emotional intelligence, Ellen Langer, Personal Leadership Resources, Ontario Leadership Framework, Appreciative Inquiry, social resources, Ontario, system leaders, New York, performance, Harvard Business Review, positive emotions, intelligence, Chris Hadfield, emotional leadership styles, Leadership Development, Barbara Fredrickson, Daniel Goleman, Ontario Leadership Strategy, Cognitive resources, PLRs, Positive School Climate, Ministry of Education, trust account, Harvard Business School, Steven Covey, Andy Hargreaves, David Caruso, Heifetz, R., Peter Salovey, Stephen R. Covey, emotions, Goleman, D., Harvard Business Press, Positivity Fredrickson, bank accounts, Dispute negative thinking, performance appraisals, Amanda Trosten-Bloom, Diana Whitney, fixed mindset, Appreciative Leadership, Brenda Beatty, growth mindset, theories of intelligence, systematic research, past performance appraisal, emotionally intelligent, psychological resources, Healthy Relationships, Ontario Leaders, past performance, Carol Dweck, bank account, Kenneth Leithwood
ONTARIO LEADERSHIP Strategy
BULLETIN #7 · SUMMER 2014 Ideas Into Action is published by the Ministry of Education
to support Ontario's school and system leaders. It is designed to provide research insights and practical strategies that are aligned with both the Ontario Leadership Framework (OLF) and the broader Ontario Leadership Strategy (OLS). This and the next two issues of Ideas Into Action will each focus on one of the three categories of Personal Leadership Resources (PLRs) social, psychological, and cognitive deepening understandings about each and providing insights on how to build and expand them in ourselves and others. Although we examine the PLRs individually, in practice leaders draw on them as a whole, interactively. Leaders are not "systems thinkers" one moment, "resilient" people the next and successful "relationship builders" in another. In fact, leaders are all of those things, all of the time and most situations require that leaders draw on all the PLRs concurrently. And so, our first spotlight on the PLRs begins with the social resources. The second will focus on the psychological resources. The third and final issue in the series will concentrate on the cognitive resources and include a discussion about how the three PLRs are interdependent, each contributing to and leveraging the others in ways that strengthen leadership practice. Learn more about the Ontario Leadership Framework at http://live.iel.immix.ca/content/ framework ISSN 1920-5651(Online)
FROM RESEARCH TO POLICY TO EFFECTIVE PRACTICE IdeasIntoAction FOR SCHOOL and SYSTEM LEADERS Exploring the "Social" Personal Leadership Resources: Perceiving Emotions, Managing Emotions & Acting in Emotionally Appropriate Ways A s Commander of the International Space Station, Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield captivated the world with his commentary and photographs from outer space. Orbiting the Earth from over 250 kilometres above, at a speed of 28,000 kilometres per hour, Hadfield (2013) learned that "good leadership means leading the way, not hectoring people to do things your way." Now back on Earth, Hadfield (2013) continues to inspire. His leadership lessons show how he drew on the power of his internal resources to meet the unique challenges in his life as an astronaut. Hadfield puts it this way, "See a funny thing happened on the way to space: I learned how to live better and more happily here on Earth. Over time, I learned how to anticipate problems in order to prevent them, and how to respond effectively in critical situations. I learned how to neutralize fear, how to stay focused, and how to succeed." Few of us will experience leadership on the world stage as Hadfield has. That said when we reflect on our own significant past work or life experiences in particular those that have led to important Personal Growth
and learning they inevitably have one thing in common. They were difficult or challenging or, in some cases, even devastating. Why? Because every leadership story is
WHAT'S INSIDE The Personal Leadership Resources (PLRs): What Research Says page 2 First Things First: Exploring the Social Resources page 4 Developing the Social Resources: Ten Strategies for Success 1. Cultivate emotional intelligence
page 10 2. Strengthen emotional leadership styles page 11 3. Become more mindful page 12 4. Grow and maintain trust page 13 5. Promote positive inner work life page 14 6. Savour "positivity" page 16 7. Grow your mindset page 17 8. See with "appreciative eyes" page 19 9. Bring emotions out into the open page 20 10. Take care of yourself page 22 Learning More: Resources Recommended by Ontario Leaders page 24 References page 27
inevitably a story of "adaptive challenges" (Heifetz, 1998) and "Wicked Problems
" (Riel, 2009) which often don't actually have a solution. Warren Bennis and Robert Thomas (2002) describe these events as "crucibles" tests and trials and passages that are intense and always unplanned. In fact their research and professional practice led them to conclude that what makes for extraordinary leadership has something to do with the different ways that people deal with challenge and opportunity. Every leader goes through passages some are positive while others are upsetting. Leaders may be respected for "what they know" and "what they do," but in fact successful leaders are recognized for "who they are," particularly in the face of good times and bad. Put differently, it is very often the strength of internal personal resources that defines leaders and suits them to the role in the first place. So what are these personal resources? As much as "who they are" may seem an abstract concept, the research actually points directly to specific traits or dispositions that tend to explain why successful leaders ... succeed. The Personal Leadership Resources (PLRs): What Research Says Evidence collected over many years suggests that our effectiveness as leaders is due, at least in part, to the personal traits or characteristics that successful leaders possess. The Ontario Leadership Framework (OLF) includes only those attributes that have been clearly identified and supported in the research, and refers to these as "personal leadership resources" (PLRs) the social, psychological, and cognitive that leaders draw on in order to effectively carry out every act of leadership (Leithwood, 2012). · Social resources revolve around relationship-building, and include our ability not only to be perceptive and empathetic in working with others, but also to be competent in managing our own emotional response
s. · Psychological resources are those that help us deal with the ambiguity and risk inevitably associated with leadership, and include optimism, self-efficacy, resilience and proactivity.
For a description of the Ontario Leadership Framework and its research foundations see The Ontario Leadership Framework 2012, With a Discussion of the Research Foundations (Leithwood, 2012) and Strong Districts & Their Leadership (Leithwood, 2013) available on the Institute for Education Leadership website at www. education-leadership-ontario. ca.
· Cognitive resources include both the capacity for problem-solving and systems thinking
, and the role-specific knowledge required to use those problem-solving and systems thinking abilities effectively. The language of the PLRs aligns closely with that used in the general leadership literature. Leadership development expert Eleanor Drago-Severson (2012) identifies cognitive, emotional, intrapersonal and interpersonal as the "internal capacities" that enable us to better manage the complexities of leading, learning, teaching and living. Psychologist Barbara Fredrickson (2003, 2009) speaks of the intellectual, physical, social and psychological as "enduring personal resources" and shows they are essential to "positive emotion." More recently, in their research on personal resources that are foundational to a "global leadership mindset," Mansour Javidan and Jennie Walker (2012) show there are three "core capitals" intellectual, psychological, and social that enable leaders to influence others in achieving their organizational ambitions. The three corresponding building blocks
they identify for each of the three core "capitals" are: · Intellectual Capital: global business savvy, multicultural outlook, cognitive complexity · Psychological Capital: passion for diversity, quest for adventure, self-assurance · social capital
: intercultural empathy, interpersonal impact, diplomacy. What is notable in these works is not only the use of the term "resources" or "capacities" but also their agreement about the connection between these characteristics and leadership success. Thomas (2008) suggests that effective leaders purposefully learn from, and find meaning in, challenging events and emerge stronger and more confident and committed. Astronaut Chris Hadfield's narrative stands out as an exemplar of a leadership journey that illustrates the power of personal resources. Equally important, his story demonstrates the importance of staying true to a larger goal. As Hadfield explains, "Square astronaut, round hole. It's the story of my life...there were hairpin curves and dead ends all the way along. I wasn't destined to be an astronaut. I had to turn myself into one."
Not only are these social resources foundational to effective leadership, but they are also critical characteristics for children and youth to develop and strengthen. Embedded across the Ontario curriculum, beginning in Kindergarten and continuing through Grade 12, students are provided with opportunities to learn to develop and strengthen their ability to perceive and manage their emotions and to act in emotionally appropriate ways. With this in mind school and system leaders take into account the parallels between their own learning and development and that of the children and youth in their schools and districts. "It's not IQ versus emotional intelligence both have great value. IQ tells you what level of cognitive complexity a person can manage. Emotional intelligence or EI is the sine qua non of leadership." Source: `What Makes a Leader?' (Goleman, 1998) 4
First Things First: Exploring the Social Resources The social resources are foundational to the enactment of the leadership practices of the Ontario Leadership Framework (OLF) and include: · Perceiving emotions: detecting from a wide array of clues one's own emotions and the emotions of others. · Managing emotions: managing one's own and others' emotions including the interaction of emotions among other people. · Acting in emotionally appropriate ways: responding to the emotions of others and assisting them in acting on those emotions in constructive ways. The following sections provide a sampling of research to further explain the social resources and to shed light on why they matter and how to build and expand them to strengthen leadership practice. Defining the Social Resources For Daniel Goleman (1995) "emotional intelligence," a term he popularized in the early 1990s with the release of Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ captures what is intended by the social category of the PLRs. Goleman built on the research of psychologists who in the late 1980s sought to take a wider view of intelligence and show that more than cognition is needed to lead life successfully. In fact, Goleman credits Peter Salovey and John Mayer (1990) with developing the original emotional intelligence (EI) construct. In this model emotional intelligence is defined as a form of "social" intelligence that is an ability-based approach including four skills that can be isolated from and at the same time build on the others: identifying emotions, using emotions, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Goleman (2000) argued that the qualities traditionally associated with successful leadership such as intelligence, strength, resolve and vision are required but are insufficient. He argued that truly effective leaders are distinguished by a high degree of emotional intelligence. For him this is the "ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively" and consists of four fundamental capabilities: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and social skill or relationship management. These qualities may seem "soft" in the real world of leadership but Goleman's research has, over time, found strong and direct ties between emotional intelligence and organizational results.
"Emotional intelligence travels through an organization like electricity over telephone wires. ...Emotional leadership isn't just putting on a game face every day. It means understanding your impact on others then adjusting your style accordingly. This is a difficult process of selfdiscovery but essential before you can tackle your leadership responsibilities." Source: `Primal Leadership: The Hidden Driver of Great Performance' (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, 2001) "Beyond the core emotions are moods which are more subdued and last far longer than an emotion it's rare to be in the full heat of anger all day, but not all that rare to be in a grumpy, irritable mood for longer periods." Source: The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace (Goleman and Cherniss, 2001)
Some lessons from Goleman's research Findings of Goleman's research which now spans three decades include the following: · The EI capabilities and corresponding traits that distinguish effective leaders from others and are evident in every act of leadership include: Self-awareness emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence. Self-management self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, achievement, orientation, and initiative. Social awareness empathy, organizational awareness, service orientation. Social skill/relationship management visionary leadership, influence, developing others, communication, change catalyst, Conflict Management
, building bonds, teamwork, and collaboration (Goleman, 2000). · Leaders develop a broad repertoire of emotional leadership skills
and styles coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting and coaching to motivate and influence others to be successful as circumstances dictate. (Goleman, 2000, 2013a) · Although people are all born with certain levels of EI and nurture plays a role, EI can be strengthened through persistence, practice, and feedback from colleagues and coaches. That said "...building one's emotional intelligence cannot will not happen without sincere desire and concerted effort." (Goleman and Cherniss, 2001) · A leader's own mood is what most influences an organization's success because it drives everyone else's moods and behaviours through a process called "mood contagion." (Goleman, Boyatzis, and McKee, 2001, 2002) · Social intelligence skills that foster the neurobiological changes to create positive behaviours and emotions include empathy, attunement, organizational awareness, influence, developing others, inspiration, and teamwork. (Goleman, 2006) · All leaders need to cultivate a "triad of awareness" that consists of focusing on themselves, on others, and on the wider world. (Goleman, 2013b) The Power of Emotions One puzzling aspect of the literature on emotions is that there is no widespread agreement about what they are and what impact they can have on our thoughts and actions. What the research does tell us is that there are hundreds of emotions. 5
"... what makes for a specific experience of anger, fear, or joy, is your ability to weave together your appreciation of your body's current state of pleasure or displeasure known as `core affect' with your conceptual understanding of what's happening to you in that very moment. In other words, higher-order mental processes like memory, learning, knowledge, and language are the more basic ingredients of mind that combine together with core affect to create the various recipes for states like anger, fear, or joy." Source: Lindquist and Barrett (2008) cited in Love 2.0 (Fredrickson, 2013)
What is an emotion? Goleman (1995) took emotion to refer to "a feeling and its distinctive thoughts, psychological and biological states, and range of propensities to act." Salovey and Mayer (1990) tell us that emotions "typically arise in response to an event, either internal or external, that has a positively or negatively valenced meaning for the individual," and that our responses involve many of our psychological sub-systems including "the physiological, cognitive, motivational, and experiential systems." Frederickson and Branigan (2005), likewise suggest that emotions are "short-lived experiences that produce coordinated changes in people's thoughts, actions, and physiological responses." We know that emotions are a fundamental part of being human. But as Ginsberg and Davies (2007) point out, emotions are powerful forces that often can and do shape our behaviour and responses. Positive emotions like falling in love they argue may cure many ills. On the other hand a variety of other negative emotions can overwhelm even the strongest among us. As these practitioners point out, "Fear, for example, can grip your soul and cause severe stress and anxiety ... likewise anger ... becomes a ball and chain around your leg, slowing you down, holding you back, and making you less productive. Guilt, jealousy and other negative emotions can impact your ability to think clearly... Reactions to emotional states cause paralysis, denial, avoidance, vacillation, and errant judgment." Ginsberg and Davies (2007) provide the following table which depicts what they have selected as "core" emotions, their possible causes and how they may impact our thinking and behaviour.
Typical Emotions Fear, terror Anger, rage Joy, ecstasy Sadness, grief Acceptance, trust Jealousy, envy Disgust, loathing Anticipation Pride Surprise
Likely Thought Process
Meeting a potential mate
Loss or death of a loved one Isolation
Becoming a group member Friend
Losing a competition
Seeing a shocking act/object Poison
Entering new territory
What's out there?
I did it!
Seeing a sudden novel object What is it?
Potential Action Running away Hitting Courting Crying Coaching, sharing Undermining, gossiping Nausea, pushing away Examining, mapping Bragging Stopping, alerting
Source: derived and expanded from Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, cited in Ginsberg and Davies (2007)
"'Positivity' doesn't mean we should follow the axioms, `Grin and bear it,' or `Don't worry, be happy.' ... Positivity runs deeper. It includes the positive meanings and optimistic attitudes that trigger positive emotions as well as open minds..." Source: Positivity (Fredrickson, 2009) The power of a positive approach makes a difference for both leaders and students. All Ontario curriculum documents include a section on the `Role of the Student' to highlight the importance of maintaining a positive outlook on learning; for example, "Students attitudes towards health and physical education
can have a significant effect on their learning and their achievement of the expectations. Students who are strongly engaged and who are given opportunities to provide leadership are more likely to adopt practices and behaviours that support healthy, active living." Source: The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8: Health and Physical Education, Interim Edition (2010) "Accessing our emotions is still important to behaving adaptively and surviving. Fear is a powerful emotion that has an important role to play in our lives. When we worry about something we are potentially motivated to act in order to alleviate the fear. The intelligent use of fear involves using it to energize us to address the things that are important. Emotions motivate our behaviour in ways that are adaptive and helpful." Source: The Emotionally Intelligent Manager (Caruso and Salovey, 2004)
The "positivity" movement Two decades ago, inspired by Martin Seligman's (for example 1975, 1991) positive psychology
movement, Barbara Fredrickson (2003) sought to distinguish the actions that are the result of positive and negative emotions. Her "broaden-and-build" theory of positive emotions shows that they are distinct and complementary. Negative emotions arouse narrowed mindsets and specific survival action tendencies such as attack or flee. In contrast, positive emotions broaden our thought-action repertoires causing us to pursue a wider range of thoughts and actions that can include such responses as discover, enjoy, and integrate. According to Frederickson, positive emotions despite being typically short-lived can have profoundly positive effects. By temporarily widening attention and thinking, positive emotions can lead to the discovery of new ideas, diverse responses and strengthened relationships. "Broadened thought-action repertoires" are significant, she argues, because they can "build a variety of personal resources that may include physical, intellectual and psychological resources." More importantly, as she contends, "the personal resources accrued during states of positive emotions are durable. They outlast the transient emotional states that led to their acquisition. As such, these resources can function as reserves to be drawn on later, to improve coping and odds of survival." The role of negative emotions Fredrickson (2009) acknowledges that the negative emotions have an adaptive value: "In an instant they narrow our thought-action repertoires to those that best promoted our ancestors' survival in life-threatening situations." In this view, "negative emotions are efficient solutions to persistent challenges." In Fredrickson's view, positive emotions are not so easily explained from an evolutionary viewpoint. "Joy, serenity and gratitude" she says, "don't seem as useful as fear, anger and disgust." She argues, however, that positive emotions, instead of focusing on concerns related to immediate survival, solve problems concerning personal growth and development. In her view experiencing a positive emotion leads to states of mind and to ways of behaving that indirectly prepare us for later hard times. "If negative emotions narrow people's mindsets and positive emotions broaden them, then perhaps positive emotions undo the lingering effects of negative emotions." 7
For Chris Hadfield (2013) negative thinking is a strategy for overcoming fear: "Being forced to confront the prospect of failure head-on to study it, dissect it, tease apart all its components and consequences really works. After a few years of doing that pretty much daily, you've forged the strongest possible armour to defend against fear: hard-won competence." "Numerous studies ... show that emotional agility can help people alleviate stress, reduce errors, become more innovative, and improve job performance
. Four practices that build emotional agility: 1. Recognize your patterns. 2. Label your thoughts and emotions. 3. Accept them. 4. Act on your values." Source: `Emotional Agility' (David and Congleton, 2013) "Every worker's performance is affected by the constant interplay of perceptions, emotions, and motivations triggered by workday events, including [leadership] action yet inner work life remains mostly invisible to [leaders]." Source: The Progress Principle (Amabile and Kramer, 2011) 8
In contrast, Caruso and Salovey (2004) add caution about diminishing the role of negative emotions which they argue can enhance thinking in very useful and practical ways. Negative emotions, they argue, appeal to us to change what we are doing or thinking. They narrow our field of attention and perception and motivate us to act in very specific ways. Compared to positive emotions, negative emotions tend to be experienced more strongly. Drawing on the same evolutionary explanation related to our survival instincts, they argue that the chance of danger must be more carefully attended to. In their words, "We all love positive emotions and recognize their positive effects on health and well-being but there should be a fond place in our hearts for the so-called negative emotions such as fear, anger, and disgust. [Leadership] is not about avoiding conflict and making everyone happy all the time. It is more about effectiveness and effectiveness requires a range of emotions." Emotions at work Leadership development experts David and Congleton (2013) point out that we've come a long way from the days when the prevailing wisdom was that "emotions have no place at the office." They point out that we all experience an inner stream of thoughts and feelings and those feelings include criticism, doubt and fear. And they caution that attempting to minimize or ignore thoughts and emotions serves only to amplify them. On the contrary, they argue that "effective leaders don't buy into or try to suppress their inner experiences. Instead they approach them in a mindful, values-driven, and productive way developing what we call emotional agility. In our complex, fast-changing knowledge economy this ability to manage one's thoughts and feelings is essential to business success." The impact of inner work life on emotions Psychologists Theresa Amabile and Steven Kramer (2011) concur. They became fascinated with day-to-day work life and mounted a multi-year study tracking the activities, perceptions, emotions, and motivation levels of hundreds of workers in a variety of settings resulting in their study of "inner work life." Amabile and Kramer define inner work life as a system with the following dynamic and interactive parts: · Our motivation what to do, whether or not to do it, how and when to do it which is influenced by our thoughts and feelings.
"Teachers' practices and the learning of their students are significantly influenced by their professionally relevant internal states (thoughts and feelings)." Source: Leading with Teacher Emotions in Mind (Leithwood and Beatty, 2008)
· Our thoughts and perceptions which focus on sense-making about workday events and include: the work its meaning and value, and what needs to be done the self role in team, project, and organization, capability/ confidence, and value the team the organization · Our emotions which encompass both positive and negative emotions such as happiness, pride, warmth, love, sadness, anger, frustration, and fear and, our overall mood which in turn impacts our reactions to workday events. What they found is that "positive emotions fuel people's motivation, which in turn drives performance along four key dimensions: creativity (ability to come up with novel and useful ideas), productivity, commitment to the work, and collegiality (contributions to team cohesiveness)." Teacher emotions The insights of Amabile and Kramer about inner work life and their implications for performance are consistent with research into teacher emotions at work. For example, in a review of evidence about teacher emotions and their consequences for classroom practice and student learning
, Kenneth Leithwood and Brenda Beatty (2007) unequivocally recommend leaders attend to feelings, dispositions or affective states of staff members, both individually and collectively, that impact teachers' inner work life. This, they argue, is because teachers' perceptions and motivations can have significant effects on the quality of instruction, student learning, engagement in the school or profession, staff retention, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, morale, stress, and staff trust in colleagues, parents and students. Similarly, John Hattie (2012) in his research on "visible learning," points to a direct relationship between inner work life and his eight mindframes or ways of thinking that together must underpin every action and decision in schools and systems. In his view, "making progress in meaningful work" which Amabile and Kramer identify as the primary boost to workers' emotions, motivation and perceptions, is for teachers "having positive impacts on student learning."
· Cognitive empathy is the ability to understand another person's perspective. · Emotional empathy is the ability to feel what someone else feels. · Empathic concern is the ability to sense what another person needs from you. Source: `The Focused Leader' (Goleman, 2013b)
Developing the Social Resources: Ten Strategies for Success This section draws on selected sources from relevant research and professional practice to create the beginnings of a possible "PLR toolkit." These are strategies found to be successful in building and strengthening the social PLRs. Refer to the original sources which provide greater detail about the research foundations of the strategies and how to implement them. Try them on your own or with others to see what works best. Add other strategies you have found to be helpful and develop your own personalized toolkit to revisit on a regular basis. Expand your toolkit with strategies focused on building the cognitive and psychological PLRs which will be the focus of the next two Ideas Into Action papers. 1. Cultivate emotional intelligence In Focus: The Hidden Driver of Success, Daniel Goleman (2013a) explores the research and practice of attention to show how "focus" is essential to strengthening emotional intelligence. He argues that every leader needs to cultivate a "triad of awareness" which he refers to as the primary elements of emotional intelligence consisting of "focusing on yourself, focusing on others, and focusing on the wider world." · Inner focus refers to self-awareness and self-management how well we are in touch with who we are and what we stand for and the self-control we have both to handle upsetting emotions and to marshal positive emotions that help us stay motivated to pursue a goal despite distractions and setbacks. · Other focus includes how well we relate to others. It's our empathy which allows us to understand people's perceptions and feelings and what we can do to help them be their best. · Outer focus has to do with how well we make sense of the external forces that shape our world at work including organizational dynamics and economic and environmental trends. Some strategies Goleman (2013b) offers for growing our focus include: · Strengthen your attention: Attention is a mental muscle that can be built up through the right kind of exercise. Follow this "fundamental" repetition: When your mind wanders, notice that it has wandered, bring it back to your desired point of focus, and keep it there as long as you can.
· Expand your awareness: Try, at least sometimes, not to be in control, not to offer up your own view, and not to judge others. Thinking positively can help because negativity narrows our focus and positive emotions widen our attention and our openness to the new and unanticipated. · Learn self-restraint: Strengthen cognitive control through any activity in which you are asked to stop on a cue. Daily sessions of "mindfulness" practice work in a similar way and help to strengthen these circuits. 2. Strengthen emotional leadership styles In Daniel Goleman's (2000) early writings he tells us that our own leadership style can dramatically influence organizational climate. His research found that leaders use six styles each springing from different components of emotional intelligence coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting and coaching. The following table summarizes each of the styles, their origin, when they work best, and their impact on organizational climate and thus its performance. Note that Goleman suggests that leaders would do well to master as many styles as possible, and be able to switch between them as the situation demands.
modus operandi immediate
Mobilizes people toward a vision
Creates harmony and builds emotional bond
Forges consensus through participation
Sets high standards for performance
Develops people for the future
The style in a phrase
"Do what I tell "Come with
"People come first."
"What do you "Do as I do
Underlying emotional intelligence competencies
Drive to achieve, Self-confidence,
initiative, self- empathy,
Empathy, building relationships, communication
Collaboration, team leadership, communication
Conscientiousness, drive to achieve, initiative
Developing others, empathy, self-awareness
When the style works best
In a crisis, to kick start a turnaround, or with problem employees
When changes require a new vision, or when a clear direction is needed
To heal rifts in a team or to motivate people during stressful circumstances
To build buy-in, or consensus, or to get input from valued employees
To get quick results from a highly motivated competent team
To help an employee improve performance or develop long-term strengths
Overall impact on climate
Negative: inhibits flexibility, dampens employees' motivation
Most strongly positive: less effective with a more experienced team of experts
Positive: exclusive focus on praise can allow performance to go uncorrected
Positive: not as high as imagined, can result in endless meetings
Negative: some employees may feel overwhelmed, resent tendency to take over a situation
Positive: not as effective with those resistant to changing their ways
Source: `Leadership that Gets Results' (Goleman, 2000) 11
"Mindfulness is the process of actively noticing new things. When you do that, it puts you in the present. It makes you more sensitive to context and perspective. It is the essence of engagement. And it's energy begetting, not energy consuming." Source: `Mindfulness in the Age of Complexity An Interview with Ellen Langer' (Beard, 2014) Students are supported to develop the same personal resources skills that effective school and system leaders use in their leadership roles. Metacognitive skills are incorporated throughout the Ontario curriculum. The Language and the Arts curricula, in particular, include opportunities for students to learn to reflect and be mindful of their thinking processes. One of the overall expectations in the arts curriculum is focused on reflecting, responding and analysing. "Learned helplessness is brought about by repeated failure. After a number of experiences in which our efforts are futile, many of us will give up....This `learned helplessness' then generalizes to situations where we can, in fact, exercise control. Even when solutions are available, a mindless sense of futility prevents us from reconsidering the situation." Source: Mindfulness (Langer, 1989) 12
In Goleman's (2013a) latest publication, he underscores the importance of having a range of emotional leadership styles. More adept leaders, he says, draw on an extensive range of styles that build emotional capital with each approach representing a unique focus and application: "The wider a leader's repertoire of styles, the more energized the organization's climate and the better the results." 3. Become more mindful For over 35 years, Harvard psychologist Ellen Langer (1989) has been researching mindfulness from a perspective that is independent of its spiritual influences. Widely respected as the "mother of mindfulness," Langer is convinced that virtually all our anguish, worries, and unhappiness professionally, personally, interpersonally and in society as a whole are the direct or indirect result of our mindlessness. Langer's (2009) now famous "counterclockwise" experiments conducted in the 1970s support this claim. She found that elderly men who envisioned themselves as younger versions of themselves simply acting as if it were 20 years earlier improved their HEALTH AND FITNESS
. Mindlessness, Langer says, is the "rigid reliance on old categories." She points to the negative effects
of mindlessness that can include a narrow and single-minded self-image, unintended malice, loss of control, "learned helplessness" (Seligman, 1975), and unfulfilled potential. Mindfulness on the other hand results in increased health, competence and happiness. Langer's (1989) studies suggest to her that most of us are mindless most of the time. How then can we become more mindful in our lives and in the process build our emotional intelligence? The following is a sampling of proven strategies Langer offers (Caprino, 2014; Beard, 2014): · Seek out, create, and notice new things: The key to becoming mindful is actively noticing and bringing into focus new things about our present situation including work, people, and the environment. By noticing new things in our daily lives, we can develop fresh solutions to problems, see multiple options, and exclude previously defined solutions that no longer apply. · Realize how behaviour can be understood differently in diverse contexts: When colleagues or friends do something that is upsetting to us, think of three positive reasons for their behaviour and consider their perspectives.
"Work/life balance is at best an elusive ideal and at worst a complete myth, today's senior executives will tell you. But by making deliberate choices about which opportunities they'll pursue and which they'll decline, rather than simply reacting to emergencies, leaders can and do engage meaningfully with work, family, and community. They've discovered through hard experience that prospering in the senior ranks is a matter of carefully combining work and home so as not to lose themselves, their loved ones, or their foothold on success. Those who do this most effectively involve their families in work decisions and activities. They also vigilantly manage their own human capital, endeavoring to give both work and home their due over a period of years, not weeks or days." Source: `Manage Your Work, Manage Your Life' (Groysberg and Abrahams, 2014) "When the trust account is high, communication is easy, instant, and effective." Source: The Speed of Trust: The One Thing that Changes Everything (Covey, 2006) Read `Healthy Relationships: The Foundation of a Positive School Climate' (In Conversation, fall 2013) and learn why Dr. Megan Tschannen-Moran believes that educational leaders
can accomplish very little in the absence of trust.
· Reframe mistakes into successes: Rather than focus on the mistake, examine the components of the process leading to the mistake. Find three aspects that were beneficial and three unplanned outcomes that could be positive. Use these insights to create new approaches that actually require and draw upon dimensions of the "failure." · Be aware that stress indeed all emotion is a result of personal views about events: Consider a particular event which normally causes anxiety and concern about the outcome. With this dreaded event in mind follow these three steps: 1. Envision three outcomes perceived as "negative" and that generate concern. 2. Think of why this event may not even occur. 3. Come up with three reasons why, if this perceived "negative" event were to occur, it could have positive results in the long run. · Think about work/life "integration" rather than work/life "balance:" Balance suggests that work and life are opposites and have nothing in common. In fact, both are mostly about people and both include demands and schedules to be met. Think of ways to draw from each in order to transfer what is learned in one domain to the other. 4. Grow and maintain trust Stephen R. Covey (1989) uses the metaphor "emotional bank account" to describe the amount of trust that's been built up in a relationship. Covey's bank account revolves, not around dollars, but around trust. For him, it's feeling safe with another human being. He suggests that, in our relationships with others, we need to be mindful of maintaining our emotional bank accounts. In any relationship with another individual or group, Covey asserts that we are either building trust by making a deposit, or, eroding trust by making a withdrawal. Courtesy, kindness, honesty, and keeping commitments are examples of deposits into emotional bank accounts that build up a reserve of trust with others. It is a reserve of trust we can call upon when needed. A continuous pattern of behaviour that shows disrespect, overreacting, not listening, betraying trust, and so on will eventually overdraw on reserves. In The Speed of Trust: The One Thing that Changes Everything Covey (2006) argues that what distinguishes effective leaders from others is "being an individual who can be trusted." For him a "high-trust" leader is someone who has learned "how to interact with others in ways that increase trust levels while avoiding the pitfalls that deplete trust." While there are numerous actions and behaviors that affect trust accounts, Covey has identified 13 key behaviours that "high-trust" leaders have in common. These behaviours include both character and competence dimensions to signal that trust is founded on both 13
"Clarify expectations by asking a few simple questions: · What have you understood from this conversation? · As a result of our interaction, what do you see as your next steps? What do you see as mine? · Do you feel that others are clear regarding expectations? · What can we do to make things more clear?" Source: The Speed of Trust: The One Thing that Changes Everything (Covey, 2006) School and system leaders will see and be able to reinforce through professional learning opportunities the parallels across the curriculum for students to learn and develop skills related to the behaviours identified by Covey. For example, in the Ontario curriculum students have the opportunity to learn about trust in the Dynamics of human relationships
course in the social sciences
and Humanities curriculum. To illustrate, one expectation of the course is: "Identify characteristics of healthy relationships; e.g. equality, independence, trust, empathy, loyalty, respect, intimacy, honour, recognition of the other's value, open communication, stability, confidence and altruism." 14
integrity and know-how. Covey recommends that we review the 13 behaviours shown below with a sampling of what they look like when enacted and consider the "opposites" of the behaviours which become "withdrawals" that diminish trust. · Character-Based Behaviours Behaviour #1 Talk Straight: Be honest. Let people know where you stand. Demonstrate integrity. Behaviour #2 Demonstrate Respect: Behave in ways that demonstrate caring and concern. Behaviour #3 Create Transparency: Be genuine. Tell the truth in a way that people can verify. Behaviour #4 Right Wrongs: Apologize quickly. Make restitution where possible. Be humble. Behaviour #5 Show Loyalty: Give credit to others. Speak about people as though they were present. · Competence-Based Behaviours Behaviour #6 Deliver Results: Make sure you thoroughly understand the expectation. Make sure it's realistic. Behaviour #7 Get Better: Seek and act on feedback. Learn from all experiences including mistakes. Behaviour #8 Confront Reality: Take the tough issues head on. Lead out courageously in conversation. Behaviour #9 Clarify Expectations: Create shared vision and agreement about what is to be done up front. Renegotiate expectations if needed and possible. Behaviour #10 Practice Accountability: Be clear on how you'll communicate how you're doing and how others are doing. · Character + Competence-Based Behaviour #11 Listen First: Understand. Diagnose. Listen with your ears, your eyes and your heart. Behaviour #12 Keep Commitments: Make promises carefully and then keep them. Behaviour #13 Extend Trust: Demonstrate a predisposition to trust. Offer trust abundantly to those who have earned your trust and conditionally to those who are earning your trust. 5. Promote positive inner work life Amabile and Kramer (2011) found that "the single most important lever in helping to establish a positive cycle in employees' inner work lives is to give people the sense that they can make progress in their work." These researchers say that it is in the control of leaders to promote positive inner work lives since they have powerful influence
"I like to adapt Steven Covey's insights, `You can't talk your way out of what you've behaved yourself into' (1989), by saying that you can't talk your way into trust. I mean that you can only `behave' your way into it by naming, modeling, and monitoring your trustworthiness. You name trust as a value and norm that you will embrace and develop in the organization; you model it in your day-to-day actions; and you monitor it in your own and others' behaviour." Source: The Principal (Fullan, 2014) "If you want to foster great inner work life, focus first on eliminating the obstacles that cause setbacks. Why? ...the effect of setbacks on emotions is stronger than the effect of progress. Although progress increases happiness and decreases frustration, the effect of setbacks is not only opposite on both types of emotions it is greater. The power of setbacks to diminish happiness is more than twice as strong as the power of progress to boost happiness. The power of setbacks to increase frustration is more than three times as strong as the power of progress to decrease frustration." Source: The Progress Principle (Amabile and Kramer, 2011)
over events that can facilitate or hinder progress. To do this, they say leaders need to stimulate two forces that enable progress: · Catalysts which are events that facilitate project work and · Nourishers which are interpersonal events that inspire people. The seven major catalysts that stand out for their impact on inner work life are: 1. Setting clear goals: Explaining where the work is heading and why it matters to the team, the organization, and the organization's stakeholders. 2. Allowing autonomy: Conveying the feeling that decisions will hold. 3. Providing resources: Access to necessary equipment, funding, data, materials, and personnel is key. 4. Giving enough time but not too much: Low to moderate time pressure seems optimal. 5. Offering help with the work: This can take many forms, from providing needed information, to working with colleagues to generate new ideas, to leaders rolling up sleeves to pitch in. 6. Learning from problems and successes: Issues and concerns are faced squarely, analyzed and met with plans to overcome or learn from them. 7. Allowing ideas to flow: Leaders truly listen, encourage vigorous debate of diverse perspectives, and respect constructive criticisms even of themselves. The four broad categories of events that directly impact inner work life related to the nourishment factor are: 1. Respect: Respectful leadership actions include showing recognition, giving employees' ideas serious attention and value, dealing with people honestly, showing basic civility. 2. Encouragement: This is evident in a leader's own enthusiasm combined with expressions of confidence that people are capable of doing the work. 3. Emotional support: Leaders who simply "acknowledge people's sorrows and frustrations as well as their joys can alleviate the negative and amplify the positive emotions. Empathy is even better than simple acknowledgement." 4. Affiliation: Leadership actions that "develop bonds of mutual trust, appreciation, and even affection with coworkers help people feel the human connection at work."
"Positive emotions like all emotions arise from how you interpret events and ideas as they unfold. They depend on whether you allow yourself to take a moment to find the good and on whether once you've found it, you pump that goodness up and let it grow." Source: Positivity (Fredrickson, 2009) "For some, meditation invokes images of monks or yogis or some other spiritual sounding monikers ... But meditation is nothing more than the quiet distance that you need for integrative, imaginative, observant and mindful thought. It is the ability to create distance, in both time and space, between you and all of the problems you are trying to tackle, in your mind alone. It doesn't have to be a way of experiencing nothing ... as long as your mind is clear of every other distraction, or to be more precise, as long as your mind clears itself of every distraction and continues to do so as the distractions continue to arise (as they inevitably will). Source: Mastermind: How to Think Like Sherlock Holmes (Konnikova, 2013)
6. Savour "positivity" Barbara Frederickson (2009, 2013) has shown that positivity matters and can strengthen capacity for Critical thinking
, resilience, personal growth, and ultimately greater well-being and success. Whereas negative emotions tend to stick and endure, positive emotions don't reside in a permanent state. They can be fleeting. To reap the rewards of positivity, we need to create a steady supply of positive emotions over time. How much positivity is enough? The more the better says Fredrickson, but it turns out that the ideal ratio is at least three positive emotions for each negative one. To assess our positivity ratio she recommends that we take two minutes to complete the Positivity Self-Test at www.PositivityRatio.com which invites reflection on the thoughts and feelings of the past day that is, from this time yesterday up to right now and then answer questions such as the following on a scale of "not-at-all" to "extremely:" · "What is the most angry, irritated or annoyed you felt?" · "What is the most hopeful, optimistic or encouraged you felt?" · "What is the most inspired, uplifted or elevated you felt?" · "What is the most sad, downhearted or unhappy you felt?" Frederickson recommends taking the self-test regularly and keeping track of and comparing results as part of a program of "self-study" aimed at decreasing negativity and increasing positivity. To help increase our positivity ratio, Frederickson (2009) has assembled a collection of evidence-based strategies shown to be effective for some people. The following is a sampling of these strategies; see Positivity for instructions on how to fully implement them. · Be open. Give yourself permission and time to experience the richness of the present moment. Develop "mindful awareness" by tuning into and appreciating your direct sensory experiences. · Create high-quality connections. Four ways to build these are respectful engagement, supporting what another person is doing, trust and play. Any social interaction
provides an opportunity. · Cultivate kindness. Aim for five actions daily that really make a difference and come as a cost to you; e.g. helping a neighbour with yard work or snow shovelling. · Develop distractions. Get your mind off your worries by becoming absorbed in healthy distractions.
"Individuals holding an `entity theory' that human attributes are innate and unalterable are disinclined to invest in helping others to develop and improve, relative to individuals who hold the `incremental theory' that personal attributes can be developed." Source: `Keen to Help: Managers' Implicit Person Theories and Their Subsequent Employee Coaching' (Heslin, Vandewalle, and Latham, 2006) `Learner' questions are openminded, curious and creative and can lead to discoveries, understandings, and solutions; for example: · What are my goals? · What are the facts? · How can I help? · What's possible? `Judger' questions are more closed-minded, certain and critical. They focus on problems rather than on solutions and often lead to defensive reactions, negativity, and inertia; e.g. · Why can't they perform? · How can I prove I'm right? · Why aren't we winning? · Why bother? Source: `Shifting Mindsets: Questions that Lead to Results' (Adams, 2012)
· Dispute negative thinking. Start by recording your typical negative thoughts on index cards. Read them out loud and challenge them one at a time. Repeat often. · Find nature nearby. Locate a dozen places you can get to within minutes to exercise, socialize, or be one with nature. · Learn and apply your strengths. Take and reflect on the results of the free online survey at www.AuthenticHappiness.com. · Meditate mindfully. Deepen your practice of "mindful awareness" with daily meditation. · Meditate on loving-kindness (MLK). Increase feelings of warmth and caring for yourself and others. · Ritualize gratitude. Notice the gifts that surround you. · Visualize your future. Use journaling to begin a process of imagining the future you foresee. 7. Grow your mindset Through more than three decades of systematic research, psychologist Carol Dweck (2006) has studied why some people achieve their potential while equally talented others don't. The key, she found, isn't ability or talent. It's whether you look at ability as something inherent or as something that can be developed. To explain, Dweck claims that there are mainly two theories of intelligence incremental and entity: · If you are an incremental theorist, you have a "growth mindset." You believe that intelligence is fluid that is, if you put in more effort, study more, deepen your understandings, make better use of opportunities to apply your learning, you will become smarter. In other words, your intelligence can be developed over time it is flexible and expandable. · If you are an entity theorist, you have a fixed mindset. You believe that intelligence is permanent. In spite of all attempts you may make to learn and grow your knowledge and skill, you will remain as smart, or not, as you were before. What is the impact of mindset on emotions? How do mindsets influence the way in which we perceive, manage and act in emotionally intelligent ways? 17
The following are some reflective questions that relate to emotionladen themes. Use the questions to consider the relationship between mindset and strengthening social resources. Consult the references to learn what the research says. · Is emotional intelligence inborn? What is the mindset of those who believe this about themselves: "I'm not a people person," or "I'm not good at managing my emotions?" To what extent will those who hold this view be successful in managing their own emotions? What is your response? (Caruso and Salovey, 2004) · How do you deal with rejection? Do you feel judged or resentful? Or do you feel hurt, but hopeful and forgiving, learning and moving on? Think of the worst rejection you ever had. Get in touch with all the feelings and view it from a growth mindset. What did you learn from it? (Dweck, 2006) · How do you respond to feedback? What are the roles of the feedback "giver" and the feedback "receiver?" How do you "hear" feedback? When and why do you reject feedback? How can you become a better feedback receiver? (Stone and Heen, 2014a, 2014b) · What does failure mean to you? Is failure a learning opportunity or a shortcoming that cannot be overcome or remedied? Which view provides insights that can be applied to future situations? What are the implications of being afraid to make mistakes? (Edmondson, 2012) · How important is it to "look smart?" How smart do you have to be to perform at a high level? What does being smart mean to you? Is it experience, or inborn abilities, or general abilities such as intelligence and memory? (Colvin, 2008) · How does past performance influence current performance appraisals? What impact do past performance appraisal results have on current appraisals. How possible is it for those who have had weak past appraisals to make strides and improve their performance? What kinds of questions do you ask? (Heslin, Latham, and Vandewalle, 2005) · Can personality be changed? What are the implications for holding a categorical, all-or-nothing view of people's qualities? What are the implications for believing that personality can change? Which perspective is more likely to result in concerns being addressed in a constructive way? Which is more likely to result in problems that fester and relationships that are ended at the first sign of trouble? (Dweck, 2006) 18
"Positive Potential: Eight Surprising Sources 1. Strengths: Success breeds success. 2. Past Success: History is a source of positive possibility. 3. Cynicism: Behind every distrustful statement there is a dream waiting to be realized. 4. Big Emotions: Validation releases emotions and creates a clearing for ideas. 5. Edgy Ideas: Innovation lives on the edge. It is never the norm. 6. Connectivity: New connections create fresh opportunities. 7. Opposition: Unity is harmony among differences. 8. Novelty: Newness is the seed of learning." Source: Appreciative Leadership (Whitney, Trosten-Bloom and Rader, 2010) "Anatomy of an Appreciative Inquiry Question 1. The values-based, affirmative topic sets the stage. 2. The lead-in conveys confidence that we have experienced the topic. 3. The string of probes invites a deep dive into the causes of success; e.g. What was the situation? Who else was involved? What was your role? What did you do? How did you feel? What can we learn?" Source: Appreciative Leadership (Whitney, Trosten-Bloom and Rader, 2010)
8. See with "appreciative eyes" The idea of the "appreciative eye" is that in every piece of art there is beauty. David Cooperrider and Suresh Srivastva (1987) applied this concept to a business context with the introduction of "appreciative inquiry" or AI as it has come to be known. AI is both a philosophy and an approach for motivating change that focuses on exploring and amplifying organizational strengths that begins by looking for what works in an organization. Appreciative inquiry has an impressive track record of success around the world and in a wide range of industries, sectors and communities. AI experts Diana Whitney, Amanda Trosten-Bloom and Kae Rader (2010) have applied the key tenets of AI and developed a theory of "appreciative leadership" which has as its premise "learning about and building on what works in the workplace as opposed to focusing on what's wrong." Based on research and professional practice, these educators have identified the following five core strategies which provide the means by which appreciative leadership creates a positive emotional environment and thereby successfully "unleashes potential and elevates performance." Each strategy meets a different need that people have for high performance. 1. Inquiry lets people know that you value them and their contributions. What is your "ask-to-tell ratio?" Do you ask questions at least three times more than you tell people what to do or give advice? 2. Illumination helps people understand how they can best contribute. Use an "appreciative check-in" start your next conversation or meeting by asking, "Let's all share a story of something that has gone well in our lives since we last talked." Watch what happens as you illuminate the best in others. 3. Inclusion gives people a sense of belonging. Begin with yourself: How inclusive, open, and accepting of all people is your inner dialogue? When you talk to yourself about other people, are you accepting? Do you consider people problems to be solved? Or do you reflect and wonder about strengths? 4. Inspiration provides people with a sense of direction. Begin with yourself: Think about a time when you were inspired. Who or what inspired you? What awakened your creativity? What gave you confidence to take action? What did you do? 5. Integrity lets people know that they are expected to give their best for the greater good, and that they can trust others to do the same. Your example sets a standard for others to follow. 19
"There is a well-known set of emotions (e.g. morale, stress, commitment) that are elicited by teachers' work and those emotions are significantly influenced by the conditions of that work, conditions highly influenced by leadership." Source: Leading with Teacher Emotions in Mind (Leithwood and Beatty, 2008) "Leaders are emotionally significant `others' in teachers' lives and affect a large part of teachers' disposition to be open to new ideas and new practices." Source: Leading with Teacher Emotions in Mind (Leithwood and Beatty, 2008)
9. Bring emotions out into the open In Leading with Teacher Emotions in Mind, Kenneth Leithwood and Brenda Beatty (2008) challenge school leaders to do better than simply "read others' emotions and anticipate their feelings in order to influence them." Instead they argue that leaders must possess social resources to "face the emotional discomfort" which is inevitable in asking teachers to engage in collaborative processes
that result in improvement in their instructional practices. In their view "understanding how to assist teachers in maintaining positive emotional states" is foundational to successful school leadership. School leaders demonstrate this kind of emotional intelligence when they, for example: · Enact practices associated with transformational approaches to leadership which "occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality" (Burns, 1978, cited in Leithwood and Beatty, 2007). · Understand and address their own working conditions, that is, their own "inner working conditions". · Make emotional meaning together with teachers: Invite emotional candour by conveying their own sense of vulnerability as a basis for understanding one another. · Embrace with courage and conviction the challenges of creating new emotional knowledge and understanding together with teachers. · Feel with others rather than merely thinking about others' feelings. Leading that brings emotions out into the open doesn't come easily for most. In fact Kouzes and Posner (2007, 2010) note that many people believe that leaders must separate their emotions from their work and approach situations rationally. However, these researchers show that the most effective leaders are those who, as Leithwood and Beatty suggest, are emotionally prepared to connect with others and then address the emotional implications of these connections. If this is the case then how do leaders actually bring emotions out into the open? What does this look like in practice? Without diminishing the complexity of emotionally intelligent leadership, the following two examples provide some insight in response to these questions:
"Inspiration is the capacity to move people by reaching in and filling their hearts from deeper sources of meaning." Source: The Practice of Adaptive Leadership (Heifetz, Grashow, and Linsky, 2009b) An "On the Balcony" Strategy · Videotape yourself giving a speech or leading a team meeting. · Watch the tape yourself or with others, and track your tone, volume, emotion, and energy. · Try to pinpoint the moments when you seem most engaged and when the audience seems engaged. · Identify moments when you and they are not engaged. · Brainstorm ways you can improve your ability to speak from the heart. Source: The Practice of Adaptive Leadership (Heifetz, Grashow, and Linsky, 2009b)
Listen and speak from the heart The first example reflects the advice of Ron Heifetz (1998) who developed a bold new theory of "adaptive leadership," and stands out as one who offers compelling arguments about leadership that takes into account the emotions that are inherent to change. Joined by Marty Linsky and Alexander Grashow, Heifetz (2009b) draws on their collective years of research and practice among leaders across sectors in The Practice of Adaptive Leadership to provide evidence-based tools and tactics for anyone who needs to take the lead in almost any situation. In the following example, they argue that leaders must "inspire" by "engaging people's beliefs and loyalties which lie in their hearts, not in their heads." The two skills needed to master the ability to inspire are listening from the heart and speaking from the heart. · Listen from the heart to understand what others are feeling; for example: Take in information beyond what is being said, using as sources of evidence your own feelings and the nonverbal signals people are giving you. Listen for the subtext, the song beneath the words, to identify what is really at stake for others. What is causing the distress you are hearing? Listen with curiosity and compassion, beyond judgement. It is not enough to say, "I hear what you are saying," or to repeat it back. At the very least you have to be able to say with credibility, "I see." Allow for silence. Silence gives people time to absorb what has been said and helps hold people's attention. Silence has content you can read by watching others' body language and eye contact. · Speak from the heart by expressing what you are feeling, for example: If you care deeply about the challenges facing people, find a way to tell them. You need to be moved yourself at the same time you seek to move others. Let yourself be moved while still holding others through the emotion. Speak musically attending to a number of aspects of your voice its cadence, pitch, volume and tone. Make each word count, clearly communicating the one overarching point that you care most about and making one supporting point at a time.
"There is no integrity and honor without heart. There is no hope and faith without heart. There's no trust and support without heart. Nothing important ever gets done without heart. Purely and simply, exemplary leaders excel at improving performance because they pay great attention to the human heart." Source: The Truth about Leadership (Kouzes and Posner, 2010) "Call it the physics of leadership: positives attract; negatives repel." Source: The Truth about Leadership (Kouzes and Posner, 2010)
Make leadership "an affair of the heart" The second example profiles the tenth "truth" about leadership offered by James Kouzes and Barry Posner (2010): "Leadership is an affair of the heart." They too believe that it is a "prevailing myth" that leaders are supposed to divorce their emotions from a situation and approach things purely rationally. The following are the four dimensions of this truth: 1. Love is the soul of leadership. Place others at the centre, look for ways to respond to the needs and interests of others. 2. Show that you care. Pay attention, give your appreciation, reach out, listen to words and emotions, be open to experiences, ask questions and express a willingness to learn. 3. Fall in love with what you do. Be passionate about values and visions that make a difference. Look forward every day to strengthening others and building teams. Relish the chance to tackle challenges and search for new possibilities. Enjoy recognizing others for their contributions to success. 4. Promote the positive. To get through the difficulties of today and tomorrow and seek out opportunities to believe there is positive future out there, paint that attractive picture and generate the human energy to enact it. 10. Take care of yourself Taking care of yourself stands out among all other strategies as key to building and expanding a leader's social resources. The following is a partial list taken from the writings of leadership development researchers and practitioners: From The Human Side of Leadership (Ginsberg, 2008; Ginsberg and Davies, 2007) · Accept that leadership involves emotional experiences. Recognize that these are to be expected. · Prepare yourself. Think about your intuitive reaction to varying situations and understand how others may interpret those reactions. · Look after your Physical health
. Engage in healthful living be physically active, eat healthy and nutritious foods, take time-out breaks, and so on. And of course work to avoid or limit less healthy choices.
· Understand your expressions. Learn that people pay attention to how you convey your emotions. · Learn not to panic. In most instances, taking time to consider various options will pay dividends. · Find order out of chaos. Many positives can be drawn from even the most emotionally difficult situations. Constantly adapt and reorganize as the environment around you changes. In the process, examine what has happened and draw lessons you can use in the future. · Communicate and strategize. Open communication is healthy, not only for leaders themselves but also for the organization. Engage as many others as possible in thinking through situations. · Develop a personal emotional plan. Take ownership of next steps for strengthening your emotional intelligence. From `Leadership in a (Permanent) Crisis' (Heifetz, Grashow, and Linsky, 2009a) The work of leadership demands that you manage not only the adaptive responses within and surrounding your work but also your own thinking and emotions and this will test your limits. Heifetz et al stress that "taking care of yourself both physically and emotionally will be crucial to your success." In their view, "you can achieve none of your leadership aims if you sacrifice yourself to the cause." Here is what they advise: 1. Give yourself permission to be both optimistic and realistic. This will create a healthy tension that keeps optimism from turning into denial and realism from devolving into cynicism. 2. Find sanctuaries where you can reflect on events and regain perspective. This may be a place or an activity that allows you to step away and recalibrate your internal responses. For example, if you tend to demand too much from your organization, you might use the time to ask yourself, "Am I pushing too hard? Am I at risk of grinding people into the ground, including myself? Do I fully appreciate the sacrifices I'm asking people to make?" 23
3. Reach out to confidants with whom you can debrief your workdays and articulate your reasons for taking certain actions. Ideally, a confidant is not a current ally within your organization who may someday end up on the opposite side of an issue but someone external to it. The most important criterion is that your confidant cares more about you than about the issues at stake. 4. Bring more of your emotional self to the workplace. Appropriate displays of emotion can be an effective tool for change, especially when balanced with poise. Maintaining this balance lets people know that although the situation is emotion-laden, it is containable. 5. Don't lose yourself in your role. Defining your life through a single endeavour, no matter how important your work is to you and to others, makes you vulnerable when the environment shifts. It also denies you other opportunities for fulfillment. Learning More: Resources Recommended by Ontario Leaders · Appreciative Leadership: Focus on What Works to Drive Winning Performance and Build a Thriving Organization by Diana Whitney, Amanda Trosten-Bloom, and Kae Rader (2010) applies the tenets of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) to leadership. In describing the five core strategies of appreciative leadership inquiry, illumination, inclusion, inspiration and integrity the authors provide practical and proven protocols and practices. · Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence by Daniel Goleman (2013a) takes a fresh look at attention which Goleman says is our "scarcest resource in the 21st century" and yet is the secret to high performance and fulfillment. Goleman draws on rich case studies to show why leaders need three kinds of focus: inner, other and outer. He shows how those who rely on "smart practices" such as focused preparation and recovery, and positive emotions and connections improve focus, add new skills, "sustain greatness in other words excel." 24
· Helping Educators Grow: Strategies and Practices for Leadership Development by Eleanor Drago-Severson (2012) focuses on supporting growth with the key understanding that adult development is leadership development. Drago-Severson defines growth as increasing cognitive, emotional, intrapersonal and interpersonal capacities. In her view, "leaders who sustain this kind of growth themselves, are better able to support it in others." · Leading with Teacher Emotions in Mind by Kenneth Leithwood and Brenda Beatty (2008) draws on theory and Empirical Research
to show how teachers' emotional well-being can affect their performance in the classroom. This is a rich resource that offers guidance to leaders about how they can become much more effective by paying attention to teacher emotions. It describes recommended practices associated with transformational approaches to leadership which typically elicit positive emotions. · Mindfulness by Ellen Langer (2009), Harvard professor of psychology, shows how the mindless as opposed to the mindful develop mindsets of routine and other automatic behaviours. She shows how mindfulness is the simple process of noticing new things about people and ideas. She points to study after study that shows how mindfulness results in increased happiness and personal, interpersonal and professional effectiveness. · Positivity: Top-notch Research Reveals the 3-to-1 Ratio that will Change Your Life and Love 2.0: How Our Supreme Emotion Affects Everything We Feel, Think, Do and Become by researcher and psychologist Barbara Fredrickson. In Positivity Fredrickson's (2009) "broaden-and-build" theory of positive emotions is the centrepiece and not only provides research on positive emotions but also practical tools and strategies for enhancing positivity. In Love 2.0, Fredrickson (2013) draws from her own research to define love as "micro-moments of connection between people" and provide practices to unlock positive emotions in our lives. 25
· The Emotionally Intelligent Manager: How to Develop and Use the Four Key Emotional Skills of Leadership by David Caruso and Peter Salovey (2004) shows that emotion is not just important but absolutely necessary for us to make good decisions, take action to solve problems, cope with change and succeed. Caruso and Salovey provide tools for self-study that show how to assess, learn, and develop emotional skills and use them in an integrated way to solve our most difficult work-related problems. · The Human Side of Leadership by Rick Ginsberg and Timothy Davies (2007) draws from primary research, including interviews with leaders in a variety of settings, to introduce readers to the emotional side of leadership and demonstrate its positive effects on individual and organizational performance. Ginsberg and Davies present practical tools for honing emotional navigation skills and applying them toward decision making, problem solving
, communication, feedback and performance improvement. · Uplifting Leadership: How Organizations, Teams, and Communities Raise Performance by Andy Hargreaves, Alan Boyle, and Alma Harris (2014) shows how leaders from diverse organizations inspired and uplifted their teams' performance. These authors define "uplift" as having three interlocking meanings that are concerned with emotional and spiritual engagement, social and moral justice, and improved performance in work and life. Drawing on solid research they challenge leaders across sectors to rethink how they can bring together soft skills
with hard data in ways that will elevate everyone. 26
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