iron deficiency, Iron Deficiency Anemia, anemia, iron absorption, ferritin level, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ng, pregnant women, mL, gastrointestinal cancer, Low socioeconomic status, American Family Physician, United States, Patterson C. Laboratory diagnosis, Clin Med, Gridelli L, American Society of Hematology, Prospective evaluation, Arch Intern Med, J Gen Intern Med, Black women, infants and young children, routine screening, iron deficient, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Mexican women, white women, asymptomatic infants, differential diagnosis, serum ferritin, iron supplements, Risk factors, iron supplementation, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, elemental iron, JOHN M. BENNETT, American Academy of Family Physicians, University of Kentucky, microcytic anemia, absorption, American Academy of Family Physicians., Routine iron supplementation, gastrointestinal cancers, iron-deficiency anemia, Diagnostic algorithm, TfR, bone marrow biopsy, LR, iron therapy, anemia of chronic disease, mean corpuscular volume, Likelihood ratio, Transferrin saturation, serum transferrin, Rossander L. Effect
Iron Deficiency Anemia SHERSTEN KILLIP, M.D., M.P.H., John M.
BENNETT, M.D., M.P.H., and MARA D. CHAMBERS, M.D., University of Kentucky
, Lexington, Kentucky The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is 2 percent in adult men, 9 to 12 percent in non-Hispanic white women, and nearly 20 percent in black and Mexican-American women. Nine percent of patients older than 65 years with iron deficiency anemia have a gastrointestinal cancer when evaluated. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force currently recommends screening for iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women
but not in other groups. Routine iron supplementation is recommended for high-risk infants six to 12 months of age. Iron deficiency anemia is classically described as a microcytic anemia. The differential diagnosis includes thalassemia, sideroblastic anemias, some types of anemia of chronic disease, and lead poisoning. Serum ferritin is the preferred initial Diagnostic Test
. Total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum iron, and serum transferrin receptor levels may be helpful if the ferritin level is between 46 and 99 ng per mL (46 and 99 mcg per L); bone marrow biopsy may be necessary in these patients for a definitive diagnosis. In children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age, a trial of iron is a reasonable approach if the review of symptoms, history, and physical examination
are negative; however, the hemoglobin should be checked at one month. If there is not a 1 to 2 g per dL (10 to 20 g per L) increase in the hemoglobin level in that time, possibilities include malabsorption of oral iron, continued bleeding, or unknown lesion. For other patients, an endoscopic evaluation is recommended beginning with colonoscopy if the patient is older than 50. (Am Fam Physician 2007;75:671-8. Copyright © 2007 American Academy of Family Physicians.)
Patient information: Two patient education handouts on this topic can be found at http:// familydoctor.org / 751.xml and http://familydoctor. org/009.xml.
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. It can cause reduced work capacity in adults1 and impact motor and mental development in children and adolescents.2 There is some evidence that iron deficiency without anemia affects cognition in adolescent girls3 and causes fatigue in adult women.4 IDA may affect visual and auditory functioning3 and is weakly associated with poor cognitive development
in children.4 Prevalence The prevalence of IDA in the United States varies widely by age, sex, and race (Table 1).5 The Healthy People 2010 goals are to reduce the occurrence of IDA to less than 5 percent in toddlers; 1 percent in preschool-age children; and 7 percent in women of reproductive age, regardless of race.6 Etiology Iron metabolism is unusual in that it is controlled by absorption rather than excretion. Iron is only lost through blood loss or loss of cells as they slough. Men and nonmenstruating women lose about 1 mg of iron per day. Menstruating women lose from 0.6 to 2.5 percent more per day. An average 132-lb
(60-kg) woman might lose an extra 10 mg of iron per menstruation cycle, but the loss could be more than 42 mg per cycle depending on how heavily she menstruates.7 A pregnancy takes about 700 mg of iron, and a whole blood donation of 500 cc contains 250 mg of iron. Iron absorption, which occurs mostly in the jejunum, is only 5 to 10 percent of dietary intake in persons in homeostasis. In states of overload, absorption decreases. Absorption can increase three- to fivefold in states of depletion. Dietary iron is available in two forms: heme iron, which is found in meat; and nonheme iron, which is found in plant and dairy foods. Absorption of heme iron is minimally affected by dietary factors, whereas nonheme iron makes up the bulk of consumed iron. The bioavailability of nonheme iron requires acid digestion and varies by an order of magnitude depending on the concentration of enhancers (e.g., ascorbate, meat) and inhibitors (e.g., calcium, fiber, tea, coffee, wine) found in the diet.7 Iron deficiency results when iron demand by the body is not met by iron absorption from the diet. Thus, patients with IDA presenting in primary care may have inadequate dietary intake, hampered absorption,
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SORT: Key Recommendations for Practice
High-risk infants six to 12 months of
age should be given routine iron
Blood donors should take 20 mg
elemental iron daily with vitamin C.
Patients of either sex who are older
than 65 and have iron deficiency
anemia should be screened for occult
In men and nonmenstruating women
younger than 65 years, screening for
occult gastrointestinal cancer should be
undertaken in the absence of another
explanation for iron deficiency.
Hemoglobin and ferritin tests are the best C for diagnosing iron deficiency anemia.
14 13, 17, 18 30 30
Infants are considered high risk if they are living in poverty; are black, Native American
, or Alaskan Native; are immigrants from developing countries
; are preterm or low birth weight; or if their primary dietary intake is unfortified cow's milk. Blood donors lose iron; 20 mg per day replaces lost iron with minimal constipation or gastroesophageal reflux disease; vitamin C potentiates iron absorption. In a population-based cohort, 9 percent of adults older than 65 years (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.25) had gastrointestinal cancer, and older adults
with anemia had gastrointestinal cancer 31 times as often as adults without anemia. In a population-based cohort, 6 percent of adults with anemia (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.16) had gastrointestinal cancer on investigation.
25-27, 29 See Table 4 for likelihood ratios.
CI = confidence interval. A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence; B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence; C = consensus, diseaseoriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, see page 603 or http://www.aafp.org/afpsort.xml.
Table 1 Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia in the United States
1988 to 1994 (%)
One to two
Three to five
Six to 11
12 to 15
16 to 69
70 and older
12 to 49
50 to 69
70 and older
Women by racial/Ethnic Group
Mexican living in the
1999 to 2000 (%) 7 5 4 5 2 3 12 9 6 10 19 22
Adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
. Iron deficiency--United States, 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51:899.
or physiologic losses in a woman of reproductive age. It also could be a sign of blood loss, known or occult. IDA is never an end diagnosis; the work-up is not complete until the reason for IDA is known. risk factor
s Table 28-13 lists RISK FACTORS
associated with IDA. Low socioeconomic status
is not a risk factor for IDA in women who never get pregnant, but it is a risk factor when coupled with the increased iron demands imposed by pregnancy. Black women
have a lower mean hemoglobin and a wider standard deviation than white women, even after adjustment for iron status.8 There is a high rate of IDA among Mexican women living in the United States that is not accounted for by dietary intake or parity, suggesting there may be an unidentified, possibly racial factor predisposing these women to iron deficiency.11 Screening and Primary Prevention The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening pregnant women for IDA, but found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening in other asymptomatic persons. However, the guidelines did recommend routine iron supplementation in asymptomatic infants six to 12 months of age who are at high risk of IDA. Infants are considered to be at high risk if they are living in poverty; are black, Native American, or Alaskan Native; are immigrants from a
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table 2 Risk Factors for Iron Deficiency Anemia in the United States
developing country; are preterm or low birth Risk factor
weight; or if their primary dietary intake is unfortified cow's milk.14 Encouraging mothers to breastfeed their
Prevalence in white women: 7.1 percent; prevalence in black women: 25.1 percent
infants and to include iron-enriched foods in the diet of infants and young children
also is recommended. Although the USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the routine use of iron supplements in healthy infants or pregnant women,15 a recent study showed a significant
Blood donation more than two units per year in women and three units per year in men9 Low socioeconomic status and postpartum status10
No statistics given Zero to six months postpartum: OR, 4.1; seven to 12 months postpartum: OR, 3.1
decline in the number of newborns weighing less than 5 lbs 8 oz (2.5 kg) (number needed
Mexican ethnicity living in the United States11
to treat = 7) when the mothers used routine prenatal iron supplementation.16 This supports prescribing prenatal vitamins with iron to all pregnant women, which is the current standard of care in the United States. The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board pub-
Child and adolescent obesity12 BMI 85% and < 95% percentile BMI 95% percentile Vegetarian diet13
OR, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 3.5) OR, 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.9) 40 percent of vegans 19 to 50 years of age were iron deficient
lishes Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for
many vitamins and minerals, including
OR = odds ratio; BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval
iron. DRI replaced Recommended Daily Information from references 8 through 13.
Allowance. The DRI for iron is 8 mg per day
for healthy, nonmenstruating adults; 18 mg
per day for menstruating women; and 16 mg per day for differential diagnosis
vegetarians because of their differential absorption of IDA is classically described as a microcytic anemia. The
nonheme iron.17 For blood donors, a daily dose of 20 mg differential diagnosis for microcytic anemia includes
of elemental iron is recommended.18
iron deficiency, thalassemia, sideroblastic anemias, some
types of anemia of chronic disease, and lead poisoning (rare in adults).19 Patients with sideroblastic anemia will
The definition of anemia varies by sex and age. The most have almost complete saturation of the serum transfer-
commonly used definitions of anemia come from the rin,20 which can differentiate them from patients with
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and iron deficiency. Differentiating between iron deficiency
the World Health Organization
(WHO) (Table 315).
and anemia of chronic disease can sometimes be difficult,
Table 3 Definition of Anemia by Hemoglobin Value
Infants 0.5 to 4.9 years Children 5.0 to 11.9 years Menstruating women Pregnant women in first or third trimester Pregnant women in second trimester Men Information from reference 15.
Hemoglobin level World Health Organization -- -- <12 g per dL (120 g per L) <11 g per dL <11 g per dL <13 g per dL (130 g per L)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention <11 g per dL (110 g per L) <11.5 g per dL (115 g per L) -- <11 g per dL <10.5 g per dL (105 g per L) --
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American Family Physician 673
Iron Deficiency Anemia
especially in early iron deficiency or when the conditions coexist. Patients with lead poisoning will have characteristic signs and symptoms of lead poisoning. clinical presentation Anemia cannot be reliably diagnosed by clinical presentation. Fatigue, the most common reason to check hemoglobin, was caused by anemia in only one out of 52 patients in a primary care practice.21 In a hospital setting, pallor predicted anemia with a likelihood ratio (LR) of 4.5. However, absence of pallor was less helpful at ruling out anemia, giving an LR of 0.6 even when anemia was defined as less than 9 g per dL (90 g per L), a lower diagnostic level than that of the WHO or CDC.22 Other classic symptoms such as koilonychia (spoon nails), glossitis, or dysphagia are not common in the developed world
diagnostic tests The diagnosis of IDA requires that a patient be anemic and show laboratory evidence of iron deficiency. Red blood cells in IDA are usually described as being microcytic (i.e., mean corpuscular volume less than 80 µm3 [80 fL]) and hypochromic, however the manifestation of iron deficiency occurs in several stages.24 Patients with a serum ferritin concentration less than 25 ng per mL (25 mcg per L) have a very high probability of being iron deficient. The most accurate initial diagnostic test for IDA is the serum ferritin measurement. Serum ferritin values greater than 100 ng per mL (100 mcg per L) indicate adequate iron stores and a low likelihood of IDA (Table 425,26).25 In some populations, such as those with inflammatory disease or cirrhosis, these tests must be interpreted slightly differently because ferritin is an
Table 4 Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency
Adults with anemia* Test Mean corpuscular volume Less than 70 µm3 (70 fL) 70 to 74 µm3 (74 fL) 75 to 79 µm3 (75 to 79 fL) 80 to 84 µm3 (80 to 84 fL) 85 to 89 µm3 (85 to 89 fL) 90 µm3 (90 fL) or more Ferritin Less than 15 ng per mL (15 mcg per L) 15 to 24 ng per mL (15 to 24 mcg per L ) 25 to 34 ng per mL (25 to 34 mcg per L ) 35 to 44 ng per mL (35 to 44 mcg per L ) 45 to 100 ng per mL (45 to 100 mcg per L ) More than 100 ng per mL Transferrin saturation Less than 5 percent 5 to 9 percent 10 to 19 percent 20 to 29 percent 30 to 49 percent 50 percent or more
Likelihood ratio 12.5 3.3 1.0 0.91 0.76 0.29 51.8 8.8 2.5 1.8 0.54 0.08 10.5 2.5 0.81 0.52 0.43 0.15
Adults older than 65 Test Mean corpuscular volume Less than 75 µm3 75 to 85 µm3 86 to 91 µm3 (86 to 91 fL) 92 to 95 µm3 (92 to 95 fL) More than 95 fL
Likelihood ratio 8.82 1.35 0.64 0.34 0.11
Ferritin Less than 19 ng per mL (19 mcg per L) 19 to 45 ng per mL (19 to 45 mcg per L) 46 to 100 ng per mL (46 to 100 mcg per L) More than 100 ng per mL
41.0 3.1 0.46 0.13
Transferrin saturation Less than 5 percent 5 to 8 percent More than 8 to 21 percent More than 21 percent
16.51 1.43 0.57 0.28
*Hemoglobin less than 13 g per dL [130 g per L] for men and less than 12 g per dL [120 g per L] for women Adapted with permission from Guyatt GH
, Oxman AD, Ali M, Willan A, McIlroy W, Patterson C. Laboratory diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia: an overview. J Gen Intern Med 1992;7:145-53, with additional information from reference 26.
674 American Family Physician
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Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia Patient with anemia, MCV < 95 µm3 (95 fL) Check ferritin level
Ferritin 45 ng per mL (45 mcg per L), LR+ = 11
Ferritin 46 to 99 ng per mL (46 to 99 mcg per L), LR+ = 0.5
Ferritin 100 ng per ml (100 mcg per L), LR+ = 0.1
Increased TIBC, decreased FE, decreased transferrin saturation
Any other result: Decreased TIBC, increased FE,
increased transferrin saturation
Any other result: if suspicion persists, may consider bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis
Decreased TfR No iron deficiency anemia
Low bone marrow iron
Normal bone marrow iron
Iron deficiency anemia
Work-up for other causes of anemia
Treatment algorithm for iron deficiency anemia (Figure 2)
Figure 1. Diagnostic algorithm for iron deficiency anemia. (MCV = mean corpuscular volume; LR+ = positive likelihood ratio; TIBC = total iron-binding capacity; FE = serum iron; TfR = serum transferrin receptor.) Adapted with permission from Ioannou GN, Spector J, Scott K, Rockey DC. Prospective evaluation of a clinical guideline for the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia. Am J Med 2002;113:281-7.
acute-phase reactant. Cutoffs for abnormality in these patients generally are higher.27 Another laboratory change that occurs in patients with IDA is an increase in the iron-carrying protein transferrin. The amount of iron available to bind to this molecule is reduced, causing a decrease in the transferrin saturation and an increase in the total iron-binding capacity. The serum transferrin receptor assay is a newer approach to measuring iron status at the cellular level. Increased levels are found in patients with IDA, and normal levels are found in patients with anemia of chronic disease.28 recommended diagnostic strategy Figure 129 shows a suggested diagnostic algorithm to determine if a patient has IDA. This algorithm is adapted from a clinical guideline, with the primary modification that serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation are recommended as follow-up tests
in patients with an intermediate ferritin level as a strategy to reduce the need for bone marrow biopsy.29 If these blood tests are indeterminate, an elevated serum transferrin receptor level is recommended to distinguish IDA from anemia of chronic disease. The choice of a ferritin level of less than 45 ng per mL (45 mcg per L) is to allow for a higher sensitivity, despite the fact that most laboratories' normal range for ferritin includes 45 ng per mL. Because IDA has physiologic and pathophysiologic causes, a cause for IDA must be established or serious disease may be overlooked. In a population-based study of more than 700 adults with IDA, 6 percent were diagnosed with a gastrointestinal malignancy. The risk of malignancy was 9 percent in patients older than 65 years with IDA. None of the 442 premenopausal women with iron deficiency, 92 of whom also were anemic, had a gastrointestinal malignancy detected.30 Figure 24,21,29,31,32 shows the authors' suggested evaluation for underlying causes of IDA. The general
March 1, 2007 Volume 75, Number 5
American Family Physician 675
Iron Deficiency Anemia
approach is to separate groups by risk of underlying elemental iron. An increase in the hemoglobin level of 1 g
disease. Patients with a high risk of underlying disease per dL (10 g per L) should occur every two to three weeks
(e.g., men of all ages and postmenopausal women) on iron therapy; however, it may take up to four months
should be evaluated endoscopically for occult bleeding for the iron stores to return to normal after the hemo-
unless the history and physical examination strongly globin has corrected.35 Iron sulfate in a dose of 300 mg
indicate a known benign cause for IDA.
provides 60 mg of elemental iron, whereas 325 mg of iron
Whether to begin with endoscopy or colonoscopy gluconate provides 36 mg of elemental iron. Sustained-
should be indicated by symptoms or age. In a patient release formulations
of iron are not recommended as
older than 50 years who lacks symptoms, the diagnostic initial therapy because they reduce the amount of iron
work-up should begin with colonoscopy.31 Some dis- that is presented for absorption to the duodenal villi.
ease-oriented evidence by specialty researchers suggests Gastrointestinal absorption of elemental iron is
that esophagogastroduodenoscopy may be valuable in enhanced in the presence of an acidic gastric environ-
women of reproductive age.33 However, in the absence of ment. This can be accomplished through simultaneous
symptoms, a therapeutic trial of oral iron therapy is the intake of ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C).36 Although
recommended initial approach.29
iron absorption occurs more readily when taken on an
empty stomach, this increases the likelihood of stomach upset because of iron therapy. Increased patient adher-
Transfusion should be considered for patients of any ence should be weighed against the inferior absorp-
age with IDA complaining of symptoms such as fatigue tion. Foods rich in tannates (e.g., tea)37 or phytates
or dyspnea on exertion. It also should be considered for (e.g., bran, cereal),38 or medications that raise the gastric
asymptomatic cardiac patients with hemoglobin less than pH (e.g., antacids, proton pump inhibitors, histamine
10 g per dL (100 g per L). However, oral iron therapy H2 blockers)39 reduce absorption and should be avoided is usually the first-line therapy for patients with IDA.34 if possible. Some persons have difficulty absorbing
As noted in the etiology section, iron absorption varies the iron because of poor dissolution of the coating.40
widely based on type of diet and other factors. Bone A liquid iron preparation would be a better choice for
marrow response to iron is limited to 20 mg per day of these patients. Laxatives, stool softeners, and adequate
intake of liquids can alleviate the constipat-
ing effects of oral iron therapy.
Evaluation and Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia
Indications for the use of intravenous
iron include chronic uncorrectable bleed-
Iron deficiency anemia:
likely source of bleeding
identified by careful history
and physical examination?
Appropriate evaluation for possible source
ing, intestinal malabsorption, intolerance to oral iron, nonadherence, or a hemoglobin level less than 6 g per dL (60 g per L) with signs of poor perfusion in patients who
would otherwise receive transfusion (e.g.,
Man of any age or
No Yes One-month trial of oral iron. Adequate response to therapy (i.e., 1 to 2 g per dL [10 to 20 g per L] increase in hemoglobin)?
A Endoscopic evaluation, beginning with colonoscopy if patient is older than 50 years Continue iron supplementation and reevaluate in 2 to 3 months.
those who have religious objections).41 Until recently, iron dextran (Dexferrum) has been the only parenteral iron preparation available in the United States. The advantage of iron dextran is the ability to administer large doses (200 to 500 mg) at one time.42 One major drawback of iron dextran is the
No Reevaluate diagnosis; consider trial of intravenous iron. If there is no response, proceed to A
risk of anaphylactic reactions that can be fatal. There also is a delayed reaction, which consists of myalgias, headache, and arthralgias, that can occur 24 to 48 hours after
infusion. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs will usually relieve these symptoms,
Figure 2. Algorithm for evaluation and treatment of iron deficiency but they may be prolonged in patients with
chronic inflammatory joint disease.
Information from references 4, 21, 29, 31, and 32.
Sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit), a safer
676 American Family Physician
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Iron Deficiency Anemia
form of parenteral iron, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1999. The risk of anaphylaxis is drastically reduced using sodium ferric gluconate. In a study of 2,534 patients on hemodialysis, 0.04 percent receiving sodium ferric gluconate had life-threatening reactions compared with 0.61 percent receiving iron dextran.43 Sodium ferric gluconate is usually administered intravenously in eight weekly doses of 125 mg for a total dosage of 1,000 mg. No test dose is required. Another intravenous preparation, approved for use in the United States in 2000, is iron sucrose (Venofer). In iron deficiency not associated with hemodialysis, 200 mg is administered intravenously five times over a two-week period. Safety profiles are similar to sodium ferric gluconate, although published experience is more limited.28 Dr. Killip thanks Jody Maggard for her assistance in the preparation of this manuscript. The Authors SHERSTEN KILLIP, M.D., M.P.H., is an assistant professor of medicine in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Kentucky and the associate residency director for the University of Kentucky's Family Medicine Residency Program, both in Lexington. Dr. Killip received her medical degree from Columbia University
College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, N.Y., and her master of public health (M.P.H.) degree from the University of Kentucky, where she also completed a faculty development
fellowship. She completed a family medicine residency at Middlesex Hospital in Middletown, Conn. JOHN M. BENNETT, M.D., M.P.H., is an assistant professor of medicine in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Kentucky and the clinical director and director of geriatric studies for the University of Kentucky's Family Medicine Residency Program. Dr. Bennett received his medical degree from the University of Arkansas for Medical Science in Little Rock and completed a family medicine residency at Area Health Education Centers-South Arkansas in El Dorado. He completed an academic development fellowship and received his M.P.H. degree at the University of Kentucky. MARA D. CHAMBERS, M.D., is a clinical instructor in the Division of Hematology/Oncology at the University of Kentucky. She received her medical degree from the University of Louisville
(Ky.), where she also completed her internal medicine residency. Dr. Chambers completed a fellowship in hematology/oncology at the University of Kentucky. Address correspondence to Shersten Killip, M.D., M.P.H., K 302 KY Clinic 0284, 740 S. Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536-0284. Reprints are not available from the authors. Author disclosure: Nothing to disclose REFERENCES 1. Haas JD, Brownlie T IV. Iron deficiency and reduced work capacity: a critical review of the research to determine a causal relationship. J Nutr 2001;131(2 suppl):676S-88S; discussion 688S-90S. 2. Halterman JS, Kaczorowski JM, Aligne CA, Auinger P, Szilagyi PG. Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics 2001;107:1381-6.
3. Algarin C, Peirano P, Garrido M, Pizarro F, Lozoff B. Iron deficiency anemia in infancy: long-lasting effects on auditory and visual system functioning. Pediatr Res 2003;53:217-23. 4. Verdon F, Burnand B, Stubi CL, Bonard C, Graff M, Michaud A, et al. Iron supplementation for unexplained fatigue in non-anaemic women: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2003;326:1124. 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Iron deficiency--United States, 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51:897-9. 6. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.
: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
, 2000. 7. Wintrobe MM, Lee GR. Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. 10th ed. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, 1999. 8. Johnson-Spear MA, Yip R. Hemoglobin difference between black and white women with comparable iron status: justification for racespecific anemia criteria. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:117-21. 9. Finch CA, Cook JD, Labbe RF, Culala M. Effect of blood donation on iron stores as evaluated by serum ferritin. Blood 1977;50:441-7. 10. Bodnar LM, Cogswell ME, Scanlon KS. Low income postpartum women are at risk of iron deficiency. J Nutr 2002;132:2298-302. 11. Ramakrishnan U, Frith-Terhune A, Cogswell M, Kettel Khan L. Dietary intake does not account for differences in low iron stores among Mexican American and non-Hispanic white women: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. J Nutr 2002;132: 996-1001. 12. Nead KG, Halterman JS, Kaczorowski JM, Auinger P, Weitzman M. Overweight children and adolescents: a risk group for iron deficiency. Pediatrics 2004;114:104-8. 13. Waldmann A, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A. German vegan study: diet, life-style factors, and cardiovascular risk profile. Ann Nutr Metab 2005;49:366-72. 14. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for iron deficiency anemia--including iron supplementation for children and pregnant women. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, May 2006. Accessed July 24, 2006, at: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/ uspstf06/ironsc/ironrs.htm. 15. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for iron deficiency anemia including iron prophylaxis. In: Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, 1996:231-46. 16. Cogswell ME, Parvanta I, Ickes L, Yip R, Brittenham GM. Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled
trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:773-81. 17. Iron. In: DRI, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy
Press, 2001. 18. Radtke H, Tegtmeier J, Rocker L, Salama A, Kiesewetter H. Daily doses of 20 mg of elemental iron compensate for iron loss in regular blood donors: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Transfusion 2004;44:1427-32. 19. Zuckerman K. Approach to the anemias. In: Cecil RL, Goldman L, Ausiello DA. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders, 2004:969. 20. Duffy T. Microcytic and hypochromic anemias. In: Cecil RL, Goldman L, Ausiello DA. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders, 2004:1008. 21. Elnicki DM, Shockcor WT, Brick JE, Beynon D. Evaluating the complaint of fatigue in primary care: diagnoses and outcomes. Am J Med 1992;93:303-6. 22. Sheth TN, Choudhry NK, Bowes M, Detsky AS. The relation of conjunctival pallor to the presence of anemia. J Gen Intern Med 1997;12:102-6. 23. Cook JD. Diagnosis and management of iron-deficiency anaemia. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2005;18:319-32.
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678 American Family Physician
Volume 75, Number 5 March 1, 2007
S Killip, JM Bennett, MD Chambers