow macadam manila folder molotov cocktail murray cod newcastle disease pap smear pekingese philistine plaster of paris plimsoll line ridley wheat santa gertrudis bull siamese cat/twins/fighting fish turkish bath/delight
bandaid solution biro brussels sprouts christian name corriedale sheep down syndrome dutch oven federation wheat french window geiger counter german shepherd guernsey cattle iceland poppy linotype machiavellian mickey mouse proposal morse code murray valley encephalitis norfolk island pine patagonian toothfish persian carpet/rug phillips head screwdriver platonic quisling rugby football shanghai (kidnap, catapult) spoonerism venetian blind/glass
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Exceptions to this rule are names followed by an apostrophe and those including the contraction `St':
Abbott's booby Paterson's curse St Germain pear
Alzheimer's disease St Bernard dog Sturt's desert pea
[See also Some acronyms have become fully accepted as independent words, section 3.1.2.]
4.14 SCIENTIFIC TERMINOLOGY
Use an initial cap (and italics) for the genus name but not for the names of subspecies or species:
Macropus rufus Eucalyptus tereticornis Giardia monoleucus Macropus rufus rufus
The generic name may thereafter be abbreviated to the initial capital with a stop (and a space after the stop):
M. rufus E. tereticornis G. monoleucus M. rufus rufus
For generic names that have become common names, use lower case roman (use Macquarie Dictionary as a guide):
banksia eucalyptus tree salmonella
The names of families and orders take initial capitals but are not italicised:
Canidae Carnivora
Names of chemical elements and their compounds are not capitalised:
calcium carbon dioxide hydrogen peroxide
Use a hyphen in isotope numbers:
iodine-123 U-238
Use subscript and superscript where appropriate:
CO2
H2O
E=mc2
[See also Scientific names, section 5.3; see Trademarks, section 4.15 for drug names.]
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4.15 TRADEMARKS A capital letter should generally be used for a word or phrase if it can be established that it is a trademark or a proprietary name: Bankcard (if a point is being made about the brand name) Coca-Cola (if a point is being made about the brand name) Ford Falcon Hill's hoist Minties Rinso Shape milk Tip Top bread Vegemite (if a point is being made about the brand name) Weet-Bix A capital letter should not be used for trademarks or proprietary names that have become part of the language. In this respect, be guided by the Macquarie Dictionary: bankcard (in generic sense) biro esky gladwrap laminex pyrex thermos vegemite (in generic sense) coca-cola (in generic sense) Proprietary/brand names of drugs should take an initial capital: Celebrex Panadol Valium Viagra Visudyne Zoloft Zyban Generic names of drugs, and proprietary/brand names when used in a generic sense, should be in lower case: aspirin diazepam panadol (in a generic sense) paracetamol [See `Common pharmaceuticals.doc' in Hansard Resources/Editing/Style.]
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4.16 TITLES 4.16.1 BOOKS, POEMS, PLAYS, OPERAS, BALLETS, BROCHURES, MUSICALS, FILMS, SONGS, WORKS OF ART, AND RADIO AND TELEVISION PROGRAMS Initial capitals should be used: A Hard Day's Night AM program Barber of Seville Blue Poles Four Corners The Tempest [See also Books, poems et cetera, section 5.2 (italics) and Quotations from songs and poems, section 9.4.] 4.16.2 NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES Initial capitals should be used. Where the title begins with a definite or indefinite article, the article should not take a capital letter: the Age the Australian the Bulletin the Land the Sydney Morning Herald the West Australian [See also Names of newspapers and periodicals, section 5.1 (italics).] 4.16.3 REPORTS (INCLUDING AUDIT REPORTS AND REPORTS OF COMMITTEES OF THE PARLIAMENT) AND WHITE PAPERS Use minimal capitalisation. The first letter of the first word of the title and of those words that normally bear an initial capital should be capitalised: A cautionary tale: fish don't lay tomatoes Australian Public Service statistical bulletin 2005-06 Australia's relations with the Middle East Australia's national security: a defence update 2003 Boys--getting it right: report on the inquiry into the education of boys Defence 2000: our future defence force Finding a balance: towards fair trading in Australia (the Reid report) Intergenerational report, IGR State of the service report 2005-06 Workplace diversity report 2005-06 Where titles contain more than one line, with no specified punctuation between them, the segments should be separated by colons: Audit report No. 5 2001-02: performance audit: parliamentarians' entitlements: 1999-2000* Report 384: Review of Coastwatch* * Do not italicise `Audit report No. 5' et cetera or Joint Committee of Public Accounts and Audit report numbers. [See also Titles and subtitles, section 8.3.5.]
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4.16.4 ANNUAL REPORTS
Do not capitalise the names of annual reports:
annual report of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia Department of Parliamentary Services annual report 2005-06
4.16.5 COLLECTIONS AND EXHIBITIONS
The names of art or photographic collections and exhibitions should be italicised:
Surrealism by Night
[See also Books, poems, plays et cetera, section 5.2 (italics).]
4.16.6 WEB SITES AND WEBPAGES
Use initial capitals, not italics, for names of web sites and webpages:
Crikey Windows on Women
Google Yahoo!
4.17 SACRED WRITINGS
Use an initial capital letter for the names of sacred writings and specific creeds, confessions of faith and prayers:
Apostles' Creed Dreaming II Chronicles 4:7 Lord's Prayer Old Testament Revelation 22:21
Bible Dreamtime Koran New Testament Proverbs Ten Commandments
4.18 CAPITALS ASSOCIATED WITH PUNCTUATION 4.18.1 HYPHENATED PROPER NAMES In an initial capital and lower case heading, a title or the name of an organisation, use an initial capital letter for a major word following a hyphen: Anti-Discrimination Bill Inter-State Commission Pro-Vice-Chancellor Vice-Chairman Smith BUT the vice-chairman Vice-Chancellor Brown Vice-President of the Executive Council BUT the vice-president BUT Vice Admiral Jones, the vice admiral 4.18.2 COLONS Do not use a capital letter after a colon except when it is followed by small font or quotation marks or is rendered so in a published book title. It is not a terminal punctuation mark. [See also Colon, section 8.3.]
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4.19 PARLIAMENTARY AND PUBLIC SERVICE TERMS [See Parliamentary and Public Service terms, section 10.5.] 4.20 DEFENCE TERMS Capitals should be used in accordance with the capitalisation guidelines. [See Defence terms, section 10.2.] 4.21 NEWSPAPER HEADLINES Use minimal capitalisation. The first letter of the first word of the title and of those words that normally bear an initial capital should be capitalised. Put newspaper headlines in single quotes. [See also Quotation marks, section 8.12.]
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5. ITALICS Italics should be used in the following instances. 5.1 NAMES OF NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS Note The definite article preceding the title, even if it forms part of the title, should not be italicised: the Australian Financial Review, AFR (or, subsequently, the Financial Review) the Bulletin the Land the Melbourne Age (name of city not part of title) the Sydney Morning Herald, SMH (name of city part of title) When the possessive s is added to an italicised name the `s' should not be italicised: the Bulletin's critique [See also Newspapers and magazines, section 4.16.2 (capital letters); and http://www.nla.gov.au/npapers/. 5.2 BOOKS, POEMS, PLAYS, BOOKLETS, HANDBOOKS, BROCHURES, OPERAS, BALLETS, MUSICALS, FILMS, LEAFLETS, WORKS OF ART, SONGS, COLLECTIONS, EXHIBITIONS, AND RADIO AND TELEVISION PROGRAMS Include the definite article if it is part of the title: The 7.30 Report AM A Tale of Two Cities Blue Poles Candle in the Wind Four Corners the Hansard record Insiders Journals of the Senate Lateline Nineteen Eighty-Four Notice Paper Official Hansard Pirates of Penzance Proof Hansard Surrealism by Night Swan Lake TaxPack The Tempest The Theory of Everything: The Origin and Fate of the Universe Today show West Side Story Yes, Minister
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BUT use quotation marks, not italics, around the titles of lectures, essays, chapters of books, titles of articles, submissions, papers and newspaper headlines: Yesterday's Sydney Morning Herald front page article `Labor to win' contained some interesting information. [See also Books, poems et cetera, section 4.16.1 (capital letters); Collections and exhibitions, section 4.16.5; Quotation marks, section 8.12; and Quotations from songs and poems, section 9.4.] 5.3 SCIENTIFIC NAMES Use italics for genus, species and subspecies names, with an initial capital for the genus name and lower case for the species name: Macropus rufus Eucalyptus tereticornis Giardia monoleucus Macropus rufus rufus If a genus name is used generically it is not italicised (or capped): eucalyptus giardia The names of families and orders take initial capitals but are not italicised: Canidae Carnivora [See also Scientific terminology, section 4.14.] 5.4 SHIPS, AIRCRAFT AND TRAINS Note that any article before the name should not be italicised: the Collins class submarine Farncomb the Columbia space shuttle the Daring class destroyer Voyager the helitankers Elvis, Georgia Peach and Incredible Hulk HMAS Westralia Kingsford Smith's Southern Cross MV Cormo Express, the Cormo Express MV Tampa, the Tampa the oil rigs Northern Explorer III and Ocean Champion the Oriana the Southern Aurora train the training base HMAS Cerberus USS Enterprise BUT classes of ship and types of aircraft should be in roman: Hercules aircraft Iwo Jima class amphibious assault ship Note A comprehensive list of Royal Australian Navy vessels, aircraft and establishments can be found in an appendix to the Defence annual report. [See also Defence terms, section 10.2.]
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5.5 DESCRIPTIVE LINES NOT PART OF THE NORMAL FORMS OF PROCEDURE An incident having occurred in the gallery-- A video was then shown-- Evidence was then taken in camera-- (Extension of time granted) Friday, 3 July 1998 (the date at the beginning of the day's proceedings) Honourable members interjecting-- In division-- More than the number of members required by the standing orders having risen in their places-- Mr Joe Bloggs then entered the chamber, and was seated accordingly. (Quorum formed) Slides were then shown-- Submissions incorporated at page S102-- The bells having been rung-- The document read as follows-- The member for O'Connor then left the chamber. The speech read as follows-- 5.6 DO NOT USE ITALICS Do not use italics for emphasis or in: · foreign words and phrases · names of statutes · names of court cases · headings of articles · names of properties
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6. LEGISLATIVE AND LEGAL TERMS 6.1 LEGISLATION Bills are draft legislation which usually have clauses, subclauses, paragraphs and subparagraphs. Once bills have been passed by the parliament (or, more precisely, once they have received royal assent), they are called acts. Acts usually have sections, subsections (not clauses and subclauses), paragraphs and subparagraphs. A list of acts administered by each department appears at the beginning of that department's entry in the Commonwealth Government Directory. Text of acts can be found at http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/html/pasteact/browse/TOC.htm or http://www.austlii.edu.au/. Text of bills and bill related documents can be found at http://www.aph.gov.au/bills/index.htm or on ParlInfo. 6.1.1 BILLS [See also Parliamentary and Public Service terms, section 10.5.] The full title of a bill, including the year of its introduction, is accessed in HPS using ALT-P for the purpose of marking text for ParlInfo. If a bill has been accessed once in a speech through ALT-P, it is not necessary to use ALT-P for subsequent references to that bill. If a bill has already been given its full title in a speech, and there are no other bills with similar titles with which it could be confused, an abbreviated form may be used. For example: The Telecommunications (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Bill 1997 has been introduced ... The telecommunications bill ... BUT a package of bills, if not enumerated by a speaker at the beginning of a speech, may be referred to as, for example, `the telecommunications bills' or `the telecommunications legislation', the principle being that the bills should be identified in some way as soon as possible. For full bill titles in acronym form, use a capital letter for the word `bill'. For example: TSI Bill ARPNS(LC)A Bill In cases where a speaker does not refer to the legislation in full and it is unclear which bill is being referred to, transcribe the title exactly as it has been given by the speaker and render in lower case. In the case of appropriation bills (or budget bills), there are no initial capitals unless the full title of the bill is given. For example: Appropriation Bill (No. 1) 2005-06 BUT appropriation bills
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Bills usually contain clauses (for example, clause 150A), subclauses (2), paragraphs (c) and subparagraphs (iv) and should be expressed by the greater element, with no spaces between the elements. For example: clause 150A(2)(c)(iv) subclause (2)(c) NOT subclause 150A(2)(c)(iv) In chamber reporting, if a speaker refers to a section or subsection as part of a bill, these terms should be changed to `clause' or `subclause' or `proposed section' or `proposed subsection'. However, in the editing of committee transcripts generally give speakers what they say. Clause numbers should always be checked in the relevant bill(s). Elements of bills are as shown in the following examples: clause 150A division 1 first reading item (in an amending schedule) paragraph (a) part I or part 1 (check bill) preamble schedule (first schedule et cetera) second reading subclause (2) subitem subparagraph (ii) title 6.1.2 PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO BILLS Amendments should be written as follows, regardless of whether the speaker says the word `number/s': amendment (1) amendments (1), (3) and (5) amendments (1) to (7) NOT amendment No. 1 or amendment Nos 1 and 2. Amendment numbers should be written in the order in which they are spoken: I want to ask some questions about amendments (1), (7), (3) and (6). [See also Brackets, section 8.2.]
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6.1.3 ACTS Editors must check the full names of acts. Hansard does not italicise the full name of an act. Capitalisation of the full title of an act should follow that used in its proper title, even when the year of enactment is not included. lf only part of the title is mentioned, no capitals are used (this follows Hansard's standard capitalisation rule). It is particularly important to adhere to the capitalisation rule when it is not clear which piece of legislation is being referred to by the speaker. Note the following examples: Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act, AD(JR) Act, ADJR legislation Corporations Act Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 income tax Assessment Act Members of Parliament (Staff) Act, MOP(S) Act, MOPS legislation Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Act, SI(S) Act, SIS legislation USA PATRIOT Act (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act) (US act) Wool Tax (Administration) Act BUT environment protection act tax act wool tax act Note Exceptions are Corporations Law (now superseded but still takes capitals), the Criminal Code and the Model Criminal Code. Acts usually contain sections (for example, section 73A), subsections (2), paragraphs (a) and subparagraphs (i). Sections should be expressed by the greater element used, and there are no spaces between the elements of the section. For example: section 73A(2)(a)(i) subsection (2)(a)(i) NOT subsection 73A(2)(a)(i) In chamber reporting, if a speaker refers to a clause or subclause as part of an act, the terminology should be changed to `section' or `subsection'. However, in the editing of committee transcripts generally give speakers what they say. Section numbers should always be checked in the relevant act(s). Elements of acts are shown in the following examples: appendix 1 article IV division 3 explanatory memorandum paragraph (a) part II or part 2 (check act) placitum (xxv) of section 51 of the Constitution preamble section 73A subparagraph (i) subsection (2) title
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6.1.4 CODES, ORDINANCES AND REGULATIONS
The full titles of codes, ordinances and regulations take initial capitals; part titles require no capitalisation.
6.2 CASES
Where possible, case titles should be checked and written in full. Follow the style used in the report series concerned. Do not use italics for case names. Cases can be checked in the Australian case citator through the Parliamentary Library site or Austlii. For further information on finding case citations using these sources see `Case citation.doc' in Hansard Resources/Editing/Style.
Full case citations may contain the following elements:
Oates v Attorney-General (2003) 214 CLR 496
case name
year volume series page No.
That is:
Oates v Attorney-General (2003) 214 CLR 496 Calwell v Ipec Australia Ltd [1973] 1 NSWLR 550 ACCC v C G Berbatis Holdings P/L [2003] ATPR 41-916
Other examples of the way cases may be written are as follows:
Mabo No. 2 Re Wakim; Ex parte McNally Ah Hin Teoh v Minister of State for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs [the Teoh case] Konrad v Victoria Police [Federal Court of Australia]; Victoria Police & Anor v Konrad [High Court of Australia] The Queen v Hughes [High Court]; Regina v Hughes [Supreme Court of Western Australia] Patrick Stevedores Operations No. 2 Pty Ltd & Ors v Maritime Union of Australia & Ors Victorian Council for Civil Liberties Inc. v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural Affairs [the Tampa case]
Note If the speaker says `and' and not `versus', leave it as said, unless you are certain `v' is correct. Be careful not to confuse two parties united in an action against another party with two parties in an action against each other. The same parties can be involved in two or more distinct but related cases, so be careful when you specify the case (see Hughes case and Konrad case mentioned above). Also, `Anor' means `another' and `Ors' means `others'.
Links:
http://www.aph.gov.au/library/intguide/law/auslaw.htm [The Australian case citator can be found under the heading, `Court and Tribunal decisions, law reports etc', and the link, `Commonwealth Law Reports, Federal Court Reports, Federal Law Reports, Australian Digest, Australian Case Citator'.]
http://www.austlii.edu.au/
[See also Versus, section 2.14, and Ampersand, section 2.2 and `Case citation.doc' in Hansard Resources/Editing/Style.]
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6.3 COURTS
All full titles of specific courts have initial capitals, as follows:
Children's Court Court of Appeal Court of Disputed Returns Court of Petty Sessions (Tasmania and Western Australia) Court of Summary Jurisdiction (Northern Territory and South Australia) Criminal Court District Court (New South Wales and Queensland) Family Court Federal Court (or full Federal Court) Federal Magistrates Service High Court (or full bench of the High Court) Koori Court Land and Environment Court Local Court (New South Wales) Magistrates Court Murri Court Nunga Court Supreme Court (or full court of the Supreme Court)
Reference to any of the above as `the court' follows Hansard's standard capitalisation rule.
Some court names are used generically, for example:
federal courts
industrial court
6.4 COMMISSIONS AND TRIBUNALS Full titles of commissions and tribunals require initial capitals: Australian Industrial Relations Commission Law Reform Commission Royal Commission of Inquiry into Drug Trafficking BUT the royal commission into drug trafficking the royal commission
6.5 LEGAL TERMS AND OFFICE HOLDERS The following is a guide to style for legal terminology and forms of address for legal office holders: Attorney-General, Attorney, attorneys-general, A-G Note New South Wales Attorney General--no hyphen the bar the bench Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia Chief Justice Gleeson, the chief justice(s) Commissioner Fitzgerald, the commissioner(s), the royal commissioner(s) Corporations Law Criminal Code, Model Criminal Code the Crown (referring to sovereign or governing power) Crown Prosecutor
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Crown Solicitor, Deputy Crown Solicitor Employment Advocate His Honour Judge Smith, His Honour, the judge Mr Charles QC (no comma) *Mr Justice Kirby or Kirby J, the justice native title Solicitor-General, solicitors-general *Mr Justice X is used by some state superior courts and tribunals (Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland). Justice X is used by federal courts (the Family Court, the Federal Court and the High Court), by tribunals and by South Australian superior courts. If in doubt, follow the forms of address provided in the Commonwealth Government Directory or Who's Who in Business in Australia. Note When a judge is addressed directly the title is capitalised, in the same way as when a minister is directly addressed in speech. For example: I ask you, Judge, whether ... A list of judges and courts is provided under `courts' in the Commonwealth Government Directory. [See also Titles of positions, section 4.3.]
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7. NUMBERS 7.1 GENERAL RULES 7.1.1 ONE TO NINE Express numbers one to nine in words except when accompanied by a fraction. Numbers above nine are expressed in figures: three people eight per cent 8Ѕ per cent 50 people The cargo included 120 sheep, 72 goats, 18 cows, one ox and five horses. BUT a rating of 4, a 4 rating, a grade of 4, a 4 grade [See also Specific rules, section 7.2.] 7.1.2 NUMBERS FOLLOWING A NOUN When a number follows a noun, use figures: day 1, 2, 3 of the strike grade 7, year 12 Kangaroo 92, Crocodile 99 page 9, chapter 2 round 1, rounds 1 and 2 stage 1 of federalism BUT certificate II, certificate III (vocational training) Note (as concepts) back to square one from day one [See also Parts of books, section 7.13; and Sizes, section 7.18.] 7.1.3 ORDINALS Express first to ninth in words, thereafter use figures: first eighth 10th nth degree II Corinthians 22nd 100th 156th 200th BUT the eleventh hour (see Macquarie Dictionary) [See also Military formations, section 10.2.3.]
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7.2 SPECIFIC RULES [See also General rules, section 7.1.] 7.2.1 ADDRESSES Express as follows: 10 Downing Street 16 Sixth Avenue 22/146 Stowe Street 3-5 National Circuit 4th Floor Flat 8 Level 2 PO Box 4 7.2.2 AGES Follow general rules: 54/11 (a CSS retirement age reference) He died at the age of 55. He was aged 4Ѕ years. Her child is 16 years old. He is under 18 (years of age). They are aged 70-plus. She has a three-year-old. She has an under-16-year-old child. The baby is three months and 11 days old. The over-50s have to pay more insurance. They are under-18-year-olds. They had a nine-year-old son and a 15Ѕ-year-old daughter. This involves six- to 10-year-olds. This rule applies to people in their 40s and 50s. [See also Compound words not in Macquarie Dictionary and not covered under the ambiguity rule, section 8.8.3.] 7.2.3 BEGINNING SENTENCES Use words except where it would be unwieldy to do so: Fifty per cent is not enough. BUT (in interjections) Senator Lundy--$560 million? Senator Cook--2008. [See also Amounts at beginning of sentences, section 7.3.6.] 7.2.4 BILLS, ACTS AND AGREEMENTS [See Legislative and legal terms, section 6.]
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7.2.5 CLOCK TIME Use figures when am, pm follows the time, otherwise follow general rules: 10 am 3 pm 3.05 pm NOT 3.5 pm one o'clock six o'clock 10 o'clock half past six, half six half past 11, half 11 12 minutes to seven 12 noon nine to five quarter to 12, quarter past four six to 6.30 six to 6.30 pm 2300 hours BUT time style is as follows in Pro Formas, to conform with ParlInfo: Mr TURNBULL (Wentworth) (7.00 pm) Mr NEVILLE (Hinkler) (10.05 am) Mr GARRETT (Kingsford Smith) (12.00 pm)--(that is, midday) Mr ROBB (Goldstein) (12.00 am)--(that is, midnight) Proceedings suspended from 11.58 am to 1.15 pm Sitting suspended from 6.30 pm to 8.00 pm Sitting suspended from 1.00 pm to 2.00 pm 7.2.6 COMBINATION NUMBERS When two numbers appear consecutively and one is used as an adjective, express one number in words and the other in figures. Try to show the larger number in figures: seven 32-horsepower motors two 10-minute tea breaks 10 four-piece lounge suites 250 ten-foot poles 15,000- to 20,000-tonne range BUT four two-month periods 7.2.7 COMPOUND EXPRESSIONS Follow general rules: one hour 20 minutes three months and 11 days
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7.3 CURRENCY
As a general rule, use figures and symbols to express amounts in currency. The cent is represented by the lower case c, without a full stop and with no space. The dollar is represented by the dollar sign ($).
7.3.1 AMOUNTS IN DOLLARS IN WHICH THE AMOUNT IS LESS THAN ONE DOLLAR (IF EXPRESSED AS DOLLARS)
$0.25
$0.75
7.3.2 AMOUNTS IN DOLLARS AND CENTS IN WHICH THE NUMBER OF CENTS IS LESS THAN 10
$3.05 NOT $3.5
7.3.3 AMOUNTS IN CENTS
1c 5c
10c 56Ѕc 99c 68.5c
BUT (as a concept) They did not donate one cent.
[See also Cents, section 2.4.]
7.3.4 AMOUNTS IN EXACT DOLLARS
$1 $5
$10 $1,000
7.3.5 AMOUNTS IN DOLLARS AND CENTS
$1.05
$6.95
$55,996.20
7.3.6 AMOUNTS AT BEGINNING OF SENTENCES
Write out in full an amount of money appearing at the beginning of a sentence, except where to do so would be unwieldy:
Sixty-five thousand dollars was the true figure.
BUT (in an interjection) Senator Conroy--$64,543 was the true figure.
[See also Beginning sentences, section 7.2.3.]
7.3.7 MILLIONS, BILLIONS AND TRILLIONS OF DOLLARS
$1 million $3Ѕ million half a million dollars
$3.03 billion
$2.5 trillion
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7.3.8 FOREIGN CURRENCY
When distinguishing between Australian dollars and foreign currency:
Australia Canada EU Hong Kong Japan Malaysia Switzerland USA
$A5 $Can5 5 $HK5 Ґ5 $M5 SwF5 $US5
$A50 $Can50 50 $HK50 Ґ50 $M50 SwF50 $US50
$A5,000 $Can5,000 5,000 $HK5,000 Ґ5,000 $M5,000 SwF5,000 $US5,000
The euro sign is found in Word by using the shortcut CTRL+ALT+E or by typing in 20AC (a Microsoft Word character code) followed by ALT-X. Note Voice recognition users say `euro sign' to get the symbol.
The yen sign is found in Word by typing in A5 (a Microsoft Word character code) followed by ALT-X. Note Voice recognition users say `yen sign' to get the symbol.
Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore, United States of America: dollar ($) China: yuan, renminbi European Union: euro () Indonesia: rupiah Japan: yen (Ґ) Malaysia: ringgit or dollar ($) North Korea, South Korea: won Switzerland: Swiss franc Thailand: baht United Kingdom: pound (Ј)
7.3.9 UNITED KINGDOM
United Kingdom currency should be expressed as follows:
6p 97p Ј1.10 NOT Ј1.10p
Ј5,000 Ј1 million
The pound sign is found in Word by typing in A3 (a Microsoft Word character code) followed by ALT-X. Note Voice recognition users say `pound sign' to get the symbol.
7.3.10 FORMER CURRENCIES
Some former European currencies:
Austria: schilling Belgium and France: franc Germany: deutschmark (DM) Italy: lira
For former Australian currency, express as follows:
Ј9 8s 7d (no full stops)
5s 6d NOT 5/6 or Ј0 5s 6d
7.3.11 UNITED STATES CENTS, NEW ZEALAND CENTS
Express as follows:
US25c
NZ60c
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7.3.12 GENERAL $19-odd million, $19-plus million, $19 million plus $60 million company 10c in the dollar 30.8c Australian (if other currencies are also mentioned) a 5c piece a billion dollar industry around $5,000 million this year between $1 million and $2 million dollar for dollar basis half a million dollars minus $145,000 Mr Six-hundred Dollar Man nearly $500,000 OR nearly half a million dollars (use whichever is said) negative $45 billion on a $2 for $1 basis one petrodollar and 10 petrodollars put value back in the dollar the government spent not one cent of taxpayers' money (as a concept) the sixty-four dollar question the sixty-four thousand dollar question twenty-five $10 notes two-point-something thousand dollars X dollars
7.4 DAYS AND DATES When the day stands alone, use a figure with an ordinal ending; otherwise use a figure without an ordinal ending. In other instances follow these general rules: 1 April 1965 (not 1st April 1965 or 1.4.65) the first of the month the first day of the month the 11th day of the 11th month Monday, the 8th Monday, 8 June 1998 October 12 (the event, not the date) On 17 and 18 December he visited friends. On the 22nd he left for overseas. September 11, 9-11(the event, not the date)
7.5 DECIMAL NUMBERS
When decimal numbers are less than one, place a nought before the decimal point, except in some special instances such as gun calibres and all blood alcohol levels:
0.25--NOT .25--per cent .303 calibre .22 calibre
.05 blood alcohol level .08 blood alcohol level .11 blood alcohol level
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7.6 FRACTIONS Fractions with a denominator up to a hundredth are expressed in words, except where this would entail two hyphens or where the numerator requires a hyphen: 1/200th (denominator more than a hundredth) 2Ѕ thousand 24/122nds (denominator more than a hundredth) 27 thirty-seconds 41 hundredths half-a-dozen half-hour nineteen-twentieths one thirty-third (avoid two hyphens) one-quarter of a million dollars one-third quarter-hour 12 thirty-seconds two-hundredths two-thirds of the members BUT half a million dollars (if said) one half of the flag is red; the other half black year and a half When a fraction is combined with a whole number, use figures: a performance lasting 2Ѕ hours I had a two- to 2Ѕ-hour appointment. 7.7 HOURS AND MINUTES Express as follows: 24/7 a half-hour break five minutes 3Ѕ hours 10 hours one hour one hour 20 minutes BUT at the eleventh hour (Macquarie Dictionary) 7.8 IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS, CALL SIGNS AND STANDARDS Express as follows: AASB 10462CN 2XX AAA rating Accord Mark VI, the accord, mark VI version Channel 10 Channel 4 (UK) Channel 5 (UK) Channel 7 Channel 9 CLERP 7 EL1 (executive level 1) F111 FM104.7
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Henry VIII Highway 1 Imparja ISO 9000 IT 26/83 Job Network mark 3 MiX 106.3 mark 2 version model 40 NewsRadio PEL1 (parliamentary executive level 1) Prime Minister's XI radio 2UE SALT I SOG B (senior officer grade B) Telstra 2, T2 Triple J Triple M World War II XXXX (brand name) BUT Nine Network Seven Network Ten Network 7.9 INDEFINITE NUMBERS Express as follows: 101 different ways 60 per cent plus 80,000-plus private binding rulings I have told you that a hundred times. minus two per cent No. 1 apple grower No. 1 CD in the list No. 1 priority We have a fifty-fifty chance of winning. 7.10 LISTS When listing points, use whatever is said but be consistent: (1) (2) (3) NOT one, two, three (a) (b) (c) first, second, third firstly, secondly, thirdly However, do not start sentences/paragraphs with (1), (2), (3) or (a), (b) or (c) except in quotes. Dot points can be retained in second reading speeches and report presentation speeches.
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7.11 MEASUREMENTS
For dimensions, temperatures, weights, distances, speeds, fluid measures, electrical measures and angles, follow the general rules:
12 grams 20/20 vision 30 metres a five-watt bulb an angle of 45 degrees five tonnes six kilograms temperature of eight degrees
20 degrees Celsius 2Ѕ litres a 10-tonne truck a room 10 metres by four metres eight kilometres per hour nine knots six-cylinder car two litres
7.12 MILITARY FORMATIONS [See Military formations, section 10.2.3.]
7.13 PARTS OF BOOKS Use arabic or roman figures. Follow the style of the book if practical: appendix 2 chapter 6 chapter X page (ii) page 12 paragraph 9 part 4 section 6 table 6 [See also Numbers following a noun, section 7.1.2.]
7.14 PERCENTAGES Express whole percentages up to nine per cent in words; thereafter use figures. Do not convert percentages to fractions or fractions to percentages. Do not use the % sign. 0.1 per cent 1Ѕ per cent or 1.5 per cent (whichever is said) 80 to 90 per cent between one and two per cent minus two per cent one or two per cent 12 per cent one-half of one per cent three per cent three percentage points zero per cent
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7.15 RATIOS Numerals linked by a colon are used to express scale (the representation of very large units by very small units) as in 1:500,000 to represent distance on a map where one centimetre represents five kilometres. In all other cases, where a scale is not involved, separate the elements with the word `to': 12 to one a two to one multiplier one for one one to one The book industry uses a 70 to 30 ratio. The correct ratio of rice to water is one to three. The typical ratio is one to 100. two to one BUT 20/20 vision 60-40 rule a fifty-fifty chance a fifty-fifty mixture The council vote was split 60-40. The child-staff ratio is improving. [See also Ratios, section 8.3.4.] 7.16 RESULTS AND SCORES Express as follows: Australia beat New Zealand 3-1. Lleyton Hewitt won the match 6-2, 6-4, 6-7, 7-6. The First XV won 22-15. The game resulted in a 14-0 win to the Brumbies. The High Court brought down a majority judgment of 4-3. The Prime Minister's XI scored 8-202 (or 202-8). The result of the division is 86-54 in favour of the ayes. The result of the State of Origin game was 32-12 to Queensland. 7.17 ROMAN NUMERALS Express as follows: Elizabeth II First XV George V part IV Second XI World War II 7.18 SIZES Express as follows: a size 4 ball a size 7Ѕ hat [See also Numbers following a noun, 7.1.2.]
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7.19 TELEPHONE NUMBERS Express as follows: (02)62771234 0411799SKY 0418123456 1800 and 0055 numbers 1800REVERSE 7.20 THOUSANDS AND MILLIONS Express as follows: 1,000 3,125,000 $5,000 page 1423 Numbers of a thousand or more may be expressed thus: $2 million, $2 billion, $2 trillion 2Ѕ thousand 10 million 1Ѕ million people tens of thousands of people three-quarters of a million trees two million people 7.21 YEARS AND SPANS OF YEARS Follow general rules: 20 to 24 years (not 20-24 years) 4Ѕ years AD 55 or 55 AD, 50 BC, 56-55 BC from 1982 to 1986 in 10 years time in 1997-98 in 2000-01 in 2007-08 in a year's time [See Apostrophe, section 8.1.] Kangaroo 92, Crocodile 99 (military exercises) mid-1980s, mid-eighties post-1980s phenomenon the 1914-18 war the 1960s, the sixties the 21st century the Labor government of 1972-75 The Labor Party was in power post 1990. the roaring twenties They were in their 70s in the seventies. BUT the class of '83 1999-2000 the noughties (current decade)
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8. PUNCTUATION The main function of punctuation is to make the meaning of the spoken word perfectly clear when rendered as the written word. It is not possible, nor is it desirable, to impose definitive rules on the use of punctuation. The prevention of ambiguity, the length of a sentence, the amount of pause required and the particular context are factors which will determine the use of punctuation. However, as punctuation is largely a creature of syntax and grammar, it is possible to set a framework of rules which should be followed in reporting and editing. For the punctuation of second reading speeches and incorporations, see the relevant form guides. 8.1 APOSTROPHE The purpose of inserting an apostrophe before or after the final `s' is to indicate the possessive case and has nothing to do with the formation of the plural. 8.1.1 NOUNS AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Use the pos s to form the possessive for nouns or indefinite pronouns in the singular or plural that end in any letter except s: anyone's guess each other's jobs for heaven's sake one's rights somebody else's book the gentlemen's hats the mice's food the minister's office the people's war 8.1.2 PLURAL NOUNS Use s pos for plural nouns that end in s: the ladies' dresses the riders' mounts And for more than one person with the same surname: the Creeds' air show (that is, an air show run by Mr and Mrs Creed) 8.1.3 SINGULAR NOUNS For singular nouns that end in s, add a pos s, just as is done with singular nouns ending in other letters: ASIS's view the boss's office Burns's poems Dickens's novels Griffiths's views Senator Evans's speech United States's motive
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However, in personal names of more than one syllable that end with `s' and where the final syllable begins with an `s' or `z' sound, use s pos, as in: Francis' realm Jesus' disciples Knossos' palace Menzies' speeches 8.1.4 WHERE POSSESSION IS NOT DEFINED Neither the pos s nor the s pos is needed in the following cases where the idea of possession is tenuous and/or the term is adjectival: a teachers training college arms-length funding BUT at arm's length Australian Workers Union Democrats amendments, Democrat amendments drivers licence Greens amendments news report plant breeders rights BUT use apostrophe in title of bill and act sales representatives savings accounts six months time sports coat Sydney Boys High School, a boys high school three days rest two weeks pay two years time BUT a year's time veterans affairs, veterans entitlements BUT use an apostrophe in title of legislation and department visitors book workers compensation BUT the King's School, St Paul's Cathedral, and other exceptions as listed in Macquarie Dictionary. In the above examples when the pos s or the s pos is not used, the meaning is `a licence to drive', `a high school for boys', `a training college for teachers' et cetera. However, a plural noun that does not end in s should always take the pos s: children's hospital Country Women's Association Federated Engine Drivers and Firemen's Association of Australasia women's affairs Women's Electoral Lobby There is generally no need to use an apostrophe in names of organisations, programs, trade unions et cetera: Queensland Nurses UnionNational Farmers Federation Note Badgerys Creek, Frenchs Forest, Kings Cross, St Albans (the way they are spelt) Note When the sense is clearly possessive the apostrophe should be used. Compare the following sentences: The Queen wrote her name in the visitors book. The visitor's book was stolen from his bedroom.
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8.1.5 APOSTROPHES IN CONTRACTIONS
Use an apostrophe to indicate the omission of letters in contractions:
do not it is
don't it's
[See also Contractions, section 2.6.]
The possessive of `it' is `its' (without an apostrophe).
8.1.6 NON-WORD PLURALS
Use the pos s to avoid confusion in such expressions as:
dos and don'ts dot the i's and cross the t's mind your p's and q's
Do not use an apostrophe in the following cases:
all As ayes and noes the BHPs of the world DVDs ifs and buts the 1970s the three Rs
8.1.7 POSSESSIVE ABBREVIATIONS
The possessive of an abbreviation is formed in the same way as the possessive of a noun or pronoun:
ALP's
BHP's
USSR's
8.2 BRACKETS
Brackets may be used when other punctuation has been exhausted. For amendments, company names, titles of acts and Public Service positions use as follows:
amendment (1) amendments (1), (2) and (3) Argus Real Estate (Holdings) Pty Ltd Assistant Chief of the Defence Force (Operations) CE(RR) Act Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Act, SI(S) Act, SIS legislation
[See Proposed amendments to bills, section 6.1.2.]
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8.3 COLON The colon indicates a pause or degree of separation longer than a semicolon but shorter than a full stop. A capital letter does not follow a colon except where the word following the colon is a proper noun or as set out in section 8.3.3. The word `that' should not preface the colon when introducing quotations. Generally, do not use a colon after the word `include' within sentences. The use of the colon should generally be restricted to the following situations. [See also Colons, section 4.18.2.] 8.3.1 INTRODUCING LISTS, QUOTATIONS ET CETERA Use a colon to separate a clause that introduces a list, quotation, summary or corollary from the actual list et cetera: This country has few exports: wool, wheat, coal and timber. BUT This country's exports are wool, wheat, coal and timber. [See also Introduction of text, section 9.2.1.] 8.3.2 INTRODUCING A STATEMENT Use a colon to introduce a statement which explains, enlarges or summarises the one that precedes it when no conjunction is used: In business there is something more than barter, exchange, price, payment: there is the sacred faith of man in man. 8.3.3 PREFACING DIRECT SPEECH OR QUOTATIONS Use a colon to preface a passage of direct speech or a quotation which is more formal or elaborate than a conversational quotation or where the direct speech or quotation is longer than one sentence. In such cases, the direct speech or quotation will not be placed in small font. The Prime Minister addressed them in these words: `We have been called upon to undertake a very difficult and dangerous task.' I ask the minister: what are we doing now? I heard Mr Crean in full cry: `We need more money for health and education.' During the course of the budget in May 1999 the Treasurer said: `This budget is presented on an accrual basis for the first time. It allows us to properly budget for future expenditures. This puts Australia at the forefront of transparency in the conduct of fiscal policy.' BUT where the direct speech or quotation is longer than one sentence and the speaker continues after that direct speech or quotation, use a comma: During the course of the budget in May 1999 the Treasurer said, `This budget is presented on an accrual basis for the first time. It allows us to properly budget for future expenditures. This puts Australia at the forefront of transparency in the conduct of fiscal policy,' and he was right. [See also Quotations, section 9; and Short complete quotations, section 9.1.2.]
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Use a colon to preface material quoted by a speaker, which then appears below in small font: Mr SMITH--I refer you to Prime Minister Hawke, who said: By 1990, no child shall live in poverty. 8.3.4 RATIOS Use a colon to indicate a ratio in scales: The scale of the map is 1:10,000. [See also Ratios, section 7.15.] 8.3.5 TITLES AND SUBTITLES Use a colon to indicate a change from title to subtitle or from heading to subheading where no punctuation marks already appear and it is appropriate, as in newspaper headlines, book titles, report titles et cetera: The headline was `The big chill: towns cut off by snow'. The report was entitled The people's palace: parliament in modern Australia. The report was entitled Ringing in the changes: Telecom's zonal charging policies. Note There is no comma before the headline. [See also Quotations marks, section 8.12 and Reports et cetera, section 4.16.3.] Do not use a colon to separate hours and minutes, as in 1.30 pm. 8.3.6 INTRODUCTIONS A colon is used after the introduction in a written speech: Your Excellency, Prime Minister, ladies and gentlemen: I am ... 8.4 COMMA Commas have a grammatical function in separating words, phrases and clauses. They also give emphasis, meaning and clarity to sentences. Thus they are an essential aid to the reader. 8.4.1 BETWEEN ADJECTIVES Use commas to mark off two or more adjectives that qualify the same noun if the effect of their use is cumulative or if each adjective qualifies the noun separately: She was a quiet, gentle, compassionate woman. Do not use commas if the first adjective qualifies the second adjective when used in conjunction with their noun: There was a distinguished foreign visitor in the House. The only wealthy man in the district was the local doctor.
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8.4.2 INTRODUCTORY ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Generally, use a comma to mark off an introductory adverbial clause: If there is no substance to the rumour, the minister should say so. As honourable members would be aware, this is a state responsibility. When we introduced this reform last year, it was opposed by the Liberal Party. If the minister can, will he do so? An introductory adverbial phrase is sometimes marked off with a comma and sometimes not. A choice about whether or not to use the comma will be influenced by such things as nuance, clarity, length of the phrase and other punctuation in the sentence: In this context you may not want a comma. On the other hand, you may be inclined to use one in this sentence. If so, you have made an informed choice. So you have made an informed choice. In the evening, paper lanterns lit the courtyard. In 1993 we handled 1,990 cases. In 1993, 1,990 cases came to our attention. 8.4.3 ADVERBS, ADVERB PHRASES AND ADVERB CLAUSES When using commas to mark off adverbs, adverb phrases and adverb clauses in the middle of a sentence, use them in pairs--one at the beginning and one at the end. One comma is not sufficient. In a simple sentence: It was, fortunately, a success. It was, in my opinion, a success. It was, as everyone knows, a success. Following a conjunction at the start of a sentence: But, if it is not true, we will find another option. But if it is not true we will find another option. Following a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence: We tried hard and, fortunately, we made a success of it. We tried hard and, in my opinion, we made a success of it. We tried hard and, as everyone knows, we made a success of it. Following a subordinating conjunction in a complex sentence: (I) SUBORDINATING TO AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: I went to a shop where, fortunately, I was able to buy the item I wanted. I went to a shop where, in my opinion, customers get good service. I went to a shop where, as everyone knows, customers get good service.
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(II) SUBORDINATING TO AN ADVERB CLAUSE: I was able to meet the deadline because, fortunately, I had good help. I was able to meet the deadline because, in my opinion, I had good help. I was able to meet the deadline because, as everyone knows, I had good help. (III) SUBORDINATING TO A NOUN CLAUSE: I can tell you that, fortunately, we did it correctly. I can tell you that, in my opinion, we did it correctly. I can tell you that, as everyone knows, we did it correctly. This also holds true for any parenthetic element. 8.4.4 WHEN LINKED BY CONJUNCTIONS Generally, use a comma or other punctuation stop between clauses linked by coordinate conjunctions, particularly when the grammatical subject of each clause is different: I liked that movie, but the others did not like it very much. Let us make the most of today, for tomorrow may never come. If the clauses are short and closely related, and if no ambiguity arises, a comma before the conjunction may not be necessary: It began to snow and I became very cold. I saw the football game and I enjoyed it. Generally not use a comma if the second clause has no stated subject: She fell over and hit her head. His manner was polite but not condescending. 8.4.5 DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING CLAUSES The insertion or omission of a comma before a relative (or adjectival) clause is necessary to inform the reader whether that clause is defining or non-defining. If the relative clause defines--that is, contains information which is an essential part of the meaning of the sentence--it should not be marked off with commas: She bought the jewellery that pleased her. The John Smith who joined the department last week is no relation to the John Smith who will be 65 next year. Use commas to mark off non-defining relative clauses--that is, a clause that adds a new point to the main clause that is not essential to the sense of the sentence: She bought the jewellery, which pleased her. John Smith, who will be 65 next year, has been with the department for 30 years. [See also Nouns, section 8.4.7.]
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8.4.6 NAMES OR TITLES OF PERSONS Use commas to mark off the names or titles of persons addressed: I wish to inform you, sir, that I will be absent from the chamber. Your ruling, Mr Speaker, is acceptable to me. Well done, sir. 8.4.7 NOUNS Note the use of commas with nouns in the following: The minister at the table, the Minister for Finance and Administration, was not in the chamber when this bill was debated previously. BUT My colleague the member for Banks will second the motion. The author Patrick White addressed the group. I congratulate my friend the honourable member for Franklin. [See also Defining and non-defining relative clauses, section 8.4.5.] 8.4.8 OMISSION OF WORDS Use commas to indicate the omission of one or more words common to two parts of a sentence: In 1953 there were 14 applications; in 1954, 27; and in 1955, 10. 8.4.9 PARTICIPLES AND PARTICIPLE PHRASES Participles and participle phrases that have an adjectival function are generally marked off by commas, regardless of where they occur in a sentence: Stunned, I was unable to speak. Smiling, she turned to the next applicant. Stopped by the policemen, she protested her innocence. She turned around and, replying to me, said that she did not know the answer. He resigned from his position, having tired of the long hours. A participle phrase that has its own subject (the absolute construction) is always marked off by commas. Note that in the absolute construction the subject is not separated from the participle by a comma: The Hansard editors having completed the transcript, their day was finished. The Hansard editors, having finished their transcript, had finished for the day. The Hansard editors, their transcript completed, had finished for the day. Participles and participle phrases that have a verb function are not marked off by commas: I saw my friend stopped by the policeman. I was stunned by the answer.
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8.4.10 HONORARY TITLES OR DEGREES Commas should not be used to separate names from titles or degrees: Mr Jackson QC represented the accused. Mr Jackson AO, QC, MP 8.4.11 CLARIFYING GROUPS OF WORDS OR NUMBERS Use commas to separate words or numbers that might be misunderstood: By 2008, 563 more men will be needed. 8.4.12 USE WITH `AND', `OR' OR `ET CETERA' When a series of items separated by commas concludes with an `and', an `or' or an `et cetera' before the final item, do not place a comma before the final `and', `or' or `et cetera': He opened the letter, read it and made a note of its contents. The balloons were pink, red or maroon. Why not hire your skis, boots, overpants et cetera? If any ambiguity is likely to arise, place a comma before the final item: The shops involved were Myer, David Jones, Marks and Spencer, and Woolworths. 8.4.13 AMBIGUITIES WITH SINGLE WORDS OR SHORT PHRASES Careful use or non-use of commas is necessary to avoid ambiguity or momentary misunderstanding with certain single words or short phrases: for example, `because', `however', `no doubt', `meanwhile', `too' et cetera. Note the distinctions in the following sentences: However his attitude may be interpreted, he failed to solve the problem. However, his attitude may be interpreted as being indicative of the general view. His attitude, however, may be interpreted as being indicative of the general view. No doubt the inclement weather had much to do with the cancellation. She considered, no doubt, that the inclement weather had caused the cancellation. Do not enclose `too' or `also' within commas unless its use qualifies a sentence or statement as a whole: While full credit must be given to the staff, the office system too (also) played a part. Full account must be taken, too, (,also,) of the size of the vote. 8.4.14 INTRODUCING QUOTATIONS [See Quotations, section 9.]
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8.5 ELLIPSIS
[See also Interruptions, section 9.2.7.]
Use ellipses to indicate omitted material.
8.5.1 OMISSION OF WORDS
Use three ellipsis points to indicate the omission of words at the commencement, in the middle or at the end of a quotation in small font, leaving a space before (except at the margin) and after the ellipsis points:
The minister said, inter alia: ... the government will do everything possible ... to remedy the problem ... However, nothing has been done.
8.5.2 OMISSION OF PARAGRAPHS
Use three sets of three ellipsis points (ALT-D) to indicate the omission of a paragraph or paragraphs from a quotation in small font:
Single engine helicopter operations are presently being conducted from Darling
Harbour.
...
...
...
In conclusion, I say without hesitation that the site is unsuitable for
consideration as a city heliport.
8.6 EM RULE (DASH) 8.6.1 PARENTHETICAL STATEMENTS Use an em rule to mark off a parenthetical statement: His excuse--and I must say that I think it is a very lame one; time alone will tell--is that he did not know he had to pay income tax. The Treasurer--or was it the Minister for Finance?--told us so. 8.6.2 CHANGE IN STRUCTURE OF SENTENCE Use an em rule to mark an abrupt change in the structure of a sentence: I went to Rome to see the churches, to Paris to look at the galleries, to Vienna to hear the opera--but I must be boring you with this account of my travels, and I will stop now. 8.6.3 LONG LISTS IN SENTENCE Use an em rule to gather up the subject or object of a sentence which consists of a long list: An unbroken view of the bay with its sweep of battered cliffs, a secluded beach, acres of unspoiled bushland, the ease of constructing an access road and the short distance between Sydney and the site--all these made this the perfect place to build the motel.
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8.6.4 DRAMATIC EFFECT Use an em rule to introduce a statement with greater dramatic effect: When I was a boy my conduct was shaped by two simple principles-- my father's word was law, and a child's first duty was unquestioning obedience. 8.6.5 INTERRUPTIONS Use an em rule to indicate that a speaker has been interrupted: Mr CREAN--Mr Speaker, I draw your attention-- Mr SPEAKER--Order! The member for Hotham will resume his seat.
8.6.6 INTERPOLATIONS
Use an em rule to indicate an interpolation within a sentence in a quotation in small font:
The minister said:
As I said last year--
[Note This em rule must be in small font.]
this statement was made in May this year--
the Labor Party will not follow this course.
Note Do not use an em rule, either with a colon or alone, to introduce lists or quotations in small font. Use a colon alone.
8.7 EXCLAMATION MARK
8.7.1 TRUE EXCLAMATIONS Use an exclamation mark to indicate true exclamations: Mr HOWARD--Did the government lower interest rates? Opposition members--No! He said nothing--typical!--about the issue. 8.7.2 COMMON PARLIAMENTARY TERMS AND INTERJECTIONS It is used after terms such as `Order!', `Hear, hear!' and interjections such as `Oh!'
8.7.3 IRONY OR SARCASM It may also be used to indicate irony and sarcasm. For instance, if a member of the Liberal Party says, `Of course I support everything the Labor Party does!' an exclamation mark is necessary to show that this is irony.
8.7.4 PSEUDO-QUESTIONS An exclamation mark may also be used after pseudo-questions: How dare you say a thing like that! [See also Question mark, section 8.11.]
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8.8 HYPHEN 8.8.1 COMPOUND WORDS IN MACQUARIE DICTIONARY Follow the Macquarie Dictionary as to whether a compound is set separate, set solid or hyphenated. BUT Due to an apparent conflict between different versions of the third edition of Macquarie Dictionary, use child-care (adj) and child care (n) in all instances. Compounds with the word `grower' (cane grower et cetera) will always be set separate. Adjective and adverb forms prefixed by `non' will always be hyphenated (non-party) while noun forms containing this prefix will always be set solid (nonmember). 8.8.2 COMPOUND WORDS NOT IN MACQUARIE DICTIONARY Ambiguity Rule If the Macquarie Dictionary, the Oxford Australian Dictionary or the Hansard determinations below do not provide a ruling, Hansard's ambiguity rule may apply. To assess ambiguity--and therefore hyphenation--select the most obvious meaning. If there is glaring ambiguity, hyphenate to show meaningful clusters of words. Ignore farfetched or contrived ambiguity. Compare: national infant immunisation program (normal sequence, no ambiguity) flood control study (normal sequence, slight ambiguity) new stock exchange report (modified normal sequence, potential ambiguity) Costello-led reforms of tax (potential ambiguity) country-wide roads (normal sequence, glaring ambiguity) Hyphenating `country-wide' and `Costello-led' facilitates understanding and readability and avoids a possible misreading. The Hansard general rule to hyphenate only to avoid obvious ambiguity--based on practical publishing and entry considerations as much as readability--would suggest that `stock exchange' be unhyphenated. The use or nonuse of hyphens in such a case would, however, depend on the immediate context.
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8.8.3 COMPOUND WORDS NOT IN MACQUARIE DICTIONARY AND NOT COVERED UNDER THE AMBIGUITY RULE
Where the Macquarie Dictionary does not have a particular compound, the treatment of that compound may be covered under a specific Hansard ruling on how to treat certain prefixes and suffixes or common compounding principles. These rulings and principles are covered briefly below.
CAPITAL AND STAND-ALONE LETTERS
(1) Hyphenate where the second element begins with a capital letter:
anti-Semitism (n) mid-Victorian (n, adj) pre-Christian
anti-Taliban (adj) post-Tampa (adj, adv) un-Australian (adj)
Note The hyphen is required even in predicate adjectival forms of these words:
The policy was post-Tampa
He is anti-American
Note `anti', `post', `pre' and `pro' can be used as stand-alone prepositions:
post the American Civil War post September 11 He is pro the war,
pre the gold rushes I am anti compulsory voting.
(2) Hyphenate between the names of places linked by roads, railways et cetera:
Neutral Bay-Double Bay New York-Osaka-Sydney service Sydney-Melbourne line Wagga Wagga-Melbourne run
(3) Hyphenate when a single letter is used with a word:
A-bomb e-commerce S-bend
B-grade (adj) L-shaped
D-notice R-rated
BUT A side Q factor VE Day
email Q fever X chromosome
O ring Q value Y chromosome
NUMBERS (as words or figures)
(4) Hyphenate fractions:
one-third
three-quarters 25 thirty-seconds
(5) Hyphenate adjectival compounds where the first element is a number and the second is a noun:
12-monthly review a one-third share one 30-centimetre ruler
24-hour service four-time prime minister one-bedroom unit
BUT set separate similar elements with symbols: $5 million payout
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(6) Hyphenate chemical elements used in combination with figures:
iodine-31
strontium-90
uranium-235
(7) Hyphenate to show a financial year or a span of years:
1914-18 war 2000-01
1999-2000 Labor government of 1972-75
BUT from 1972 to 1975
NOUNS AND VERBS
(8) Hyphenate derived words combining the prefix `ex' when it means former:
ex-boxer
ex-member
ex-wife
(9) Hyphenate compound nouns formed of rhyming elements:
nitty-gritty (n)
owner-driver (n)
(10) Hyphenate all compounds denoting relations preceded by `great'. These require a hyphen to avoid ambiguity:
great-aunt
great-grandmother
(11) Hyphenate noun compounds based on phrasal verbs:
claw-back hang-up stuff-up
fight-back knock-back
hang-out roll-back
(12) Set separate compounds with the agentive `grower':
cane grower wine grower
wheat grower wool grower
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
(13) Hyphenate where two or more hyphenated compounds have a common basic element and this element is omitted in all but the last term:
15,000- to 20,000-tonne range long- and short-term money rates two- to three- and four- to five-kilogram parcels
BUT small to medium sized businesses
(14) Hyphenate adjectival combinations of colours:
a blue-grey haze
black-and-white copies
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(15) Hyphenate compound adverbs and adjectives in the attributive position formed of rhyming, repetitive or conflicting terms and compounds consisting of short phrases:
boom-bust (adj) not-for-profit (adj)
free-to-air (adj) win-win (adj)
(16) Hyphenate compound adjectives in the attributive position, including those containing the following italicised parts:
all-party double-barrelled ever-present half-price ill-tempered low-income middle-income part-time quasi-official shark-proof single-minded well-known
big-ticket duty-free full-scale high-performance long-term medium-term non-inclusive pro-choice self-generated short-term upper-class wide-open
Note a well-known fact he is a low-income worker she is a part-time worker a long-term process a GST-free item
BUT BUT BUT BUT BUT
this fact is well known he is on a low income she works part time the process is long term the item is GST free
Note set separate modified adverb and past/present participle compounds:
extremely well known fact
very low income family
(17) Hyphenate adjectival compounds where the second word ends with `ing':
awe-inspiring event law-abiding citizen
data-matching legislation people-smuggling offences
(18) Set separate adjectival compounds ending in `based', `funded', `owned', `related', `powered', `sized', `type' and `led' where the meaning is unambiguous:
government funded schools privately owned buildings school based learning
(19) Set separate compounds consisting of a present or past participle preceded by the comparative or superlative of an adjective or adverb, or in a compound in which `more' and `most' are used to form the comparative and superlative, respectively:
better known writers lower rated engine longer term process
least visited countries more advanced classes
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MISCELLANEOUS
(20) Hyphenate midpoint compass directions and variations thereof:
north-east (n, adj, adv) south-south-west (n)
south-east by south (n) south-westerly (adj, adv, n)
BUT North West Cape South East Cape South West Rocks
North West Shelf South West Cape
(21) Hyphenate when the last vowel of a prefix is the same as the first letter of the root word:
anti-inflationary (adj) pre-eminent (adj)
de-escalate (v) re-engage
BUT cooperation, coordinate
(22) Hyphenate when the word formed would otherwise be confused with another word:
co-op (coop) re-form (form again) re-sort (sort again)
re-cover (cover again) re-sign (sign again) re-sound (sound again)
(23) In Hansard, adjective and adverb forms prefixed by `non' will be hyphenated, while noun forms combining these prefixes will be set solid. (Do not follow Macquarie Dictionary.) Note for `self' and `quasi' follow Macquarie Dictionary.
non-party (adj)
nonmember (n)
(24) Hyphenate prepositional phrase compound nouns consisting of three or more words:
commercial-in-confidence background not-for-profit
non-English-speaking whole-of-government
(25) Hyphenate verb compounds consisting of adjective and noun or noun and verb:
black-ban fast-track
cherry-pick people-smuggle
cost-shift short-list
(26) Set separate where a letter or numeral is the second element:
article 3 provisions
grade A milk
BUT a catch-22 situation
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(27) Set solid derived words with the following prefixes:
a (negative) ante auto chemo cyber dis en exo geo hydro im (negative) inter macro meso mid mis neo ortho over petro phyto pre psycho re socio sub tele thermo turbo under what whom
aero anti bi co de eco endo extra haemo hyper in intra maxi meta milli mono neuro osteo para photo poly pro (general) pyro retro step (relation) super theo trans ultra uni where xeno
after astro bio counter demi electro ex (not former) fore hemi hypo infra iso mega micro mini multi organo out peri physio post pseudo radio semi stereo supra there tri un up who xero
8.9 OBLIQUE STROKE (FORWARD SLASH)
Use of the oblique stroke is permissible to separate equal alternatives (when the words apply to the same entity):
and/or oral/aural yes/no
either/or secretary/treasurer
he/she win/lose
8.10 PARAGRAPH
The trend has been towards shorter paragraphs. Paragraphs that run for a screen's length or more are too long. Paragraphs should be no more than half a screen's length and paragraphs shorter than this are quite acceptable. Short one-sentence paragraphs should be avoided but may be acceptable where there is a clear change of subject matter. In the case of turn breaks, text may have to be passed on to the previous editor or text from the preceding turn taken into the following turn to make a paragraph of satisfactory length, particularly if a turn will be held up--for example, a question time turn. Paragraphs after material in small font should be commenced on the margin (.Block style, obtained by pressing ALT-C with cursor in the text of the paragraph.) This includes when the break coincides with the start of a new turn. Do not start sentences or paragraphs with (1), (2), (3) or (a), (b), (c) except in quotes.
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Questions without notice are not paragraphed. Answers to questions without notice may be paragraphed, as may answers given by witnesses appearing before parliamentary committees. All motions and formal amendments, if not numbered, begin with a paragraph indent. Paragraphs in second reading speeches should be left as they appear in the typed speech provided by the minister. 8.11 QUESTION MARK A question mark is used at the end of a sentence or parenthetical clause which asks a direct question: How many pages will be needed? The Treasurer--or was it the Minister for Finance and Administration?--told us so. Would the minister inform the House of recent reports on the benefits to the work force of Australian workplace agreements? A question mark is not used after an indirect or reported question: He asked whether we should still do it. He asked how many pages would be needed. A question mark is not used after a statement which is a request rather than a question: Can I stop you there for a second. Would you please let me know the answer as soon as possible. Will the honourable member please resume his seat. Don't report that, will you. Might I say that he was speaking off the cuff. Might I turn now to another matter. Sometimes the tone of voice may turn a statement into a question: You really saw it? A question which concludes with a passage in small font need not be rewritten: Does the minister know that in the Australian of today's date the following statement appeared: The Prime Minister has indicated that he will leave Australia within the next few days to visit China. [See also Pseudo-questions, section 8.7.4.]
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8.12 QUOTATION MARKS Use single quotation marks-- Around newspaper headlines, the titles of magazine articles, essays, discussion papers and lectures. Use minimal capitalisation. The first letter of the first word of the title and of those words that normally bear an initial capital should be capitalised. [See also Books, poems et cetera, section 5.2 (italics) and Titles and subtitles, 8.3.5.]: The essay was `On the origin of the dinosaurs'. In an article entitled `Dogs savage teenager', John Smith claimed ... The headline in the Daily Telegraph was `An act of war'. The minister has recently released a discussion paper `Higher education at the crossroads: an overview'. To indicate technical terms in non-technical writing, colloquial words in formal writing, nicknames, slang and coined or humorous words the first time they are mentioned: Sir Edward `Weary' Dunlop BUT Weary was a great Australian; Weary Dunlop was a great Australian He said he would `keep the bastards honest'. When a member indicates--sometimes by gesture--that certain words are to be enclosed in quotation marks. To enclose the exact words of a writer or speaker, unless these are shown in small font. [See also Quotations, section 9 and note Incomplete quotations, section 9.1.1; and Short complete quotations, section 9.1.2.] To indicate italics within italics. To mark off a term: the word `mark' Note Use double quotation marks only for quoted material within a quotation. 8.13 SEMICOLON The semicolon indicates a pause or degree of separation greater than is marked by the comma but less than would justify a full stop. Do not overuse the semicolon. Use semicolons-- 8.13.1 SINGLE SENTENCE FROM TWO OR MORE CLAUSES Use a semicolon to form a single compound sentence from two or more clauses which are grammatically complete and not joined by a conjunction: It is nearly half past six; we cannot reach town before dark.
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8.13.2 BEFORE A CONJUNCTION Use a semicolon before a conjunction or generally in a context that requires a slightly more pronounced pause: When they reached the frontier, they were deprived of their tickets, their passports and their heavy luggage; so there they had to stay. He is a sick man; nevertheless he remains cheerful. 8.13.3 SEPARATING CLAUSES OR PHRASES Use a semicolon to separate clauses or phrases which already contain commas: The practice of medicine is an art, not a trade; a calling, not a business; a calling in which your heart will be exercised equally with your head. The rate of inflation for Australia is 10 per cent; West Germany, six per cent; Japan, four per cent; and Korea, two per cent. On the table were knives, forks and spoons; cups and saucers; and plates, bowls and glasses of all kinds. 8.13.4 SEPARATING PARALLEL CLAUSES Use a semicolon to separate parallel clauses, instead of joining them with a conjunction: To be poor and not complain is difficult; to be rich and not arrogant is easy; to be neither is the fate of most.
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9. QUOTATIONS Hansard deals with quotations in three ways: Single quotation marks for incomplete quotations or short complete quotations: The honourable member said that the government was `guilty of misrepresentation'. The honourable member said, `The government is guilty of misrepresentation.' Small font size for longer quotations (separated from the preceding and following text by hard returns and introduced with a colon): The honourable member said: The government is guilty of misrepresentation and if this continues it should be thrown out of office. Neither quotation marks nor small font size for indirect quotations: The honourable member said that the government was guilty of misrepresentation. [See also Prefacing direct speech or quotations, section 8.3.3. and Quotation marks, section 8.12.] 9.1 INCOMPLETE QUOTATIONS AND SHORT COMPLETE QUOTATIONS 9.1.1 INCOMPLETE QUOTATIONS Do not use an introductory comma or an initial capital letter, except for a proper name, at the start of the quotation: The Prime Minister said that he would introduce the bill `next week'. Place outside the quotation marks any punctuation marks that relate to the sentence rather than to the quotation: The Prime Minister said that he would introduce the bill `next week'. The Prime Minister said that he would introduce the bill `next week', but he did not say what would be in it. The Prime Minister said that he would introduce the bill `in my own time'. The Australian Democrats were formed by Don Chipp to `keep the bastards honest'. If the speaker is interrupted during a short quotation and does not continue the quote, use the following style: Senator JACOBS--He said, `That's a good'-- Senator Barnes--Why? Senator JACOBS--Will you stop interrupting me. Note If using quotation marks to enclose the exact words of a writer or speaker, use Hansard style for the enclosed words. Do not use the grammar, spelling or font style of the original quote as is done with quotes in small font. [See Format, section 9.2.3.]
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9.1.2 SHORT COMPLETE QUOTATIONS Place a comma before the opening quotation mark UNLESS there is a formal introduction to a quotation, in which case you would use a colon: The Prime Minister said, `I will introduce the bill next week.' The member replied, `That is not good enough.' `I will introduce the bill next week,' the Prime Minister said. `The bill,' the Prime Minister said, `will be introduced next week.' BUT The Prime Minister addressed us with these words: `I will introduce the bill next week.' [See also Prefacing direct speech or quotations, section 8.3.3.] Place punctuation marks inside the final quotation mark unless the introductory clause is a question and the quotation is a statement or the quotation is interrupted by a parenthetical element: The minister asked, `When will you understand this?' The minister asked, `When will you understand this?' believing they never would. `What is the time?' he asked. The minister said, `You will never understand this,' laughing as he rose to his feet. The minister said, `I will introduce the bill next week.' The minister exclaimed, `Wouldn't you know it!' The minister exclaimed, `Wouldn't you know it!' but the member did not react. BUT Did I hear the Prime Minister say, `I will introduce the bill next week'? Did he hear the Speaker call, `Order'? [because the introductory clause is a question and the quotation is a statement] AND The Prime Minister said, `I will introduce the bill'--we all know what sort of bill it will be--`next week.' [because of the interpolation] It may be helpful to know that for short complete quotations the punctuation mark nearly always goes inside. Note If using quotation marks to enclose the exact words of a writer or speaker, use Hansard style for the enclosed words. Do not use the grammar, spelling or font style of the original quote as is done with quotes in small font. [See Format, section 9.2.3.]
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9.2 LONGER DIRECT QUOTATIONS These quotations are typed in a small font size. To get the correct font, put the cursor anywhere in the quoted text and use the macro ALT-S (for `Small' style--paragraph indented with small text) or the macro ALT-A (for `Small Block' style--paragraph starting on the margin with small text) as per the original quoted material. 9.2.1 INTRODUCTION OF TEXT The quoted text is in small font, is introduced with a colon and has one hard return before and after it: Mr JENKINS--The relevant council minute reads: The Council stands firm in its backing of the proposal and undertakes to pay for all the legal expenses incurred. Note The word `that' should not preface the colon when introducing quotations. [See also Introducing lists, quotations et cetera , section 8.3.1.] 9.2.2 WHEN SPEAKER RESUMES When the speaker resumes his own words, do not indent for a new paragraph but resume on the margin. This text should be in `.Block' style, which can be applied by placing the cursor anywhere in the paragraph and pressing ALT-C. Mr JENKINS--The relevant council minute reads: The Council stands firm in its backing of the proposal and undertakes to pay for all the legal expenses incurred. This should be noted by everyone here. 9.2.3 FORMAT Follow the spelling, paragraphing, indenting, grammar, punctuation and capitalisation style of the document: Mr JENKINS--The relevant council minute reads: The Council stands firm in it's backing of the proposal and, undertakes to pay for all the legal expenses incurred. Follow the font style of the document with regard to words/sentences in italics, capitals, bolding and underlining, unless the entire document/paragraph is italicised, capitalised, bolded or underlined (in which case use normal font). BUT Do not follow the font size style of the words/sentences in the document. Follow the style of the document and use single or double quotation marks for quoted material within a quotation rendered in small font. Note If the grammar or spelling are wrong, still follow what is in the original. [See also Incomplete quotations, section 9.1.1 and Short complete quotations, section 9.1.2.]
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9.2.4 OMISSION OF WORDS
Show omission of a few words or phrases by ellipsis:
Mr JENKINS--The relevant council minute reads: The council stands firm ... and undertakes to pay for all the legal expenses incurred.
9.2.5 LENGTHY OMISSIONS
Show a lengthy omission from the text by a line of ellipses (ALT-D):
Mr JENKINS--The relevant council minute reads:
The council stands firm in its backing of the proposal and undertakes to pay for
all the legal expenses incurred.
...
...
...
The council has dealt with this kind of situation for many years.
9.2.6 INCOMPLETE QUOTATIONS
Use ellipsis to show that the beginning or end of the quotation is incomplete:
Mr JENKINS--The relevant council minute reads: The council stands firm in its backing of the proposal and undertakes to pay ...
Mr JENKINS--The relevant council minute reads: ... council stands firm in its backing of the proposal and undertakes to pay for all the legal expenses incurred.
9.2.7 INTERRUPTIONS
Use an em rule to indicate an interruption:
Mr JENKINS--The relevant council minute reads:
The council stands firm--
[Note This em rule is in small font.]
but I cannot imagine why it would--
in its backing of the proposal and undertakes to pay for all the legal expenses
incurred.
[See also Ellipsis, section 8.5.]
9.3 INDIRECT QUOTATIONS Do not enclose indirect speech (indicated by the word `that') in quotation marks: Members asked when the Prime Minister would introduce the bill. The Prime Minister said that he would introduce the bill next week.
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9.4 QUOTATIONS FROM SONGS AND POEMS Follow the usual Hansard rules for quoting a short, incomplete quotation or a short, complete quotation from a song or poem. [See Incomplete quotations and short complete quotations, section 9.1.] For a longer direct quotation from a song or poem, set it against the margin (in Small Block style) and follow the spelling, paragraphing, grammar, punctuation and capitalisation style of the song or poem: Mr McGAURAN--This is the second verse of our national anthem, Advance Australia Fair: Beneath our radiant Southern Cross, We'll toil with hearts and hands, To make this Commonwealth of ours Renowned of all the lands, For those who've come across the seas We've boundless plains to share, With courage let us all combine To advance Australia fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia fair. [See also Books, poems, plays et cetera, section 4.16.1 (capitals); and Books, poems, booklets et cetera, section 5.2 (italics).]
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10. SPECIAL STYLE
10.1 COMPUTER AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TERMS As computer and information technology terms are rapidly evolving, follow this section and NOT the Macquarie Dictionary.
A analog applet ASCII, American standard code for information interchange ASP, application service provider B bar code BASIC, beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code bit bit-map blog, blogging/web logging bps, bits per second broadband BSRAM/burst SRAM/SynchBurst SRAM bulletin board byte (a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits long; 1 byte=8 bits) C card swipe reader CDMA, code division multiple access CD-ROM, compact disc-read only memory CGI, common gateway interface chat room CIDR, classless inter-domain routing cookie cybercourt cybercrime cybermall cyberpunk cyberspace cybersquatting cyberstore cyberterrorism cybervandalism D database data capture datacast datamatch dataset debug desktop publishing dial-up (adj), dial up (v) disc/compact disc (music) disk/ floppy disk/diskette (computers) DNS, domain name system 73
DOS, disk operating system dotcom .NET (n, adj--pronounced `dot net') (a Microsoft business strategy) download DRAM, Dynamic RAM E e-activist e-author e-banking e-biz e-book e-box e-brief e-business e-card e-cash e-commerce e-contract law e-copy e-crime e-cycling e-democracy EFTPOS, electronic funds transfer at point of sale e-journal e-governance e-government E-layer, Heaviside layer email email address emoticon e-motion (parliamentary) end user e-newsstand e-politics e-privacy e-publishing e-pulp e-real estate e-retail e-subscription e-tag e-tailing e-tales ethernet e-topia e-trade e-trash e-wallet e-zine, electronic magazine HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
F FAQ(s) frequently asked question(s) filename firewall format, formatting FORTRAN, formulation translation G gateway GIF, graphics interchange format (the original and preferred pronunciation is DJIF) Google (the company), to google groupware GSM, global system for mobile GUI, graphical user interface H hard copy hard disk hard drive hardware Heaviside layer/E-layer home page hotlink HTML, hypertext mark-up language HTTP, hypertext transfer protocol hyperlink hypertext I infoglut information superhighway input internet, the net interplanetary web IP address, internet protocol address IRC, internet relay chat J Java JPEG junk spam K keyword kilobit/kbps/kbits (commonly used for measuring the amount of data that is transferred in a second between two telecommunication points) kilobyte/kb/kbyte (a measure of computer memory or storage) L LAN, local area network laptop/notebook computer Linux login logon logoff 74
logout M mainframe MAN, metropolitan area network mark-up language m-commerce, mobile commerce megahertz metadata me-zine MIDI, musical instrument digital interface modem motherboard MPEG, moving picture experts group MP3 multimedia multi-task N narrowcasting net, the netiquette netsurfing newsgroup notebook/laptop computer O off-line online OSI, open systems interconnection P PDA, personal digital assistant palmtop PAN, personal area network PC, personal computer phishing portal PowerPoint presentation Q QPS, query per second quadbit QWERTY keyboard queuing theory R RAM, random-access memory real-time rebroadcast reboot retransmit ROM, read-only memory S screen saver SGML, standard generalised mark-up language shareware SIM card, subscriber identity modules SMS, short message service HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
software spam spammed/spamming spellcheck spellchecker spreadsheet SQL, structured query language SRAM, static random-access memory stand-alone supercomputer T TDMA, time division multiple access telemedicine tech wreck the net the web trojan horse U UDA, universal data access UNIX uplink upload URL, uniform resource locator userid username V V-chip voice mail VPN, virtual private network W WAN, wide area network WAP, wireless application protocol web, the web browser Webby Award/Webby, the [email protected] weblog, weblogging/blogging webpage web server web site Word WordPerfect word wrap work page World Wide Web, the web WYSIWYG what you see is what you get WYSIWYP, what you see is what you print X XML, extensible mark-up language X terminal X-modem xSP Y Yagi aerial/antenna
Y-modem Z ZV port Z-modem Zip drive Note A valuable source of information for computer terms can be found at http://whatis.techtarget.com/
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10.2 DEFENCE TERMS
Defence (when clearly referring to the department BUT if unclear or referring to the armed forces, use lower case): The committee will consider the Defence submission (a submission from the department).
The committee will consider the defence submission (a submission from the armed forces or where it is unclear whether it is from the armed forces or the department).
BUT defence (the concept): The committee will consider the defence submission (a submission about defence as a concept, as opposed to being from the Department of Defence or from the armed forces).
Abrams tank ADF Reserves Aegis air warfare system AEWAC, airborne early warning and control AWAC, airborne warning and control) Air Force (the Royal Australian), the Air Force Air Force Reserve, AF Reserve, the reserve AIRN (Army individual readiness notice) ANZAC (original WWI corps) Anzac (for example, personnel, frigates et cetera) armed forces armed services army (foreign) Army (the Australian), the Army Army Presence in the North (program) Army Reserve (ARes), the reserve Assistant Chief of the Defence Force (Operations) Australian Defence College Australian Defence Force, the Defence Force Australian defence organisation Australian fleet Australian Naval Reserve, ANR, the reserve Cadet Corps Chief of Air Force Chief of Army Chief of Navy Chief of the Defence Force, CDF Chief of Staff BUT chiefs of staff Defence (when clearly the department) defence (the concept) defence (when it is unclear whether it is the armed forces or the department) Defence annual report 76
Defence, Department of (Australia) BUT Defense, Department of (USA) Defence Force, Australian; the Defence Force Defence Force Review defence forces defence housing Defence Materiel Organisation defence minister defence personnel Defence Reserves Defence Science and Technology Organisation defence services Director of Military Prosecutions exercise: for example, Kangaroo 95 ex-serviceman, ex-servicemen BUT ex- service men and women force, regular Headquarters Australian Defence Force Headquarters Australian Theatre Inspector-General of the Australian Defence Force Jindalee Operational Radar Network, JORN Maritime Command Materiel Division military time zone codes-- golf time (zone includes parts of Russia and Western Indonesia) hotel time (zone includes China, Hong Kong and other countries) zulu time (zone includes Britain, Portugal and other countries) National Anti-Terrorist Plan Navy (the Royal Australian); the Navy NORFORCE RAAF Base Edinburgh, Edinburgh RAAF Base, RAAF base, the base Operation Phoenix HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
Ready Reserve(s), the; the reserve(s) regular force Regular Army, the regulars reserve-- ADF Reserves Air Force Reserve Army Reserve Australian Naval Reserve General Reserve Ready Reserve Reserve reserves, reservists reserve command Royal Australian Air Force, the Air Force service-- senior service, the service pensions service people service minister(s) servicewoman, servicewomen serviceman, servicemen BUT service men and women services, the (in the defence sense, for all or any of the Air Force, Army or Navy) services, the three SIEV (suspected illegal entry vessel); for example, SIEV4, SIEVX sit rep (situation report) Special Air Service, SAS Special Air Service Regiment, SASR Strategic Command Tandem Thrust, Operation Tandem Thrust triservice victualling (pronounced `vittalling') [See also Commonwealth, state and territory government departments, section 4.2; Titles of positions, section 4.3; and Ships, aircraft and trains, section 5.4. See Defence annual report for current acronyms.]
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10.2.1 TITLES
Titles are spelt out in full in the body of the text. However, they are abbreviated when used as side names in committee transcripts. [See also Hansard Committee Form Guide.]
Admiral Air Commodore Air Vice Marshal Brigadier Captain Colonel Commander Commodore Flight Lieutenant General Group Captain Lieutenant, 2nd Lieutenant Lieutenant Colonel Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant General Major Major General Rear Admiral Regimental Sergeant Major Sergeant Squadron Leader Vice Admiral Warrant Officer Wing Commander
Adm. Air Cdre Air Vice Marshal Brig. Capt. Col. Cmdr Cdre Flt Lt Gen. Group Capt. Lt Lt Col. Lt Cmdr Lt Gen. Major Major Gen. Rear Adm. Sgt Major Sgt Sqn Ldr Vice Adm. Warrant Officer Wing Cmdr
10.2.2 AIRCRAFT NAMES ET CETERA
Aircraft names et cetera should not be hyphenated:
A300 BAe146 B52 B737 Boeing 727 DC6B DC9, hush-kitted DC9 F111 FA18 Fokker Friendship Joint Strike Fighter P3C Orion
BUT Boeing 737-800
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10.2.3 MILITARY FORMATIONS It is customary to describe military formations as shown below. In committee transcripts, abbreviations, if used, are acceptable as shown in square brackets: the 6th Division [6 Division] 1st Brigade [1 Brigade] 2nd Armoured Regiment [2 Armoured Regiment] the 2nd Battalion, RAR [2 Battalion, RAR or 2RAR] 2nd/31st Battalion [2/31 Battalion] 8th Cavalry Regiment [8 Cavalry or Cav. Regiment] 1st/15th Royal New South Wales Lancers [1/15 Royal New South Wales Lancers] 2nd/14th Queensland Mounted Infantry [2/14 Queensland Mounted Infantry] No. 77 Squadron (RAAF) Third Australian Destroyer Squadron (RAN) It is customary to designate corps with roman numerals: the X Corps It is customary to designate armies with ordinal numbers written in full: the Eighth Army [See also Ordinals, section 7.1.3.] 10.2.4 NAMES OF SHIPS AND ADF FACILITIES AND BASES Names of ships and ADF bases should be shown as follows: HMAS Success HMAS Tobruk HMAS Westralia HMAS Cerberus HMAS Coonawarra HMAS Harman Sail Training Ship Young Endeavour When pos s needs to be added, the pos s should not be italicised: HMAS Sydney's crew Cerberus's quota Class names of ships are not italicised: Daring class destroyer Voyager Collins class submarine Dechaineux Ship types such as DDL and FFG need not be spelt out in full.
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VESSELS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY
Amphibious transport ships HMAS Kanimbla HMAS Manoora Anzac frigates HMAS Anzac HMAS Arunta HMAS Ballarat HMAS Parramatta HMAS Perth HMAS Stuart HMAS Toowoomba HMAS Warramunga Diving/patrol launches Malu Baizam Seal Shark Guided missile frigates HMAS Adelaide HMAS Canberra HMAS Darwin HMAS Melbourne HMAS Newcastle HMAS Sydney Landing craft (heavy) HMAS Balikpapan HMAS Betano HMAS Brunei HMAS Labuan HMAS Tarakan HMAS Wewak
HMAS Gawler HMAS Geelong HMAS Geraldton HMAS Gladstone HMAS Ipswich HMAS Launceston HMAS Townsville HMAS Warrnambool HMAS Whyalla HMAS Wollongong Replenishment ships HMAS Success HMAS Westralia Sail training ship STS Young Endeavour Submarines HMAS Collins HMAS Dechaineux HMAS Farncomb HMAS Rankin HMAS Sheean HMAS Waller Support craft lighters Boronia Telopea Wallaby Warrigal Wattle Wombat Wyulda
Landing ship (heavy) HMAS Tobruk Mine countermeasure vessels HMAS Bandicoot HMAS Diamantina HMAS Gascoyne HMAS Hawkesbury HMAS Huon HMAS Norman HMAS Rushcutter HMAS Shoalwater HMAS Wallaroo HMAS Yarra
Survey motor launches Benalla Mermaid Paluma Shepparton Survey ships HMAS Leeuwin HMAS Melville Torpedo recovery vessels Tailor Trevally Tuna
Patrol boats HMAS Bendigo HMAS Bunbury HMAS Cessnock HMAS Dubbo HMAS Fremantle
Tugs Bronzewing Currawong Mollymawk Quokka Tammar
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AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE FACILITIES AND BASES ALL SERVICES Australian Defence College, which oversees these bodies: · Australian Defence Force Academy (Campbell) · Centre for Defence and Strategic Studies (Weston Creek) · Australian Command and Staff College (Weston Creek) Australian Defence Force Cadets, which oversees these bodies: · Australian Navy Cadets · Australian Army Cadets · Australian Air Force Cadets (previously Air Training Corps) Headquarters Australian Theatre (approved for site near Bungendore) Joint Ammunition Logistics Organisation (at Orchard Hills in New South Wales ) Royal Military College of Australia (Duntroon and Tuggeranong)
AUSTRALIAN ARMY New South Wales Greenhills Holsworthy Kapooka Moorebank Randwick Singleton Victoria Barracks (NSW) Northern Territory Larrakeyah Barracks Robertson Barracks Queensland Banyo Bulimba Cabarlah Canungra Enoggera Meeandah Oakey Victoria Barracks (Qld)
South Australia Keswick Barracks Tasmania Anglesea Barracks Victoria Bandiana Bonegilla Glenorchy Puckapunyal Victoria Barracks (Vic) Watsonia Western Australia Campbell Barracks Irwin Barracks Leeuwin Barracks
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ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE Australian Capital Territory RAAF Base Fairbairn New South Wales Headquarters Air Command (at RAAF Base Glenbrook) RAAF Base Forest Hill RAAF Base Richmond RAAF Base Wagga RAAF Base Williamtown Northern Territory RAAF Base Darwin RAAF Base Tindal Queensland RAAF Base Amberley RAAF Base Townsville South Australia RAAF Base Edinburgh Victoria RAAF Base East Sale RAAF Base Williams (takes in facilities at Point Cook and Laverton) Western Australia RAAF Base Pearce
ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY Australian Capital Territory HMAS Harman New South Wales Garden Island HMAS Albatross HMAS Creswell HMAS Kuttabul HMAS Penguin HMAS Waterhen HMAS Watson Northern Territory HMAS Coonawarra Darwin Naval Base Shoal Bay Queensland HMAS Cairns Naval Headquarters--South Queensland, Bulimba Barracks, Brisbane South Australia Naval Headquarters--South Australia, Keswick Barracks, Adelaide Tasmania Naval Headquarters--Tasmania, Anglesea Barracks, Hobart Victoria HMAS Cerberus Williamstown Western Australia HMAS Stirling
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10.3 HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
Australian Catholic University Australian Maritime College Australian National University Avondale College Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education Bond University Central Queensland University Charles Darwin University Charles Sturt University Curtin University of Technology Deakin University Edith Cowan University Flinders University Griffith University James Cook University La Trobe University Macquarie University Marcus Oldham College Melbourne University Private Monash University Murdoch University Queensland University of Technology RMIT University Southern Cross University Swinburne University of Technology University of Adelaide, Adelaide university University of Ballarat, Ballarat university University of Canberra, Canberra university University of Melbourne, Melbourne university University of Newcastle, Newcastle university University of New England University of New South Wales, New South Wales university University of Notre Dame University of Queensland, Queensland university University of South Australia, South Australia university University of Southern Queensland, Southern Queensland university University of the Sunshine Coast University of Sydney, Sydney university University of Tasmania, Tasmania university University of Technology, Sydney University of Western Australia, Western Australia university University of Western Sydney, Western Sydney university University of Wollongong, Wollongong university Victoria University
ACU AMC ANU Avondale Batchelor Bond CQU CDU CSU Curtin Deakin ECU Flinders GU JCU La Trobe Macquarie Marcus Oldham MUP, MU Private Monash Murdoch QUT RMIT SCU Swinburne Adelaide UB UC UniMelb UoN UNE UNSW Notre Dame, UND UQ UniSA USQ USC Sydney UTas UTS UWA UWS UoW VU
Note Group of Eight universities
Go8
The Group of Eight is a coalition of Australia's leading universities. Membership comprises the vicechancellors of the University of Adelaide, the Australian National University, the University of Melbourne, Monash University, the University of New South Wales, the University of Queensland, the University of Sydney and the University of Western Australia.
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10.4 SCHEMES, POLICIES, PROGRAMS AND AGREEMENTS [See also Schemes, policies, programs et cetera, section 4.5; and Compound names, section 3.2.] A A Better Superannuation System Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages Initiatives Program (ATSILIP) Aboriginal Education Strategic Initiatives Program (AESIP) Active Australia (national physical activity initiative) Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP) Advanced Networks Program (ANP) A Fairer Medicare: Better Access, More Affordable; A Fairer Medicare Aged Care Complaints Resolution Scheme Agriculture Advancing Australia (AAA NOT `triple A') air pollution in Major Cities Program Army Presence in the North (APIN) Australian Services Cadet Scheme (ASCS) Australians Working Together package Australian water fund Australia Remembers Australia's Oceans Policy B Backing Australia's Ability Bass Strait Passenger Vehicle Equalisation Scheme Better Cities Program (a Labor Party program) beyondblue (national depression initiative) Broadcasting for Remote Aboriginal Communities Scheme (BRACS) Building Better Cities (a Liberal Party program) Building on Information Technology Strengths (BITS) program Bushcare program Business Development Program (BDP) C Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET) program Charter of Budget Honesty Clean Seas Program Coastal and Marine Planning Program (CMPP) Coastal Monitoring Program Coastcare program Commemoration of Historic Events and Famous Persons program Commercialising Emerging Technologies (COMET) Commonwealth Grant Scheme (a higher education scheme) Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, the housing agreement Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme (CSS) Community Aged Care Package (CACP) program Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) community development project (CDP) Community Housing and Infrastructure Program (CHIP) Community Support Program (CSP) consolidated revenue fund Creative Nation Cultural Heritage Projects Program (CHPP)
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D Dairy Exit Program (DEP) Dairy Industry Adjustment Package (DIAP) Dairy Regional Assistance Program (Dairy RAP) Dairy Structural Adjustment Program (DSAP) Defence Update Diesel and Alternative Fuels Grants Scheme Diesel Fuel Rebate Scheme E Educational Textbook Subsidy Scheme (ETSS) Energy Grants (Cleaner Fuels) Scheme Employee Entitlements Support Scheme (EESS) Endangered Species Program Energy Efficiency Best Practice (EEBP) program Energy Grants (Credits) Scheme Export Market Development Grants Scheme, EMDG Scheme, EMDGS, export market development grants Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH) program F Farm Business Improvement Program (FarmBis) Farm Family Restart Scheme (FFRS) Farm Management Deposits (FMD) scheme Federation Community Projects Program Federation Cultural and Heritage Projects Program Fightback Financial Assistance Grants (FAGs) Scheme First Home Owners Scheme, first home owners grant Fisheries Action Program Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Package (FISAP) G General Employee Entitlements Redundancy Scheme (GEERS) Go Career program Green Corps program Greenhouse Challenge Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE) program Group Training New Apprenticeships Targeted Initiatives Program (GTNATIP) H health care agreement Higher Education Loan Program, HELP; FEE-HELP; OS-HELP; HECS-HELP Home and Community Care (HACC) program HomeFront program Humanitarian Program I Immunise Australia Program Indigenous Education Strategic Initiatives Program (IESIP) Indigenous Employment Program (IEP) Information Technology Online (ITOL) program Innovation Access Program (IAP) International Monetary Fund, IMF (a body with staff) Internet Assistance Program (IAP)
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J Job Network Job Placement, Employment and Training (JPET) program Job Search Jobstart program Jobs, Education and Training (JET) program Jobs Pathway Program (JPP) K, L Knowledge Nation Landcare program Landcare and Environment Action Plan (or Program) (LEAP) Language Access Initiatives Program (LAIP) Language, Literacy and Numeracy Program (LLNP) Lifetime Health Cover initiative Link Up program and Link Up services Living Cities program/policy/initiative M, N Medicare Benefits Schedule Medicare Gold (Labor Party program) MedicarePlus Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO) Migration (non-Humanitarian) Program National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality National Arts and Crafts Industry Support Strategy (NACISS) National Capital Plan national competition policy (NCP) National Drug Strategy National Employment and Training (NEAT) System (or Scheme) National Feral Animal Control Program National Greenhouse Strategy National Illicit Drug Strategy (otherwise known as the Tough on Drugs strategy) National Landcare Program (NLP) National OJD Control and Evaluation Program (NOJDP) (Note OJD is ovine Johne's disease) National Respite for Carers Program (NRCP) National River Health Program National Road Safety Black Spot Program National School Drug Education Strategy National Water Initiative National Weeds Program National Wetlands Program Natural Heritage Trust Networking the Nation New Apprenticeships (the program), new apprenticeships (the apprenticeships) New Apprenticeships Access Program (NAAP) New Industries Development Program (NIDP) Newstart O, P, Q, R oil for food program (United Nations program) One Billion Trees program Partnerships for Development (PfD) program Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme Practice Incentives Program (PIP) Priority One: Young Australia Public Sector Superannuation (PSS) Scheme Raising National Water Standards program
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R&D Start Regional Assistance Program (RAP) Regional Flood Mitigation Program (RFMP) Regional Forest Agreement Participation and Awareness Program Return to Work program Roads of National Importance (RONI) program/scheme, roads of national importance (the roads) Roads to Recovery program S, T, U Save the Bush SkillShare Small Business Enterprise Culture Program (SBECP) Strategic Materiel Acquisition Request for Tender (SMART) 2000 Strategic Partnership Industry Development Agreements (SPIDA) program Strategic Partnerships with Industry--Research and Training (SPIRT) Scheme `Strengthening Medicare' (in relation to the MedicarePlus package) Tasmanian Regional Forest Agreement, regional forest agreement Tax Law Improvement Project (TLIP) Transition to Work program United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, UNICEF (a body with staff) V, W, X, Y, Z VET in Schools program Water Smart Australia program Waterwatch Australia Water Wise Communities program Work for the Dole program Working Nation Workplace English Language and Literacy (WELL) program Young Offenders Pilot Program (YOPP) Youth Allowance program Youth Pathways Action Plan Taskforce
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10.5 PARLIAMENTARY AND PUBLIC SERVICE TERMS
[See also Titles of positions, section 4.3.]
A act(s)-- division income tax act (if not specific) paragraph subparagraph part (I et cetera) preamble schedule (first schedule et cetera) section subsection tax act (if not specific) title [See also Proposed amendments to bills, section 6.1.2.] Note A list of acts administered by each department appears at the beginning of that department's entry in the Commonwealth Government Directory. Text of acts can be found at http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/html/pasteact/browse/TOC.htm or http://www.austlii.edu.au/. Text of bills and bill related documents can be found at http://www.aph.gov.au/bills/index.htm or on ParlInfo. Acting Prime Minister Acting Secretary to/of the Department of the Environment and Heritage address-in-reply, the address adjournment debate administration (the Reagan administration, the Keating administration) Administrative Arrangements Order Advance to the Minister for Finance, the advance Ageing minister, Ageing portfolio (otherwise ambiguous) Alert Digest(s) appropriations, the appropriations appropriation bills Appropriation Bill (No. 1) 1991-92 ASO5 Attorney-General Attorney-General's Department, A-G's the Attorney (meaning the Attorney-General) attorneys-general Audit Office, Auditor-General, Auditor (meaning the Auditor-General) AusInfo Australian Government Solicitor autumn sittings ayes (ayes and noes)
B back bench (row of seats) backbench (members of) backbencher bar (legal and House of Representatives) bill(s)-- appropriation bills clause division 88
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subclause first reading paragraph part (I et cetera) preamble schedule (first schedule et cetera) subparagraph second reading title [See also Bills, section 6.1.1.] Bills Digest Black Rod blue book (a parliamentary report or paper) blue sheet/paper, the blue (the House of Representatives daily program) budget(s)-- budget papers Budget Paper No. 1, the budget paper budget session budget speech, the Treasurer's speech, the speech Note There is only one budget speech: the Treasurer's. References to speeches on the budget by other members or senators should be rendered as `the honourable member's/senator's speech on the budget'. mini-budget state budget(s) business of the Senate (a section of the Notice Paper)
C cabinet(s) Cabinet Secretary caucus, caucuses Centre Left chair, the (whether the occupant of or the piece of furniture) chair (the Hon. David Hawker took the chair) chairman-- Madam Chair (as a form of address) Senate-- the Chairman the Temporary Chairman (Senator Ferguson) temporary chairmen vice-chairman Chair of the Standing Committee on Community Affairs, the chair chamber Chief Government Whip Chief Opposition Whip Chief Minister, the chief ministers Clerk of the House (of Representatives), the Clerk Clerk of the Senate, the Clerk clerk(s) (the clerk at the table) coalition, the committee-- Committee of the Whole, Main Committee, the Committee (capital used for Main Committee only) committee stage in committee procedural committees roundtable discussion/conference/hearing the standing committee, the committee Commonwealth (always initial capital: for example, Commonwealth parliament) Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, the Gazette
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congress (United States) consideration in detail stage consolidated revenue (fund) Constitution, the Corporations Law Council of Australian Governments (formerly Premiers Conference) Court-- [See also Courts, section 6.3.] Crown--(see Macquarie Dictionary) the Crown (sovereign or governing power) crown land crown law office Crown Solicitor (official position) the Crown v Smith minister of the Crown the shield of the Crown customs-- Australian Customs Service Comptroller-General of Customs, the comptroller-general Customs (when clearly the department) customs agent/broker Customs officer (employee of the department) customs duty duties of customs He got through customs.
D defence-- [See Defence terms, section 10.2.] Defence Subcommittee (a subcommittee of the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade) Democrats (the Australian Democrats) department [See Commonwealth, state and territory government departments, section 4.2.] Deputy Prime Minister Deputy Clerk (of the House of Representatives, of the Senate) Deputy Leader of the Government in the Senate Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Senate dispatch box (NOT despatch box) division-- division of a bill or act division bells in division dorothy dix(er)
E estimates-- additional estimates the estimates committee an estimates committee estimates committees forward estimates supplementary estimates executive-- the executive Executive Council executive decision the executive side of government 90
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ex-Senator Colston an ex-senator ex-senator Peter Walsh (if first name included)
F Family First federal-- federal authorities federal capital federal government of Australia, the federal government Hansard federal politics federal system federal Treasurer Federation-- Centenary of Federation Federation (Australian) federation (other countries) FOI'd Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Legislation Committee (a committee of the Senate) Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee (a committee of the Senate) Foreign Affairs Subcommittee (a subcommittee of the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade) front bench (row of seats) frontbench (members of) frontbencher
G
gallery--
the gallery
diplomatic gallery
President's gallery, Speaker's gallery
press gallery (the collection of press representatives or the area in which the press representatives sit)
public gallery
general business (a section of the Notice Paper)
general business order of the day No. 6
government--
the government (the Keating government, the Howard-Anderson government et cetera)
a government
in government
the government of the day (a specific government)
the government of the day (generally)
governments
government business, a section of the Notice Paper
government business order of the day No. 7
the government's program
government members
government policy
government supporters
when we were in government
Governor-General--
Governor-General's speech, the speech
His Excellency the Governor-General
Governor-General in Council
Governor of New South Wales, the State Governor, the Governor
green paper
the Greens (if specific party name)
the Greens (WA)
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the Green Independents the green movement grievance day/debate H Hansard(s) (the document) Hansard pink, green Hansard editor/reporter head of state, heads of state the honourable member for Shortland [See also Honourable, section 2.8.] House-- the House (of Representatives) house of review houses of parliament Leader of the House (of Representatives) lower house Old Parliament House Parliament House people's house new Parliament House other house (the Senate) states house (the Senate) this house (if Parliament House) this House (if House of Representatives or Main Committee) this house (if Senate) upper house Human Rights Subcommittee (a subcommittee of the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade) I Independent, an (for example, Senator Harradine or Mr Andren) Independents (quasi-party) Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security, inspector-general Inspector-General of Taxation intergovernment(al) J the joint sitting, a joint sitting Journals of the Senate K King's Hall L Labor Party (Australia) Labour Party (UK and NZ) Labor Unity l-a-w law Leader of the Government in the Senate (Senate only) Leader of the House (of Representatives) NOT Manager of Government Business (no such position) Leader of the Opposition, opposition leader, the leader, my leader
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Left-- Centre Left left wing Socialist Left the Left legislation committee(s) Liberal (of the Liberal Party) Liberal-National Party Liberal and National parties Liberals liberal, small `l' Loan Council (Australian Loan Council NOT Loans) loan fund the Lodge M Main Committee madam (may I say, madam BUT Madam Deputy Speaker or Madam Chair as a form of address) Manager of Opposition Business member-- the Hon. John Howard the honourable member the honourable member for Bennelong member for Bennelong member(s) of parliament Members Hall the Rt Hon. IMcC Sinclair minister(s)-- acting minister(s) assistant minister(s) former minister, former Minister for Defence, former Minister Reith, former minister Peter Reith, former defence minister this minister health ministers It was Minister Ruddock who told us that. Minister representing the Minister for the Environment and Heritage Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Women's Issues Ministers Abbott and Costello Minister for Veterans' Affairs minister of the Crown shadow minister(s) shadow minister for defence BUT shadow Treasurer, shadow Assistant Treasurer, shadow Attorney- General You know, Minister, that that is not true. ministerial, prime ministerial Ministerial Council on ... (initial caps for full proper name), MINCO ministry(ies)-- ministry ministry (the portfolio) BUT Ministry of Education and Training, Victoria (official title) the Howard ministry shadow ministry
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N Nationals, The (Note use of National Party is acceptable) Natural Heritage Trust never, ever noes (ayes and noes) notice of motion notice of motion No. 2 Notice Paper(s) the no case
O Office of Parliamentary Counsel BUT parliamentary counsel Official Trustee Old Parliament House Ombudsman-- the Commonwealth Ombudsman, the Ombudsman the New South Wales Ombudsman, the Ombudsman the Banking and Financial Services Ombudsman, the banking ombudsman, the ombudsman the TeleCommunications Industry Ombudsman, the telecommunications ombudsman, the ombudsman One Nation opposition-- Deputy Leader of the Opposition in opposition members of the opposition Leader of the Opposition opposition leader opposition members opposition policy the opposition's policy order of the day No. 7 ordinance-- Nature Conservation (Amendment) Ordinance, the ordinance the ordinances an ordinance out year (n), out-year (adj)
P parliament-- Australian parliament Commonwealth parliament BUT Commonwealth Parliament of Australia federal parliament members of parliament new Parliament House Old Parliament House parliament(s) parliamentarians parliamentary parliamentary counsel BUT Office of Parliamentary Counsel parliamentary secretary(ies) BUT Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Finance and Administration Parliamentary Triangle Parliamentary Zone Parliament of Australia South Australian parliament state parliament(s)
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the 41st Parliament the Parliamentary Library Westminster, the mother of parliaments Parliamentary Handbook Parliamentary Service party-- my party (a specific party) party leaders (generally) party room police-- Australian Federal Police New South Wales Police Northern Territory Police, Fire and Emergency Services; Northern Territory Police Queensland Police Service South Australia Police Tasmania Police Victoria Police Western Australia Police Service portfolio (the Environment and Heritage portfolio) Premier-- the Premier, a Premier, premiers former Premier Premiers Conference (now Council of Australian Governments) Special Premiers Conference President-- the President (of the Senate) the Acting President (identified only at beginning of day) acting deputy presidents the Deputy President (identified only at beginning of day) the Acting Deputy President (identified) President's gallery Presiding Officer(s) (when referring to the Speaker and/or the President) presiding officer(s) (when referring to an occupant of the chair other than the Speaker or the President) press press gallery Prime Minister, prime ministers, Deputy Prime Minister, Vietnamese Prime Minister private member's bill, private members' bills private members' business Privileges Committee Procedure Committee procedural committees proposals-- Customs Tariff Proposals No. 12 (1987), the proposals tariff proposals (generally) public gallery public service (generally) Public Service (the Australian Public Service), the service Public Accounts and Audit Committee Public Works Committee Q Quarantine officer (that is, an officer of AQIS) the Queen question time
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R the red (Senate daily program) Register of Members' Interests Registrar of Members' Interests regulations-- air navigation regulations, the regulations resolution (a motion that has been passed) the Rt Hon. IMcC Sinclair Right-- the Right right wing far Right New Right the right wing roll-back (noun, adjective), to roll back (verb) roundtable discussion/conference/hearing royal (when referring to the royal family, royal personages, activities and events)-- a royal visit royalty royal tour the royals royal commission royal assent S second reading speech (there is only one second reading speech, delivered by the minister; others give a speech on the second reading or a speech in the second reading debate) secretariat Secretary to/of (NOT for) the Department of Defence, the secretary Secretary of the Senate Standing Committee of Privileges, the committee secretary, the secretary Senate, Senate committee Senator-- a senator Senator elect Smith; he is a senator elect ex-Senator Walsh BUT ex-senator Peter Walsh (if first name included) senator(s) the honourable senator Senator (may I say, Senator ...) Senator the Hon. Amanda Vanstone Senator Knowles Senators Brown and Nettle Serjeant-at-Arms (do not follow the Macquarie Dictionary) session (of parliament) sessional order(s) shadow minister for environment and heritage, shadow minister BUT shadow Attorney-General, shadow Assistant Treasurer, shadow Treasurer sir (may I say, sir ...) BUT Senator Sir John Carrick sitting (of parliament) Socialist Left (of the ALP) SOG B BUT EL1 and PEL1 Solicitor-General BUT the Australian Government Solicitor
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Speaker-- former Speaker Mr Neil Andrew; the former Speaker, Mr Neil Andrew Madam Speaker, the Speaker, the speech made by Mr Speaker Mr Speaker Mr Deputy Speaker Madam Deputy Speaker the deputy speakers Second Deputy Speaker the Speaker, Mr Hawker Speaker's gallery Speaker's panel speakers list spring sittings standing order(s), standing order 94 state-- state(s) (New South Wales, Victoria et cetera) States (the United States of America) Australian state governments state railways states rights state government school State Governor, state governors state schools (in other words, non-private schools) statewide [Australian Oxford Dictionary] member state of ANZUS the states house (the Senate) the state statute book supply supply bills T table Table Office tax office BUT Australian Taxation Office, Taxation Office territory(ies) Territory (Northern Territory) Territorians (Northern Territory) Trade Subcommittee (a subcommittee of the Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade) Treasury Treasurer, treasurers treasury bench (not treasury benches) treasury bills/notes U Usher of the Black Rod, the V Vice-President of the Executive Council Votes and Proceedings
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W,X,Y,Z whips Chief Government Whip, Government Whip, government whips Chief Opposition Whip, Opposition Whip, opposition whips white paper yes (the yes case)
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10.6 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES
Do not use accent marks on foreign words--for example, cafe, vis-a-vis.
List of abbreviations
Afrik. Arab. L F pl. Russ. It. Sp.
Afrikaans Arabic Latin French plural Russian Italian Spanish
A
ab initio (L) ab intestato (L) ab origine (L) ab ovo (L)
from the beginning title, under the law of succession, to property of a deceased person who has not disposed of it by his will from the beginning from the egg; hence, from the beginning
ab ovo usque ad mala (L) absente reo (L) ad anguem factus (L)
from beginning to end the defendant being absent done to the nail; finished to the last detail
ad crumenam (L) ad filum viae (L)
an argument addressed to the purse, intended to appeal to the listener's financial sense to the middle of the way or road
ad finem (ad fin.) (L) ad hoc (L) ad hominem (L) ad infinitum (L)
at or near to the end for this special purpose to the man--that is, to his interests and passions (see argumentum) without limit
ad interim (L)
in the meantime
ad libitum (L) ad litem (L) ad locum (L)
at pleasure for the purpose of the proceedings at the place
ad misericordiam (L)
a plea for mercy; an argument appealing to the compassion of the listener
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ad modum (L) ad nauseam (L) ad personam (L) ad referendum (L) ad rem (L) ad valorem (L) aequo animo (L) aes triplex (L) aetatis suae (L) aeternum vale (L) a fortiori (L) alias (dictus) (L) allegata et probata (L) alter ego (L) alter idem (L) amor vincit omnia (L) amour de voyage (F) angulus terrarum (L) anni nubiles (L) anno (L) annus deliberandi (L) annus mirabilis (L) ante (L) ante bellum (L) ante litem motam (L)
after the manner of to a sickening or disgusting extent; tediously an argument designed to appeal to the personal sentiments or prejudices of the listener for consideration to the point, to the purpose a term used in speaking of the duties or customs paid on certain goods with an unruffled mind an impenetrable defence aged; in the year of his or her age farewell forever all the more so; with stronger reason otherwise called matters alleged and proved another self, a double another precisely similar love overcomes all things a temporary infatuation such as is frequently experienced in the course of a sea voyage a favourite or familiar corner of the earth, the place in which one feels most at home marriageable age of a woman in the year--as in anno Domini, in the year of the Lord the year allowed by Scots law for the heir to deliberate whether he will enter upon his ancestor's land and represent him wonderful year; year of wonders before--as in antenatal, anteroom; distinguish from anti, meaning against before the war before litigation commenced
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ante meridiem (am) (L) apparat (Russ.) apparatchik (Russ.) a priori (L) aqua vitae (L) argumentum ad crumenam (L) argumentum ad hominem (L) argumentum ad ignorantiam (L) argumentum ad invidiam (L) ars gratia artis (L) ars longa, vita brevis (L) a rubro an nigrum (L) audaces fortuna juvat (L) ayatollah (Arab.) B bien vu (F) bon copain (F) bona fide(s) (L) Bond (Afrik.) brutum fulmen (L) C c'est la vie (F) c'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas la guerre (F) ca saute aux yeux (F) capita, per (L)
before noon the Soviet bureaucracy a member of the Soviet bureaucracy from the cause to the effect water of life; strong distilled alcohol, such as whiskey or brandy argument to the purse; an appeal to interest argument to the man--that is, an argument deriving its force from the situation of the person to whom it is addressed argument founded on an adversary's ignorance of facts an appeal to low passions or reasoning art for art's sake art is long, life is short to proceed to the sense of the text in a statute by looking at the title (the title was once written in red, the text in black) fortune favours the bold, or brave title of Shiite Muslim religious teacher of the highest rank
well thought of; highly esteemed an agreeable companion; a loyal friend in good faith; genuine the Afrikaander Bond, a political league formed in South Africa in 1882 to promote the unification and independence of the South African colonies an aimless thunderbolt
that's life; that's the way things happen
it's magnificent, but it's not war
it jumps to the eyes; it is quite obvious, it cannot be overlooked
by heads; by the individual person
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carabiniere; carabinieri, pl. (It.) carcere duro (L) carpe diem (L) casus sine qua non (L) caudillo (Sp.) cave canem (L) caveat (L) caveat actor (L) caveat emptor (L) censor morum (L) certiorari (L) ceteris paribus (L) comme il se doit (F) compos mentis (L) con amore (It) conditio sine qua non (L) confessio fidei (L) consensus facit legem (L) contra bonos mores (L) contra mundum (L) contrat de majorite (F) coram non judice (L) coram populo (L) corpus delicti (L) corrigenda (L) couleur du temps (F)
an Italian policeman armed with a rifle
hard labour
seize the day
an indispensable condition
a leader of a group, a captain
beware of the dog
let him take heed; a warning or a caution
let the doer beware
let the purchaser beware
a regulator of morals, one whose business it is to punish moral delinquency
to be more fully informed of
other things being equal
as is right and proper, as is fitting
of sound mind
with love; earnestly
a necessary condition
a confession of faith; a public avowal of allegiance to a cause
consent makes the law
against good manners
against the world; in complete isolation
a political system whereby the members of parliament who vote a government into power undertake to support all its measures for a prescribed period
before one who is not the proper judge
in the presence of the people; openly; manifestly
the body of the crime; the essential fact or facts necessary to constitute the commission of the offence
corrections to be made
the colour of the weather; the way the wind blows; the general tendency of circumstances at a given moment
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coup de grace (F) coup de piston (F) credo quia impossibile est (L) cui bono? (L) culpa levis (L) culte du moi (F) cum grano salis (L) cum laude (L) CURRICULUM VITAE (L) D Dei gratia (L) Deo gratias (L) de die in diem (L) de facto (L) de jure (L) de minimis non curat lex (L) de novo (L) dictum (L) doctus cum libro (L) dominus vobiscum (L) dramatis personae (L) droit (F) dubitante (L) E e converso (L)
finishing stroke a helping hand; the exercise of influence in favour of a candidate; string-pulling I believe it because it is impossible to whose advantage? Colloquially: what good will it do? trivial fault the religion of self; the systematic placing of one's own interests before those of others with a grain of salt; with allowance for exaggeration with praise; with distinction; always of the result of an examination a brief autobiographical account attached to an application for a post
by the grace of God thanks be to God from day to day (chiefly, of costs) in fact; the opposite of de jure by right; the opposite of de facto the law cares not about trifling matters afresh; anew an observation as to the law made by a judge in the course of a case but not necessary to its decision, therefore of no binding effect; often called an `obiter dictum', a remark by the way learned with the aid of a book the Lord be with you the characters in a play or story right; justice; equity doubting; being doubtful
conversely
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e pluribus unum (L) ego sum qui sum (L) en menage (F) en passant (F) entrepot (F) eo nomine (L) esto (L) et al (L) et sequentes (et seq.) (L) et sequentia (L) ex aequo et bono (L) ex cathedra (L) ex contractu (L) ex curia (L) ex improviso (L) ex libris (L) ex more (L) ex officio (L) ex parte (L) ex post facto (L) ex silentio (L) ex tacito (L) extempore (L) extra vires (L) extrajudicial (L) F
many made one; one out of many; one composed of many I am who I am living together (as in husband and wife) in passing; by the way a centre for the distribution of goods, chiefly import and export by that very name let it be; admitting that it is so and others and those that follow and what follows in equity and good conscience with the weight of one in authority from a contract; one of the greatest classes of obligation from which a right of action accrues out of court unexpectedly from the books of; from the library according to custom officially; by virtue of office on behalf of; a proceeding by one party in the absence of the other The full phrase is `ex post facto jure'--literally `from a law made after'. In other words, it is retrospective. (an argument) from silence tacitly offhand; without preparation beyond the powers out of the regular course of legal procedure; from `extra' and `judicium'.
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factum (L) fait accompli (F) felix culpa (L) flagrante delicto, in (L) folie de grandeur (F) force de frappe (F) force majeure (F) G gaudeamus igitur (L) gravitas (L) H hac lege (L) hic et nunc (L) homo ludens (L) honoris causa (L) horrible dictu (L) hors du jeu (F) I ibidem, ibid., id. (L) idem (L) idem sonans (L) imperium in imperio (L) imprimis (L) in camera (L) in custodia legis (L) in esse (L)
the fact a thing already done happy fault; applicable when a mistake turns out to be of benefit the very act of committing the crime an illusion of greatness a striking force irresistible compulsion; coercion diplomatically recognised as irresistible
let us therefore rejoice serious-mindedness; dignity and solemnity of bearing
with this law or condition here and now the sportive man; the aspect of the human personality which leads to irresponsible joking as a mark of honour, honorary horrible to tell not practical politics
in the same place or case the same sounding the same a government within a government in the first place in private in the keeping of the law in being
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in extenso (L) in extremis (L) in fieri (L) in globo (L) in limine (L) in loco parentis (L) in majorem cautelam (L) in medias res (L) in memoriam (L) in perpetuum (L) in personam (L) in poenam (L) in posse (L) in re (L) in rem (L) in situ (L) in solido (L) in statu quo ante (L) in toto (L) in transitu (L) inter alia (L) inter alios (L) inter se (L) inter vivos (L) ipso facto (L) ita est (L) iterum (L)
from the beginning to the end; leaving out nothing at the last gasp in the process of coming into existence; in the course of completion in its entirety; as a whole; taking a general view at the outset; preliminary in the place of a parent by way of greater caution into the heart of the subject; without preface or introduction in memory of forever those actions in law which seek recovery of damages et cetera against the person by way of punishment possible; potential in the matter of a judgment pronounced on the status of some particular subject matter in its original or proper situation in the whole (applied to a contract) in the condition in which it was altogether during the passage of among other things among other people among themselves in one's lifetime; among living persons by the very act itself it is so again; once more
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J j. (judex) (L) jure divino (L) jus accrescendi (L) jus canonicum (L) jus civile (L) jus divinum (L) jus gentium (L) L lacuna (L) laissez faire (n); laissez-faire (adj) (F) lapsus linguae (L) lapsus memoriae (L) le roi et l'etat (F) lese-majeste (F) lex domicilii (L) lex non scripta (L) lex non scripta (L) lex scripta (L) lex terrae (L) lingua franca (It.) lis (L) locum tenens (L) locus in quo (L) M mafioso, pl. mafiosi (It.) magna cum laude (L)
judge by divine right the right of survivorship canon law civil law divine law the law of nations; sometimes used for public international law
a hiatus, a blank the doctrine of non-interference a slip of the tongue a slip of the memory king and state high treason the law of the domicile unwritten law; common law the common law; literally, unwritten law statute law; literally, written law the law of the land any language used as a means of communication among speakers of other languages legal proceedings;literally, the dispute a deputy or substitute the place in which
a member of the Mafia with high honours
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magnum opus (L) mala fide(s) (L) malapropos (F) mandamus (L) manu forti (L) mater familias (L) maxima cum laude (L) me judice (L) mea culpa (L) mea maxima culpa (L) mens rea (L) mera noctis (L) mesne (F) minima de malis (L) modus operandi (L) mos majorum (L) mutatis mutandis (L) mutato nomine (L) N ne plus ultra (L) nervus probandi (L) nil desperandum (L) nil novi sub sole (L) nolens, volens (L) non bis in idem (L) non compos mentis (L) non est (L) non obstante (L)
chief work of a creative artist in bad faith; not genuine; the opposite of bona fide(s) ill timed; inappropriate we command; used in the phrase `writ of mandamus' with a strong hand the mother of the family with the highest praise; with distinction according to my judgment by my fault through my own most grievous fault a guilty mind midnight middle; intermediate (used most in the phrases `mesne profits' and `mesne process') of evils, choose the lesser manner of operation the custom of our (their) ancestors with the necessary changes in points of detail; literally, those things changed that need to be changed the name being changed
the uttermost; perfection
the chief argument
never despair
nothing new under the sun
whether willing or unwilling
not twice tried for the same offence
not of sound memory and understanding
it is not; wanting; minus
notwithstanding
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non sequitur (L) non sine gloria (L) nota bene (NB) (L) nudis verbis (L) O obiter dictum (L) odium scholasticum (L) omnia vincit amor (L) onus (L) onus probandi (L) op. cit. (opere citato) (L) P par exemple (F) pari passu (L) passim (L) pater familias (L) pater noster (L) Pax Britannica (L) pax Romana (L) per (L) per capita (L) per curiam (L) per diem (L) per incuriam (L) per jocum (L) per se (L) per stirpes (L)
it does not follow not ingloriously note carefully in plain words
an opinion not necessary to a judgment the spitefulness of scholars love conquers all things burden (as of proof) the burden of proof in the work just cited
for example
with equal step; equally; without preference
everywhere; throughout
the father of the family
our father
the peace imposed by British rule within the British Empire
the peace imposed by Roman rule within the Roman Empire
through
by heads; by the individual person
by the court
each day; by the day
through heedlessness or neglect
for fun
by itself considered
by the right of representation; literally, according to the
stocks
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persona non grata (L) pleno jure (L) post (L) post bellum (L) post hoc non propter hoc (L) post meridiem (pm) (L) post mortem (L) prima facie (L) primo mihi (L) primus inter pares (L) principia, non homines (L) pro bono publico (L) pro forma (L) pro hac vice (L) pro patria (L) pro rata; pro rata parte (L) pro re nata (L) pro tanto (L) pro tem. (pro tempore) (L.) propaganda vide (L) Q qua (L) qua se (L) quaere (L) qualis pater talis filius (L) quantum (L) quantum sufficit (L) quasi- (L)
unacceptable person with full authority after since the war after this but not because of this afternoon. after death; also autopsy on the face of it first of all myself the first among equals principles, not men for the public good as a matter of form for this turn or occasion for the sake of one's country in proportion to meet the emergency; literally, `for a thing born' for so much; just by so much for the time being for extending the faith
in the character of; by virtue of being in itself, by its own nature question like father, like son the quantity or amount as much as suffices resembling; seemingly but not actually
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quid pro quo (L) quis custodiet ipsas custodes? (L) quo animo? (L) quo vadis? (L) quod erat demonstrandum (q.e.d.) (L) quod erat faciendum (q.e.f.) (L) R R. (Rex or Regina) (L) raison d'etre (F) ratio decidendi (L) ratio scripta (L) res gestae (L) res integra (L) res nullius (L) res, non verba (L) S securitas (L) securus judicat orbis terrarum (L) secus (L) semble (F) seriatim (L) sic (L) simpliciter (L) sine die (L) sine qua non (L) sotto voce (L.) soupcon (F) spes ultima gentis (L)
equivalent; something done in return who will guard the guards? with what mind? where are you going? as was to be shown as was to be done
the king; the queen the reason for existence the ground for a judicial decision a judgment delivered in writing the things done (including words spoken) in the course of an event fresh matter; not yet judicially expounded a thing that has no owner deeds, not words
freedom from anxiety
the judgment of the whole world is conclusive
it is otherwise
it seems
severally and in order
so written or printed
without modification
without a day being set, or indefinitely
something/someone indispensible
in a low tone intended not to be overheard
a slight trace of something (literally, suspicion)
the last hope of his race; the last hope of his family
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status quo (L) sub finem (L) sub judice (L) sub lege libertas (L) sub modo (L) sub nomine (L) summa cum laude (L) summum bonum (L) supra (L) U, V ultra vires (L) versus, v (L) verbatim et literatim (L) vice versa (L) vide ut supra (L) viva voce (L) volens et potens (L)
the existing state of things at any given date towards the end under consideration, before the court liberty under the law; the only freedom compatible with order under condition or restriction under the name with highest honours the chief or highest good above beyond the powers; said of a corporation or company when exceeding its authority, or of a constitution against word for word and letter for letter conversely see what is stated above by word of mouth; orally; literally, by the living voice willing and able
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11. STYLE UPDATES 11.1 STYLE UPDATE 1--MAY 2005 3.1.1 Use capital letters without full stops in acronyms and sets of initials--After BUT, add VoIP 4.3 Titles of positions--At the end of the introductory paragraph add: The full title of a Commonwealth minister or parliamentary secretary--even if not said--should be used when first mentioned in a speech. When only part of their title is mentioned thereafter it should take lower case. In Committee of the Whole in the Senate and in consideration in detail in the House of Representatives and the Main Committee, the full title of a Commonwealth minister or parliamentary secretary need not be used if not said. 4.14 Scientific terminology--add vitamin B12 4.16.2 Newspapers and magazines--add the Lancet 4.16.6 Web sites and webpages--add crikey.com 6.1.3 Acts--add MOP staff 7.2.5 Clock time--Hansard will commence using `am' and `pm' (with no dots) on budget day 2005. 7.8 Identification numbers--add ABC2 7.9 Indefinite numbers--add: A picture is worth a thousand words. 8.8.1 Hyphen--add: Note businesspeople BUT small business people 8.8.3 Hyphen, paragraph (11)--add: roll-out Note Do not hyphenate phrasal verbs--for example, to roll out. 8.8.3 Hyphen, paragraph (20)--under BUT add: South West (a WA state government electorate) 10.1 Computer terms--add VoIP, voice over Internet Protocol 10.2 Defence terms--add: Defence Instruction (General) Personnel 32-1 Employment of Women in the Australian Defence Force (ADF), Defence Instruction (General) Personnel 32-1, DI(G) PERS 32-1, defence instructions, defence instruction 10.4 Schemes--add: G: Greenhouse Gas Abatement Program, GGAP H: Higher Bandwidth Incentive Scheme, HiBIS R: Regional Partnerships program, Regional Partnerships (if referring to the program) S: Sustainable Regions Program, Sustainable Regions (if referring to the program) 10.5 Parliamentary and Public Service terms--add: K: King of England, the King, a king L: left-wing (adj) P: the Prince of Wales, the Prince, a prince P: the Pope, a pope Q: the Queen of England, the Queen, a queen R: add right-wing (adj)
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11.2 STYLE UPDATE 2--JUNE 2005 2.2 Ampersand--add F&PA (the committee) 4.3 Titles of positions--add Mayor of Goulburn, the mayor 4.5 Schemes, policies, programs et cetera--add: Future Fund Welfare to Work program BUT welfare to work payment BUT use an initial capital for names of payments that are not otherwise words--for example, Newstart allowance, Austudy payment 10.1 Computer and information technology terms--add: C: CMUX M: miniMUX 10.4 Schemes, policies, programs and agreements--add: C: Capital Development Pool program P: Public Sector Superannuation Scheme accumulation plan, PSS accumulation plan, PSSap W: Wage Assist program W: Welfare to Work program 10.5 Parliamentary and Public Service terms--add: M: You know, Member for Batman, that is the case. (addressed directly) P: Parliamentary Librarian P: portfolio budget statements, portfolio additional estimates statements
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HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
12. INDEX A Abbreviations........................................ 3-6 bill titles ................................................29 possessive .............................................49 Acronyms ..................................................7 Acts ...............................................8, 31, 88 Addresses ................................................36 Adjectives (commas) ..............................51 Adverbs (commas) ............................ 52-53 Ages ........................................................36 Agreements ................................. 13, 84-87 Aircraft..........................................7, 26, 78 Air Force bases .......................................82 Ambiguity rule (hyphen) ........................58 Amendments (bills).................................30 Amounts at beginning of sentences ..36, 38 Ampersand ................................................3 And (commas).........................................55 Angles (measurement) ............................43 Annual reports (capitalisation)................23 Anzac ..................................................7, 76 Apostrophe.................................... 8, 47-49 Army bases..............................................81 Art works (titles)...............................22, 25 Articles (quotation marks) ..........26, 27, 65 Attorney-General ..............................33, 88 Audit reports ...........................................22 Awards and orders ........................4, 13, 55 B Ballets ...............................................22, 25 Bases (Defence Force) ................ 76, 81-82 Battalions ................................................79 Battles .....................................................15 Benefits and payments ............................13 Bible ........................................................23 Billions abbreviations...........................................6 of dollars ...................................38, 40, 45 Bills ........................................29-30, 88-89 Blood alcohol levels................................40 Boats ...........................................26, 79, 80 Books and booklets (titles) ..............................25 parts of books .................................35, 43 Brackets ..............................................8, 49 115
Brand names ...........................................21 Brochures ................................................25 Budget (terminology)..............................89 Building names ................................. 16-18 C Calibre (guns) .........................................40 Call signs .......................................... 41-42 Capital letters ...................................... 9-24 Cases (legislative and legal) .........6, 27, 32 Cents .............................................3, 38, 39 Chair (terminology) ................................89 Chapters chapter numbers ...................................43 of books (quotation marks).............24, 26 Classifications ......................................... 42 Clock time...............................................37 Codes .................................................32,33 Collections and exhibitions.....................23 Colon........................................... 44, 50-51 and capital letters..................................23 introducing quotations..........................67 titles and subtitles .................................51 Combination numbers.............................37 Comma.............................................. 51-55 Commissions...........................................33 Committee (terminology) .......................89 Company names........................................4 Compass directions .................................62 Chemicals................................................20 Compounds names.................................................. 7-8 numbers ................................................37 Complete quotations ...............................68 Computer terms................................. 73-75 Conjunctions commas.................................................53 semicolon..............................................66 Conferences ............................................14 Contractions ........................................4, 49 Conventions (treaties).............................14 Councils ....................................................9 Courtesy titles ...........................................4 Courts......................................................33 Court cases....................................6, 27, 32 Crown (terminology) ..............................90 Currency ........................................... 38-40 HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
Customs (terminology) ...........................90 D Dash .................................................. 56-57 Dates .......................................................40 Days ........................................................40 Decimal numbers ....................................40 Defence capitalisation.............................76 Defence terms ................................... 76-82 Defence Force facilities and bases....79, 81 Defining clauses (commas).....................53 Degrees, orders and awards ..........4, 13, 55 Departments--C'th, state, territory ... 10-11 Descriptive form lines (italics) ...............27 Direct quotations............................... 67-71 Distances (measurements) ......................43 Dollars...............................................38, 40 Dramatic effect (dash).............................57 Drugs.......................................................21 E Ellipsis ....................................................56 Em rule (dash)................................... 56-57 Embassies..................................................9 Essays (quotation marks) ..................26, 65 Estimates (terminology)..........................90 Et cetera (commas) .................................55 Ethnic groups ..........................................18 Euro sign .................................................39 Events......................................................15 Exclamation mark ...................................57 Exhibitions ........................................23, 25 F Facilities (Defence Force).................79, 81 Federal (terminology) .............................91 Films (titles) ......................................22, 25 Foreign currency .....................................39 Foreign words and phrases ....... 27, 99-112 Format (quotations).................................69 Forward slash ..........................................63 Fractions..................................................41 Fractions (hyphen) ..................................59 Free trade agreements .............................14 Funds........................................... 13, 84-87
Government departments .................................... 10-11 Governor-General ...................................91 Grades .......................................................3 Groups of people.....................................18 H Handbooks ..............................................25 Headlines (quotation marks).......24, 51, 65 Higher education institutions..................83 historical events .....................................15 Honourable (title)......................................5 Honorary titles or degrees...............3, 4, 13 commas...........................................54, 55 Hours.......................................................41 House (terminology) ...............................92 Hyphen.............................................. 58-63 adverbial/adjectival compounds ..... 60-61 and capital letters..................................59 anti, post, pre, pro.................................59 based, funded, owned, related, sized ....61 chemical elements ................................60 compass directions ...............................62 grower.............................................58, 60 high, middle and low ............................61 non ..................................................58, 62 nouns ....................................................60 numbers ................................................59 phrases with three or more words.........62 proper names (hyphenated) ..................23 set solid.................................................63 span of years .........................................60 stand-alone letters...........................59, 62 verbs .....................................................60 I Identification numbers/call signs...... 41-42 Ideologies................................................19 Incomplete quotations.......................67, 70 Indefinite numbers ..................................42 Indigenous...............................................18 Indirect quotations ..................................70 Information technology terms........... 73-75
G Geographical areas............................ 16-18 116
Initials .......................................................5 Interjections (exclamation mark)............57 International Year of ........................14, 16 HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
Interpolations (dash) ...............................57 Interruptions dash .......................................................57 quotations .............................................70 Introductions (colon)...............................50 Irony (exclamation mark) .......................57 Italics................................................. 25-27 scientific terms......................................20 titles ................................................ 22-23 J Judges................................................ 33-34 K Kilogram (measurements).......................43 L Latin ...................................... 6, 27, 99-111 scientific terms................................20, 26 Leaflets (titles) ........................................25 Lectures (quotation marks) ...............26, 65 Legal cases ....................................6, 27, 32 Legal office holders .......................... 33-34 Legal terms........................................ 29-34 Legislative terms............................... 29-34 Lists colon .....................................................50 dash .......................................................56 numbers ................................................42 M Magazines (titles)..............................22, 25 Measurements .........................................43 Member (terminology)............................93 Military terms ................................... 76-82 Millions abbreviations...........................................6 of dollars ...................................38, 40, 45 Minister (terminology)................ 11-12, 93 Minutes (time).........................................41 Money ............................................... 38-40 Mount (abbreviation for) ..........................6 Movies (titles) ...................................22, 25 Musicals ............................................22, 25 N Names commas...........................................54, 55 nicknames .............................................65 of bodies ........................................... 9-10 of places.......................................... 16-18 117
proper names ............................ 19-20, 23 Navy bases .....................................................82 vessels.............................................79, 80 Newspapers headlines (quotation marks) .....24, 51, 65 titles ................................................22, 24 New Zealand currency ............................39 Non-defining clauses (commas) .............53 Nouns apostrophe ............................................47 commas.................................................54 Numbers............................................ 35-45 abbreviations ..........................................6 as concepts (indefinite numbers)..........42 beginning a sentence ......................36, 38 combinations of numbers .....................37 following a noun...................................35 lists........................................................42 ordinals .................................................35 O Oblique stroke (forward slash) ...............63 Occasions .......................................... 15-16 Oil rigs ....................................................26 Office holders ................................... 33-34 Omission of words (commas) ...............................54 of words/paragraphs (ellipsis) ..............56 of words (quotations)............................70 Operas (titles)....................................22, 25 Opposition (terminology) .......................94 Or (commas) ...........................................55 Orders and awards ........................3, 15, 55 Ordinals...................................................35 Ordinances ..............................................32 P Page numbers....................................35, 43 Papers......................................................22 and quotation marks .......................26, 65 Paragraph .......................................... 63-64 Parallel clauses (semicolon) ...................66 Parentheses .........................................8, 49 Parenthetical statements (dash)...............56 Parliament (terminology)........................94 Parliamentary terms .......................... 88-98 Participles/participle phrases (commas) .54 Parts of books .........................................43 Payments and benefits ............................13 HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
Percentages .............................................43 Periodicals (titles) .............................22, 25 Place names....................................... 16-18 Plays (titles) ......................................22, 25 Plurals acronyms.................................................8 non-word plurals (apostrophe) .............49 nouns and plural nouns (apostrophe)....47 Poems titles ................................................22, 25 quotations from.....................................71 Police (terminology) ...............................95 Policies........................................ 13, 84-87 Political events........................................15 Ports (terminology) .................................10 Positions (titles) ................................ 11-12 Possession not defined (apostrophe).......48 Possessives (apostrophe)............... 8, 47-49 Premier (terminology).............................95 President (terminology) ..........................95 Programs ..................................... 13, 84-87 Proper names..................................... 19-20 hyphen ..................................................23 Properties and buildings.............. 16-18, 27 Protocols (treaties) ..................................14 Pseudo-questions ..............................57, 64 Public holidays.................................. 15-16 Public Service terms ......................... 88-98 Punctuation ....................................... 47-66 Q Question mark.........................................64 Quotation marks......................................65 Quotations ......................................... 67-72 colons....................................................50 format....................................................69 incomplete ......................................67, 70 indirect ..................................................70 interruptions..........................................70 introduction of text ...............................69 longer direct.................................... 69-70 short complete ......................................68 omission of words.................................70
Regiments ...............................................79 Regulations .............................................32 Religious books ......................................23 Religious groups .....................................18 Reports (audit and committee reports) ...22 Results and scores (numbers) .................44 Roman numerals .....................................44 Royal (terminology)................................96 Royal commissions .................................33 S Sacred writings .......................................23 Sarcasm (exclamation mark) ..................57 Schemes ...................................... 13, 84-87 Schools (terminology) ............................10 Scientific terminology/names ...........20, 26 Scores (numbers) ....................................44 Semicolon ......................................... 65-66 Seminars..................................................14 Senator (terminology) .............................96 Shadow ministers....................................96 Ships ...........................................26, 79, 80 Shire councils............................................9 Singular nouns (apostrophe) ............. 47-48 Sizes ........................................................43 Songs titles ................................................22, 25 quotations from.....................................71 Speaker (terminology) ............................97 Special occasions ....................................15 Speeds .....................................................43 Spelling ........................................... 1-2, 10 parliamentary, public service terms 88-98 Sporting events .......................................15 Squadrons ...............................................79 Standards (ISOs) ............................... 41-42 State (terminology) .................................97 Streets et cetera (abbreviations)................6 Style general ....................................................1 special........................................... 73-112
R Radio programs.................................22, 25 radio stations.................................... 41-42 Ratios ................................................44, 51 118
Subscripts/superscripts ...........................20 dates ...................................................... 40 ordinals .................................................35 Submissions (titles).................................26 Subtitles (colon)......................................51 HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005
T Telephone numbers.................................45 Television programs .........................................22, 25 stations and networks ..................... 41-42 Temperatures...........................................43 Thousands ...............................................45 Time, clock .............................................37 Titles books et cetera ..........................22, 25, 51 Defence .................................................78 people and positions ..... 3, 4, 5, 11-12, 54 titles and subtitles (colon).....................51 Trademarks .............................................21 Trade unions .......................................9, 48 Trains ......................................................26 Treaties....................................................14 Tribunals .................................................33 Trillions abbreviations...........................................6 of dollars ...............................................38 U United Kingdom currency.......................39 United States currency ............................39 Universities and colleges ........................83 US spellings (bodies) ..............................10 Usage.........................................................1 V Versus (abbreviations) ........................6, 32 W Wars ........................................................15 Web internet/net ............................................74 sites and pages ......................................23 Weights ...................................................43 White papers ...........................................22 Works of art ......................................22, 23 Y Years and spans of years.........................45
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HANSARD STYLE GUIDE JUNE 2005

COF AUSTRALIA

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