LANGUAGE ARTS, GL Competencies

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Content: ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Standard Course of Study and Grade Level Competencies
K-1 2
public schools OF NORTH CAROLINA State Board of Education | Department of Public Instruction
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION Howard N. Lee, Chairman Raleigh Jane P. Norwood, Vice Chair Charlotte Kathy A. Taft Greenville Michelle Howard-Vital Wilmington Edgar D. Murphy Durham Evelyn B. Monroe West End Maria T. Palmer Chapel Hill Robert "Tom" Speed Boone Wayne McDevitt Asheville John Tate III Charlotte Beverly Perdue, Lieutenant Governor New Bern Richard Moore, State Treasurer Kittrell NC DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION Patricia N. Willoughby, State Superintendent 301 N. Wilmington Street · Raleigh, North Carolina 27601-2825 · www.ncpublicschools.org In compliance with federal law, including the provisions of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, NC Public Schools administers all state-operated educational programs, employment activities, and admissions without discrimination because of race, religion, national or ethnic origin, color, age, military service, disability, or gender, except where exemption is appropriate and allowed by law. Inquiries or complaints should be directed to the Office of Curriculum and School Reform Services, 6307 Mail Service Center, Raleigh NC 27699-6307. Telephone (919) 807-3761; Fax (919) 807-3767
NORTH CAROLINA STANDARD COURSE OF STUDY Revised 2004 INSTRUCTIONAL SERVICES NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION i
BLANK ii
FOREWORD North Carolina has had a Standard Course of Study since 1898. Since that time, the curriculum has been revised periodically to reflect the changing needs of students and society. The most recent total revision of the state curriculum occured in 1985. The 1985 Standard Course of Study reflected the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to function effectively in an industrial age. It also included efforts to develop mature thinkers and problem solvers. In the years since 1985, we have witnessed a dramatic shift in the needs of business and industry, and society in general. These changes have been collectively heralded as the information age. The 21st century will bring new challenges in preparing students for the demands of an information age. While students must attain enabling skills such as reading, writing, and computing, they must also attain the new basics which include creative thinking and problem solving, Interpersonal skills, negotiation and teamwork. Also since 1985, all the major content areas have developed National Standards which guide curriculum revisions. Major recent school reform efforts such as the ABC Plan with strong accountability components have necessitated an even more clearly defined state curriculum. These changes, coupled with more in-depth learning at a much higher level, provide the foundation for current revisions to the Standard Course of Study. The revisions are futuristic in outlook. They look at what students will need to know and be able to do to be successful in the 21st century. Howard N. Lee Chairman, State Board of Education iii
iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Department of Public Instruction gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance received from individuals and groups throughout the State in this current revision process. Without such cooperation, the revisions and printing of the North Carolina Standard Course of Study would not have been possible. We wish to express a special thanks to: · the Division of Instructional Services for providing the leadership and vision that guided the develop- ment of these documents. The untiring efforts of this staff contributed greatly to the completion of this task, · office support staff in instructional services who, in addition to their on-going responsibilities, word processed the revised documents, · the many local educators, parents, and business people who participated in the current revision process by serving on curriculum committees and reacting to draft documents, · faculty from the institutions of higher education who advised the staff and assisted in the revision of the curriculum, · the Communications and Information Division for technical assistance in the publication of the documents, · Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) for allowing its Dimensions of Thinking to serve as a framework for this revision process, The curriculum will continue to be revised and improved to meet the needs of the children of North Carolina. v
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INTRODUCTION Standard Course of Study and Grade Level Competencies
K-12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NORTH CAROLINA State Board of Education | Department of Public Instruction
INTRODUCTION
Background and Overview
History Standard Course of Study
North Carolina has maintained a Standard Course of Study since the 1890's. That document was a brief, simple guide which outlined the curriculum for the public schools. Every five to seven years since that time, the Standard Course of Study has been revised to reflect the needs of North Carolina students. Following the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Reform Act in June of 1984, the area of Instructional Services within the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction began a revision of the Standard Course of Study. These efforts to define a basic education program for the State resulted in two publications: · The Basic Education Program for North Carolina's Public Schools (Adopted by State Board of Education in response to a legislative mandate) - outlines the curriculum, programs not confined to subject areas, general standards, material support, and staffing which should be provided in all schools throughout the state. · The North Carolina Standard Course of Study (Adopted as policy by the State Board of Education) - sets Content Standards and describes the curriculum which should be made available to every child in North Carolina's public schools. It includes the subject or skills areas of arts education, English language arts, guidance, healthful living, information/computer skills, mathematics, science, second language studies, social studies, and workforce development education. Also included are the philosophy and rationale underlying the curriculum frameworks and considerations for developing a thinking framework, aligning curriculum and assessment, and providing for the needs of exceptional children. The revised Standard Course of Study has moved from a detailed, prescriptive curriculum guide to a more flexible guide to instruction, emphasizing what students should know and be able to do as they progress through various levels of proficiency and ultimately
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exit from high school. The revised curriculum focuses on themes and concepts rather than isolated facts. It emphasizes thinking skills and problem solving more than the memorization and recall of information. The revised Standard Course of Study is based on recent research on how students learn. It is a curriculum that promotes integration through the identification of common skills and processes. The Standard Course of Study includes the curriculum that should be made available to every child in North Carolina's public schools. Many public schools in the state presently offer an even more comprehensive curriculum. Therefore, in some curriculum areas, electives were also included. The Standard Course of Study is part of the Department of Public Education's continual improvement efforts. The curriculum will be revised on a regular basis to remain consistent with the changing needs of our nation, state, and local communities.
Philosophy and Rationale
Education has long served as the key to equal opportunity for American citizens. We should be proud of our schools. Historically, American schools have prepared students to join an industrialized economy and become contributing citizens in their communities.
Today, however, the challenge of education is to prepare students for a
rapidly changing world. Students in modern society must be prepared to:
·
compete in a global economy,
·
understand and operate complex communication and information
systems, and
·
apply higher level thinking skills to make decisions and solve
problems. American businesses seek students with the knowledge
and skills to succeed in the international marketplace of today's
information-based society. Whether at work or in post-secondary
study, students must be able to apply what they've learned from
their years of public schooling.
The purpose of the North Carolina Standard Course of Study is to guarantee that all students have equal access to the same basic curriculum. If public education is an avenue to equal opportunity, high standards must be set for all students. The Standard Course of Study does not seek to prescribe how schools should organize themselves or how teachers should instruct. Rather, the curriculum sets standards against which schools and teachers may judge their success.
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Curriculum Integration
The Department of Public Instruction views integration as a curriculum implementation strategy which links the content and skills from various disciplines. There are various models of integration which seek to achieve an acceptable degree of interdisciplinary learning. Generally, these models use the language and methodology from more than one discipline and focus on unifying themes, issues, problems, concepts, and experiences. These models help the learner make connections among the individual disciplines and are based upon the following beliefs.
Integration:
·
Mirrors the real world in which we live.
·
Motivates students by making learning relevant to their personal
lives.
·
Adds coherence to vast amounts of information by making
connections among disciplines.
·
Addresses the overcrowded curriculum by viewing content as a
"means" not an "end."
·
Acknowledges reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and
the use of numbers as enabling skills within thinking processes.
·
Fosters collaboration among students and teachers.
Although the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction strongly endorses the concept of integration among various disciplines, local school districts, schools, and classroom teachers are best able to develop curricular units which will be meaningful to the teachers and students at the classroom level. It is the responsibility of the State to set quality curriculum and performance standards and to develop models of integration which link curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Thinking and Reasoning Skills
To become productive, responsible citizens and to achieve a sense of personal fulfillment, students must develop their ability to think and reason. It is no longer adequate for students to simply memorize information for recall. If graduates are to function effectively now and in the 21st century, they must be able to acquire and integrate new information, make judgments, apply information, and reflect on learning. Research during the 1960's in cognitive psychology has led to the study of the processes that underlie learning. Although there are numerous models of intelligence and learning, the following guiding assumptions serve as the foundation for a thinking framework for North Carolina's public schools.
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Dimensions of Thinking
·
All students can become better thinkers.
·
Thinking is content dependent and influenced by the learner's prior
knowledge of that content.
·
The teaching of thinking should be deliberate and explicit with an
emphasis on the transfer and application of thinking processes and
skills.
·
Thinking is improved when the learner takes control of his/her
thinking processes and skills.
·
Curriculum, instruction, and assessment should be aligned to
enhance the teaching of thinking.
·
Improving student thinking will require fundamental changes in
the school culture, including lesson design, student assessment,
classroom organization, and school governance.
·
Over-emphasis on factual recall inhibits the development of
thinking.
·
Schools must model thoughtful behavior-decision making,
problem solving and other thinking processes.
·
Efforts to improve thinking within a school or school system
should be guided by a conceptual framework and comprehensive
plan.
·
There is no single best program for the teaching of thinking.
The Department of Public Instruction has adopted Dimensions of Thinking* (1988) as the framework for the revised curriculum. The more recent work, Dimensions of Learning (1994), builds on the theory and research from Dimensions of Thinking and provides direction from a practitioner's perspective.
·
Thinking Skills: These are specific cognitive operations--the
building blocks of thinking. Examples are observing, recalling
comparing, and ordering.
·
Thinking Processes: These are complex sequences of thinking
skills. Different processes involve variable sequences of thinking
skills. They occur over time.
·
Creative Thinking: This is the ability to form new combinations of
ideas to fulfill needs. It is generative in nature and is usually
judged by outputs.
·
Critical Thinking: This is reasonable, reflective thinking--deciding
what to believe. It is evaluative in nature and helps one not to be
blinded by his/her own point of view.
·
Metacognition: This is the awareness of one's own self as a
thinker.
* Marzano, R.J. et.al. (1988). Dimensions of Thinking, Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum.
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Alignment of Curriculum and Assessment
The North Carolina Standard Course of Study sets content standards for what students should know and be able to do. The North Carolina ABCs Accountability Plan establishes performance standards which specify the level of proficiency a student must reach in order to have met specific content standards in specified subject areas. These performance standards are indicators of proficiency for those content areas that are tested.
Balanced Assessment Program
A balanced assessment program for North Carolina schools, teachers, and students serves multiple purposes. Classroom assessment informs instruction and monitors students' progress, while statewide testing focuses on accountability for student achievement and quality programs. Accountability measures are the means of checking broadly to determine what has been learned within the school. These assessments allow for corrections in instructional focus at a program level and are important indicators of the degree to which all students are learning the Standard Course of Study. These data also help teachers determine students' progress from year to year. Results from accountability measures provide one source of information for parents and the public in a timely and accurate manner. Ongoing classroom assessments are multifaceted and document students' progress over time. They are planned and administered by the classroom teacher and are focused on improving learning, readjusting instruction, and promoting quality, in-depth student work. These assessments make use of various strategies such as observations and open-ended questions and resources such as instructional management systems (test item banks) and portfolios. They encourage the observation of processes and the collection of student products. These assessments inform instructional planning and student, teacher, and parent conferences where individual student progress and future goals are discussed. The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction believes that a balanced assessment program supports implementation of the Standard Course of Study. Balanced assessment includes testing for accountability purposes and the continual development of quality classroom assessment as vehicles to prepare students to master high content and performance standards. The strategies most likely to result in long-term growth and learning of high quality will result from effective use of classroom assessments as an integral part of instruction. Additionally, strong classroom assessment engages students in self-assessment and greater ownership for their own learning. Quality classroom assessment is essential to the goals of high student achievement and the continuous improvement of schools.
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Learning Targets
A strong model for teaching and learning includes classroom assessment as an integral part of a balanced assessment program. In an instruction-assessment cycle assessment methods are tied to learning targets and then to decisions about instruction. (See Figure 1 on page xiv.) In the initial part of the cycle, learning targets (goals) are clarified and students know in advance what they are expected to learn. Teachers use their in-depth understanding of the curriculum to identify the most important learning goals and establish priorities for instruction in order to build on students' prior understandings. They consider multiple targets ­ factual information, concepts, processes, reasoning, applications, and attitudes. They establish high expectations for all students for all important learning targets. Most importantly, they are able to clarify for themselves and their students what those targets are and what mastery of them will look like.
Assessment Methods
Since the primary users of classroom assessment are teachers and students, the most important purpose is to direct and inform student learning. Teachers and students need multiple evidences about each student's understandings and performances to diagnose, monitor progress, evaluate achievement, and plan for future instruction. Teachers use a variety of assessment methods, both formal and informal, to gather evidence of student learning. They match the type of assessment method to the learning target they want to measure and use stategies that ask students to demonstrate their thinking and reasoning. Through an ongoing process teachers may use classroom activities both to instruct and assess at the same time. What is important is that evidence of student learning is gathered with a variety of assessment methods, in multiple contexts, and over an extended period of time.
Decisions & Actions
As they gather the evidence about students' learning through classroom assessment, teachers make sense of assessment information. They ask themselves reflective questions. For example, they may ask: · What do these errors actually tell me about the students' thinking and understanding? · Do I have sufficient evidence to know how well the students really understand? · How well can I generalize about how much students know and can do? · What other evidence may I need? Reflection helps teachers decide what information and feedback can be extracted from student assessment data and what inferences and interpretations can be made about student learning.
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Assessment Cycle: A Model for Teaching and Learning Learning Targets
DocCuommenmtuatniiocnation
PurposInesfoormf AastisoensNsmeeednetd
Decisions & Actions
Feedback Inferences Figure 1
Assessment Methods
Communication In the last part of the model, teachers document, act on, and communicate Documentation information from the assessments. By taking action based upon what the students understand and can do, teachers are likely to be more effective in their decisions. They may decide to reteach key concepts, to move to the next unit of instruction, to regroup students for further instruction, or to allow more practice and application time. Documentation of student learning occurs throughout the teaching and learning model and will include diverse formats: checklists, anecdotal records, observations, grades, portfolios. Communication can provide clear, precise, useable feedback to students, parents, administrators, or other interested adults. This communication can be formal (a report card or scheduled conference) or informal (a telephone conversation, note, or conversation). The cycle of teaching and learning will repeat again and again throughout the year, with the teacher's identifying and clarifying the next learning targets. Both classroom assessment and statewide testing focus on the learning targets that are described in the Standard Course of Study, albeit for different purposes. Future changes in the scope and form of statewide assessments will therefore be based on the Standard Course of Study.
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Programs for Children With Special Needs
The Purpose of Programs for Exceptional Children
The main purpose of exceptional children's programs is to ensure that students with disabilities develop mentally, physically and emotionally to the fullest extent possible through an appropriate, individualized education in the least restrictive environment.
Children with special needs are students who because of permanent or temporary mental, physical, or emotional disabilities need special education and are unable to have all their educational needs met in a regular class without special education or related services. Children with special needs include those who are autistic, hearing impaired (deaf and hard of hearing), mentally handicapped (educable, trainable, or severely/profoundly), multi-handicapped, orthopedically impaired, other health impaired, pregnant, behaviorally-emotionally handicapped, specific learning disabled, speech-language impaired, traumatic brain injured, and visually impaired (blind or partially sighted). See Section .1501 or Procedures Governing Programs and Services for Children with Special Needs for definitions of these classifications.
Programs and services for children with special needs may be classified as both instructional programs and instructional support services, depending on the educational need of an individual student.
Content Sequence
Curricula for most children with special needs follow the curricula for students in general education. Emphasis must be given to instruction in English language arts, arts education, social studies, healthful living, mathematics, science, career and Vocational Education, depending on the needs of the individual student. Attention must focus upon cognitive, affective, motor and vocational development within the curricular areas. The Individualized Education Program for students with disabilities is based on a comprehensive assessment, and states in writing the special education offerings to be provided to each student with a disability.
Learning Outcomes
Learning outcomes - knowledge, skills, concepts, understandings, and attitudes - for students with disabilities will differ from student to student. For many exceptional students, the same learning outcomes developed for students in general education will be appropriate. Some exceptional students will meet the learning outcomes at a different time and in a different manner than students in general education. Some students with severely limiting disabilities might not meet these outcomes in general education and will need a totally different curriculum.
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Curriculum Adaptation
The purpose for adapting or changing curricula and teaching and learning strategies for students with disabilities is to help them achieve at their highest level, and to prepare them to function as independently as possible. Completion of school experience by students with disabilities is determined by meeting the requirements for graduation or by attaining the goals in the Individualized Education Program, or both. To graduate with a diploma, an exceptional student must earn the State mandated units of credit based on successful completion of course work, and acceptable scores on tests adopted by the State. Exceptional students who do not meet the State and local requirements for a diploma, but meet other requirements for graduation, will be eligible to participate in graduation exercises and receive a certificate of achievement. Although course requirements are the same for exceptional students and non-exceptional students, the instruction must be tailored to meet each student's individual needs. Instruction is based on the curricula needs (academic, affective, motor, and vocational) of each student with a disability. Instruction varies from student to student so curricula may vary also. The key to all education for students with disabilities is the Individualized Education Plan.
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SBE Revised April 1999 State of North Carolina Graduation Requirements
North Carolina high school students are expected to meet specific state requirements in order to receive a high school diploma. These requirements apply to all students across the state and help ensure that all graduates have met certain standards. These standards for achievement and courses are designed to prepare students for higher education and for work as adults. In addition to state standards, local school boards may set other standards to graduate. Ninth graders entering high school for the first time in 2000-01 also are required to select and complete one of four courses of study before they graduate. This marks the first time that North Carolina has required students to meet this standard. Educators hope that this will spur students to consider more carefully their future opportunities and to plan accordingly. Graduation Requirements ­ plan ahead!
There are three types of requirements that students must meet: credits, Course of Study and tests. Students, with their parents' input, need to decide if they are planning for a career immediately after high school graduation, if the student plans to pursue a two-year or community college degree, or if the student will pursue a four-year college or university degree. If undecided, students should take the most rigorous course of study in which they can be successful, particularly in mathematics. Students need to ensure that they understand the education and other preparation required for the career they choose to pursue as adults. Students and their parents should review this plan annually to determine any changes needed. Credits and Courses of Study
Students must select a Course of Study to guide the courses they take during high school. Three of the four Courses of Study require that students complete 20 course credits as well as the NC High School Exit Exam. These Courses of Study ­ Career Prep, College Tech Prep, and College/University Prep ­ are designed for students to go directly to work or to a community or technical college or to a four-year college or university. A fourth Course of Study, the Occupational Course of Study, is designed for certain students with disabilities who have an Individualized Education Plan. Most students, regardless of Course of Study, take credits in the same core curricular areas. In fact, the Courses of Study provide enough flexibility for students to modify their Course if they choose to do so.
The Career Prep, College Tech Prep, and College/University Prep Courses of Study require a minimum
of
4 credits in English
3 credits in science
*3 credits in mathematics
1 credit in Health/physical education electives
3 credits in social studies
Please see chart on Page xix for additional information about credit requirements. * The College/University Prep Courses of Study requires 4 credits in Mathematics for first time ninth graders beginning in 2002-03.
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SBE Revised April 1999
NC COURSE OF STUDY GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS*
Content Area
CAREER PREP
COLLEGE TECH PREP**
COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY
OCCUPATIONAL***
Course of Study Requirements
Course of Study Requirements
PREP
Course of Study Requirements
Course of Study
(UNC 4-yr college)
Requirements
English
4 Credits
4 Credits
4 Credits
4 Credits ­ Occupational
I, II, III, IV
I, II, III, IV
I, II, III, IV
English I, II, III, IV
Mathematics 3 Credits
3 Credits **
4 Credits (4th credit effective
3 Credits
Including Algebra I
Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II,
for first time ninth graders in
Occupational mathematics I, II,
OR
2002-2003) Algebra I, Algebra III
Algebra I, Technical Math I & II, II, Geometry, and higher level
OR
math course with Algebra II as
Integrated Mathematics I, II, III
prerequisite OR Integrated
Mathematics I,II,III and a credit
beyond Integrated Mathematics
III
Science
3 Credits
3 Credits
3 Credits
2 Credits
A Physical Science course,
A Physical Science course related A Physical Science course,
Life Skills Science I, II
Biology, Earth/Environmental
to career pathway (CP), Biology,
Biology, Earth/Environmental
Science
Earth/Environmental Science
Science
Social Studies 3 Credits
3 Credits
3 Credits
2 Credits
Government/Economics (ELPS), Government/Economics (ELPS),
Government/Economics (ELPS), Social Studies I
US History, World Studies
US History, World Studies
US History, World Studies (2
(Government/US History)
courses to meet UNC minimum Social Studies II
admission requirements-US
(Self-Advocacy/Problem
History & 1 elective)
Solving)
Second
Not required
Not required **
2 Credits
Not required
Language
in the same language
Computer Skills
No specific course required, students must demonstrate proficiency through state testing
No specific course required, students must demonstrate proficiency through state testing
No specific course required, students must demonstrate proficiency through state testing
Computer proficiency as specified in IEP
(starting with graduating class of (starting with graduation class of
(starting with graduation class of
2001)
2001)
2001)
Health and
1 Credit
1 Credit
1 Credit
1 Credit
Physical
Health/Physical Education
Health/Physical Education
Health/Physical Education
Health/Physical Education
Education
Career
4 Credits in Career/Technical 4 Credits
Not required
4 Credits
Technical
Select courses appropriate for career pathway to include a
Select courses appropriate for career pathway to include a second
Career/Technical Education electives
second level (advanced) course
level (advanced) course
OR
Arts Education (Dance, Music, Theatre Arts, Visual Arts)
4 Credits in an Arts Discipline Select courses appropriate for an arts education pathway to include an advanced course
Recommend at least one credit in an arts discipline and/or requirement by local decision
Recommend at least one credit in an arts discipline and/or requirement by local decision
Recommend at least one credit in an arts discipline and/or requirement by local decision
Recommend at least one credit in
an arts discipline and/or
requirement by local decision (for
students not taking an arts
education pathway)
Electives or
2 Elective Credits and other
2 Elective Credits and other
3 Elective Credits and other Occupational Preparation: 6
other require- credits designated by LEA
credits designated by LEA
credits designated by LEA
Credits: Occupational
ments*****
Preparation I,II,III,IV****
Proficiency on Exit Exam (Effective for entering ninth graders 2001-2002)
Proficiency on Exit Exam (Effective for entering ninth graders 2001-2002)
Proficiency on Exit Exam (Effective for entering ninth graders 2001-2002)
Elective credits/completion of IEP objectives/Career Portfoliorequired/No Exit Exam
TOTAL
20 Credits plus any local
20 Credits plus any local
20 Credits plus any local
22 Credits plus any local
requirements
requirements
requirements
requirements
*Effective for ninth graders entering for the first time in 2000-01. The additional mathematics credit in college/university prep is for entering ninth graders of
2002-03.
**A student pursuing a college tech prep course of study may meet the requirements of a college/university course of study by completing 2 credits in the same
second language and one additional unit in mathematics.
***This course of study shall be made available for certain students with disabilities who have an IEP, beginning in 2000-01.
****Completion of 300 hours of school-based training, 240 hours of community-based training, and 360 hours of paid employment.
*****Examples of electives include JROTC and other courses that are of interest to the student.
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NORTH CAROLINA ACADEMIC SCHOLARS PROGRAM History In March, 1983, the State Board of Education approved the North Carolina Scholars Program to begin with the 1983-1984 school year. In March, 1990, the State Board of Education revised the program and re-designated it the North Carolina Academic Scholars Program. Again, the State Board of Education revised program requirements in August 2002 to make it more consistent with graduation requirements and promote rigorous academic study. The current plan will remain in effect for students who entered ninth grade for the first time in or before 2002-2003. The revised plan is effective for students who enter the ninth grade for the first time in or after 2003-2004. Students who complete the requirements for an academically challenging high school program will be named North Carolina Academic Scholars and receive special recognition. Recognition The students who qualify for this special recognition · will be designated by the State Board of Education as North Carolina Academic Scholars. · will receive a seal of recognition attached to their diplomas. · may receive special recognition at graduation exercises and other community events. · may be considered for scholarships from the local and state business/industrial community. · may use this special recognition in applying to post-secondary institutions. (Candidates are identified by the end of grade 11 and their candidacy can be included in application forms and/or transcripts sent to these institutions.)
NORTH CAROLINA ACADEMIC SCHOLARS PROGRAM (Revised 8/8/02)
This plan is in effect for students who entered the ninth grade for the first time in The following revised plan is effective for students who enter the ninth grade for
or before 2002-2003.
the first time in or after 2003-2004.
Students must:
Students must:
· begin planning for the program before entering grade 9 to ensure they obtain · begin planning for the program before entering grade 9 to ensure they
the most flexibility in their courses.
obtain the most flexibility in their courses.
· complete all the requirements of this North Carolina Academic Scholars
· complete all the requirements of this North Carolina Academic Scholars
Program.
Program.
· have an overall four-year grade average of B or its equivalent as determined · have an overall four-year unweighted grade point average of 3.5.
by the local board of education.
· complete all requirements for a North Carolina high school diploma.
CHANGES Unweighted grade point average of 3.5 rather than a B Completion of all requirements for a high school diploma
Credits The following designated number of credits per subject area listed Credits The following designated number of credits per subject area
below must be taken in grades 9-12.
listed below must be taken in grades 9-12.
4
English I,II,III,IV
4
English Language Arts I,II,III,IV
none
3
Mathematics (Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II or one unit of advanced 4
Mathematics (Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, and a higher level
One additional credit
mathematics for which Algebra II is a prerequisite)
math course with Algebra II as prerequisite OR Integrated
required, optional
Mathematics I, II, III, and a higher level mathematics course with
Integrated Math
Integrated Mathematics III as prerequisite)
sequence
3
Science (Biology, Chemistry, Physics or one other advanced science in 3
Science (a Physics or Chemistry course, Biology, and an
lieu of Physics)
Earth/Environmental Science course)
Physics OR Chemistry, an
Earth/Environmental
Science course
specified
3
Social Studies (Government/Economics, U.S. History, and one world 3
Social Studies (World History, Civics/Economics, and U.S. History) World History
studies course)
specified
2
Foreign Languages (two levels of the same language)
2
Languages other than English ( two credits of the same language)
none
1
Health/Physical Education
1
Healthful Living
none
2
Additional units selected from among English, Mathematics, Science, 1
Career and Technical Education
Social Studies or Foreign Language courses
A new credit required in Career/Technical
1
Arts Education (Dance, Music, Theatre Arts or Visual Arts)
Education and in Arts Education
4
Electives
5
Elective credits to include at least two second-level or advanced
Two second-level or
courses (Examples of electives include JROTC and other courses
advanced level
that are of interest to the student.)
courses required
22
Note: Adopted by the State Board of Education on March 8, 1990. The 24
Note: Adopted by the State Board of Education in August 2002. The Two additional
above is the single plan applicable to graduates effective with the class
above is the single plan applicable to students who enter the ninth
credits required
of 1994.
grade for the first time in or after 2003-2004.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ...................................................................................................................... ix Foreword ............................................................................................................... 3 Acknowledgments ................................................................................................. 4 Preface .................................................................................................................. 5 Outcomes .............................................................................................................. 6 Purpose.................................................................................................................. 7 Philosophy............................................................................................................. 8 Program Description.............................................................................................. 11 Grade Level Curriculum K-2 Grade-Level Goals and Objectives.................................................................. 14 3-5 Grade-Level Goals and Objectives................................................................... 31 6-8 Grade-Level Goals and Objectives................................................................... 57 9-12 Grade-Level Goals and Objectives................................................................. 83 Advanced Placement (AP) English Goals and Objectives ...................................... 122 Appendices A ­ Information on Beginning Reading Instruction................................................ 132 B ­ Grade Span Continuums K-2 ............................................................................................................ 160 3-5 ............................................................................................................. 161 6-8 ............................................................................................................. 162 9-12 ........................................................................................................... 163 C ­ Strand Continuums Written Language....................................................................................... 164 Oral Language ........................................................................................... 166 Other Media/Technology ........................................................................... 167 D ­ Content of a Reading and Literature Program K-12......................................... 168 E ­ Glossary .......................................................................................................... 176
2004
English Language Arts
2004
English Language Arts 2
FOREWORD North Carolina has had a Standard Course of Study since 1898. Since that time, curricula have been revised periodically to reflect the changing needs of students and society. The most recent revision of the complete K-12 state English Language Arts curriculum occurred in 1992. That curriculum reflected the shift in the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed by business, industry, and society to function in an information-driven world. Current revisions continue to build upon those efforts. The revised curriculum is based upon surveys of the effectiveness of the previous curriculum, current educational research, and input from public school teachers, administrators, college and university faculties, parents, and business and community leaders. In addition, the revised curriculum is based on national curriculum standards developed jointly by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association and on language arts standards developed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress. The North Carolina English Language Arts Standard Course of Study clearly defines a curriculum supporting the ABC's school reform effort as well as the North Carolina Testing Program. These revisions maintain a forward focus by looking at what students will need to know and to be able to do as successful and contributing citizens in our state and nation in the years ahead.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Department of Public Instruction gratefully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance received from individuals and groups throughout the State in this current revision process. Without such cooperation, the revisions and printing of the North Carolina Standard Course of Study would not have been possible. We wish to express a special thanks to: · the Office of Instructional Services for providing the leadership and vision that guided the development of this document; · the many local educators, parents, and businesspeople who participated in the current revision process by serving on committees and reacting to draft documents; · faculty from the institutions of higher education who advised the staff and assisted in the revision of the curriculum; · the members of the elementary, middle, and high school curriculum revision committees who gave their time and expertise; and · the Department of Public Instruction English Language Arts staff who carried the primary responsibility for revision and editing the curriculum. The 1999 revision process involved on some level the entire English Language Arts community resulting in a document that North Carolina educators find useful. The 2004 process involved minor clarifications of the goals and objectives to allow more understanding of the intent of the original document. We will regularly revise the curriculum in order to meet the needs of the students of North Carolina.
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Intent of SCS Revisions of SCS
PREFACE The intent of the North Carolina English Language Arts Standard Course of Study (SCS) is to establish competency goals and objectives for the teaching and learning of English Language Arts in North Carolina. The document details the English Language Arts content that should be taught in all schools. Optional documents are available that support the SCS. These support documents offer suggestions for methodology and materials to implement the curriculum. The primary goal of English Language Arts instruction in North Carolina is to ensure that all students learn how to use language effectively in order to function as individuals and as contributing members of society. _______________________________________________________ The entire K-12 North Carolina English Language Arts Standard Course of Study was last revised in 1999. The beginning reading portion was revised in 1997 in response to legislative mandate to include more emphasis on early and systematic phonics instruction within a balanced reading program. The curriculum contains specific goals and objectives for each grade level. This 2004 curriculum includes clarifications and specificity designed to make the competency objectives more comprehensible and to support teachers' implementation of the standards.
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OUTCOMES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS STUDY
Outcomes Student Language Competencies
The outcomes of a successful English Language Arts curriculum are that students can use language effectively. ______________________________________________________ Students who successfully complete a balanced and effective English Language Arts program will be able to perform the following activities: Use strategies and processes to improve their language use: · by planning, adjusting, evaluating, and refining the language they use for different purposes and audiences. Use language to acquire, interpret, and apply information: · by identifying, collecting, or selecting information and ideas; · by analyzing, synthesizing, and organizing information to discover related ideas, concepts, or generalizations; and · by applying, extending, and expanding on information and concepts. Use language to critically analyze and evaluate information: · by assessing the validity and accuracy of information and ideas determining the value of information and ideas; and · by developing criteria and evaluating the quality, relevance, and importance of information and ideas. Use language to express aesthetic and personal responses: · by responding to personal situations and events in selections and to personal situations and events; · by responding to the personal, social, cultural, and historical significance of selections or personal experiences; and · by responding critically and creatively to selections or personal experience.
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PURPOSE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS STUDY
Purpose Language Abilities
The ultimate purpose of the English Language Arts curriculum is to teach students the language abilities they need to communicate effectively as individuals and as contributing members of society. ____________________________________________________________ Students will develop the language skills necessary to function in society as the following individuals: Self-directed learners who possess: · a desire to learn for a lifetime; · the competence to learn in real-life situations; · a knowledge of pragmatics in communication; · the motivation and ability to produce quality work and products; and · the disposition to make personal and aesthetic responses. Collaborative workers who possess: · the ability to function as both effective receivers and senders of information; · leadership and group skills to function effectively within interpersonal relationships; · sensitivity to social, historical, and cultural diversity; and · the desire to contribute to the improvement of society. Complex thinkers who possess: · awareness and ownership of their own learning; and · the ability to reason, make decisions, and solve complex problems in a variety of contexts.
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PHILOSOPHY
Societal Needs
Futurists predict new challenges in preparing students for the demands of an information age. These visionaries expect the need for an increasingly high level of literacy. While students continue to need mastery of enabling skills such as reading, writing, and computing, they must also prepare for the new basics, which include problem solving, critical and creative thinking, decision making, flexibility and adaptability, and the ability to work collaboratively. The intent of the North Carolina Standard Course of Study for English Language Arts is to equip students with the level of literacy needed to participate as informed citizens in a democratic society, to function effectively in the world of work, and to realize personal fulfillment.
Curriculum Priority
The first priority of an English Language Arts program is language development. Use of oral and written language sets human beings apart from other forms of life and allows for the expression of the human spirit, the development of ethical responsibility, and the ability to interact with and influence others. Indeed, it is this use of language which challenges us to examine and clarify our thinking as we search for the best means to communicate our thoughts and ideas.
Guiding Principles
An effective English Language Arts program must be concerned with both process and content--with how students learn and what they learn. In such an environment, teachers and students are guided by the following principles: · Learning to communicate through written and oral language and media should be a rewarding experience. · Students learn to communicate by using language in natural and purposeful ways. · Language skills are interrelated processes utilized by the learner to comprehend and convey meaning: oral (listening and speaking), written (reading and writing), and media use. · Teachers provide many kinds of support including skills emphasis and meaning emphasis. · Teachers balance both direct and indirect instruction. · Students learn to value their own language when it is valued by others who hold high expectations for all students. · Learning is enhanced in an environment where students are encouraged to: think critically and creatively about ideas, relate the content of the message to personal experiences, understand and use the patterns and structures of language.
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ELA Content Summary
· Learners employ three curing systems on an intuitive and conscious or metacognitive level. Cues used in communication are: ­knowledge of sound-symbol relationships (graphophonic information), ­personal knowledge of language/word order (syntactic information), ­personal knowledge of the student (semantic information). · Growth in the ability to use language to communicate is an on going and lifelong process. Assessment of a curriculum should be continuous and integrated with the instructional process. · Assessment procedures should be balanced to include multiple-choice testing, open-ended questions, portfolios, demonstrations, debates, reports, investigations, etc. Generally, assessment should be focused on improving instruction and should promote quality, depth, and extensions of student work. · Students should share the responsibility for their learning. They must develop an increasing awareness of their own thinking, including attitudes, habits, and dispositions. Student-initiated learning involving choice, collaboration, and active participation is more likely to produce a high level of interest and accomplishment than teacher-centered exposition. · Using oral and written language and media enable learners to clarify their thinking, to investigate, and to increase knowledge in all subject areas. Integrating the teaching of English Language Arts with other subjects enhances the learner's ability to move from the known to the unknown, to see relationships, and to make generalizations. _________________________________________________________________ Language and literature are the content of an integrated English Language Arts program. The study of these areas should include the structure of the English language, its social and historical perspective, and a respect and appreciation for the cultural diversity of those who speak English. Essential to this study is the systematic exploration of literature with a clear emphasis on the comprehension and response to the beauty and legacy of the English language. A balanced English Language Arts curriculum focuses on the student as an active participant in the learning process. Included in the study is the selective and strategic use of monitoring, self-questioning, and focusing strategies. In a similar manner, engaged learners explore options in presentation: films or videotapes in the study of literature and language; audiotapes in the study of oral language; and word processors and other media in composing, revising, and publishing compositions. ________________________________________________________________ As local school systems begin the implementation of this curriculum, they will recognize much information that is familiar and some that is new. It is the belief of the English Language Arts Section that the information included in this curriculum reflects current research and best teaching practices. The document
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has been a collaborative effort among the Department of Public Instruction, local education agencies, and institutions of higher education. It is intended to assist educators as they create conditions that enable students to learn and that encourage their desire to learn.
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Spiraling Curriculum Strands Common Content Common K-5 Goals 2004
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The English Language Arts Curriculum is a spiraling curriculum in the sense that many of the same skills develop over time. _____________________________________________________ Students at any grade level continue to develop skills in the three language strands: · oral language, · written language, and · media/technology use. The specific expectations for what students study at different grade levels vary. First graders and tenth graders, for example, all read and write and use technology, but the expectations about what they read and write and how they use media are different. (See Strand Continuums, Appendix C.) ______________________________________________________ Likewise, at all grades students study some common content: · language of the discipline (plot, theme, setting, etc.); · language conventions (sentence structure, mechanics, spelling and punctuation, etc.); and · different genre (fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama). This common content study, however, also involves ageappropriate materials and different grade level expectations. (See Grade Span Continuums, Appendix B.) ______________________________________________________ In order to provide continuity of language study and increasing language skill development across grade levels, grades K-5 have common goals. These goals are: · The learner will develop and apply enabling strategies and skills to read and write. · The learner will apply strategies and skills to comprehend text that is read, heard, and viewed. English Language Arts 11
Common 6-12 Goals Different Grade Level Objectives 2004
· The learner will make connections through the use of oral language, written language, and media and technology. · The learner will apply strategies and skills to create oral, written, and visual texts. · The learner will apply grammar and language conventions to communicate effectively. In order to provide continuity of language study and increasing language skill development across grade levels, grades 6-12 also have common goals. These goals are: · The learner will use language to express individual perspectives drawn from personal or related experience. · The learner will analyze information from a variety of sources. · The learner will examine the foundations and use of argument. · The learner will refine critical thinking skills and create criteria to evaluate text and multimedia. · The learner will interpret and evaluate a wide range of literary texts. · The learner will develop an understanding of the application of grammar conventions and language usage. The differences in English Language Arts study at each grade level are reflected in the objectives under each goal at different grade levels. These differences in objectives result in different emphases at grade level spans. Students at a specific grade will continue to show evidence of mastery of competencies developed at previous grade levels, particularly as they contribute to mastery of grade-level competencies. Grades K-2 Emphasis Students develop and refine oral language skills while learning basic written language skills and use of media. They develop understandings, knowledge, strategies, and skills which enable them to become independent readers and writers who can continue learning throughout the years to follow. Grades 3-5 Emphasis Students continue to develop basic language skills and develop the use of these skills to learn content in other disciplines such as science, social studies, and the arts. They use a variety of media to demonstrate their learning. Grades 6-8 Emphasis English Language Arts 12
Students in the middle grades continue to refine previously learned skills in increasingly complex presentations, reading selections, and written products. They use language to communicate skillfully and effectively for a variety of purposes, for different audiences, and within diverse contexts. Grades 9-12 Emphasis Students continue to develop language use in different contexts and for different audiences and purposes. They engage in the formal study of literature, write more complex compositions, engage in research, and develop skill in evaluating professional authors' as well as their own language use. They develop sophisticated media productions to showcase their learning.
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English Language Arts Curriculum Grades K-2
Purpose/ Overview
Children enter school eager to learn and make sense of their world. This search for meaning and interest in becoming a literate member of a community should be used to facilitate present and future learning. In grades K-2 the curriculum provides a framework for planning learning activities that promote the acquisition of a variety of strategies and skills that become habitual and automatic. These children use their language, knowledge, skills, and personal experiences to comprehend literature and other texts. During these first years children need to be given many daily opportunities to connect what they know to new skills and information as they grow cognitively and socially. Young children are able to be self-directed learners, collaborative partners in a community of learners, and complex thinkers when provided experiences with written and oral language that are relevant and appropriate for them as individual learners. Wixson and Dutro (CIERA Report #3-001) recommend that the content of state standards and benchmarks that are a part of a state's curriculum should "derive from information based on current research conducted among linguistically and culturally diverse children." The curriculum for young children in North Carolina schools is based on the research as presented in Appendix A. Research has shown that children learn the foundation skills that enable them to become independent readers through direct instruction of decoding and comprehension skills and through strategies appropriate for individual student's strengths, patterns of development, rate of learning, and specific learning needs. In addition, research indicates that children improve their reading skills by reading self-selected texts daily (Adams, 1990; Allington and Pressley, 1999; Clay, 1991; and Snow, 1998).
Competency The five competency goals and objectives selected to accomplish Goals And program aims are designed to foster the development of strategies and Objectives skills in oral and written language abilities while using media and technology to learn to communicate. In the early grades students need to learn to use enabling skills and strategies which help readers to read (decode) texts in order to understand the message written by another author. They learn how texts are constructed as they become authors who compose and convey messages, using the conventions of oral and written language.
The dominant focus of the curriculum for students in grades K-2 is the
acquisition and development of language abilities while learning how to
learn. When students complete second grade, they need to be able to
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apply the enabling strategies and independently, using appropr1i4ate
skills to read a new decoding strategies
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be necessary. These students must also be competent comprehenders who
are able to construct meaning by making connections and applying
acquisition and development of language abilities while learning how to learn. When students complete second grade, they need to be able to apply the enabling strategies and skills to read a new (unseen) text independently, using appropriate decoding strategies and skills that may be necessary. These students must also be competent comprehenders who are able to construct meaning by making connections and applying comprehension strategies. They can create complete oral, written, and visual texts which are understood by other listeners/readers because they use the oral and written language conventions that are appropriate for the intended purpose and audience. When students are led to use their own experiences to comprehend and convey messages, they anchor their learning in what they know and extend their learning to new behaviors and competencies. When texts which are read, heard, and/or viewed are used as models of language and children are led to understand the purposes of authors, how authors select and use words and language structures, and how authors and speakers use genres to convey ideas, information, and experiences, they are able to apply these models to their own efforts to create texts. As children encounter various models and develop a greater repertoire of strategies and skills, they also develop their understanding of how to learn. As they experiment with these understandings and experience the responses of other readers and writers to their creations, they extend their understanding of how language is used and learning is constructed. The goals which address the conventions of oral and written language development are designed to promote students' understanding of standard forms and conventions as aids which allow them to tell and write their ideas, feelings, experiences, and new learnings in ways others can understand. Second graders must be able to apply these conventions in texts and/or products they create using oral and written texts and/or nonprint media. Building the foundation skills for decoding and comprehending, connecting prior learning with new learning, and using conventions as aids to communication enable students to begin their academic careers with deep understandings, not surface behaviors, which facilitate further learning. Through school experiences which develop these goals, young students are provided opportunities to engage in the social and academic context of learning that facilitates competence in understanding and being understood while using oral and written language as well as print and non-print media and technology.
Strands 2004
Experiences with written language used in different genres, oral language used by peers and other more competent language users, and media and technology use provide the learning contexts in which children can construct and practice strategies and skills used throughout their academic careers. The group1e5nvironment that is providEedngfloisrh yLoanugnugage Arts children enables these learners to benefit from sharing their comprehension and responses to texts. Within the group children have
technology use provide the learning contexts in which children can construct and practice strategies and skills used throughout their academic careers. The group environment that is provided for young children enables these learners to benefit from sharing their comprehension and responses to texts. Within the group children have opportunities to refine and extend their thinking, to listen to and appreciate the viewpoints of others, and to acquire different ways to communicate. As they experience success in learning and increase their level of competence, they are able to develop the metacognitive skills and strategies that enable them to articulate their thinking and discuss the problem-solving processes they use. These skills and strategies provide a solid foundation for extending their learning as they use written and oral language and media and technology to read, comprehend, interpret, evaluate, generate, and create various kinds of texts. Teaching children how to use written and oral language in conventional forms that are appropriate to accomplish purposes they establish and purposes assigned to them facilitates later opportunities that are not limited because of inadequate language usage. Using media and technology as tools for thinking and communicating is intended to enable children to experience learning and sharing ideas through different models adapted for different purposes and contexts. The curriculum provides learning opportunities for children to interact with various kinds of texts for various purposes. Children who learn to listen to and read fiction, non-fiction, drama, and poetry and who can engage in self-selected reading extend their understanding of the many forms of communication. These children can also learn about the world and the diversity of the people in the world. Discussions with peers and more knowledgeable readers and writers facilitate children's understanding of vocabulary and the conventions of written and oral language. From these experiences children develop a store of words, literary forms, and rules which they can use to understand more sophisticated texts and to construct their own texts.
Connections 2004
Emergent readers and writers learn the regularities and irregularities of the English language as they listen to, interact with, read, and write literary, informational, and practical texts at increasing levels of sophistication. These students also learn to use media and technology to experience texts (fiction, non-fiction, drama, poetry) and share ideas and information as they interact with and create texts. During these early experiences children link their previous life experiences and literacy experiences to their current understanding of how readers read and writers write. Meeting the competency goals in oral language, written language, and media and technology use will create a firm foundation for further learning that is not constrained by inept use of language and thinking skills. Rather, it is a foundation built on deep understanding that facilitates application of know16ledge and skills, analysis EonfgtlaisshksL,anguage Arts generation of strategies for problem solving, and motivation to persevere and succeed.
further learning that is not constrained by inept use of language and thinking skills. Rather, it is a foundation built on deep understanding that facilitates application of knowledge and skills, analysis of tasks, generation of strategies for problem solving, and motivation to persevere and succeed. Students in grades K-2 will continue to show evidence of mastery of competencies developed at previous grade levels, particularly as they contribute to mastery of grade-level competencies. Adams, M. Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Cambridge, MAS: MIT Press, 1991. Allington, R. and M. Pressley. "The Nature of Effective First-Grade Literacy Instruction." National Research Center on English Learning and Achievement. Albany, NY: University of Albany, SUNY, 1991. Clay, Marie. Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1991. Wixson, K. and E. Dutro. "Standards for Primary-Grade Reading: An Analysis of State Frameworks." Center for the Improvement of Early Reading achievement. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1999.
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English Language Arts
KINDERGARTEN
During the kindergarten year, students need to experience the enjoyment of reading while they learn the foundational strategies and skills that will enable them to read independently. Students learn these enabling skills of phonemic awareness, letter names, sound-letter correspondences, decoding skills, high frequency vocabulary, and comprehension skills as they listen and respond to a variety of texts. They enjoy listening to stories, relating characters and events to their own life experiences, dramatizing stories, and responding to stories through art and writing activities. They can extend their oral language skills when given opportunities to express themselves, and they can learn how oral language is recorded to convey experiences and ideas as they observe their experiences and ideas being written. Kindergarten students will: · Engage in word play. · Listen and respond to children's literature. · Build reading and writing concepts, skills, and strategies.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will develop and apply enabling strategies and skills to read
Goal 1
and write.
1.01 Develop book and print awareness:
· identify the parts of books and function of each part.
· demonstrate an understanding of directionality and voice-print match by following print word for word when listening to familiar text read aloud.
· demonstrate an understanding of letters, words, sentence and story.
· identify the title, name of the author and the name of the illustrator.
1.02 Develop phonemic awareness and knowledge of alphabetic principle:
· demonstrate understanding that spoken language is a sequence of identifiable speech sounds.
· demonstrate understanding that the sequence of letters in the written word represents the sequence of sounds in the spoken word.
· demonstrate understanding of the sounds of letters and understanding that words begin and end alike (onsets and rimes).
1.03 Demonstrate decoding and word recognition strategies and skills:
· recognize and name upper and lower case letters of the alphabet.
· recognize some words by sight including a few common words, own name, and environmental print such as signs, labels, and trademarks.
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name, and environmental print such as signs, labels, and trademarks. · recognize most beginning consonant letter-sound associations in onesyllable words. 1.04 Read or begin to read: · read or attempt to read own dictated story. · attempt to read/reads simple patterned text, decodable text, and/or predictable texts using letter-sound knowledge and pictures to construct meaning. 1.05 Interact for at least 10 minutes daily with self-selected texts that are consistent with the student's independent reading level.
Competency The learner will develop and apply strategies and skills to comprehend
Goal 2
text that is read, heard, and viewed.
2.01 Demonstrate sense of story (e.g., beginning, middle, end, characters, details and setting).
2.02 Demonstrate familiarity with a variety of types of books and selections (e.g., picture books, caption books, short informational texts, nursery rhymes, word plays/finger plays, puppet plays, reenactments of familiar stories).
2.03 Use preparation strategies to activate prior knowledge and experience before and during the reading of a text.
2.04 Formulate questions that a text might answer before beginning to read (e.g., what will happen in this story, who might this be, where do you think this happens).
2.05 Predict possible events in texts before and during reading.
2.06 Understand and follow oral-graphic directions.
2.07 Demonstrate understanding of literary language; e.g., "once upon a time" and other vocabulary specific to a genre.
2.08 Distinguish fantasy from reality when reading text.
2.09 Identify the sequence of events in a story.
Competency The learner will make connections through the use of oral language,
Goal 3
written language, and media and technology.
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3.01 Connect information and events in text to experience. 3.02 Discuss concepts and information in a text to clarify and extend knowledge.
3.03 Associate target words with prior knowledge and explore an author's choice of words.
3.04 Use speaking and listening skills and media to connect experiences and text:
· listening to and re-visiting stories.
· discussing, illustrating, and dramatizing stories.
· discovering relationships.
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to create oral, written, and
Goal 4
visual texts.
4.01 Use new vocabulary in own speech and writing.
4.02 Use words that name and words that tell action in a variety of simple texts (e.g., oral retelling, written stories, lists, journal entries of personal experiences).
4.03 Use words that describe color, size, and location in a variety of texts: e.g., oral retelling, written stories, lists, journal entries of personal experiences.
4.04 Maintain conversation and discussions:
· attending to Oral presentations.
· taking turns expressing ideas and asking questions.
4.05 Use a variety of sentence patterns such as interrogative requests (Can you go with me?) and sentence fragments that convey emotion (Me, too!).
· write from left to right and from top to bottom.
· write most letters and some words when dictated.
4.06 Write and/or participate in writing behaviors by using authors' models of language.
Competency The learner will apply grammar and language conventions to
Goal 5
communicate effectively.
5.01 Develop spelling strategies and skills by:
· representing spoken language with temporary and/or conventional spelling.
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spelling. · writing most letters of the alphabet. · analyzing sounds in a word and writing dominant consonant letters. 5.02 Use capital letters to write the word I and the first letter in own name. 5.03 Use legible manuscript handwriting.
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FIRST GRADE
First grade students extend their understanding of the enabling skills of phonemic awareness and decoding and word recognition while they extend their comprehension and use of conventions for written language. They read a variety of texts, listen to literature, and respond to books, poetry, plays, age-appropriate expository texts, environmental print, and self-selected reading materials. They expand their oral language skills and their knowledge about recording oral language to express themselves clearly. As they participate in discussing texts and constructing texts, they expand their store of words. They begin to use new vocabulary and formats for their written products as a result of their examination of models of speaking and writing. First grade students will: · Read a variety of texts in different settings. · Respond to texts in different ways. · Use conversational and literary language to express themselves. · Begin to develop effective listening and speaking skills.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will develop and apply enabling strategies and skills to read
Goal 1
and write.
1.01 Develop phonemic awareness and demonstrate knowledge of alphabetic principle:
· count syllables in a word.
· blend the phonemes of one-syllable words.
· segment the phonemes of one-syllable words.
· change the beginning, middle, and ending sounds to produce new words.
· create and state a series of rhyming words that may include consonant blends (e.g., flag, brag).
1.02 Demonstrate decoding and word recognition strategies and skills:
· generate the sounds from all the letters and appropriate letter patterns which should include consonant blends and long and short vowel patterns.
· use phonics knowledge of sound-letter relationships to decode regular one-syllable words when reading words and text.
· recognize many high frequency and/or common irregularly spelled words in text (e.g., have said, where, two).
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words in text (e.g., have said, where, two). · read compound words and contractions. · read inflectional forms (e.g., -s, -ed, -ing) and root words (e.g., looks, looked, looking). · read appropriate word families. 1.03 Use pronunciation, sentence meaning, story meaning, and syntax to confirm accurate decoding or to self-correct errors. 1.04 Self-monitor decoding by using one or two decoding strategies (e.g., beginning letters, rimes, length of word, ending letters). 1.05 Increase vocabulary, concepts, and reading stamina by reading selfselected texts independently for 15 minutes daily. Self-selected texts should be consistent with the student's independent reading level.
Competency The learner will develop and apply strategies and skills to comprehend
Goal 2
text that is read, heard, and viewed.
2.01 Read aloud independently with fluency and comprehension any text that is appropriately designed for emergent readers.
2.02 Demonstrate familiarity with a variety of texts (storybooks, short chapter books, newspapers, telephone books, and everyday print such as signs and labels, poems, word plays using alliteration and rhyme, skits and short plays).
2.03 Read and comprehend both fiction and nonfiction text appropriate for grade one using:
· prior knowledge.
· summary.
· questions.
· graphic organizers.
2.04 Use preparation strategies to anticipate vocabulary of a text and to connect prior knowledge and experiences to a new text.
2.05 Predict and explain what will happen next in stories.
2.06 Self-monitor comprehension by using one or two strategies (questions, retelling, summarizing).
2.07 Respond and elaborate in answering what, when, where, and how questions.
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questions. 2.08 Discuss and explain response to how, why, and what if questions in sharing narrative and expository texts. 2.09 Read and understand simple written instructions.
Competency The learner will make connections through the use of oral language,
Goal 3
written language, and media and technology.
3.01 Elaborate on how information and events connect to life experiences.
3.02 Recognize and relate similar vocabulary use and concepts across experiences with texts.
3.03 Discuss unfamiliar oral and/or written vocabulary after listening to or reading texts.
3.04 Share personal experiences and responses to experiences with text:
· publishing non-print texts.
· discussing interpretations.
· recording personal responses.
3.05 Recognize how particular authors use vocabulary and language to develop an individual, recognizable voice.
3.06 Discuss authors'/speakers' use of different kinds of sentences to interest a reader/listener and communicate a message.
3.07 Compare authors' uses of conventions of language that aid readers including:
· kinds of sentences.
· capitalization of first word in a sentence and proper names.
· punctuation to end a declarative and interrogative sentence.
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to create oral, written, and
Goal 4
visual texts.
4.01 Select and use new vocabulary and language structures in both speech and writing contexts (e.g., oral retelling using exclamatory phrases to accent an idea or event).
4.02 Use words that describe, name characters and settings (who, where), and tell action and events (what happened, what did ___ do) in simple texts.
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4.03 Use specific words to name and tell action in oral and written language (e.g., using words such as frog and toad when discussing a nonfiction text). 4.04 Extend skills in using oral and written language: · clarifying purposes for engaging in communication. · using clear and precise language to paraphrase messages. · engaging in more extended oral discussions. · producing written products. · completing graphic organizers. 4.05 Write and/or participate in writing by using an author's model of language and extending the model (e.g., writing different ending for a story, composing an innovation of a poem). 4.06 Compose a variety of products (e.g., stories, journal entries, letters, response logs, simple poems, oral retellings) using a writing process.
Competency The learner will apply grammar and language conventions to
Goal 5
communicate effectively.
5.01 Use phonic knowledge and basic patterns (e.g., an, ee, ake) to spell correctly three-and four-letter words.
5.02 Apply phonics to write independently, using temporary and/or conventional spelling.
5.03 Write all upper and lower case letters of the alphabet, using correct letter formation.
5.04 Use complete sentences to write simple texts.
5.05 Use basic capitalization and punctuation:
· first word in a sentence.
· proper names.
· period to end declarative sentence.
· question mark to end interrogative sentence.
5.06 Self-monitor composition by using one or two strategies (e.g., rereading, peer conferences).
5.07 Use legible manuscript handwriting.
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SECOND GRADE
Second grade students use the listening, speaking, and reading foundational skills they have developed to extend their understanding of written language and their skills in using written language. They need to read a wider variety of texts that require strategies and skills with more complex vocabulary and ideas. These students need to be able to write sentences to express multiple ideas about a topic. Second grade students will: · Use acquired concepts and metacognitive skills to read and write more independently. · Comprehend and respond to texts using multiple skills and strategies. · Extend vocabulary skills to use oral and written communication effectively. · Use reading and listening, speaking and writing, and media and technology resources to accomplish a purpose.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will develop and apply enabling strategies and skills to read
Goal 1
and write.
1.01 Use phonics knowledge and structural analysis (e.g., knowledge of syllables, suffixes, prefixes, root words) to decode regular multi-syllable words when reading text.
1.02 Read most high frequency and many irregularly spelled words accurately in text.
1.03 Self-monitor decoding by using letter-sound knowledge of all consonants and vowels.
1.04 Apply knowledge of all sources of information (meaning, language, graphophonics) to read a new text silently and independently.
1.05 Use a variety of strategies and skills to read self-selected texts independently for 20 minutes daily. Self-selected texts should be consistent with the student's independent reading level.
Competency The learner will develop and apply strategies and skills to comprehend
Goal 2
text that is read, heard, and viewed.
2.01 Read and comprehend text (fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama) appropriate for grade two by:
· determining purpose (reader's and author's).
· making predictions.
· asking questions.
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English Language Arts 27
· locating information for specific reasons/purposes. · recognizing and applying text structure. · comprehending and examining author's decisions and word choice. · determining fact and opinion. · recognizing and comprehending figurative language. · making inferences and draw conclusions. 2.02 Use text for a variety of functions, including literary, informational, and practical. 2.03 Read expository materials for answers to specific questions. 2.04 Pose possible how, why, and what if questions to understand and/or interpret text. 2.05 Self-monitor own difficulties in comprehending independently using several strategies. 2.06 Recall main idea, facts and details from a text. 2.07 Discuss similarities and differences in events, characters and concepts within and across texts. 2.08 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and maps.
Competency The learner will make connections through the use of oral language,
Goal 3
written language, and media and technology.
3.01 Use personal experiences and knowledge to interpret written and oral messages.
3.02 Connect and compare information within and across selections (fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama) to experience and knowledge.
3.03 Explain and describe new concepts and information in own words (e.g., plot, setting, major events, characters, author's message, connections, topic, key vocabulary, key concepts, text features).
3.04 Increase oral and written vocabulary by listening, discussing, and composing texts when responding to literature that is read and heard. (e.g., read aloud by teacher, literature circles, interest groups, book clubs).
3.05 Locate and discuss examples of an author's use of:
· kinds of sentences (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory).
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· capitalization (titles, dates and days, names of countries). · punctuation (exclamation marks, commas in dates, and to introduce dialogue and quotations). · use of paragraphs in texts and their effects on the reader. · genre(s) and specific word choice(s). 3.06 Discuss the effect of an author's choices for nouns, verbs, modifiers and specific vocabulary which help the reader comprehend a narrative or expository text.
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to create oral, written, and
Goal 4
visual texts.
4.01 Begin to use formal language and/or literary language in place of oral language patterns, as appropriate.
4.02 Use expanded vocabulary to generate synonyms for commonly over used words to increase clarity of written and oral communication.
4.03 Read aloud with fluency and expression any text appropriate for early independent readers.
4.04 Use oral communication to identify, organize, and analyze information.
4.05 Respond appropriately when participating in group discourse by adapting language and communication behaviors to the situation to accomplish a specific purpose.
4.06 Plan and make judgments about what to include in written products (e.g., narratives of personal experiences, creative stories, skits based on familiar stories and/or experiences).
4.07 Compose first drafts using an appropriate writing process:
· planning and drafting.
· rereading for meaning.
· revising to clarify and refine writing with guided discussion.
4.08 Write structured, informative presentations and narratives when given help with organization.
4.09 Use media and technology to enhance the presentation of information to an audience for a specific purpose.
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Competency The learner will apply grammar and language conventions to
Goal 5
communicate effectively.
5.01 Spell correctly using:
· previously studied words.
· spelling patterns.
· analysis of sounds to represent all the sounds in a word in one's own writing.
5.02 Attend to spelling, mechanics, and format for final products in one's own writing.
5.03 Use capitalization, punctuation, and paragraphs in own writing.
5.04 Use the following parts of the sentence:
· subject.
· predicate.
· modifier.
5.05 Use editing to check and confirm correct use of conventions:
· complete sentences.
· correct word order in sentences.
5.06 Use correctly in written products:
· letter formation, lines, and spaces to create readable documents.
· plural forms of commonly used nouns.
· common, age - appropriate contractions.
5.07 Use legible manuscript handwriting.
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ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS GRADES 3-5
Purpose/ Overview
The English Language Arts curriculum for grades 3-5 is designed to sustain and expand growth of the foundational skills that students acquire in the primary grades as well as promote growth of strategies, skills, and conceptual understandings. The priority of the English Language Arts curriculum is oral and written language development and use. A primary focus is using language to obtain and communicate information, for literary response and expression, for reflection and self-evaluation, and for problem solving and application. In this way, students will be able to function effectively in their world of home, school, and community and realize personal learning and fulfillment. The expectation in our society today is for one hundred percent literacy. Literacy requires the ability to think and reason as a literate person with a focus on thinking critically and creatively using oral language, written language, and other media and technology as tools. The goal in grades 3-5 is to move students toward increasing independence in the use of communication skills and strategies. In this grade span, students become independent readers and writers and continue to expand their literacy proficiency. They learn to apply their foundational skills automatically and flexibly to reading and writing fiction, nonfiction, drama, and poetry. If students are not independent readers by the end of third grade, they tend not to become proficient enough in their reading and writing to graduate from high school (Snow, et al., 1998). However, it is a reasonable expectation that with appropriate instruction all students can become independent readers by the end of third grade (Stahl, June, 1999). It is desirable that students enter third grade reading simple chapter books and other texts with comfort and understanding. In third grade, students build their capacity to comprehend more difficult and varied texts and continue to develop proficiency as readers throughout their school careers. Therefore, it is imperative that lower level skills be automatic so that students' attention is focused on the active processing of text. By fourth grade, students read sufficiently well to comprehend, analyze, criticize, abstract, respond, and reflect on text. By using literacy as a tool, students profit from the learning opportunities ahead (Snow, et al., 1998).
Competency The English Language Arts competency goals and objectives are
Goals And intended to capture the essentials of oral and written communication at
Objectives these grade levels. They reflect what students should know and be able
to do in order to communicate critically, creatively, and effectively.
The competency goals and objectives reflect interrelated aspects of the
dynamic process of communication.
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English Language Arts
The competency goals and objectives reflect interrelated aspects of the dynamic process of communication.
The curriculum identifies specific competency goals and objectives that are crucial for continued success in subsequent years of students' public school careers and beyond. While the curriculum identifies specific goals and objectives, a major consideration also includes making connections between the school setting, personal experience, and real world application. The grade level competencies lay the groundwork for shaping a knowledgeable, literate, and responsible citizenry.
Word Recognition Strategies and Skills and Vocabulary
The word recognition strategies and skills goal refines and builds upon the foundational skills of decoding so that students are able to develop word recognition automatically. Readers extend their knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and root words and apply their phonics knowledge to manipulate increasingly larger parts of words to identify unfamiliar words quickly and efficiently. Students increase their repertoire of sight words through wide reading, involvement in writing process elements, discussion, vocabulary study, and the repeated use of high frequency words. Their vocabularies expand quickly as they read widely and engage in content area study, discussion and word study, and explore word origins related to a range of topics.
Strategic Comprehension
Strategic comprehension focuses on reading, listening, and viewing for a variety of purposes: for literary experience, to inform, and to perform a task. It deals with the acquisition, interpretation, and application of information and ideas. Readers develop an initial understanding by identifying, collecting, and selecting information and ideas. They develop a more complete understanding by organizing and using information and ideas. They learn to establish a critical stance to form opinions, make judgments, and evaluate the quality and usefulness of information and ideas. Readers stand apart from the selection(s), information, idea(s), or experience(s) and consider it/them objectively. This goal involves readers' ability to assess validity and accuracy, determine value, and judge relevance and importance of information and ideas. Students learn the strategies proficient readers apply before, during, and after reading a text. They learn to use metacognitive strategies as they read.
Metacognition involves the awareness of, manipulation of, and control over one's thinking processes including perseverance, attitudes, and attention. Readers are aware of their own thinking, learn strategies, and apply the strategies in preparation, engagement, and response to text(s).
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English Language Arts
attention. Readers are aware of their own thinking, learn strategies, and apply the strategies in preparation, engagement, and response to text(s).
Making Connections
The English language arts program for grades 3-5 is a spiraling program with strong connections among the goals, objectives, and strands. The interrelationships include:
· the study and use of the functions of oral and written language. · the study of language and the conventions of grammar. · vocabulary development and word study. · reading broadly and deeply from a variety of genres. · writing for a variety of purposes and audiences in a variety of forms. · comprehending literally, critically, strategically, and creatively. · awareness of thinking and understanding through self- monitoring and reflection. · connections between personal experiences and text(s). · expanding literacy through research and inquiry.
Teachers will want to note and build upon the connections and the overlapping areas of the curriculum asking students to note and find connections, revisit significant concepts, participate in meaningful dialogue and develop knowledge and skills within the context of appropriate use. In this way we will develop students who can read and compose. When students are successful and realize the usefulness of what they are doing they become competent and confident readers and writers and effective communicators. They use oral language, written language, and media and technology to communicate effectively and as tools for learning and personal fulfillment for a lifetime.
Students learn to clarify meaning and respond critically and creatively to texts, situations, and events. Responding and making connections involves comprehending, formulating personal reactions, predicting, summarizing, supporting, justifying, assessing other points of view, and evaluating. Readers make connections by reflecting upon and reacting to selections, situations, and events. They respond and reflect from a personal perspective as they connect background knowledge and experiences.
Effective Communication
Effective oral and written communication requires keen awareness of the purpose, message, audience, and contexts for communication. Students learn to use language clearly, strategically, critically, and creatively. This goal focuses on using language for a variety of functions:
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English Language Arts
creatively. This goal focuses on using language for a variety of functions:
· instructional (to get what we want). · regulatory (to control others and the world around us). · interactional (to establish and maintain relationships with others). · personal (to develop and maintain one's own unique identity). · informative (to represent the world to others and to impart what one knows). · heuristic (to speculate and predict what will happen). · aesthetic (to express imagination, to entertain, and to use language for its own sake).
This goal teaches students to use writing, speaking, and viewing as thinking processes and as tools for learning. Students learn and develop proficiency with a number of variables: mode, tone, form, purpose, and audience. While writing, speaking, and viewing students select from and combine these variables as appropriate to the task. While writing to learn, students discover connections, describe processes, express emerging understandings, raise questions, and find answers. Thinking, speaking, and writing are recursive processes.
Grammar and Language Conventions
Grammar and language conventions focus on students' increasing proficiency in the understanding of and control of their language. Language use includes vocabulary development, word choice, and syntax in both oral and written communication. Students learn how to use effective and increasingly sophisticated language:
· standard English for clarity. · technical language for specificity. · informal usage for effect.
Students continue to develop increasing control over grammatical conventions including sentence formation, conventional usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
Literature
The study of literature is crucially important in grades 3-5. It offers
countless opportunities for students to make connections between
language and their own personal experiences. Literature describes the
human experience and involves an interaction with and conversation
between the reader and the text. Students need to develop some
understanding of the distinguishing features and structures of texts and
of the visual and linguistic systems out of which texts are created.
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language learning array of texts, both
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literature from the classics to contemporary selections. When students
understanding of the distinguishing features and structures of texts and of the visual and linguistic systems out of which texts are created. Language learning involves the exploration and careful study of a wide array of texts, both print and non-print. Students need to hear and read literature from the classics to contemporary selections. When students read texts that reflect the diversity of our culture in terms of gender, age, social class, religion, and ethnicity among individuals, they deepen their personal learning. They grow in their ability to understand our society, its history, and the contributions made by all people. Read-aloud settings provide a functional context for engaging students in and developing their listening comprehension, critical thinking, critical questioning, word choice, and authors' craft. Reading aloud from a variety of books and genres as well as multiple readings of the same book promote the art of listening, alert students to the rhythms and patterns of language, enhance their experiences, stimulate their discussions, and provide models for oral reading. It is imperative that students regularly share what they think, know, and feel about literature through response logs, dialogue journals, book talks, conferences, role play, artistic extensions of literature, and other mediums. Equally important is the study of some texts in detail. Another major goal is for students to read broadly with the benefit of exposure to the defining features of a variety of genres. Literature study provides many benefits to readers: · knowledge of the world and human experiences. · awareness of self and others. · appreciation of diversity among peoples and cultures. · an understanding of societies and their histories. · the development of an ethical and moral sense. · understanding of what it means to be human. · development of an understanding of other perspectives. · connections to people in our time and other times and places. · perspective on one's experience within the contexts of others' experiences. · appreciation of the richness and complexity of human nature. · experience with different text structures and the defining features of various genres.
Strands 2004
Oral language, written language, and media and technology permeate all communication. Oral language is the foundation on which all communication is based. It is now--and is even more likely to be--a primary means of acquiring and transmitting information in the future. Oral language proficiency continues to develop in grades three to five and can be improved upon w3it5h instruction and guidanceE.nSgltiushdLenantsguwagheoArts experience positive feedback to their efforts to use language and have opportunities to hear language used in a variety of social contexts have
primary means of acquiring and transmitting information in the future. Oral language proficiency continues to develop in grades three to five and can be improved upon with instruction and guidance. Students who experience positive feedback to their efforts to use language and have opportunities to hear language used in a variety of social contexts have a broader base for their reading and writing development.
Listening and speaking skills develop as students use them for meaningful purposes and with varied audiences. Opportunities to speak for different purposes to different audiences assist students in becoming more efficient in their application of oral language. They can use oral language to relate experiences; to explain processes; to support opinions; to describe experiences, information, and ideas; and to converse with others. Through discussion of texts and content area study, students build upon, expand, and refine their vocabularies and concept knowledge. Through group work opportunities students gain information, ideas, and in-depth understanding and share with others.
Competent communicators are sensitive to the needs of different audiences and the ways in which the purpose of a communication shapes the kinds of ideas and information selected and the way in which they are presented. Depending on whether they are explaining something, arguing, persuading, or telling a story, good communicators have learned how to vary their organizational strategies. They adapt the level of detail they provide and the language they use according to the context of the communication.
Throughout the school years, oral language is both a means whereby students learn about reading and a goal of reading. Listening and speaking aid reading comprehension whether the teacher is sharing a book aloud with students or students are discussing a text they have read. Discussions guide students to respond to the meanings and interpretations of texts they read. Students make predictions as they read and either confirm or adjust those predictions based on verbal interactions with others. Discussions can reveal differences in interpretation, support for or evidence against a particular interpretation, and lead to shared meaning and deeper understanding. Listening and speaking permit students to respond to text and make connections before, during, and after reading.
To ensure that they can communicate effectively with a wide range of audiences, all students need to learn standard English. As students adapt and modify their language to suit different purposes, they become more proficient and efficient communicators.
Oral language sophistication pays dividends as students develop in their
reading and writing. Background knowledge, vocabulary knowledge,
and listening comprehension are the cornerstones of written language
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development in third, fourth,3a6nd fifth grades.
English Language Arts
reading and writing. Background knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, and listening comprehension are the cornerstones of written language development in third, fourth, and fifth grades.
Students need an array of strategies for comprehending, interpreting, evaluating, and appreciating texts they read and texts they compose. Good readers and writers demonstrate: a sense of purpose, an ability to frame expectations of a task by drawing on prior reading and writing experiences, a knowledge of various approaches and how to apply them, and the capacity to reflect on written language processes. In order to learn these skills, students need frequent opportunities to read and write about different topics for varying audiences and purposes. Personal experiences, readings, and discussions provide the raw material for writing. Students need direct instruction, guidance, and practice to develop effective reading and writing skills. Also, students need to understand the varying demands of different kinds of reading and writing tasks and how to adjust their efforts accordingly.
To become confident and effective readers and writers, students need to learn how to use various elements of writing and various reading strategies flexibly and adaptively. Students develop their knowledge of form and convention as they create their own texts and critique those of others. Students who can draw on a deep knowledge of language structure as they read and compose communicate more effectively. When students connect the study of grammar and language patterns to the wider purposes of communication and artistic development, they are more likely to incorporate the models they encounter into their spoken and written language.
Oral and written language are valuable research tools. The ability to formulate questions, plan, predict, investigate, analyze, hypothesize, and speculate provides students a way to frame and address issues in their studies and everyday life. The application of oral and written language to problem solving and negotiation is pervasive and effective in the everyday life of students. These experiences provide the context for developing students' research and inquiry skills. The ability to identify good topics, to gather information, and evaluate, assemble, and interpret findings from among many sources is a critical skill for students to learn.
Media and technology offer many resources that students can use to
access information. In order to take advantage of the resources that are
available, students need to learn how to use an array of technologies.
Media and technology resources such as databases, bibliographies,
other data resources, and human resources give students information,
ideas, and images for their exploration and incorporation into daily
classroom and personal inquiry. Students need instruction in accessing
these resources, gathering information, synthesizing, and evaluating the
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information students are
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products, information, and ideas. Therefore, critical analysis and
classroom and personal inquiry. Students need instruction in accessing these resources, gathering information, synthesizing, and evaluating the information and ideas. By using media and technology as a tool, students are able to create, enhance, critique, select, and modify products, information, and ideas. Therefore, critical analysis and evaluation is one of the most useful and necessary skills students in grades 3-5 can develop and apply. Students in grades 3-5 will continue to show evidence of mastery of competencies developed at previous grade levels, particularly as they contribute to mastery of grade-level competencies. International Reading Association. Standards for The English Language Arts. Newark, Delaware, 1996. National Center on Education and the Economy. Performance Standards: Elementary School. Vol. 1. New Standards Project, 1997. Snow, Catherine, et. al. (eds.). Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1998. Stahl, Steven. Four Questions about Assessment. K-2 Literacy Assessment Training. Greenville, North Carolina, June, 1999.
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THIRD GRADE Students in third grade apply the foundational skills learned earlier automatically and flexibly to decode and comprehend fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama. They use critical thinking skills which they apply strategically across the disciplines to comprehend and clarify information and ideas. They compose fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama for a variety of purposes and audiences. Third graders become increasingly independent and flexible in their use of communication skills and strategies. The learner will: · Read with fluency and comprehension fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama. · Apply strategies flexibly and strategically for recognizing words, learning new words, and constructing meaning from text(s). · Expand vocabulary through wide reading, word study, and discussion. · Write for a variety of audiences and purposes using appropriate formats. · Use active listening and effective oral communication. · Use media, a variety of information sources, and technological resources as tools for learning. · Apply grammar and language conventions to access and communicate information and ideas. · Reflect upon and make connections among language, texts, and personal experience. · Apply comprehension strategies and skills to a wide variety of genres. Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology Competency The learner will apply enabling strategies and skills to read and write. Goal 1 1.01 Apply phonics and structural analysis to decode words (e.g., roots, suffixes, prefixes, less common vowel patterns, syllable breaks). 1.02 Apply meanings of common prefixes and suffixes to decode words in text to assist comprehension. 1.03 Integrate prior experiences and all sources of information in the text (graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic) when reading orally and silently. 1.04 Increase sight vocabulary, reading vocabulary, and writing vocabulary through: · wide reading. · word study. · listening.
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· discussion.
· book talks.
· book clubs.
· seminars.
· viewing.
· role play.
· studying author's craft.
1.05 Use word reference materials (e.g., dictionary, glossary) to confirm decoding skills, verify spelling, and extend meanings of words.
1.06 Read independently daily from self-selected materials (consistent with the student's independent reading level) to:
· increase fluency.
· build background knowledge.
· extend vocabulary.
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to comprehend text that is
Goal 2
read, heard, and viewed.
2.01 Use metacognitive strategies to comprehend text (e.g., reread, read ahead, ask for help, adjust reading speed, question, paraphrase, retell).
2.02 Interact with the text before, during, and after reading, listening, or viewing by:
· setting a purpose.
· previewing the text.
· making predictions.
· asking questions.
· locating information for specific purposes.
· making connections.
· using story structure and text organization to comprehend.
2.03 Read a variety of texts, including:
· fiction (short stories, novels, fantasies, fairy tales, fables).
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· nonfiction (biographies, letters, articles, procedures and instructions, charts, maps).
· poetry (proverbs, riddles, limericks, simple poems).
· drama (skits, plays).
2.04 Identify and interpret elements of fiction and nonfiction and support by referencing the text to determine the:
· author's purpose.
· plot.
· conflict.
· sequence.
· resolution.
· lesson and/or message.
· main idea and supporting details.
· cause and effect.
· fact and opinion.
· point of view (author and character).
· author's use of figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, imagery).
2.05 Draw conclusions, make generalizations, and gather support by referencing the text.
2.06 Summarize main idea(s) from written or spoken texts using succinct language.
2.07 Explain choice of reading materials congruent with purposes (e.g., solving problems, making decisions).
2.08 Listen actively by:
· facing the speaker.
· making eye contact.
· asking questions to clarify the message.
· asking questions to gain additional information and ideas.
Competency The learner will make connections through the use of oral language,
Goal 3
written language, and media and technology.
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Goal 3
written language, and media and technology. 3.01 Respond to fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama using interpretive, critical, and evaluative processes by: · considering the differences among genres. · relating plot, setting, and characters to own experiences and ideas. · considering main character's point of view. · participating in creative interpretations. · making inferences and drawing conclusions about characters and events. · reflecting on learning, gaining new insights, and identifying areas for further study. 3.02 Identify and discuss similarities and differences in events, characters, concepts and ideas within and across selections and support them by referencing the text. 3.03 Use text and own experiences to verify facts, concepts, and ideas. 3.04 Make informed judgments about television productions. 3.05 Analyze, compare and contrast printed and visual information (e.g., graphs, charts, maps). 3.06 Conduct research for assigned and self-selected projects (with assistance) from a variety of sources (e.g., print and non-print texts, artifacts, people, libraries, databases, computer networks).
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to create oral, written, and
Goal 4
visual texts.
4.01 Read aloud grade-appropriate text with fluency, comprehension, and expression.
4.02 Use oral and written language to:
· present information in a sequenced, logical manner.
· discuss.
· sustain conversation on a topic.
· share information and ideas.
· recount or narrate.
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· answer open-ended questions. · report information on a topic. · explain own learning. 4.03 Share written and oral products in a variety of ways (e.g., author's chair, book making, publications, discussions, presentations). 4.04 Use planning strategies (with assistance) to generate topics and to organize ideas (e.g., drawing, mapping, discussing, listing). 4.05 Identify (with assistance) the purpose, the audience, and the appropriate form for the oral or written task. 4.06 Compose a draft that conveys major ideas and maintains focus on the topic by using preliminary plans. 4.07 Compose a variety of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama selections using self-selected topics and forms (e.g., poems, simple narratives, short reports, learning logs, letters, notes, directions, instructions). 4.08 Focus reflection and revision (with assistance) on target elements by: · clarifying ideas. · adding descriptive words and phrases. · sequencing events and ideas. · combining short, related sentences. · strengthening word choice. 4.09 Produce work that follows the conventions of particular genres (e.g., personal narrative, short report, friendly letter, directions and instructions). 4.10 Explore technology as a tool to create a written product.
Competency The learner will apply grammar and language conventions to
Goal 5
communicate effectively.
5.01 Use correct capitalization (e.g., geographical place names, holidays, special events, titles) and punctuation (e.g., commas in greetings, dates, city and state; underlining book titles; periods after initials and abbreviated titles; apostrophes in contractions).
5.02 Use correct subject/verb agreement.
5.03 Demonstrate understanding by using a variety of complete sentences
(declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory) in writing and
speaking. 2004
English Language Arts
43
(declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory) in writing and speaking. 5.04 Compose two or more paragraphs with: · topic sentences. · supporting details. · appropriate, logical sequence. · sufficient elaboration. 5.05 Use a number of strategies for spelling (e.g., sound patterns, visual patterns, silent letters, less common letter groupings). 5.06 Proofread own writing for spelling and correct most misspellings independently with reference to resources (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, word walls). 5.07 Edit (with assistance) to use conventions of written language and format. 5.08 Create readable documents with legible handwriting (manuscript and cursive).
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FOURTH GRADE Students in fourth grade apply reading strategies and skills automatically, flexibly, and strategically to comprehend fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama. They read for literary experience, to gain information, and to perform a task. They use a variety of strategies and writing process elements to compose fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama. They become increasingly proficient in active listening, speaking, and using media and technology. They deepen and extend their understanding and use of English language conventions in oral presentations and written products. The learner will: · Explore a wide range of texts and their distinguishing features. · Expand vocabulary through wide reading, word study, exposure to content area words, and discussion. · Routinely spell high frequency words and use resources to check spelling. · Write for a variety of purposes and audiences and use writing as a tool for learning. · Communicate effectively with different audiences through spoken, written, and visual formats. · Use media and technological resources for research and as tools for learning. · Use increasingly sophisticated knowledge of grammar and language conventions in oral and written products and presentations. · Apply comprehension strategies critically, creatively, and strategically. Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology Competency The learner will apply enabling strategies and skills to read and write. Goal 1 1.01 Use word identification strategies appropriately and automatically when encountering unknown words (graphophonic, syntactic, semantic). 1.02 Infer word meanings from taught roots, prefixes, and suffixes to decode words in text to assist comprehension. 1.03 Identify key words and discover their meanings and relationships through a variety of strategies. 1.04 Increase reading and writing vocabulary through: · wide reading. · word study. · knowledge of homophones, synonyms, antonyms, homonyms. · knowledge of multiple meanings of words.
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· writing process elements.
· writing as a tool for learning.
· seminars.
· book clubs.
· discussions.
· examining the author's craft.
1.05 Use word reference materials (e.g., glossary, dictionary, thesaurus) to identify and comprehend unknown words.
1.06 Read independently daily from self-selected materials (consistent with the student's independent reading level) to:
· increase fluency.
· build background knowledge.
· expand vocabulary.
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to comprehend text that is
Goal 2
read, heard, and viewed.
2.01 Use metacognitive strategies to comprehend text and to clarify meaning of vocabulary (e.g., reread the text, consult other sources, ask for help, paraphrase, question).
2.02 Interact with the text before, during, and after reading, listening, and viewing by:
· setting a purpose using prior knowledge and text information.
· making predictions.
· formulating questions.
· locating relevant information.
· making connections with previous experiences, information, and ideas.
2.03 Read a variety of texts, including:
· fiction (legends, novels, folklore, science fiction).
· nonfiction (autobiographies, informational books, diaries, journals).
· poetry (concrete, haiku).
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English Language Arts 46
· drama (skits, plays).
2.04 Identify and interpret elements of fiction and nonfiction and support by referencing the text to determine the:
· plot.
· theme.
· main idea and supporting details.
· author's choice of words.
· mood.
· author's use of figurative language.
2.05 Make inferences, draw conclusions, make generalizations, and support by referencing the text.
2.06 Summarize major points from fiction and nonfiction text(s) to clarify and retain information and ideas.
2.07 Determine usefulness of information and ideas consistent with purpose.
2.08 Verify the meaning or accuracy of the author's statement(s) by referencing the text or other resources.
2.09 Listen actively by:
· asking questions.
· paraphrasing what was said.
· interpreting speaker's verbal and non-verbal messages.
· interpreting speaker's purposes and/or intent.
Competency The learner will make connections with text through the use of oral
Goal 3
language, written language, and media and technology.
3.01 Respond to fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama using interpretive, critical, and evaluative processes by:
· analyzing the impact of authors' word choice and context.
· examining the reasons for characters' actions.
· identifying and examining characters' motives.
· considering a situation or problem from different characters' points of view.
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· analyzing differences among genres. · making inferences and drawing conclusions about characters, events and themes. 3.02 Analyze characters, events, and plots within and between selections and cite supporting evidence. 3.03 Consider the ways language and visuals bring characters to life, enhance plot development, and produce a response. 3.04 Make informed judgments about television and film/video productions. 3.05 Analyze and integrate information from one or more sources to expand understanding of text including graphs, charts, and/or maps. 3.06 Conduct research for assigned projects or self-selected projects (with assistance) from a variety of sources through the use of technological and informal tools (e.g., print and non-print texts, artifacts, people, libraries, databases, computer networks).
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to create oral, written, and
Goal 4
visual texts.
4.01 Read aloud grade-appropriate text with fluency, comprehension, and expression demonstrating an awareness of volume and pace.
4.02 Use oral and written language to:
· present information and ideas in a clear, concise manner.
· discuss.
· interview.
· solve problems.
· make decisions.
4.03 Make oral and written presentations using visual aids with an awareness of purpose and audience.
4.04 Share self-selected texts from a variety of genres (e.g., poetry, letters, narratives, essays, presentations).
4.05 Use planning strategies to generate topics and organize ideas (e.g., brainstorming, mapping, webbing, reading, discussion).
4.06 Compose a draft that conveys major ideas and maintains focus on the topic with specific, relevant, supporting details by using preliminary plans.
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topic with specific, relevant, supporting details by using preliminary plans.
4.07 Compose fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama using self-selected and assigned topics and forms (e.g., personal and imaginative narratives, research reports, diaries, journals, logs, rules, instructions).
4.08 Focus revision on a specific element such as:
· word choice.
· sequence of events and ideas.
· transitional words.
· sentence patterns.
4.09 Produce work that follows the conventions of particular genres (e.g., personal and imaginative narrative, research reports, learning logs, letters of request, letters of complaint).
4.10 Use technology as a tool to gather, organize, and present information.
Competency The learner will apply grammar and language conventions to
Goal 5
communicate effectively.
5.01 Use correct capitalization (e.g., names of languages, nationalities, musical compositions) and punctuation (e.g., commas in a series, commas in direct address, commas and quotation marks in dialogue, apostrophes in possessives).
5.02 Demonstrate understanding in speaking and writing by appropriate usage of:
· pronouns.
· subject/verb agreement.
· verb tense consistency.
· subject consistency.
5.03 Elaborate information and ideas in writing and speaking by using:
· simple and compound sentences.
· regular and irregular verbs.
· adverbs.
· prepositions.
· coordinating conjunctions.
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5.04 Compose multiple paragraphs with: · topic sentences. · specific, relevant details. · logical progression and movement of ideas. · coherence. · elaboration. · concluding statement related to the topic. 5.05 Use visual (orthography) and meaning-based strategies as primary sources for correct spelling. 5.06 Proofread and correct most misspellings independently with reference to resources (e.g., dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, computer spell-checks, and other classroom sources). 5.07 Use established criteria to edit for language conventions and format. 5.08 Demonstrate evidence of language cohesion by: · logical sequence of fiction and nonfiction retells. · time order sequence of events. · sustaining conversations on a topic. 5.09 Create readable documents through legible handwriting (cursive) and/or word processing.
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FIFTH GRADE Students in fifth grade expand and deepen concepts, skills, and strategies learned at earlier grades. They make new connections as they experience more sophisticated ideas and begin to study subjects in more formal ways. They read and write a variety of texts with greater breadth and depth, critically analyzing and evaluating information and ideas. Fifth graders revisit and refine concepts and their knowledge of English Language Arts conventions as they become more sophisticated, independent learners. The learner will: · Use reading and writing to learn about and understand their world and other cultures. · Evaluate text to determine the author's purpose and point of view. · Increase vocabulary knowledge through wide reading, word study, discussion, and content area study. · Use print and non-print media to persuade an audience. · Use metacognitive skills to accomplish a task independently or as a group member. · Research multiple sources to deepen understanding and integrate information and ideas across varied sources and content areas. · Apply comprehension strategies critically, creatively, and strategically. · Use media and technology as resources for extended research and as tools for learning. Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology Competency The learner will apply enabling strategies and skills to read and write. Goal 1 1.01 Expand and refine vocabulary through knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, roots, derivatives, context clues, and etymologies (word origins) to assist comprehension. 1.02 Select key vocabulary critical to the text and apply appropriate meanings as necessary for comprehension. 1.03 Increase reading and writing vocabulary through: · wide reading. · word study. · word reference materials. · content area study. · writing process elements. · writing as a tool.
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· debate.
· discussions.
· seminars.
· examining the author's craft.
1.04 Use word reference materials (e.g., glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, online reference tools) to identify and comprehend unknown words.
1.05 Read independently daily from self-selected materials (consistent with the student's independent reading level) to:
· increase fluency.
· build background knowledge.
· expand and refine vocabulary.
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to comprehend text that is
Goal 2
read, heard, and viewed.
2.01 Use metacognitive strategies independently and flexibly to monitor comprehension and extend vocabulary (e.g., skim, scan, reread the text, consult other sources, ask for help, summarize, paraphrase, question).
2.02 Interact with the text before, during, and after reading, listening, and viewing by:
· making predictions.
· formulating questions.
· supporting answers from textual information, previous experience, and/or other sources.
· drawing on personal, literary, and cultural understandings.
· seeking additional information.
· making connections with previous experiences, information, and ideas.
2.03 Read a variety of texts, such as:
· fiction (tall tales, myths).
· nonfiction (books of true experience, newspaper and magazine articles, schedules).
· poetry (narrative, lyric, and cinquains).
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· drama (plays and skits). 2.04 Identify elements of fiction and nonfiction and support by referencing the text to determine the: · plot development. · author's choice of words. · effectiveness of figurative language (e.g., personification, flashback). · tone. 2.05 Evaluate inferences, conclusions, and generalizations and provide evidence by referencing the text(s). 2.06 Analyze choice of reading materials congruent with purposes (e.g., reading for information, reading to extend content area learning, reading for pleasure, entertainment). 2.07 Evaluate the usefulness and quality of information and ideas based on purpose, experiences, text(s), and graphics. 2.08 Explain and evaluate relationships that are: · causal. · hierarchical. · temporal. · problem-solution. 2.09 Listen actively and critically by: · asking questions. · delving deeper into the topic. · elaborating on the information and ideas presented. · evaluating information and ideas. · making inferences and drawing conclusions. · making judgments. 2.10 Identify strategies used by a speaker or writer to inform, entertain, or influence an audience.
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Competency The learner will make connections through the use of oral language,
Goal 3
written language, and media and technology.
3.01 Respond to fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama using interpretive, critical, and evaluative processes by:
· analyzing word choice and content.
· examining reasons for a character's actions, taking into account the situation and basic motivation of the character.
· creating and presenting a product that effectively demonstrates a personal response to a selection or experience.
· examining alternative perspectives.
· evaluating the differences among genres.
· examining relationships among characters.
· making and evaluating inferences and conclusions about characters, events, and themes.
3.02 Make connections within and between texts by recognizing similarities and differences based on a common lesson, theme, or message.
3.03 Justify evaluation of characters and events from different selections by citing supporting evidence in the text(s).
3.04 Make informed judgments about television, radio, video/film productions, other electronic mediums and/or print formats.
3.05 Integrate main idea and supporting details from multiple sources to expand understanding of texts.
3.06 Conduct research (with assistance) from a variety of sources for assigned or self-selected projects (e.g., print and non-print texts, artifacts, people, libraries, databases, computer networks).
3.07 Make informed judgments about:
· bias.
· propaganda.
· stereotyping.
· media techniques.
Competency The learner will apply strategies and skills to create oral, written, and
Goal 4
visual texts.
4.01 Read aloud grade-appropriate text with fluency, comprehension,
expression, and personal style demonstrating an awareness of volume, pace,
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audience, and purpose.
English Language Arts
54
expression, and personal style demonstrating an awareness of volume, pace, audience, and purpose. 4.02 Use oral and written language to: · formulate hypotheses. · evaluate information and ideas. · present and support arguments. · influence the thinking of others. 4.03 Make oral and written presentations to inform or persuade selecting vocabulary for impact. 4.04 Select a self-evaluated composition for publication and justify rationale for selection. 4.05 Use a variety of preliminary strategies to plan and organize the writing and speaking task considering purpose, audience, and timeline. 4.06 Compose a draft that elaborates on major ideas and adheres to the topic by using an appropriate organizational pattern that accomplishes the purpose of the writing task and effectively communicates its content. 4.07 Compose a variety of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama using selfselected topic and format (e.g., poetry, research reports, news articles, letters to the editor, business letters). 4.08 Focus revision on target elements by: · improving word choice. · rearranging text for clarity. · creating simple and/or complex sentences for clarity or impact. · developing a lead, characters, or mood. 4.09 Produce work that follows the conventions of particular genres (e.g., essay, feature story, business letter). 4.10 Use technology as a tool to enhance and/or publish a product.
Competency The learner will apply grammar and language conventions to
Goal 5
communicate effectively.
5.01 Consistently use correct capitalization (e.g., names of magazines, newspapers, organizations) and punctuation (e.g., colon to introduce a list, commas in apposition, commas used in compound sentences).
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commas in apposition, commas used in compound sentences). 5.02 Demonstrate understanding in speaking and writing by using: · troublesome verbs. · nominative, objective, and possessive pronouns. 5.03 Elaborate information and ideas in speaking and writing by using: · prepositional phrases. · transitions. · coordinating and/or subordinating conjunctions. 5.04 Determine the impact of word choice on written and spoken language. 5.05 Spell most commonly used words accurately using a multi-strategy approach to the learning of new spellings. 5.06 Proofread for accuracy of spelling using appropriate strategies to confirm spelling and to correct errors. 5.07 Edit final product for grammar, language conventions, and format. 5.08 Create readable documents through legible handwriting (cursive) and word processing.
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ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS GRADES 6-8
Purpose/ Overview
The North Carolina English Language Arts curriculum for grades 6-8 is written to address the distinctly different educational needs and characteristics of middle school students. Middle school students are responsible for increasingly complex and demanding tasks. Therefore, it is imperative that the middle school English Language Arts curriculum guide students through a sequenced program of study that is clear, focused, and measurable. The ultimate goal of the middle school English Language Arts curriculum is to foster personal, social, and civic literacy. Since our society depends upon language as communication, students must be provided daily opportunities to enhance control of the skills needed to communicate effectively. Students should have multiple opportunities to deepen their understanding of language by applying what they have learned. The English Language Arts curriculum for grades 6-8 is constructed around communication environments--settings for exchanging information that all of us enter when we need to communicate with clarity, purpose, and care. By teaching specific aptitudes that each environment requires from users of oral language, written language and other media/technology, the curriculum strives to create real life learning experiences for students to communicate in different contexts, for different purposes, and with different audiences.
Competency The goals and objectives for grades 6-8 reinforce the skills and Goals And processes learned in elementary school. These goals and objectives Objectives are embedded in the following learning contexts or environments, all of which bring together oral language, written language and other media/technology. The environments are the same for grades 6-12. However, while the environments may stay the same, grade level goals and objectives become more complex from grade to grade ­ from middle school to high school.
Expressive
Expressive communication involves exploring and sharing personal
insights and experiences. The writer/speaker of expressive text
addresses the reader/listener as a confidante, a friendly, though not
necessarily personally known, audience who is interested in how
thoughtful people respond to life. As authors, students write, speak,
and use media for expressive purposes; as readers/listeners, they learn
to appreciate the experiences of others. As students enter
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adolescence, they begin to question their role in them. Understanding self and57others is a part of
ethxeprwesosriElvdnegalrisohuLnadnguage
Arts
communication as are autobiographies, journals, friendly letters, and
fictional accounts. The expressive environment is emphasized in
and use media for expressive purposes; as readers/listeners, they learn to appreciate the experiences of others. As students enter adolescence, they begin to question their role in the world around them. Understanding self and others is a part of expressive communication as are autobiographies, journals, friendly letters, and fictional accounts. The expressive environment is emphasized in grade six and reinforced in grades seven and eight. By the end of middle school, students should be thoughtful, reflective learners who actively interact in a wide variety of settings.
Informational
Informational communication involves giving information to explain realities or ideas, to teach people who want to know what the writer/speaker knows. The writer/speaker of informational text should be knowledgeable and should communicate so that the audience may gain the knowledge as well as circumstances required. Informational texts often depend upon the traditional prompts of who, what, when, where, and how and can include definitions, instructions, directions, business letters, reports, and research. Grades six and seven provide the foundation for the emphasis of the informational environment in grade eight where students are expected to create a research product in both written and presentational form.
Argumentative
Argumentative communication involves defining issues and proposing reasonable solutions. Argumentative works include but are not limited to debates, problem/solutions, speeches, and letters to the editor. In middle school, students must learn the differences between an informal hallway confrontation and a logical, detailed, coherently organized argumentative work; therefore, sixth grade students learn the foundations of argument. After establishing the foundations of argument in grade six, the argumentative environment is emphasized in grade seven with refinement occurring at grade eight. By the end of middle school, students should be able to construct engaging, thoughtful solutions to problems as well as detailed, well-argued, coherent, and convincing responses.
Critique
With the influx of technology and as more and more materials
become available, students will need to be conscious consumers and
make informed choices and decisions. Critical communication
involves interpreting, proposing, and judging. The critic approaches
the reader/listener as an independent consumer who is interested in
thinking more keenly about the subject. Critical works include media
or book reviews and essays that provide critical analysis. Emphasized
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tchreroauteghstoauntdmariddsdalendscohnooml,atkhi5ins8geinnvfiorromnmedencht ofoicceuss.eIst
on lEenagrlnisihnLgatnoguage encourages
Arts
students to become knowledgeable, discriminating users of text and
thinking more keenly about the subject. Critical works include media or book reviews and essays that provide critical analysis. Emphasized throughout middle school, this environment focuses on learning to create standards and on making informed choices. It encourages students to become knowledgeable, discriminating users of text and multimedia. Literary The study of literature, which includes print and non-print texts, is extremely important in the English Language Arts curriculum. Students should develop a deep appreciation for literature, understand its personal, cultural, and historical significance, and learn how to analyze its meaning and relevance. They should view reading and studying literature as enjoyable and interesting. Middle school students should read different authors and genres to learn the scope of what is available and to help define students' taste. They should read literature that is written for them as well as beyond them ­ literature from the traditional mainstream as well as from outside the mainstream (Wilhelm, 1997). Literary study should revolve around meaningful and significant conversations about the texts students are reading. Students should learn to participate in, not merely learn about, literary discussions (Applebee, 1996). Written and oral conversation provides students a way to explore, analyze, and develop ideas and concepts of literature. Through conversation, students gain control of their own interpretations, the language and vocabulary of the discipline, and the concepts and conventions of literary study. Transitioning from the elementary school, literary study in the middle school helps students deepen and expand their understanding and experience. All four major genres (fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama)--both contemporary and traditional works--should be taught at each grade level. Students should be encouraged to read in class and outside of class. They should continue to refine strategies for dealing with unfamiliar text and should strengthen their understanding of literary conventions. Finally, the study of literature should involve the following: · making connections between literature and personal experiences. · making connections between features of different pieces of literature.
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· connecting themes and ideas in literature. · making connections between literature and historical and cultural significance. Grammar and Language Usage Emphasized in all grades, this learning environment asks students to refine their grammar and language usage. Students should continue to develop increasing control of sentence formation, conventional usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. Grammar and Language Usage focuses on students' developing increasing proficiency in the understanding and control of their language, including vocabulary development, the importance and impact of word choice and syntax, and the development of the English language in both oral and written forms. Students should learn how to use effective and interesting language including: · standard English for clarity. · technical language for specificity. · informal usage for effect. Students should also increasingly develop control over grammatical conventions, including sentence formation, usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. Most students do not learn grammatical conventions efficiently through memorizing the parts of speech and practicing correct usage and mechanics through drills and exercises, with the assumption that students will transfer what they learn in grammar study to their own writing and speaking. Instead conventions are most efficiently learned when studied as part of practical, functional grammar that: · is concerned with how the language works in context to achieve a particular purpose with a specified audience. · uses a minimum number of grammatical terms and a maximum number of examples. Students need no more than the terminology specified in the goals of each grade level. · focuses on grammatical components that relate to meaningful sentences in speaking and writing. · teaches both correct, standard usage and effective sentence sense and style (for example, the power of dialects in literature and film; the conventions of technical writing). · Teaches appropriate usage in the context of the students' writing and speaking, through:
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English Language Arts
- focused, short lessons based on the demonstrated needs of the students. - discussions of the syntax of student-generated sentences. - activities such as sentence combining, sentence imitating, sentence expanding. - self and peer editing and teacher conferences.
Strands 2004
Middle grades students need continued instruction and extended guided practice in oral language for formal and informal situations. They should refine strategies and skills learned in the elementary school to articulate ideas clearly, appropriately, and accurately. Middle grades students should recognize when it is appropriate to use informal speech and understand when and how to use conventional language. Students should be thoughtful, careful, and respectful listeners and should contribute to group discussions. Since effective communication grows from understanding the context, purpose, and audience of the communication, oral language instruction should be infused with instruction in written language and with other media/technology in all environments. In written language instruction and practice, students should make connections between their reading and their writing. They should read and write frequently. Middle school students need to write so that they consider the reader who will read their writing (audience), and they need to read so that they consider the author who wrote what they are reading (voice). Students need to read a variety of types of text, and they need to use different types of writing for a variety of audiences and purposes. Students should read widely and deeply in all environments, in all genres and in diverse traditions; they should read for different purposes, including entertainment, and they should be allowed to choose their own texts at least some of the time. In their reading, students should become more insightful as they progress from grade to grade. They should develop increasing control of how and when to use strategies before, during, and after their reading. Middle school students should read extensively in all content areas, using a variety of media and texts. Likewise, students need to learn how to use writing processes in all environments. While no one writing process is used by every writer in every piece of writing, students need to understand how to write purposefully and strategically. They need to learn how to generate ideas; to organize and prioritize; to rethink and revise language and ideas; and to edit their own work. They should learn how to use a range of strategies (such as elaborating, classifying, describing, noting similarities and differences, and constructing outlines and vignettes) to create a final pr6o1duct. They should provideEangsleisnhsLeaongfuage Arts organization, movement, and closure. Students should also learn how to present their written work in one-to-one interactions, group
range of strategies (such as elaborating, classifying, describing, noting similarities and differences, and constructing outlines and vignettes) to create a final product. They should provide a sense of organization, movement, and closure. Students should also learn how to present their written work in one-to-one interactions, group meetings, and classroom discussions. Middle school students not only are consumers and viewers, they are also active users and creators of media/technology. Communication media and technology can include television, videotapes, radio, film, and computers. Students can access and use a full range of electronic media that can enrich other communication strands--reading/literature, writing, speaking/listening. For example, students can access Internet and CD-ROM technology in reading and research; they can construct and incorporate visual and audio enrichment such as multi-media presentations, charts, graphs, videoclips, audioclips, and photographs into their written and oral communications. They can construct web pages, produce documentaries, or participate in video/audio conferences with peers or experts in other states, even other countries. Middle school students should learn how to evaluate media/technology. They should also be able to create and use media/technology themselves. Learning how to use media/technology thoughtfully is best accomplished by integrating the use of media with reading, writing, and speaking/listening so that students learn how effective communication constantly incorporates media for specific purposes and effects. Again, students will create and evaluate media/technology in all environments--expressive, informational, critical, argumentative, literary, and language usage.
Connections
The goals and objectives of the 6-8 English Language Arts curriculum are written to include all the strands. For example, in producing narratives, students will need to have read and reflected on narratives written by published authors. Narratives can be oral as well as written; thus students should have opportunities to tell their stories orally as well as listen to others' stories. Teachers should build on the connections and overlapping areas of the curriculum, asking students to find insightful connections, revisit significant concepts, participate in meaningful conversations, and develop knowledge and skills. Thus, the middle school English Language Arts program is a spiraling program that is based on strong connections and interrelationships between:
· the strands of oral language, written language, and other media technology.
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media technology. · the environments that include the study of expressive, informational, argumentative, critical, and literary communication. · the study of language and the conventions of grammar--which both undergird and permeate the entire study of English Language Arts. Students in grades 6-8 will continue to show evidence of mastery of competencies developed at previous grade levels, particularly as they contribute to mastery of grade-level competencies. Applebee, Arthur. Curriculum as Conversation: Transforming Traditions of Teaching and Learning: Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Wilhelm, Jeffrey. "You Gotta Be the Book": Teaching Engaged and Reflective Reading with Adolescents. New York, Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1997.
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SIXTH GRADE
Sixth grade students use oral language, written language, and media and technology for expressive, informational, argumentative, critical, and literary purposes. Students also explore the structure of language and study grammatical rules in order to speak and write effectively. While emphasis in sixth grade is placed on personal expression, students also: · Interpret and synthesize information. · Develop an understanding of the foundations of argument. · Critically analyze print and non-print communication. · Use effective sentence construction and edit for improvements in sentence formation, usage, mechanics, and spelling. · Interpret and evaluate a wide range of literature.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will use language to express individual perspectives drawn
Goal 1
from personal or related experience.
1.01 Narrate an expressive account (e.g., fictional or autobiographical) which:
· uses a coherent organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
· tells a story or establishes the significance of an event or events.
· uses remembered feelings and specific details.
· uses a range of appropriate strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense, movement, gestures, expressions).
1.02 Explore expressive materials that are read, heard, and/or viewed by:
· monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed.
· analyzing the characteristics of expressive works.
· determining the effect of literary devices and/or strategies on the reader/viewer/listener.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· comparing and/or contrasting information.
· drawing inferences and/or conclusions.
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· determining the main idea and/or significance of events.
· generating a learning log or journal.
· creating an artistic interpretation that connects self to the work.
· discussing print and non-print expressive works formally and informally.
1.03 Interact appropriately in group settings by:
· listening attentively.
· showing empathy.
· contributing relevant comments connecting personal experiences to content.
· monitoring own understanding of the discussion and seeking clarification as needed.
1.04 Reflect on learning experiences by:
· describing personal learning growth and changes in perspective.
· identifying changes in self throughout the learning process.
· interpreting how personal circumstances and background shape interaction with text.
Competency The learner will explore and analyze information from a variety of
Goal 2
sources.
2.01 Explore informational materials that are read, heard, and/or viewed by:
· monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed.
· studying the characteristics of informational works.
· restating and summarizing information.
· determining the importance and accuracy of information.
· making connections between works, self and related topics/information.
· comparing and/or contrasting information.
· drawing inferences and/or conclusions.
· generating questions.
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2.02 Use multiple sources of print and non-print information in designing and developing informational materials (such as brochures, newsletters, and infomercials) through: · exploring a variety of sources from which information may be attained (e.g., books, Internet, electronic databases, CD-ROM). · distinguishing between primary and secondary sources. · analyzing the effects of the presentation and/or the accuracy of information. Competency The learner will examine the foundations and the use of argument. Goal 3 3.01 Explore argumentative works that are read, heard, and/or viewed by: · monitoring comprehension for understanding what is read, heard, and/or viewed. · analyzing the characteristics of argumentative works. · determining the importance of author's word choice and focus. · summarizing the author's purpose and stance. · making connections between works, self and related topics. · drawing inferences. · responding to public documents (such as but not limited to editorials and school and community policies). · distinguishing between fact and opinion. 3.02 Explore the problem solution process by: · studying examples (in literature and other text) that present problems coherently, describe the solution clearly, sequence reasons to support the solution, and show awareness of audience. · preparing individual and/or group essays and presentations that focus on the diagnosis of a problem and possible solutions. 3.03 Study arguments that evaluate through: · exploring examples that show a firm control of sound judgments, audience awareness, clear idea/theme, and the use of relevant and coherent reasons for support. · preparing individual and/or group essays and presentations that use evaluative techniques.
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evaluative techniques.
Competency The learner will use critical thinking skills and create criteria to
Goal 4
evaluate print and non-print materials.
4.01 Determine the purpose of the author or creator by:
· monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed.
· exploring any bias, apparent or hidden messages, emotional factors, and/or propaganda techniques.
· identifying and exploring the underlying assumptions of the author/creator.
· analyzing the effects of author's craft on the reader/viewer/listener.
4.02 Analyze the communication and develop (with teacher assistance) and apply appropriate criteria to evaluate the quality of the communication by:
· using knowledge of language structure and literary or media techniques.
· drawing conclusions based on evidence, reasons, or relevant information.
· considering the implications, consequences, or impact of those conclusions.
4.03 Recognize and develop a stance of a critic by:
· considering alternative points of view or reasons.
· remaining fair-minded and open to other interpretations.
· constructing a critical response/review of a work/topic.
Competency The learner will respond to various literary genres using interpretive
Goal 5
and evaluative processes.
5.01 Increase fluency, comprehension, and insight through a meaningful and comprehensive literacy program by:
· using effective reading strategies to match type of text.
· reading self-selected literature and other materials of individual interest.
· reading literature and other materials selected by the teacher.
· discussing literature in teacher-student conferences and small group discussions.
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· taking an active role in whole class seminars. · discussing and analyzing the effects on texts of such literary devices as figurative language, dialogue, flashback and sarcasm.
· interpreting text by explaining elements such as plot, theme, point of view, characterization, mood, and style.
· investigating examples of distortion and stereotypes. · recognizing underlying messages in order to identify theme(s) within and across works.
· extending understanding by creating products for different purposes, different audiences and within various contexts.
· exploring relationships between and among characters, ideas, concepts and/or experiences.
5.02 Study the characteristics of literary genres (fiction, nonfiction, drama, and poetry) through:
· reading a variety of literature and other text (e.g., novels, autobiographies, myths, essays, magazines, plays, pattern poems, blank verse).
· interpreting what impact genre-specific characteristics have on the meaning of the work.
· exploring how the author's choice and use of a genre shapes the meaning of the literary work.
· exploring what impact literary elements have on the meaning of the text such as the influence of setting or the problem and its resolution. Competency The learner will apply conventions of grammar and language usage. Goal 6 6.01 Demonstrate an understanding of conventional written and spoken expression by: · using a variety of sentence types correctly, punctuating them properly, and avoiding fragments and run-ons.
· using appropriate subject-verb agreement and verb tense that are appropriate for the meaning of the sentence.
· demonstrating the different roles of the parts of speech in sentence construction.
· using pronouns correctly, including clear antecedents and correct case.
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case. · using phrases and clauses correctly (e.g., prepositional phrases, appositives, dependent and independent clauses). · determining the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary words by using context clues, a dictionary, a glossary, a thesaurus, and/or structural analysis (roots, prefixes, suffixes) of words. · extending vocabulary knowledge by learning and using new words. · exploring the role and use of dialects and of standard English to appreciate appropriate usage in different contexts. · developing an awareness of language conventions and usage during oral presentations. 6.02 Identify and edit errors in spoken and written English by: · reviewing and using common spelling rules, applying common spelling patterns, and developing and mastering an individualized list of words that are commonly misspelled. · applying proofreading symbols when editing. · producing final drafts that demonstrate accurate spelling and the correct use of punctuation and capitalization. · developing an awareness of errors in everyday speech.
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SEVENTH GRADE
Seventh grade students use oral language, written language, and media and technology for expressive, informational, argumentative, critical, and literary purposes. Students also explore the structure of language and study grammatical rules in order to speak and write effectively. While emphasis in seventh grade is placed on argument, students also: · Express individual perspectives in response to personal, social, cultural, and historical issues. · Interpret and synthesize information. · Critically analyze print and non-print communication. · Use effective sentence construction and edit for improvements in sentence formation, usage, mechanics, and spelling. · Interpret and evaluate a wide range of literature.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will use language to express individual perspectives in
Goal 1
response to personal, social, cultural, and historical issues.
1.01 Narrate an expressive account which:
· creates a coherent organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
· orients the reader/listener to the scene, the people, and the events.
· engages the reader/listener by establishing a context and creating a point of view.
· establishes the significance of events.
1.02 Respond to expressive materials that are read, heard, and/or viewed by:
· monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard, and/or viewed.
· summarizing the characteristics of expressive works.
· determining the importance of literary effects on the reader/viewer/listener.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· comparing and/or contrasting information.
· drawing inferences and/or conclusions.
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· determining the main idea and/or significance of events.
· generating a learning log or journal.
· maintaining an annotated list of works read/viewed.
· creating an artistic interpretation that connects self and/or society to the selection.
· constructing and presenting book/media reviews.
1.03 Interact in group settings by:
· responding appropriately to comments and questions.
· offering personal opinions confidently without dominating.
· giving appropriate reasons that support opinions.
· soliciting and respecting another person's opinion.
1.04 Reflect on learning experiences by:
· analyzing personal learning growth and changes in perspective.
· examining changes in self throughout the learning process.
· determining how personal circumstances and background shape interaction with text.
Competency Goal 2
The learner will synthesize and use information from a variety of sources. 2.01 Respond to informational materials that are read, heard, and/or viewed by: · monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed.
· analyzing the characteristics of informational works.
· summarizing information.
· determining the importance of information.
· making connections to related topics/information.
· drawing inferences and/or conclusions.
· generating questions.
2.02 Use multiple sources of print and non-print information in designing and developing informational materials (such as brochures, newsletters, and infomercials) through:
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infomercials) through:
· identifying and using appropriate primary and secondary sources.
· comparing, contrasting, and evaluating information from different sources about the same topic.
· evaluating information for extraneous details, inconsistencies, relevant facts, and organization.
Competency Goal 3
The learner will refine the understanding and use of argument. 3.01 Explore and analyze argumentative works that are read, heard and/or viewed by: · monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and /or viewed.
· identifying the arguments and positions stated or implied and the evidence used to support them.
· recognizing bias, emotional factors, and/or semantic slanting.
· examining the effectiveness of style, tone, and use of language.
· summarizing the author's purpose and stance.
· examining the importance and impact of establishing a position or point-of-view.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· drawing inferences.
· responding to public documents (such as but not limited to editorials, reviews, local/state/national policies/issues).
3.02 Explore and analyze the problem-solution process by:
· studying problems and solutions within various texts and situations.
· utilizing the problem-solution process within various contexts/situations.
· constructing essays/presentations that respond to a given problem by proposing a solution that includes relevant details.
· recognizing and/or creating an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
3.03 Study and create arguments that evaluate by:
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· understanding the importance of establishing a firm judgment.
· justifying the judgment with logical, relevant reasons, clear examples, and supporting details.
· creating an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will refine critical thinking skills and create criteria to
Goal 4
evaluate print and non-print materials.
4.01 Analyze the purpose of the author or creator by:
· monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed.
· examining any bias, apparent or hidden messages, emotional factors, and/or propaganda techniques.
· exploring and evaluating the underlying assumptions of the author/creator.
· understanding the effects of author's craft on the reader/viewer/listener.
4.02 Develop (with assistance) and apply appropriate criteria to evaluate the quality of the communication by:
· using knowledge of language structure and literary or media techniques.
· drawing conclusions based on evidence, reasons, or relevant information.
· considering the implications, consequences, or impact of those conclusions.
4.03 Develop the stance of a critic by:
· considering and presenting alternative points of view or reasons.
· remaining fair-minded and open to other interpretations.
· creating a critical response/review of a work/topic.
Competency The learner will respond to various literary genres using interpretive
Goal 5
and evaluative processes.
5.01 Increase fluency, comprehension, and insight through a meaningful and comprehensive literacy program by:
· using effective reading strategies to match type of text.
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· reading self-selected literature and other materials of individual interest.
· reading literature and other materials selected by the teacher.
· assuming an active role in teacher-student conferences.
· engaging in small group discussions.
· taking an active role in whole class seminars.
· analyzing the effects on texts of such literary devices as figurative language, dialogue, flashback, allusion, and irony.
· analyzing the effects of such elements as plot, theme, point of view, characterization, mood, and style.
· analyzing themes and central ideas in literature and other texts in relation to personal issues/experiences.
· extending understanding by creating products for different purposes, different audiences and within various contexts.
· analyzing the connections of relationships between and among characters, ideas, concepts, and/or experiences.
5.02 Study the characteristics of literary genres (fiction, nonfiction, drama, and poetry) through:
· reading a variety of literature and other text (e.g., mysteries, novels, science fiction, historical documents, newspapers, skits, lyric poems).
· analyzing what genre specific characteristics have on the meaning of the work.
· analyzing how the author's choice and use of a genre shapes the meaning of the literary work.
· analyzing what impact literary elements have on the meaning of the text such as the influence of setting on the problem and its resolution.
Competency Goal 6
The learner will apply conventions of grammar and language usage. 6.01 Model an understanding of conventional written and spoken expression by: · using a variety of sentences correctly, punctuating them properly, and avoiding fragments and run-ons.
· using subject-verb agreement and verb tense that are appropriate for the meaning of the sentence.
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the meaning of the sentence. · applying the parts of speech to clarify language usage. · using pronouns correctly, including clear antecedents and correct case. · using phrases and clauses correctly, including proper punctuation (e.g., prepositional phrases, appositives, dependent and independent clauses). · determining the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary words using context clues, a dictionary, a glossary, a thesaurus, and/or structural analysis (roots, prefixes, suffixes) of words. · extending vocabulary knowledge by learning and using new words. · determining when and where dialects and standard/nonstandard English usage are appropriate. · applying language conventions and usage during oral presentations. · choosing language that is precise, engaging, and well suited to the topic and audience. · experimenting with figurative language and speech patterns. 6.02 Continue to identify and edit errors in spoken and written English by: · using common spelling rules, applying common spelling patterns, and developing and mastering an individualized list of words that are commonly misspelled. · mastering proofreading symbols for editing. · producing final drafts/presentations that demonstrate accurate spelling and the correct use of punctuation, capitalization, and format. · listening to and monitoring self to correct errors.
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EIGHTH GRADE
Eighth grade students use oral language, written language, and other media and technology for expressive, informational, argumentative, critical, and literary purposes. They continue to refine their study of language and grammar in order to speak and write effectively. Although emphasis in eighth grade is placed on using information for a specific task, students also: · Express individual perspectives through analysis and personal response. · Refine understanding and use of argument. · Critically analyze print and non-print communication. · Use effective sentence construction and edit for improvements in sentence formation, usage, mechanics, and spelling. · Interpret and evaluate a wide range of literature.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will use language to express individual perspectives through
Goal 1
analysis of personal, social, cultural, and historical issues.
1.01 Narrate a personal account which:
· creates a coherent, organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
· establishes a point of view and sharpens focus.
· uses remembered feelings.
· selects details that best illuminate the topic.
· connects events to self/society.
1.02 Analyze expressive materials that are read, heard, and/or viewed by:
· monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed.
· reviewing the characteristics of expressive works.
· determining the importance of literary effects on the reader/viewer/listener.
· making connections between works, self and related topics
· drawing inferences.
· generating a learning log or journal.
· maintaining an annotated list of works that are read or viewed, including personal reactions.
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including personal reactions. · taking an active role in and/or leading formal/informal book/media talks. 1.03 Interact in group activities and/or seminars in which the student: · shares personal reactions to questions raised. · gives reasons and cites examples from text in support of expressed opinions. · clarifies, illustrates, or expands on a response when asked to do so, and asks classmates for similar expansion. 1.04 Reflect on learning experiences by: · evaluating how personal perspectives are influenced by society, cultural differences, and historical issues. · appraising changes in self throughout the learning process. · evaluating personal circumstances and background that shape interaction with text. Competency The learner will use and evaluate information from a variety of sources. Goal 2 2.01 Analyze and evaluate informational materials that are read, heard, and/or viewed by: · monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed. · recognizing the characteristics of informational materials. · summarizing information. · determining the importance and accuracy of information. · making connections to related topics/information. · drawing inferences and/or conclusions. · generating questions. · extending ideas. 2.02 Use multiple sources of print and non-print information to explore and create research products in both written and presentational forms by: · determining purpose, audience, and context.
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· understanding the focus.
· recognizing and/or choosing a relevant topic.
· Recognizing and/or selecting presentational format (e.g., video, essay, interactive technology) appropriate to audience.
· evaluating information for extraneous detail, inconsistencies, relevant facts, and organization.
· researching and organizing information to achieve purpose.
· using notes and/or memory aids to structure information.
· supporting ideas with examples, definitions, analogies, and direct references to primary and secondary sources.
· noting and/or citing sources used.
· recognizing the use of and/or employing graphics such as charts, diagrams, and graphs to enhance the communication of information.
Competency The learner will continue to refine the understanding and use of
Goal 3
argument.
3.01 Explore and evaluate argumentative works that are read, heard and/or viewed by:
· monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard and/or viewed.
· analyzing the work by identifying the arguments and positions stated or implied and the evidence used to support them.
· identifying the social context of the argument.
· recognizing the effects of bias, emotional factors, and/or semantic slanting.
· comparing the argument and counter-argument presented.
· identifying/evaluating the effectiveness of tone, style, and use of language.
· evaluating the author's purpose and stance.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· responding to public documents (such as but not limited to editorials, reviews, local, state, and national policies/issues including those with a historical context).
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3.02 Continue to explore and analyze the use of the problem-solution process by:
· evaluating problems and solutions within various texts and situations.
· utilizing the problem-solution process within various contexts/situations.
· constructing essays/presentations that respond to a given problem by proposing a solution that includes relevant details.
· recognizing and/or creating an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
3.03 Evaluate and create arguments that persuade by:
· understanding the importance of the engagement of audience by establishing a context, creating a persona, and otherwise developing interest.
· noting and/or developing a controlling idea that makes a clear and knowledgeable judgment.
· arranging details, reasons, and examples effectively and persuasively.
· anticipating and addressing reader/listener concerns and counterarguments.
· recognizing and/or creating an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will continue to refine critical thinking skills and create
Goal 4
criteria to evaluate print and non-print materials.
4.01 Analyze the purpose of the author or creator and the impact of that purpose by:
· monitoring comprehension for understanding of what is read, heard, and/or viewed.
· evaluating any bias, apparent or hidden messages, emotional factors, and/or propaganda techniques.
· evaluating the underlying assumptions of the author/creator.
· evaluating the effects of author's craft on the reader/viewer/listener.
4.02 Analyze and develop (with limited assistance) and apply appropriate criteria to evaluate the quality of the communication by:
· using knowledge of language structure and literary or media techniques.
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techniques.
· drawing conclusions based on evidence, reasons, or relevant information.
· considering the implications, consequences, or impact of those conclusions.
4.03 Use the stance of a critic to:
· consider alternative points of view or reasons.
· remain fair-minded and open to other interpretations.
· constructing a critical response/review of a work/topic.
Competency The learner will respond to various literary genres using interpretive
Goal 5
and evaluative processes.
5.01 Increase fluency, comprehension, and insight through a meaningful and comprehensive literacy program by:
· using effective reading strategies to match type of text.
· reading self-selected literature and other materials of interest to the individual.
· reading literature and other materials selected by the teacher.
· assuming a leadership role in student-teacher reading conferences.
· leading small group discussions.
· taking an active role in whole class seminars.
· analyzing the effects of elements such as plot, theme, characterization, style, mood, and tone.
· discussing the effects of such literary devices as figurative language, dialogue, flashback, allusion, irony, and symbolism.
· analyzing and evaluating themes and central ideas in literature and other texts in relation to personal and societal issues.
· extending understanding by creating products for different purposes, different audiences, and within various contexts.
· analyzing and evaluating the relationships between and among characters, ideas, concepts, and/or experiences.
5.02 Study the characteristics of literary genres (fiction, nonfiction, drama, and poetry) through:
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· reading a variety of literature and other text (e.g., young adult novels, short stories, biographies, plays, free verse, narrative poems).
· evaluating what impact genre-specific characteristics have on the meaning of the text.
· evaluating how the author's choice and use of a genre shapes the meaning of the literary work.
· evaluating what impact literary elements have on the meaning of the text. Competency The learner will apply conventions of grammar and language usage. Goal 6 6.01 Model an understanding of conventional written and spoken expression by: · using a variety of sentence types, punctuating properly, and avoiding fragments and run-ons.
· using subject-verb agreement and verb tense that are appropriate for the meaning of the sentence.
· applying the parts of speech to clarify language usage. · using pronouns correctly, including clear antecedents and case. · using phrases and clauses correctly, including proper punctuation (e.g. prepositional phrases, appositives, dependent and independent clauses.)
· determining the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary words using context clues, a dictionary, a glossary, a thesaurus, and/or structural analysis (roots, prefixes, suffixes) of words.
· extending vocabulary knowledge by learning and using new words. · evaluating the use and power of dialects in standard/nonstandard English usage.
· applying correct language conventions and usage during formal oral presentations.
6.02 Continue to identify and edit errors in spoken and written English by:
· using correct spelling of words appropriate in difficulty for eighth graders and refining mastery of an individualized list of commonly misspelled words.
· producing final drafts/presentations that demonstrate accurate spelling and the correct use of punctuation, capitalization, and format.
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spelling and the correct use of punctuation, capitalization, and format. · self correcting errors in everyday speech. · independently practicing formal oral presentations.
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ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS GRADES 9-12
Purpose/ Overview
The North Carolina curriculum for English Language Arts, grades 9-12, should promote growth in students' use of language within certain contexts crucial for responsible citizenship, for a fulfilling cultural life, and for economic productivity. The curriculum defines these contexts as communication environments, settings for exchanging information that all of us enter when we need to communicate with clarity, purpose, and care. By teaching specific aptitudes that each environment requires from users of oral language, written language, and media and technology, the curriculum strives to involve itself as deeply as possible in the world beyond the classroom.
During grades 9-12, students are guided through a sequence of studies that move from emphasizing relatively familiar, concrete experience to focusing on more generalizable and abstract ideas. The curriculum does not assume, however, that ninth graders should avoid generalizing or that twelfth graders should not continually seek to discern the personal relevance of their studies. Indeed the curriculum seeks to give all students at all levels as full an experience as possible with the most rewarding uses of language. A communication environment includes the following: a message sender, a message, a message receiver, and a social setting with relevant subject matter. To become proficient and skillful users of language, students should understand and demonstrate control of these elements of communication and employ language for different purposes, to different audiences, and in different contexts (why, to whom, and in what situations). They also should develop sophisticated understanding and control of how to communicate by the following strands: · oral language (speaking/listening), · written language (reading/writing), · other media and technology. Because language is the means by which we construe and communicate most of what is significant in our lives, the curriculum encourages study of language itself as it functions in the communicative environments. Students need to learn about, and develop increasing control of, their language and its conventions as they read, write, speak, and listen; they need to become aware of how different language conventions are used in different contexts.
Competency The high school English Language Arts program is based on the
Goals And following goals, all of which bring together oral language, written
Objectives language, and using media and technology. These goals and objectives
build upon the sound foundation created by the middle school English
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Language Arts curriculum, whic8h3introduces students toEtnhgelisseh dLiafnfgeuraegnetArts
types of communication by purpose, audience, and context.
build upon the sound foundation created by the middle school English Language Arts curriculum, which introduces students to these different types of communication by purpose, audience, and context.
Expressive
Expressive communication involves exploring and sharing personal experiences and insights. The writer/speaker of expressive text addresses the reader/listener as a confidante, a friendly, though not necessarily personally known, audience who is interested in how thoughtful people respond to life. As authors, students write, speak and use media for expressive purposes; as readers and listeners, they learn to appreciate the experiences of others. Expressive communication is stressed in English I and reinforced in English II, III, and IV. Expressive communication can include personal responses, anecdotes, memoirs, autobiographies, diaries, friendly letters, and monologues.
Informational/explanatory
Informational/explanatory communication involves giving information to explain realities or ideas, to teach people who want to know what the writer or speaker knows. The writer/speaker of informational text should be knowledgeable and should communicate so that the audience may gain the knowledge as well as circumstances required. Informational texts often depend on the traditional prompts of who, what, when, where, and how, and can include definitions, instructions, histories, directions, business letters, reports, and research. English I introduces informational communication, English II stresses it, and English III and IV reinforce the concepts.
Argumentative
Argumentative communication involves defining issues and proposing reasonable resolutions. The writer/speaker is an advocate who discerns the grounds of an issue and convincingly supports a claim to resolve it. The reader/listener is considered to be a skeptic who may become another advocate as a result of the communication. Argumentative texts include advertisements, debates, letters of complaint, editorials, sermons, speeches, letters to the editor, and the senior project. English I, II, and III establish the building blocks for sophisticated argumentation, and English IV focuses upon them.
Critical
Critical communication involves interpreting, proposing, evaluating, and
judging. The critic approaches the reader/listener as an independent
consumer who is interested in thinking more keenly about the subject.
The critic may establish and apply criteria and may offer new ways of
discerning how the subject is meaningful. Critical texts include media or
book reviews and essays that provide critical analysis of literature,
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media, ideas, people, or language8.4English III stresses crEitnigclaislh Language Arts
communication after sufficient background has been built in English I
and II, and critique is reinforced in English IV.
book reviews and essays that provide critical analysis of literature, media, ideas, people, or language. English III stresses critical communication after sufficient background has been built in English I and II, and critique is reinforced in English IV.
Literature
The study of literature, which includes print and non-print texts, is extremely important in the English Language Arts curriculum. Students should develop a deep appreciation for literature, understand its personal, cultural, and historical significance, and learn how to understand and analyze its meaning and relevance. As Robert Probst, in "Five Kinds of Literary Knowing" (1992), has observed, knowing about literature involves different kinds of knowing:
· knowing about self, concentrating on how and why one personally responds to literary texts. · knowing about others, their experiences, and their ideas through literature and literary responses. · knowing about texts, especially elements, structure, and characteristics of literature. · knowing about contexts and how the personal and cultural experiences of the reader influence the reading of the text as well as how the personal and cultural experiences of the author influenced the composing of the text. · knowing about processes of making meaning, including raising questions, remembering other texts, connecting ideas, hypothesizing, prioritizing relevant information, rereading, and interpreting and reinterpreting.
Literary study should revolve around meaningful and significant conversations about the texts students are reading. Students should learn to participate in, not merely learn about, literary discussions (Applebee, 1996). Written and oral conversation provides students a way to explore, analyze, and develop ideas and concepts of literature. Through conversation, students gain control of their own interpretations, the language and vocabulary of the discipline, and the concepts and conventions of literary analysis.
Finally, the study of literature should involve the following:
· making connections between literature and personal experiences. · making connections between features of different pieces of literature. · connecting themes and ideas in literature. · making connections between literature and historical and cultural significance.
Literary study in high school focuses on building understanding as the
students progress through the courses. English I provides a foundation
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for literary analysis. Students dev85elop an understandingEonfglistehrLaarnyguage Arts
concepts, elements, genres, and terms as a foundation for further study of
world, American, and British literature.
students progress through the courses. English I provides a foundation for literary analysis. Students develop an understanding of literary concepts, elements, genres, and terms as a foundation for further study of world, American, and British literature. In English II, students learn about both classical and contemporary world literature (excluding British and United States authors). They build upon their understanding of literary concepts, elements, genres, and terms and apply those understandings to the interpretation of world literature. They examine literary works in a cultural time and context to appreciate the diversity and complexity of world issues. They learn how literature can grow from historical and cultural contexts, including oral traditions and political conditions. They also connect global ideas to their own experiences. In English III, students study U. S. literature, including how the literature reflects the culture and history of our nation. In addition to studying a literary work as being situated in a cultural time and place, English III students also study the connections of themes, ideas, and movements in United States literature across time. The study of United States literature may be organized by literary and historical periods or by a thematic approach, but students should read and understand representative works from the colonial, romantic, realistic, modern, and contemporary eras. In English IV, students study British literature, including how the literature of Great Britain has influenced the literature of the United States. English IV students also study the connections of themes, ideas, and movements in British literature. Study of British literature may be organized by literary and historical periods or by a thematic approach, but students are expected to read representative works from various eras. In English I, II, III, and IV, students learn different approaches to Literary Criticism. Students should learn many approaches to the interpretation of literature, since no single approach is "privileged." Instead, they understand how different approaches use different perspectives (e.g., historical, cultural, psychological, philosophical, aesthetic, linguistic) to analyze and interpret literature differently. Grammar and Language Usage Grammar and Language Usage is a goal that focuses on students' developing increasing proficiency in the understanding and control of their language, including vocabulary development, word choice and syntax, and oral and written communication. Students should learn how to use effective and interesting language including: · standard English for clarity. · technical language for specificity.
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English Language Arts
· informal usage for effect. Students should also continue to develop increasing control over grammatical conventions, including sentence formation, conventional usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling. Most students do not learn grammatical conventions efficiently through memorizing the parts of speech and practicing correct usage and mechanics only through drills and exercises, with the assumption that students will transfer what they learn in grammar study to their own writing and speaking. Grammar conventions are most efficiently learned when they are learned as part of a practical, functional grammar that: · is concerned with how the language works in context to achieve a particular purpose with a specified audience. · uses a minimum number of grammatical terms and a maximum number of examples. The goals of each course specify the important terminology which students should know. · focuses on grammatical components that relate to meaningful sentences in speaking and writing. · teaches both correct, standard usage and effective sentence sense and style (e.g., the power of dialects in literature and film, the conventions of technical writing). · teaches appropriate usage in the context of the students' writing and speaking, through: - focused, short lessons based on the demonstrated needs of the students. - discussions of the syntax of student-generated sentences. - activities such as sentence combining, sentence imitating, sentence expanding. - self-editing, peer editing and teacher conferences.
Strands 2004
In all types of communication--expressive, informational, critical, argumentative, literary, and in language usage--students will use the strands of oral language, written language, and media and technology. As students become more sophisticated communicators with oral language, written language, and media and technology, they should also become more self-directed learners, more collaborative workers, and more complex thinkers. The ultimate purpose of the English Language Arts curriculum is to teach students the language abilities they need to communicate effectively, in all three strands, as individuals and as members of society. High school students need continued instruction and extended guided practice in the skills of oral language for formal and informal speaking situations, including public, small group, and personal settings; they should identify and use effective strategies to articulate ideas clearly, precisely, accurately, and approp8r7iately. They need to leEanrngliasnhdLapnrgaucatgieceArts conventional language usage in their speech. They also need to use different listening skills in diverse situations and for different purposes;
should identify and use effective strategies to articulate ideas clearly, precisely, accurately, and appropriately. They need to learn and practice conventional language usage in their speech. They also need to use different listening skills in diverse situations and for different purposes; they should demonstrate a willingness, as well as an ability to listen thoughtfully, carefully, and respectfully. They should understand the connections between oral and written language, for example how purpose and audience must be considered in speaking and listening as well as in reading and writing.
Since effective communication grows from understanding the context, purpose, and audience of the communication, oral language instruction and practice should be infused with instruction in written language and using media/ and technology in all environments. For example, as students learn about and practice communicating individual experiences to a friendly audience through a personal narrative, they employ reading, writing, speaking, listening, and using media and technology to explore personal expression.
In written language instruction and practice, students should make connections between their reading and their writing. They need to write so that they consider the reader who will read their writing, and they need to read so that they consider the author who wrote what they are reading. Students need to read and write frequently. They need to read a variety of types of text, and they need to use different types of writing for a variety of audiences and purposes.
Students should read widely and deeply in all environments, in all genres and in diverse traditions; they should read for different purposes, including entertainment, and they should be allowed to choose their own texts at least some of the time. In their reading, students should become more insightful as they progress from course to course. They should develop increasing control of how and when to use strategies before, during, and after their reading. High school students should read extensively in all content areas, using a variety of media and texts.
Likewise, students need to learn how to use writing processes in all environments. While no one writing process is used by every writer in every piece of writing, students need to understand how to write purposefully and strategically. They need to learn how to generate ideas; to organize and prioritize; to rethink and revise language and ideas; and to edit their own work. They should learn how to use a range of strategies (e.g., elaborating, classifying, describing, noting similarities and differences, constructing scenarios and vignettes) to create a final product. They should provide a sense of organization, movement, and closure. Students should also learn how to present their written work in one-to-one interactions, group meetings, forums, and panel discussions.
The focus of technology in the English Language Arts curriculum should
be upon learning with technology, rather than learning about technology
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as a subject area. Students not on8l8y are consumers and vEienwgliesrhsL, abnugtuagre Arts
also active users and creators of media and technology. Communication
media and technology can include television, videotapes, radio, film, and
be upon learning with technology, rather than learning about technology as a subject area. Students not only are consumers and viewers, but are also active users and creators of media and technology. Communication media and technology can include television, videotapes, radio, film, and computers. Students can access and use a full range of electronic media that can enrich the other communication strands--reading/literature, writing, speaking/listening. For example, students can access Internet and CD-ROM technology in reading and research; they can construct and incorporate visual and audio enrichment such as multi-media presentations, charts, graphs, videoclips, audioclips, and photographs into their written and oral communications. They can construct web pages, produce documentaries, or participate in video/audio conferences with peers or experts in other states, even other countries. Students should learn how to evaluate media and technology. They should also be able to create and use media and technology themselves. Learning how to use media and technology thoughtfully is best accomplished by integrating the use of media with reading, writing, and speaking/listening so that students learn how effective communication constantly incorporates media for specific purposes and effects. Once again, students will create and evaluate media/technology in all environments--expressive, informational, critical, argumentative, literary, and language usage. Connections While the goals of communication differ in their social context (purposes, audiences), there are elements that overlap. For example, in an editorial that presents an argument, a writer may illustrate a point by relating a personal experience; or a critic interpreting a television show may, for part of the essay, take an informational stance to give the reader some factual background. Thus, the high school English Language Arts curriculum is a spiraling program that is based on strong connections. The interrelationships include: · the study of the expressive, explanatory, critical, argumentative, and literary environments. · the study of language and the conventions of grammar, which both undergird and permeate the entire study of English Language Arts. · the strands of oral language, written language, and using media and technology. The high school English Language Arts curriculum also strives to involve itself as deeply as possible in the world beyond the classroom. It provides a solid foundation for communicating effectively in diverse contexts for multiple purposes and roles in life--as a life-long learner, a responsible citizen, a concerned parent, and a productive worker.
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Finally, all goals and objectives are written to include all the strands. For example, in producing narratives, students will need to have read and reflected on narratives written by published authors. Narratives can be oral as well as written; thus students should have opportunities to tell their stories orally as well as listen to the narratives of peers. They may also incorporate media and technology in numerous ways, for example using clip art, interactive media, videotaping, audiotaping, or creating a web page. Teachers should build on the connections and overlapping areas of the curriculum, asking students to find insightful connections, revisit significant concepts, participate in meaningful conversations, and develop knowledge and skills in the context of use. The chart on the following page demonstrates the competencies which high school students should master as they progress through the program. Students in grades 9-12 will continue to show evidence of mastery of competencies developed at previous grade levels, particularly as they contribute to mastery of grade-level competencies. Applebee, Arthur. Curriculum as Conversation: Transforming Traditions of Teaching and Learning: Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Probst, Robert E. "Five Kinds of Literary Knowing." In Judith Langer (Ed.) Literature Instruction: A Focus on Student Response. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1992.
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ENGLISH I
Students in English I explore the ways that audience, purpose, and context shape oral communication, written communication, and media and technology. While emphasis is placed on communicating for purposes of personal expression, students also engage in meaningful communication for expressive, expository, argumentative, and literary purposes. In English I, students will: · Express reflections and reactions to literature and to personal experience. · Explain meaning, describe processes, and answer research questions. · Evaluate communication and critique texts. · Make and support an informed opinion. · Participate in conversations about and written analysis of literary genres, elements, and traditions. · Use knowledge of language and standard grammatical conventions.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will express reflections and reactions to print and non-print
Goal 1
text and personal experiences.
1.01 Narrate personal experiences that offer an audience:
· scenes and incidents located effectively in time and place.
· vivid impressions of being in a setting and a sense of engagement in the events occurring.
· appreciation for the significance of the account.
· a sense of the narrator's personal voice.
1.02 Respond reflectively (individually and in groups) to a variety of expressive texts (e.g., memoirs, vignettes, narratives, diaries, monologues, personal responses) in a way that offers an audience:
· an understanding of the student's personal reaction to the text.
· a sense of how the reaction results from a careful consideration of the text.
· an awareness of how personal and cultural influences affect the response.
1.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of
increasingly complex print and non-print expressive texts appropriate to
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increasingly complex print and non-print expressive texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of expressive environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will explain meaning, describe processes, and answer
Goal 2
research questions to inform an audience.
2.01 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print informational texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
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· summarizing key events and/or points from text. · making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text. · identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases. · making connections between works, self and related topics. · analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style. · analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences. · identifying and analyzing elements of informational environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context. 2.02 Explain commonly used terms and concepts by: · clearly stating the subject to be defined. · classifying the terms and identifying distinguishing characteristics. · organizing ideas and details effectively. · using description, comparison, figurative language, and other appropriate strategies purposefully to elaborate ideas. · demonstrating a clear sense of audience and purpose. 2.03 Instruct an audience in how to perform specific operations or procedures by: · considering the audience's degree of knowledge or understanding. · providing complete and accurate information. · using visuals and media to make presentations/products effective. · using layout and design elements to enhance presentation/product. 2.04 Form and refine a question for investigation, using a topic of personal choice, and answer that question by: · deciding upon and using appropriate methods such as interviews with experts, observations, finding print and non-print sources, and using interactive technology or media. · prioritizing and organizing the information. · incorporating effective media and technology to inform or explain.
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· reporting (in written and/or presentational form) the research in an appropriate form for a specified audience. Competency The learner will examine argumentation and develop informed opinions. Goal 3 3.01 Study argument by: · examining relevant reasons and evidence. · noting the progression of ideas that substantiate the proposal. · analyzing style, tone, and use of language for a particular effect. · identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical, or cultural influences contexts, or biases. · identifying and analyzing rhetorical strategies that support proposals. 3.02 Express an informed opinion that: · states clearly a personal view. · is logical and coherent. · engages the reader's interest or curiosity. 3.03 Support that informed opinion by: · providing relevant and convincing reasons. · using various types of evidence, such as experience or facts. · using appropriate and effective language, reasons, and organizational structure for the audience and purpose. · demonstrating awareness of the possible questions, concerns, or counterarguments of the audience. 3.04 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print argumentative texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by: · selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose. · identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text. · providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
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· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details. · summarizing key events and/or points from text. · making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text. · identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases. · making connections between works, self and related topics. · analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style. · analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences. · identifying and analyzing elements of argumentative environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context. Competency The learner will create and use standards to critique communication. Goal 4 4.01 Evaluate the effectiveness of communication by: · examining the use of strategies in a presentation/product. · applying a set of predetermined standards. · creating an additional set of standards and applying them to the presentation/product. · comparing effective strategies used in different presentations/products. 4.02 Read and critique various genres by: · using preparation, engagement, and reflection strategies appropriate for the text. · identifying and using standards to evaluate aspects of the work or the work as a whole. · judging the impact of different stylistic and literary devices on the work. 4.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print critical texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by: · selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
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· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of critical environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will demonstrate understanding of various literary genres,
Goal 5
concepts, elements, and terms.
5.01 Read and analyze various literary works by:
· using effective reading strategies for preparation, engagement, reflection.
· recognizing and analyzing the characteristics of literary genres, including fiction (e.g., myths, legends, short stories, novels), nonfiction (e.g., essays, biographies, autobiographies, historical documents), poetry (e.g., epics, sonnets, lyric poetry, ballads) and drama (e.g., tragedy, comedy).
· interpreting literary devices such as allusion, symbolism, figurative language, flashback, dramatic irony, dialogue, diction, and imagery.
· understanding the importance of tone, mood, diction, and style.
· explaining and interpreting archetypal characters, themes, settings.
· explaining how point of view is developed and its effect on literary texts.
· determining a character's traits from his/her actions, speech, appearance, or what others say about him or her.
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appearance, or what others say about him or her.
· explaining how the writer creates character, setting, motif, theme, and other elements.
· making thematic connections among literary texts and media and contemporary issues.
· understanding the importance of cultural and historical impact on literary texts.
· producing creative responses that follow the conventions of a specific genre and using appropriate literary devices for that genre.
5.02 Demonstrating increasing comprehension and ability to respond personally to texts by selecting and exploring a wide range of genres.
5.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print literary texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of literary environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will apply conventions of grammar and language usage. Goal 6
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Goal 6
6.01 Demonstrate an understanding of conventional written and spoken expression that: · uses varying sentence types (e.g., simple, compound, complex, compound-complex) purposefully, correctly, and for specific effect. · selects verb tense to show an appropriate sense of time. · applies parts of speech to clarify and edit language. · addresses clarity and style through such strategies as parallelism; appropriate coordination and subordination; variety and details; appropriate and exact words; and conciseness. · analyzes the place and role of dialects and standard/nonstandard English. · uses vocabulary strategies such as roots and affixes, word maps, and context clues to discern the meanings of words. 6.02 Discern and correct errors in spoken and written English by: · avoiding fragments, run-ons, and comma splices. · selecting correct subject-verb agreement, consistent verb tense, and appropriate verbs. · using and placing modifiers correctly. · editing for spelling and mechanics (punctuation and capitalization).
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ENGLISH II
Students in English II read, discuss, and write about both classical and contemporary world literature (excluding British and American authors) through which students will identify cultural significance. They will examine pieces of world literature in a cultural context to appreciate the diversity and complexity of world issues and to connect global ideas to their own experiences. Students will continue to explore language for expressive, explanatory, critical, argumentative and literary purposes, although emphasis will be placed on explanatory contexts. In addition to literature study, students will: · Examine non-literary texts related to cultural studies. · Research material to use primarily in clarifying their own explanatory responses to situations and literary-based issues. · Critically interpret and evaluate experiences, literature, language, and ideas. · Use standard grammatical conventions and select features of language appropriate to purpose, audience, and context of the work.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will react to and reflect upon print and non-print text and
Goal 1
personal experiences by examining situations from both subjective and
objective perspectives.
1.01 Produce reminiscences (about a person, event, object, place, animal) that engage the audience by:
· using specific and sensory details with purpose.
· explaining the significance of the reminiscence from an objective perspective.
· moving effectively between past and present.
· recreating the mood felt by the author during the reminiscence.
1.02 Respond reflectively (through small group discussion, class discussion, journal entry, essay, letter, dialogue) to written and visual texts by:
· relating personal knowledge to textual information or class discussion.
· showing an awareness of one's own culture as well as the cultures of others.
· exhibiting an awareness of culture in which text is set or in which text was written.
· explaining how culture affects personal responses.
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· demonstrating an understanding of media's impact on personal responses and cultural analyses.
1.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print expressive texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of expressive environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will evaluate problems, examine cause/effect relationships,
Goal 2
and answer research questions to inform an audience.
2.01 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print informational texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
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· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of informational environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
2.02 Create responses that examine a cause/effect relationship among events by:
· effectively summarizing situations.
· showing a clear, logical connection among events.
· logically organizing connections by transitioning between points.
· developing appropriate strategies such as graphics, essays, and multimedia presentations to illustrate points.
2.03 Pose questions prompted by texts (such as the impact of imperialism on Things Fall Apart) and research answers by:
· accessing cultural information or explanations from print and nonprint media sources.
· prioritizing and organizing information to construct a complete and reasonable explanation.
Competency The learner will defend argumentative positions on literary or
Goal 3
nonliterary issues.
3.01 Examine controversial issues by:
· sharing and evaluating initial personal response.
· researching and summarizing printed data.
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· developing a framework in which to discuss the issue (creating a context). · compiling personal responses and researched data to organize the argument. · presenting data in such forms as a graphic, an essay, a speech, or a video. 3.02 Produce editorials or responses to editorials for a neutral audience by providing: · a clearly stated position or proposed solution. · relevant, reliable support. 3.03 Respond to issues in literature in such a way that: · requires gathering of information to prove a particular point. · effectively uses reason and evidence to prove a given point. · emphasizes culturally significant events. 3.04 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print argumentative texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by: · selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose. · identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text. · providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text. · demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details. · summarizing key events and/or points from text. · making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text. · identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases. · making connections between works, self and related topics. · analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
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· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of argumentative environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will critically interpret and evaluate experiences, literature,
Goal 4
language, and ideas.
4.01 Interpret a real-world event in a way that:
· makes generalizations about the event supported by specific references.
· reflects on observation and shows how the event affected the current viewpoint.
· distinguishes fact from fiction and recognizes personal bias.
4.02 Analyze thematic connections among literary works by:
· showing an understanding of cultural context.
· using specific references from texts to show how a theme is universal.
· examining how elements such as irony and symbolism impact theme.
4.03 Analyze the ideas of others by identifying the ways in which writers:
· introduce and develop a main idea.
· choose and incorporate significant, supporting, relevant details.
· relate the structure/organization to the ideas.
· use effective word choice as a basis for coherence.
· achieve a sense of completeness and closure.
4.04 Evaluate the information, explanations, or ideas of others by:
· identifying clear, reasonable criteria for evaluation.
· applying those criteria using reasoning and substantiation..
4.05 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print critical texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
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· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of critical environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will demonstrate understanding of selected world literature
Goal 5
through interpretation and analysis.
5.01 Read and analyze selected works of world literature by:
· using effective strategies for preparation, engagement, and reflection.
· building on prior knowledge of the characteristics of literary genres, including fiction, non-fiction, drama, and poetry, and exploring how those characteristics apply to literature of world cultures.
· analyzing literary devices such as allusion, symbolism, figurative language, flashback, dramatic irony, situational irony, and imagery and explaining their effect on the work of world literature.
· analyzing the importance of tone and mood.
· analyzing archetypal characters, themes, and settings in world literature.
· making comparisons and connections between historical and contemporary issues.
· understanding the importance of cultural and historical impact on literary texts.
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literary texts.
5.02 Demonstrate increasing comprehension and ability to respond personally to texts by:
· selecting and exploring a wide range of works which relate to an issue, author, or theme of world literature.
· documenting the reading of student-chosen works.
5.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print literary texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of literary environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will apply conventions of grammar and language usage. Goal 6
6.01 Demonstrate an understanding of conventional written and spoken expression by:
· employing varying sentence structures (e.g., inversion, introductory phrases) and sentence types (e.g., simple, compound, complex, compound-complex).
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compound-complex). · analyzing authors' choice of words, sentence structure, and use of language. · using word recognition strategies to understand vocabulary and exact word choice (Greek, Latin roots and affixes, analogies, idioms, denotation, connotation). · using vocabulary strategies such as context clues, resources, and structural analysis (roots, prefixes, etc.) to determine meaning of words and phrases. · examining textual and classroom language for elements such as idioms, denotation, and connotation to apply effectively in own writing/speaking. · using correct form/format for essays, business letters, research papers, bibliographies. · using language effectively to create mood and tone. 6.02 Edit for: · subject-verb agreement, tense choice, pronoun usage, clear antecedents, correct case, and complete sentences. · appropriate and correct mechanics (commas, italics, underlining, semicolon, colon, apostrophe, quotation marks). · parallel structure. · clichйs trite expressions. · spelling.
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ENGLISH III
Students in English III analyze United States literature as it reflects social perspective and historical significance by continuing to use language for expressive, expository, argumentative, and literary purposes. The emphasis in English III is critical analysis of texts through reading, writing, speaking, listening, and using media. In addition, the student will: · Relate the experiences of others to their own. · Research the diversity of American experience. · Examine relationships between past and present. · Build increasing sophistication in defining issues and using argument effectively. · Create products and presentations which maintain standard conventions of written and oral language.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will demonstrate increasing insight and reflection to print
Goal 1
and non-print text through personal expression.
1.01 Create memoirs that give an audience a sense of how the past can be significant for the present by:
· elaborating upon a significant past episode from the student's current perspective.
· projecting the student's voice in the work through reflective interpretation of relationships to people and events.
· writing for a specific audience and purpose.
1.02 Reflect and respond expressively to texts so that the audience will:
· discover multiple perspectives.
· investigate connections between life and literature.
· explore how the student's life experiences influence his or her response to the selection.
· recognize how the responses of others may be different.
· articulate insightful connections between life and literature.
· consider cultural or historical significance.
1.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of
increasingly complex print and non-print critical texts appropriate to grade
level and course literary focus, by: 2004
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increasingly complex print and non-print expressive texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of expressive environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will inform an audience by using a variety of media to
Goal 2
research and explain insights into language and culture.
2.01 Research and analyze ideas, events, and/or movements related to United States culture by:
· locating facts and details for purposeful elaboration.
· organizing information to create a structure for purpose, audience, and context.
· excluding extraneous information.
· providing accurate documentation.
2.02 Examine and explain how culture influences language through projects such as:
· showing the evolution of forms of communication in the United States (e.g., the Pony Express, telegraph, telephone, fax, e-mail).
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States (e.g., the Pony Express, telegraph, telephone, fax, e-mail).
· tracing the development of technology in a particular area such as audio or video recordings, radio, television, and film.
· demonstrating proficiency in accessing and sending information electronically, using conventions appropriate to the audience.
2.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print informational texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of informational environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will demonstrate increasing sophistication in defining issues
Goal 3
and using argument effectively.
3.01 Use language persuasively in addressing a particular issue by:
· finding and interpreting information effectively.
· recognizing propaganda as a purposeful technique.
· establishing and defending a point of view.
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· responding respectfully to viewpoints and biases. 3.02 Select an issue or theme and take a stance on that issue by: · reflecting the viewpoint(s) of Americans of different times and places. · showing sensitivity or empathy for the culture represented. · supporting the argument with specific reasons. 3.03 Use argumentation for: · interpreting researched information effectively. · establishing and defending a point of view. · addressing concerns of the opposition. · using logical strategies (e.g., deductive and inductive reasoning, syllogisms, analogies) and sophisticated techniques (e.g., rhetorical devices, parallelism, irony, concrete images). · developing a sense of completion. 3.04 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print argumentative texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by: · selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose. · identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text. · providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text. · demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details. · summarizing key events and/or points from text. · making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text. · identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases. · making connections between works, self and related topics.
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· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of argumentative environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will critically analyze text to gain meaning, develop
Goal 4
thematic connections, and synthesize ideas.
4.01 Interpret meaning for an audience by:
· examining the functions and the effects of narrative strategies such as plot, conflict, suspense, point of view, characterization, and dialogue.
· interpreting the effect of figures of speech (e.g., personification, oxymoron) and the effect of devices of sound (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia).
· analyzing stylistic features such as word choice and links between sense and sound.
· identifying ambiguity, contradiction, irony, parody, and satire.
· demonstrating how literary works reflect the culture that shaped them.
4.02 Develop thematic connections among works by:
· connecting themes that occur across genres or works from different time periods.
· using specific references to validate connections.
· examining how representative elements such as mood, tone, and style impact the development of a theme.
4.03 Assess the power, validity, and truthfulness in the logic of arguments given in public and political documents by:
· identifying the intent and message of the author or artist.
· recognizing how the author addresses opposing viewpoints.
· articulating a personal response to the message and method of the author or artist.
· evaluating the historical significance of the work.
4.04 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print critical texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
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level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of critical environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will interpret and evaluate representative texts to deepen
Goal 5
understanding of literature of the United States.
5.01 Interpret the significance of literary movements as they have evolved through the literature of the United States by:
· analyzing the characteristics of literary genres, including fiction, nonfiction, drama, and poetry, and how the selection of genre shapes meaning.
· relating ideas, styles, and themes within literary movements of the United States.
· understanding influences that progress through the literary movements of the United States.
· evaluating the literary merit and/or historical significance of a work from Colonial Literature, the Romantic Era, Realism, the Modern Era, and Contemporary Literature.
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5.02 Analyze the relationships among United States authors and their works by: · making and supporting valid responses about the text through references to other works and authors. · comparing texts to show similarities or differences in themes, characters, or ideas. 5.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print literary texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by: · selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose. · identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text. · providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text. · demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details. · summarizing key events and/or points from text. · making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text. · identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases. · making connections between works, self and related topics. · analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style. · analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences. · identifying and analyzing elements of literary environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context. Competency The learner will apply conventions of grammar and language usage. Goal 6 6.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the conventions of language by: · decoding vocabulary using knowledge of Anglo-Saxon, Greek, and Latin bases and affixes.
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· using vocabulary strategies such as context clues, resources, and structural analysis (roots, prefixes, etc.) to determine meaning of words and phrases. · discerning the relationship of word meanings between pairs of words in analogies (synonyms/antonyms, connotation/denotation). · revising writing to enhance voice and style, sentence variety, subtlety of meaning, and tone in considerations of questions being addressed, purpose, audience, and genres. · contrasting use of language conventions of authors in different time periods of United States literature. · analyzing the power of standard usage over nonstandard usage in formal settings such a job interviews, academic environment, or public speaking events. 6.02 Discern and correct errors in speaking and writing at a level appropriate to eleventh grade by: · reviewing and refining purposeful use of varying sentence types with correct punctuation. · reviewing and refining correct pronoun usage, antecedents, and case. · refining subject/verb agreement and choice of tense. · extending effective use of phrases and clauses. · discussing parts of speech as they relate to writing. · editing for correct spelling and mechanics.
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ENGLISH IV
Students in English IV will integrate all the language arts skills gained throughout their education. The curriculum both affirms these skills and equips the students to be life-long learners. Students continue to explore expressive, expository, argumentative, and literary contexts with a focus on British Literature. The emphasis in English IV is on argumentation by developing a position of advocacy through reading, writing, speaking, listening, and using media. Students will: · Express reflections and reactions to texts. · Explain principles inspired by the curriculum. · Interpret and qualify texts. · Research and address issues of public or personal concern. · Create products and presentations which maintain standard conventions of the written and spoken language.
Strands: Oral Language, Written Language, and Other Media/Technology
Competency The learner will express reflections and reactions to print and non-print
Goal 1
text as well as to personal experience.
1.01 Compose reflective texts that give the audience:
· an understanding of complex thoughts and feelings.
· a sense of significance (social, political, or philosophical implications).
· a sense of encouragement to reflect on his or her own ideas.
1.02 Respond to texts so that the audience will:
· empathize with the voice of the text.
· make connections between the learner's life and the text.
· reflect on how cultural or historical perspectives may have influenced these responses.
· examine the learner's own response in light of peers' responses.
· recognize features of the author's use of language and how the learner relates these features to his/her own writing.
1.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print expressive texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
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· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of expressive environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will inform an audience by exploring general principles at
Goal 2
work in life and literature.
2.01 Locate, process, and comprehend texts that explain principles, issues, and concepts at work in the world in order to:
· relate complex issues from a variety of critical stances.
· discern significant differences and similarities among texts that propose different ideas related to similar concepts.
2.02 Analyze general principles at work in life and literature by:
· discovering and defining principles at work in personal experience and in literature.
· predicting what is likely to happen in the future on the basis of those principles.
2.03 Compose texts (in print and non-print media) that help the audience understand a principle or theory by:
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· researching experience for relevant principles that relate to themes in literature and life.
· presenting a thesis, supporting it, and considering alternative perspectives on the topic.
· adjusting the diction, tone, language, and method of presentation to the audience.
2.04 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print informational texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of informational environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency Goal 3
The learner will be prepared to enter issues of public concern as an advocate. 3.01 Research and define issues of public concern by: · using a variety of resources such as the media center, on-line resources, interviews, and personal reflection.
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· specifying the nature of an issue, including the various claims made and the reasoning that supports these claims.
3.02 Organize and deliver an argument so that an intended audience respects it by:
· wording the claim clearly.
· specifying reasons in support of the claim that are likely to be convincing.
· adopting an appropriate tone and stance toward the issue.
3.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print argumentative texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of argumentative environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency Goal 4
The learner will analyze and critique texts from various perspectives and approaches. 4.01 Develop critiques that enable an audience to judge claims and arguments by:
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arguments by: · establishing and applying clear, credible criteria for evaluation.
· substantiating assessments with reasons and evidence.
4.02 Develop critiques that give an audience:
· an appreciation of how themes relate among texts.
· an understanding of how authors' assumptions, cultural backgrounds, and social values affect texts.
· an understanding of how more than one critical approach affects interpretation.
4.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print critical texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by:
· selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose.
· identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text.
· providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text.
· demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details.
· summarizing key events and/or points from text.
· making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text.
· identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
· making connections between works, self and related topics.
· analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style.
· analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences.
· identifying and analyzing elements of critical environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context.
Competency The learner will deepen understanding of British literature through
Goal 5
exploration and extended engagement.
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5.01 Explore British literature by: · recognizing common themes that run through works, using evidence from the texts to substantiate ideas. · relating the cultural and historical contexts to the literature and identifying perceived ambiguities, prejudices, and complexities. · making associations between historical and current viewpoints. · understanding how literary movements influence writers. 5.02 Extend engagement with selected works of British literature by: · observing how the imaginative experience of literature broadens and enriches real life. · relating style, meaning, and genre (including fiction, non-fiction, drama, and poetry). · applying literary, grammatical, and rhetorical terms of literature. · demonstrating in various print and non-print media the significance of works. · discerning the effect of interpreting literature from various critical perspectives. 5.03 Demonstrate the ability to read, listen to and view a variety of increasingly complex print and non-print literary texts appropriate to grade level and course literary focus, by: · selecting, monitoring, and modifying as necessary reading strategies appropriate to readers' purpose. · identifying and analyzing text components (such as organizational structures, story elements, organizational features) and evaluating their impact on the text. · providing textual evidence to support understanding of and reader's response to text. · demonstrating comprehension of main idea and supporting details. · summarizing key events and/or points from text. · making inferences, predicting, and drawing conclusions based on text. · identifying and analyzing personal, social, historical or cultural influences, contexts, or biases.
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· making connections between works, self and related topics. · analyzing and evaluating the effects of author's craft and style. · analyzing and evaluating the connections or relationships between and among ideas, concepts, characters and/or experiences. · identifying and analyzing elements of literary environment found in text in light of purpose, audience, and context. Competency The learner will apply conventions of grammar and language usage. Goal 6 6.01 Apply knowledge of literary terms, grammar, and rhetoric in order to write clearly, succinctly, and accurately by: · using vocabulary strategies such as context clues, resources, and structural analysis (roots, prefixes, etc.) to determine meaning of words and phrases. · understanding how to use and apply grammatical, metaphorical, or rhetorical devices. · recognizing how to use different language conventions (such as loose or periodic sentences, effective use of passive voice, or the importance of strong verbs). · revising writing to enhance voice and style, sentence variety, subtlety of meaning, and tone in considerations of questions being addressed, purpose, audience, and genres. · contrasting use of language conventions of authors in different time periods of British literature. · analyzing the power of standard usage over nonstandard usage in formal settings such a job interviews, academic presentations, or public speaking events. 6.02 Discern and correct errors in speaking and writing by: · reviewing and refining purposeful use of various sentence types. · editing for correct punctuation, spelling, mechanics, and standard edited American English. · using appropriate transitional words and phrases.
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LANGUAGE ARTS COURSES--ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) ENGLISH
Purpose/ Overview
An Advanced Placement course in English Language Arts is intended to provide the equivalent in content and difficulty of a college-level introductory English course. The College Board offers programs in both AP English Language and Composition and in AP English Literature and Composition. Students who choose to enroll in either course may opt to take an AP examination to validate their academic experience and to receive college credit as determined by individual institutions of higher education. However, students who take the course are not required to take the examination unless a local system chooses to require AP testing. Participation in an AP course often ensures more thorough preparation for the AP examination, but students are not required to take the course before taking the examination. Colleges and Universities reserve the right to determine if students will be awarded college credit for their performance on the examination. Educators, students, and parents should refer to College Board resources to facilitate preparation for or participation in Advanced Placement Language or Literature courses. While no official AP teacher certification is issued by the College Board or by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, the College Board recommends that instructors complete an AP Institute or workshop to prepare for teaching an AP course. Individual school systems may also have developed their own requirements and expectations regarding teacher preparation and continued professional development. Educators seeking additional information on courses, materials, and/or professional development should refer to the College Board web site: http://apcentral.collegeboard.com. Students and parents may visit www.collegeboard.com/apstudents for additional information. With permission of the College Board, the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction has created course standards that reflect both the expectations of the College Board and the philosophy and format of the North Carolina Standard Course of Study (SCS). However, these course outlines are not intended to replace the extensive guidelines provided by the College Board in AP course description books (often referred to as the acorn books) for each subject. Since the College Board frequently revises recommended topics and required skills, AP teachers should obtain and follow the current course descriptions for their courses.
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As a part of the High School English Language Arts Program, these courses promote an integrated approach to the strands of oral language, written language, and other media/technology. Moreover, the courses are aligned to the goals of secondary (6-12) English Language Arts, with students involved in different communication environments, based on purpose, audience, and context. (For more information about the philosophy EunngdlieshrlLyainngguathgeeAHrtisgh School English Language Art1s22Program, please see pp. 7-16 and pp. 71-80 of the North Carolina English Language Arts Standard Course of Study or visit http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/languagearts/indexa.html ).
the goals of secondary (6-12) English Language Arts, with students involved in different communication environments, based on purpose, audience, and context. (For more information about the philosophy underlying the High School English Language Arts Program, please see pp. 7-16 and pp. 71-80 of the North Carolina English Language Arts Standard Course of Study or visit http://www.ncpublicschools.org/curriculum/languagearts/indexa.html ).
Options for Currently, schools and systems throughout North Carolina approach AP
Implementatio English Language Arts courses in different ways. According to the College
n
Board,
Because the AP course depends on the development of interpretive skills as students learn to write and read with increasing complexity and sophistication, the AP ... course is intended to be a full-year course. Teachers at schools that offer only a single semester block for AP are encouraged to advise their...students to take an additional semester of advanced English in which they continue to practice the kind of writing and reading emphasized in the AP class. (AP course description books for AP English Language and Composition and AP English Literature and Composition, available from http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/courses/descriptions/1,3061,151-1620-0,00.html )
In light of this recommendation and the numbers of systems who currently use the 4X4 block schedule, these courses have been designed to stand alone as electives that would be taken in addition to the graduation requirements of English I, II, III, and IV. However, local systems may choose to combine a required course (English III or English IV) with an AP course, as long as the standards for both courses are met. AP English courses may not be taken in lieu of any required English course. Allowing such a choice preserves the prerogatives of local systems to offer courses designed to meet the needs of their particular students and situations. The chart below offers a summary and some additional information about the differences between the courses:
AP Courses as Electives
AP Courses combined with English III or English IV
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Standard Course of Study Fulfills graduation requirements English courses taken Weighted credit Course codes
AP English Language and Composition AP English Literature and Composition No
English IV English III and AP English (Language or Literature) English IV and AP English (Language or Literature) Yes
English I, II, III, IV AP English Language and Composition AP English Literature and Composition *Students may take one or both of the AP courses AP electives as +2 points (English courses, as determined by system, may be honors credits as +1 point) Codes will be designated for AP Elective Courses
English I, II English III / AP English (Language or Literature) English IV / AP English (Language or Literature) *Students may take one or both of the combined English requirement / AP courses Combined English requirement /AP as +2 points Codes will be designated for combined English /AP courses
Additional resources for both the separate and combined courses will be developed to support teachers. Determining which approach (separate AP electives or combined English / AP courses) best fits a particular school or system will require consideration of the specific needs, goals, and resources of the local district and population. The following questions may help guide discussions: · Will offering separate courses encourage more students, and perhaps a greater diversity of students, to challenge themselves at a higher level because they feel prepared by taking the honors level course first? · Will students be less likely to take the separate AP course because they have other courses to take for graduation requirements or different interests? · Will teachers of the separate courses have time to work together, before courses are implemented and/or during the school year, to avoid duplication of assignments and materials? · How will the different approaches impact student literacy and achievement on local, state, and national assessments?
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· How will the different approaches impact class size and teacher position allocation in the English department? in other departments? · What scheduling challenges and options are presented by the different approaches?
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ADVANCED PLACEMENT ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION Students in Advanced Placement English Language and Composition will become skilled readers of prose written in a variety of periods, disciplines, and rhetorical contexts and skilled writers who compose for a variety of purposes. Both their writing and their reading should make students aware of the interactions among a writer's purposes, audience expectations, and subjects as well as the way generic conventions and the resources of language contribute to effectiveness in writing.
Competency The learner will react to a variety of texts and media by drawing upon
Goal 1
personal experiences, readings, and observations.
1.01 Draw upon personal experiences, readings, and observations by:
· demonstrating an understanding of the differences between personal and objective responses to text. · investigating connections between life and literature.
1.02 Respond to a variety of texts and media by:
· defending, qualifying, or refuting the author's position to create a variety of formal and informal responses (e.g. journals, in-class writings, letters, memoirs, parodies). · projecting his/her voice in reflective writing.
Competency The learner will use inquiry and research to inform an audience about
Goal 2
complex subjects.
2.01 Research and synthesize information by:
· investigating a variety of media sources. · evaluating validity and significance of information. · analyzing rhetorical functions of textual annotation and documentation. · organizing information for clarity and effectiveness. · demonstrating awareness of purpose, audience, and context. · documenting sources accurately.
2.02 Respond to informational texts or media by:
· assessing the language, culture, structure, and historical perspective of the text to explain insights into language. · explaining significant connections among the speaker's/author's purpose, tone, biases, and the message for the intended audience.
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Competency The learner will create and sustain arguments based on readings,
Goal 3
research, observations and personal experiences.
3.01 Understand argumentative structure by:
· identifying the strengths of argumentative strategies and techniques. · recognizing common argumentative weaknesses such as logical fallacies, the misuse of classical appeals, and inadequate support.
3.02 Create and sustain a response by:
· evaluating print and electronic research materials to determine effectiveness and validity. · producing expository and argumentative compositions that introduce, defend, qualify or refute a complex central idea. · developing compositions with appropriate, specific evidence and cogent explanations.
Competency The learner will analyze prose written in a variety of periods,
Goal 4
disciplines, and rhetorical contexts.
4.01 Determine the author's intent/argument by:
· identifying an author's use of rhetorical strategies and devices and the extent to which they impact the development of the theme (e.g., selection of detail, tone, mood, style, attitude, point-of-view, syntax, organization, diction, voice). · explaining the effectiveness of the author's use of language for the intended audience.
4.02 Analyze the effectiveness of the author's intent/argument by:
· evaluating the author's rhetorical purpose. · synthesizing connections between text and historical and cultural context. · critiquing the use of literary devices (e.g., figurative language, irony, imagery).
Competency The learner will develop a deeper understanding of representative
Goal 5
literature with a specific emphasis on non-fiction.
5.01 Explore texts by:
· making connections between text and personal experience. · making connections and extending comparisons between features of different pieces of print and non-print text (fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama, film).
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poetry, drama, film). 5.02 Analyze the author's rhetorical strategies and linguistic choices by: · understanding the author's intent. · recognizing the author's rhetorical style. · identifying the author's audience. · evaluating the effectiveness of such choices.
Competency The learner will demonstrate understanding and mastery of standard
Goal 6
written English and exhibit stylistic maturity.
6.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the conventions of language by:
· employing appropriate grammar and mechanics. · revising writing to enhance voice and style, sentence variety, subtlety of meaning, and tone in consideration of questions being addressed, purpose, audience, and genres.
6.02 Exhibit stylistic maturity by:
· using an effective writing process. · utilizing a variety of sentence structures. · incorporating clear transitions. · developing and appropriately using a wide-ranging vocabulary. · controlling rhetorical devices effectively, including tone, voice, and diction.
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ADVANCED PLACEMENT ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION Students in Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition will engage in the careful reading and critical analysis of imaginative literature. Through the close reading of selected texts, students should deepen their understanding of the ways writers use language to provide both meaning and pleasure to their readers. As they read, students should consider a work's structure, style, and themes as well as such smaller-scale elements as the use of figurative language, imagery, symbolism, and tone.
Competency The learner will reflect on and express reactions to print and non-print
Goal 1
resources.
1.01 Compose reflective texts to:
· express an understanding of complex thoughts and feelings. · convey a sense of social, historical, political, philosophical, and/or stylistic implications. · articulate his/her own values and preferences with respect to both the style and substance of other individuals.
1.02 Respond to resources to · demonstrate an understanding of cultural, historical, and/or social implications with precision, sensitivity, energy, and imagination. · discern comparisons and contrasts among texts that propose different ideas. · understand the ways writers use language to provide both meaning and pleasure for their readers. · recognize features of the author's use of language and how the reader relates these features to his/her own writing. · examine his/her own response in light of peers' responses.
Competency Goal 2
The learner will inform an audience by exploring literature to explain its artistry and its underlying social and cultural values. 2.01 Locate, process, and comprehend texts that: · explain themes, issues, and concepts in order to relate complex issues from a variety of historical, stylistic, and critical stances. · examine significant comparisons and similarities among texts that propose different ideas related to similar concepts.
2.02 Analyze the artistry of various works of literature by:
· recognizing historical context in terms of the evolution of language and literature.
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· examining literary techniques such as style, syntax, diction, figurative language, tone, purpose, and audience. 2.03 Publish works to enable an audience to understand a principle, theory or artistic technique by: · presenting a focused thesis with supporting detail and commentary. · adjusting diction, tone, language and method of presentation to the audience.
Competency The learner will develop an argument which addresses and assesses the
Goal 3
human condition through a study of universal themes.
3.01 Recognize and define universally relevant issues by:
· using a variety of texts and personal reflections. · specifying their complex nature. · tracing their commonalities.
3.02 Compose, organize and deliver a convincing argument by:
· making a concise thesis. · using credible reasoning and convincing detail to support the argument. · demonstrating an intellectually mature tone and stance.
Competency The learner will explore and provide critical perspectives through
Goal 4
deliberate and thorough analysis, interpretation, and evaluation of text.
4.01 Develop organized critical analyses with focus and support to:
· provide the audience with a clear, credible thesis that establishes intent. · substantiate the thesis with general and specific textual references including quotations. · elaborate on textual support with insightful commentary · develop and organize ideas in coherent, persuasive, precise language culminating in a conclusion that is not a summary.
4.02 Provide organized, structured critical analyses by:
· creating an awareness and appreciation of thematic connections among works. · conveying an understanding of historical background and social values based on different cultural perspectives.
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Competency Goal 5
The learner will engage in an intensive study of representative works of recognized literary merit from various genres and time periods with a strong focus on the 16th through the 21st century. 5.01 Demonstrate an understanding of literary works by:
· analyzing textual detail. · exploring historical context as well as social and cultural values. · evaluating an author's style, including syntax, diction, figurative language, and literary devices. · considering organization, subject, occasion, audience, purpose, and speaker. · sharing thoughtful discussion in the company of his/her peers.
5.02 Explore works in the context of a variety of critical approaches such as political, societal, and philosophical.
Competency The learner will demonstrate understanding and mastery of standard
Goal 6
written English and exhibit stylistic maturity.
6.01 Demonstrate an understanding of the conventions of language by:
· employing appropriate grammar and mechanics. · applying knowledge of diction. · revising writing to enhance voice and style, sentence variety, subtlety of meaning, and tone in consideration of questions being addressed, purpose, audience, and genres.
6.02 Exhibit stylistic maturity by:
· using an effective writing process. · utilizing a variety of sentence structures. · incorporating clear transitions. · developing and appropriately using a wide-ranging vocabulary. · controlling rhetorical devices effectively, including tone, voice, and diction.
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APPENDIX A Information On Beginning Reading Instruction Background Information about beginning reading instruction was added to the English Language Arts Standard Course of Study in 1997 to implement public school law 115C-81.2. This law directed the Department to "...critically evaluate and revise the standard course of study so as to provide school units with guidance in the implementation of balanced, integrated, and effective programs of reading instruction." Furthermore, the law stated "...these programs shall include early and systematic phonics instruction." Because of the great interest of the public in effective reading instruction and because of specific North Carolina legislation about the content of public school reading instruction, it is essential that those who teach beginning reading and those responsible for implementing reading instruction in each local school system become very familiar with this section of the curriculum and with the reading grade level goals and objectives.
Reading Reading is the process of decoding print and constructing meaning and is based on the reader's prior knowledge. It consists of three interconnected processes­graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic processing­which do not function separately. With proficient readers, processing occurs automatically, redundantly, and more or less simultaneously. Reading development is interrelated with listening, speaking, and writing. What Is A Balanced Reading Program? A balanced reading program includes: · Knowing students individually. · Balancing both direct and indirect instruction. · Balancing instructional activities including skills emphasis and meaning emphasis (Strickland, 1996). Balanced reading is deep-rooted in the belief that teachers should be constantly aware of students' individual needs and progress. Toward this end, teachers should make full use of a variety of assessment tools such as teacher observations, oral reading samples, writing samples, spelling samples, and portfolios, as well as standardized and other tests. Teachers who know students individually provide many kinds of support, enabling students to move to higher levels of reading and literacy development. Teachers of balanced reading provide direct instruction to scaffold learning and make learning to read and write easier. They also provide ample opportunity and support for students to use and extend their instruction in functional reading and writing.
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Appendix A
In the classroom, a balance of instructional activities for reading should exist. Modeled reading, shared reading, guided reading, and independent reading, as well as direct instructional activities, are all included in the balance. Children must spend time­both inside and outside the classroom­reading and writing under conditions for learning that are favorable for individual achievement. Likewise, some time should be spent in individual, small-group, and whole-group direct instruction to support children's literacy needs. The reading program should balance an emphasis on helping children acquire relevant skills and knowledge and an emphasis on helping them learn to use those skills and knowledge in service of independent, productive, and thoughtful reading and writing. A comprehensive plan will be effective when teachers provide direct instructional support and the kinds of daily reading and writing that are needed for the complex process of learning to read. A Balanced Perspective on Systematic Phonics Phonics is the relationship between sounds in speech and spelling patterns. The power of phonics for word identification is largely dependent upon knowledge about the sounds of spelling patterns and surpasses simple letter sound correspondence and blending. For example, the sound of the vowel e in be versus bet depends upon the position of e in the long versus short vowel spelling pattern. "Phonics instruction," according to Marilyn Adams, "is not so much about correspondences between single letters and phonemes as it is about correspondences between spelling patterns and speech segments" (1997, p. 3). Learning phonics is essential. Research shows that early phonics instruction produces students with superior word-identification skills which is a desirable outcome of the balanced reading program. Additionally, phonics knowledge supports spelling development. Phonics is not, however, sufficient for children's literacy learning. In a balanced reading program word-identification skills do not take dominance over reading comprehension (Routman, 1996). Time must be spent developing all aspects of reading including comprehension and fluency. To this end, time spent on early phonics instruction must be balanced to allow appropriate time spent on reading comprehension, fluency, and writing. John Shefelbine reports, "Phonics instruction should be systematic and thorough enough to enable most students to become independent, and fluent readers, yet still efficient and streamlined" (1995, p. 2). While characteristics of systematic phonics instruction can vary, phonics should no longer be associated with stacks of worksheets and endless drills. Shefelbine provides the following general characteristics of systematic phonics: ­ short but frequent teacher-led lessons ­ the introduction, review, and application of an initially limited but growing set of spelling- sounds relationships (rather than working on the entire alphabet at once) ­ instruction in blending ­ correlated work in spelling (students read what they can spell and spell what they can read) (Shefelbine, 1995, p. 5).
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Appendix A
Phonics is directly related to the graphophonic cueing system, one of three generally acknowledged cueing systems that readers use. Balanced reading instruction pays credence to the importance of having children use all three cueing systems when reading. Knowledge about the sounds of spelling patterns­or phonics­is a powerful cue for the reader. In addition, meaning gleaned from semantic cues and grammatical structure gleaned from syntactic cues help the reader determine what a word might mean (Weaver, 1994; Clay, 1991). Children should be helped to understand phonics skills and the use of graphophonic cueing strategies through direct instruction. To help them internalize phonics skills and strategies as an integral part of reading and writing, phonics skills should be practiced in meaningful context (Routman, 1996; Strickland, 1996) including leveled text (Clay, 1991) and decodable text (Adams, 1997). However, studying spelling patterns and words in and of themselves can also be valuable activity (Templeton, 1992). A general developmental continuum for phonics and spelling instruction begins with rhyming and the development of phonemic awareness in kindergarten; and it continues with focus on short vowels, common consonants and consonant blends, and a few high-frequency long vowel patterns­all for single-syllable words in first grade. The general continuum provides for continued focus on vowel patterns and generalizations for single-syllable words in second grade and focuses on syllabication and structural analyses in third grade (Gentry, 1997; Shefelbine, 1995). Not all children need the same amount or same kind of instruction. In the balanced reading program, phonics instruction should fit individual needs. Local flexibility should be exercised in the decisionmaking process for determining how best to incorporate systematic direct phonics instruction in the balanced reading program.
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The Comprehensive Model on the following page illustrates:
· Teaching Model of Reading
Engagement and Motivation (Reason for and Appreciation of Reading) Word Recognition (Phonics and Decoding, Sight Word Development, Spelling Development, Appreciation of Morphemes) Comprehension (Understanding Narrative and Expository Text)
Emergent Literacy (Concepts about Print, Letter Knowledge, Phonemic Awareness, Understanding Alphabetic Principle) Vocabulary and Concept Development (Dictionary Use, Inferring Meanings from Context, Proper Usage, Shades of Meaning, General Knowledge) Strategies Used by Good Readers (Developing a System for Learning) Fluency (Automatic Word Recognition, Good Oral Reading, Good Silent Reading)
· Types of Instruction Direct Instruction, Contextual Reading, Guided Reading These types of instruction are spiraled in a classroom where children experience immersion in reading and writing, and all are needed in the balanced reading program.
· Process Model of Reading Graphophonic Processing, Semantic Processing, and Syntactic Processing
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This comprehensive model recognizes the child's development of language through both direct instruction and contextual learning, and through both selective skills activities and extensive interaction with varied print materials. Young readers must experience success in every one of the components of this model. Proficient readers process these components automatically and simultaneously. Because reading is essentially a dynamic thinking activity in which the reader interacts with text to create a meaningful understanding of the writing, good readers seek to identify meaning. In addition to this graphic representation, it may be helpful to make the analogy between the North Carolina Model of Reading and the performance of a symphony, an analogy borrowed from Becoming a Nation of Readers: The Report on the Commission on Reading (1985). As in a symphony, reading takes place only when the components are put together in a smooth, integrated manner. Success in reading, as in a powerful musical performance, comes from systematic practice accompanied by constructive feedback over time.
Description of the Components Engagement and Motivation Engagement and motivation are crucial components for children as they learn to read. Adults must foster joy in and purposefulness for reading because children will not become proficient readers if they do not enjoy the experience or see any value in it. Adults must also help students understand that print can reveal wonderful stories, knowledge, and insights--an understanding which can be strong motivation for learning to read (Brewer, 1995). Some children have experienced as many as 1,000 hours of informal reading and writing encounters before they enter school (Adams, 1990). They have become engaged and motivated by literacy in activities such as being read to, watching adults write letters and lists, trying to write themselves (drawing or "scribble" writing), manipulating magnetic letters or blocks, and talking about environmental print such as labels and signs. Many children enter school without these experiences that all children need; they need to see literacy (reading and writing) as important to adults, as a useful and meaningful endeavor, and as an exciting and enjoyable activity. Since children come to school with varying levels of knowledge about reading and writing, teachers of young children need to discover what each child knows about printed language and then plan individual, small group, and whole group activities and direct instruction that will develop rigorous proficiency and promote continued literacy growth for all students. Young children also need to be developing formal knowledge about language and text. They need to be taught about the uses of print and about the logic and conventions of its spelling, its morphology and meaning, its syntax or grammar, and its larger rhetorical structures and genres. They need to hear quality literature and interesting, informational text, and they need opportunities to discuss--to select, interpret, and integrate ideas. Older children need to be engaged in reading. They need to read widely, critically, and reflectively, and they need to be given extended time to read and the opportunity to choose what they will read at least part of the time. They also need to be given guidance in thinking about and learning from what they read. They need to be able to support their
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responses to reading and share their responses through writing and discussion. In addition, children need to write as they learn to read. There should be a strong connection between reading and writing, not only because children who read become better writers and children who write become better readers (Stosky, 1983; Tierney and Leys, 1986), but also because the reading and writing connection increases engagement and motivation. Children who are engaged in both writing and reading activities learn that meaning is what the writer is trying to communicate, and thus they read for meaning and write for clarity and understanding. Writing helps children to understand purpose and audience, which underlie good writing; that understanding translates into good strategies for reading. "Writers make more sensitive readers and readers make more informed writers" (Cunningham, p. 190).
It is extremely important that young readers have extended practice in reading. They need interesting and well-written books to read, time in which to read, and reasons for wanting to read. In addition, children are more likely to be motivated to read when they feel successful rather than frustrated and when they can sense their own growth and progress. In view of this, the North Carolina Public Schools must seek to develop in every student the knowledge and understanding, as well as the perspective and attitudes, that necessarily underlie true literacy.
Within the North Carolina Comprehensive Model of Reading, thoughtful engagement and motivation are absolutely necessary at all ages and thus provide a foundation for successful reading. Children will learn these attitudes from the context of literacy activities in which they are engaged and from discussions with significant adults.
Some ways to foster engagement and motivation include:
· Routinely incorporate activities that foster a desire to read, such as reading aloud books with predictable patterns, repetition, and rhyme; books that are related to students' life experiences; and books that stretch students' imaginations and sense of wonder.
· Provide time and opportunities for students to read a variety of materials representing appropriate reading levels and a variety of topics and genres.
· Engage in sharing and discussing texts read independently, in pairs, in small groups, and in large groups.
· Provide live and recorded models of adults and students reading.
· Share favorite books with other students and adults.
· Share nonfiction texts with students in a way that makes the information and puzzles they present come alive.
· Engage students in shared reading experiences from the beginning to foster feelings of success and membership in a community of readers.
· Help students learn to analyze the author's language and craft, to reflect on their understanding and reactions to what is read, and to wonder about the new thoughts and questions that the text invites.
· Demonstrate connections between reading and writing by asking students to create, discuss, and publish their own stories.
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Emergent Literacy The process of literacy begins much earlier than was previously believed, with early contact with print (for example, soft alphabet blocks, books, legos, etc.) serving as a basis for a lifelong learning process. Also, literacy is now regarded as a social and a linguistic process, rather than merely a cognitive skill to be learned. The importance of Emergent Literacy is indicated by the following research: IQ, mental age, race, parents' or guardian's levels of education, left or right handedness, and perceptual styles are weak predictors of children's reading success. Rather, these factors of Emergent Literacy are heavily correlated with later reading success: · Print awareness (knowledge of print) · Alphabetic knowledge ( graphophonic symbols/sounds) · Phonemic awareness (linguistic awareness of words, syllables, phonemes) (Diamond and Mandel, 1996). Both direct instruction and extended exploration of these concepts in real reading and writing are necessary for developing emergent literacy. However, different children will require different levels of direct instruction, with some children needing more explicit instruction and more repeated experiences. Children who are not already reading and who cannot successfully decode need phonemic awareness, explicit instruction in the fundamental sound-letter associations, and opportunity to practice in text that they can decode and that is at an individually appropriate level of difficulty. Meanwhile, read-alouds and guided reading sessions should be maintained to ensure ample experience with meaningful, rich literacy and language. Research in Emergent Literacy indicates the following important points: · Literacy development begins early in life, long before formal instruction. · The functions of literacy (how reading and writing are used in real life situations to accomplish various goals) are an integral part of the learning process. · Reading and writing are interrelated and develop together. · Children learn about written language through active engagement in reading, writing, and discussion with others. · Children should be helped to understand skills and strategies through direct instruction. · To help children internalize skills and strategies as an integral part of reading and writing processes, they should be practiced within a meaningful context. · Progress should be monitored by ongoing, multiple observations and analysis of reading behaviors and writing samples as children engage in reading and writing meaningful, connected text (The Primary Program: Growing and Learning in the Heartland, 1993).
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Print Awareness Print awareness is an important foundation for students' learning how to read. Children should possess a broad, general appreciation of the nature of print. They should be aware of how printed material can look and how it works; that its basic meaningful units are specific, speakable words; and that its words are comprised of letters. Of equal importance, they should have a solid sense of the various functions of print--to entertain, inform, communicate, record--and of the potential value of each of these functions to their own lives. To learn to read, a child must learn first what it means to read and that she or he would like to be able to do so (Adams, 1990). While some children come to school with extended knowledge of print, other children do not; teachers of young children need to assess what each child knows about print and make sure that each child acquires the print awareness he/she needs for success in reading. Ways to teach print awareness include: · Teach book concepts and print concepts through demonstrations as part of shared reading and shared writing. · Use teacher demonstrations/direct instruction with individual students. · Use teacher modeling to demonstrate book and print concepts such as the concepts that words can be spoken or written and that print corresponds to speech. · Provide language activities that develop listening and expressive skills (e.g., listening to stories, poems, and expository texts; telling and retelling stories; enacting stories; discussing word meanings, ideas, books, and experiences; etc.). · Provide a classroom full of print that is varied and meaningful to students (e.g., lists of birthdays and chores, labels on possessions and seat assignments, etc.). Such printed materials could be accessible to students as they go about the reading/writing routines of the day. · Teach page arrangement, story grammar, and directionality of print with repeated readings and modeling with big books. · Write students' words (what they say) for teacher and students to read aloud. Letter Knowledge To help young children learn to recognize and print upper- and lower-case letters, the following activities are recommended: · Familiarize students with the alphabet by teaching them alphabet songs and poems, such as the ABC song. · Play letter recognition games to help them learn to recognize both upper- and lower-case letters.
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· Teach students to print their own names and expect them to label their work regularly. · Play games that teach the children to pair upper- and lower-case forms of each letter. · Assist students in learning to print the letters with tactile, kinesthetic mediums such as magnetic and sandpaper letters. · Give students ample and regular opportunity to print the letters of the alphabet using the large motor skills (writing in sand, fingerpaint, salt, or rice, or writing on the chalkboard) as well as the small motor movements. Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is the insight that words and syllables are themselves comprised of strings of still smaller sounds, the phonemes. In principle, phonemes are the speech sounds that correspond to letters in an alphabetic language. For this reason, an awareness of phonemes is essential to making sense of the logic of our writing system. Phonemic awareness is difficult and should be developed in progressive stages. It includes segmenting and blending, and children need to do both (Fox, 1996). To foster children's awareness of phonemes, engage them in games that encourage word play--rhyming, blending, segmenting, and all manner of play with the initial, final, and medial sounds of words. To complement activities that are specifically designed for developing phonemic awareness, find ways to direct the students' attention to the sounds of words in their daily interactions with language print. Research indicates that poor phonemic awareness is a major underlying cause of specific reading difficulties. In order to make sure that lack of phonemic awareness can be detected and corrected before it causes reading problems, teachers should take full advantage of diverse assessment strategies. Ways to teach phonemic awareness include: · Gradually move from larger, easier phonological insights to smaller, more subtle ones. · Share stories, poems, songs, and dances that play with language sounds and patterns. · Engage the children in games that combine phonemic play with meaning (e.g., "I see something yellow whose name begins with /m/"). · Engage the children in games that encourage word play and rhyming. · Engage the children in games that encourage blending of syllables and phonemes. · Engage the children in games that encourage segmenting of initial, final, and medial phonemes. · Foster attention on sound elements with words by clapping syllables, manipulating magnetic letters, and manipulating tokens to match sounds or to match sounds during slow word articulation.
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· Engage students in segmenting activities such as tapping and counting sounds in words and using a rubber band to illustrate how to segment words into sounds. · Engage children in blending activities, for example, the use of visuals such as a slide to illustrate how sounds are blended together during pronunciation. · Carefully monitor and assess the growth of each child's phonemic awareness.
Alphabetic Principle In the later stages of Emergent Literacy and as a bridge into the Developing Literacy stage, children should begin to understand the basic alphabetic principle: The letters of written words represent the phonemes of spoken words. Phonemic awareness and letter knowledge are prerequisites to understanding the alphabetic principle, but they are not quite enough. Instruction is also warranted on how the relations between letters and sounds are represented in print. Research shows that children who have a basic understanding of the alphabetic principle generally move into the challenges of learning to read and write words with ease and confidence. In contrast, children without this basic understanding have great difficulty. The purpose of teaching children the alphabetic principle and sound-letter relationships is that they will be able: · In reading to form an approximate pronunciation that must be checked against their knowledge of real words and the context of the text. · In writing to form an approximate spelling of a word and to move from phonemic or temporary to standard or conventional spelling. The goal of alphabetic instruction is for readers to be able to use information consistently about the relationships between letters and sounds and letters and meanings to assist in the identification of known words and to figure out unfamiliar words independently. The alphabetic principle can be taught in the following ways: · Engage students with alphabet books, both commercial and student-made. · Provide direct instruction on letter-sound correspondences using key-word displays. · Create an environmental alphabet with materials brought from home (e.g., napkins, empty cereal boxes, place mats from fast-food restaurants). · Encourage children to spell independently using their letter knowledge and phonemic awareness. · Help children realize that the alphabetic principle applies not merely to the first letter and sound of a word but to letters and sounds in every position of a word.
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· Play letter-sound games to help the children understand that the sequence of sounds in a word are represented, left-to-right, by the sequence of letters.
· Focus attention on letter-sound patterns through multisensory activities involving visual, auditory, and kinesthetic and tactile experiences.
Important Concepts for Teachers of Early Reading Instruction
Teachers who teach early reading instruction should transform the following ideas into their teaching. These transforming ideas are based on research provided by the Office of Educational Research of the U.S. Department of Education (Sweet, 1993).
· Children use prior knowledge to construct meaning when reading.
Reading comprehension is a process of constructing meaning from text based on the reader's background of experiences. Overall prior knowledge comes from past experiences both in and out of school. Prior knowledge for reading a specific text is of two types: text-specific knowledge for understanding a type of text (e.g., elements of fiction versus nonfiction ) and topic-specific knowledge for understanding the topic of the text (e.g., knowledge about reptiles). Independent reading and writing are essential for expanding students' overall knowledge. Activating both text-specific and topic-specific prior knowledge helps the reader build meaning when reading a particular text.
· Effective reading instruction can help develop engaged readers who are knowledgeable, strategic, motivated, and socially interactive.
Classrooms should have print-rich environments where readers can choose their own reading materials at least part of the time, where readers learn and practice reading strategies, and where they are routinely engaged in self and mutual assessments.
· Phonemic awareness, the explicit awareness of the sounds of words, is a precursor to competency in identifying words and one of the best predictors of later success in reading.
Word identification needs to become effortless and automatic for the reader to devote attention to constructing meaning while reading. Efficient, early instruction contains a balance of activities and strategies to improve word recognition, including phonics instruction, reading meaningful text, writing, and spelling activities. Effective teachers interweave these activities in their instruction and make sure that direct teaching of skills is complemented and extended by encouraging students to use and extend those skills in authentic, meaningful reading and writing activities.
· Teacher modeling is an important form of classroom support for literacy learning.
Modeling should be both implicit, or a part of the literacy experience (e.g., reading aloud to children and engaging them in conversation about the meaning of the story), and explicit, or direct teaching of how to approach a text (e.g., think-alouds where the teacher shares with students her/his thinking process as she/he completes a task).
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· Reading of storybooks and informational texts--in the context of sharing experiences, ideas, and opinions--is a highly demanding task for children. Discussion among readers and listeners of shared text is essential and intellectually demanding for young readers. · Responding to text, both fiction and nonfiction, helps students construct their own meaning. Students need to be taught to read for inferences which can be substantiated and for personal and aesthetic response. Encouraging personal response can help the reader construct more complex and accurate meaning. · Children who discuss what they read daily are more likely to become critical readers, writers, and learners. Discussion in which students hear alternative points of view and solve problems encourages logical reasoning skills. · Expert readers have strategies to evaluate meaning before, during, and after reading. Teachers should instruct students in how to use strategies such as making an inference (or drawing a conclusion), identifying important or relevant information, monitoring their own thinking while reading, summarizing information, and generating questions. · Children's reading and writing abilities develop together. Writing leads to improved reading, reading leads to better writing, and combined instruction leads to improvement in both reading and writing. · The most valuable student reading assessment occurs day to day for every student. It reflects current understanding about reading and is used to inform instruction. Good classroom-assessment practices include using unabridged, rich text for construction meaning; accounting for students' prior knowledge (including phonological awareness) before they begin to read; encouraging students to self-assess; and collecting samples of students' work over time. In addition, teachers of young children need to understand the importance of the role which parents/ guardians play, and they need to help parents/guardians understand how they can support and extend literacy at home. Not only are parents/guardians the first tutors in solving the fascinating puzzle of written language, they are equally important in fostering the child's engagement and motivation. Parents/guardians of efficient readers tend to be knowledgeable about their child's reading performance, visit and observe in the classroom periodically, and support reading and writing at home (Anderson, 1985).
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Word Recognition The knowledge and skills underlying competent word recognition and spelling should be introduced through direct instruction and extended and practiced through meaningful reading and writing (Adams, 1997). Readers of English move their eyes from left to right as they read, word by word and line by line. Word recognition occurs rapidly and automatically for skillful readers. Nevertheless, with technologically sophisticated research methods, including eye-movement recordings and brain-imaging techniques, researchers have determined that readers fixate on nearly every word and in a fraction of a second take in the letters of the word, translate those to speech sounds, and evoke the word's meaning. The role of effective phonics instruction is to help children understand, apply, and learn the alphabetic principle and conventions of print, to foster independence by helping children identify unknown words on their own, and to increase children's reading vocabulary. Phonics instruction should involve practice in and understanding of spelling-sound correspondences and rules. The most effective phonics instruction takes care to clarify key points and principles to students, gradually builds from basic elements to more subtle and complex patterns, and conveys the logic of the system to invite its extension to new words. Phonics instruction should include the following: · Teach children the letter-sound and spelling-sound correspondences. · Teach children a functional command of phonics using both visual, auditory, and tactile/ kinesthetic modalities. · Take opportunities during shared reading to call children's attention to the sounds that are encountered. · Strengthen the child's understanding of regular patterns of phonics by continuing extensive literacy (reading and writing) experiences. · Teach children to use phonics to spell while writing as well as to decode new words while reading. · Help beginning readers see the value of using phonics and decoding strategies in their own reading by reinforcing phonics lessons with decodable books (Juel and Roper/Schneider, 1985). · Coordinate decoding lessons with spelling lessons on the same phonics patterns. · Collect examples of the sounds/phonics principles studied in the classroom. · Invite children to try to sound out well-chosen, decodable words they encounter in shared books and daily activities.
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· Provide direct instruction to teach students sound-symbol relationships, how to read single words composed of these sounds, and how to read connected phrases and sentences composed of the same sounds.
Encourage children to write because it is one of the most powerful ways to teach them sound/letter correspondences. As they watch adults record their words and, later, as they learn to encode sounds into letters, they are learning phonics. Writing also provides information about children's knowledge of phonics as well as engaging them in the sound-letter patterns in words.
Of equal importance to the quality of phonics instruction is the availability of practice in using the phonics instruction in reading meaningful selections. Those selections should come from a range of books that tell complete, interesting, well-written stories and that contain words that can be identified by the phonics instruction that has been taught.
The goal of teaching children phonics is that they gradually become able to decode even neverbefore-seen words effortlessly and automatically as they read. Toward this end, it is not enough to teach children how to sound out words. They must also be encouraged to use this strategy in reading on their own. Herein lies the value of using decodable stories­that is, stories in which the new words can be sounded out with the phonics that the children have been taught. Research shows that first graders whose phonics is reinforced with decodable texts not only retain their phonics lessons better but extend their knowledge of spelling patterns beyond what has been taught. Complementing children's early phonics lessons with practice in reading decodable books greatly eases their movements into text with no vocabulary control later in the first-grade year.
Phonics instruction should focus on important patterns, rather than a list of rules. Becoming a Nation of Readers warns against trying to teach too many sound-letter relationships for too long. According to the Commission on Reading, "phonics instruction should aim to teach only the most important and the most regular letter-to-sound relationships, because this is the sort of instruction that will most directly help the child understand the alphabetic principle. Once the basic relationships have been taught, the best way to get children to refine and extend their knowledge of lettersound correspondences is through repeated opportunities to read"(p. 38).
While all children need instruction in phonics, there is no one set of materials that will guarantee success for all readers. Every child will not need the same instruction, or the same amount of instruction, in phonics; rather, instruction must be individualized for the reader. Some students will need intensive help with phonics instruction, and well-documented student data should support the instructional decisions made for these children. Children who have phonological processing difficulty, even after phonological instruction, will need instructional support past second grade in order to become successful readers (Felton, 1993). Because of this need for individualization and because of the need for local autonomy, flexibility for determining appropriate phonics-based instruction must be left to professionals in schools and school systems.
Because reading and writing are so interrelated, students use temporary spelling as a means of developing and reinforcing knowledge of phonics; children become better decoders when they are encouraged to spell phonetically as they write (Cunningham, 1995). The use of temporary spelling is an effective, essential stage in the developmental progression toward becoming an independent reader and writer. Temporary spelling is temporary, however; students do need to learn how to spell conventionally. Temporary spelling of common spelling patterns should progress toward more conventional spelling by the second grade, with the students mastering the conventional spelling of increasing numbers of words.
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Spelling instruction should help students understand patterns, how words are put together, and conventions of correctness. In addition to direct instruction on spelling, extensive reading and writing for real and authentic purposes, including opportunities to edit for final publication, are invaluable in helping students become good spellers. Ways to teach spelling include: · Teach specific spelling patterns and phonics through demonstrations to small, flexible groups of children. · Plan specific spelling instruction to support and expand students' writing proficiency and sophistication in whole group, small group, and individual settings. · Plan mini-lessons for whole group, small groups, or individuals based on identified needs in students' writing drafts (Laminack and Wood, 1996). · Usually by the second grade and higher­when a preponderance of children's temporary spellings exhibit visual conventions of print such as vowels in every syllable, vowel digraphs, the e marker long-vowel pattern, and when spellings exhibit frequently used English letter sequences such as YOUNGIGHTED for united; help children develop individual lists of high-frequency words they need to know how to spell (Gentry, 1997). · Help children find words they need to know how to spell in their writing. · Teach spelling directly by conducting a shorter spelling check of high-frequency words to help children find words for their individual lists of words they need to know how to spell (Gentry and Gillet, 1993). · Encourage the use of strategies to master unknown words. · Organize spelling instruction to help children notice and practice spelling patterns that appear in many words, e.g., night, right, light; table, pickle, middle. · Connect the study of spelling patterns directly to writing by having children glean some words for spelling study directly from their writing. · Routinely encourage the use of personal dictionaries, word banks, spell-checks, word charts, word walls, topical word lists, personal word lists, etc., as resources for everyday writing for various purposes. · Assist students in gaining greater proficiency in phonics and spelling patterns by assisting them in reading and rereading meaningful, connected text.
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Vocabulary and Concept Development Vocabulary study often fails because it does not honor the insightful understanding (including background knowledge) that a student must have in order to make a vocabulary word a part of his/her speaking, reading, and writing language. There is, for example, a vast difference between "recognizing" a word by thinking "I think I've seen that word before" and "That's something that's a part of my life experiences." A child who has been bird-watching with an adult may "understand" the word "migration" on a different level from a child who has not had these experiences but who may have memorized a definition. Vocabulary acquisition thus is intricately tied to academic and life experiences and to discussions about those experiences. A combination of a definitional approach (where students learn definitions or synonyms of words) and a contextual approach (where students draw conclusions about the meaning of the word from its use in the sentence) is more effective than either approach in isolation (Nagy, 1988). Context can play an important role in determining the meaning, not the identity, of a word. Using contextual clues in this way does not mean "guessing"; it means that, given that the text is at an appropriate level of difficulty without a large number of unfamiliar words, children need to take time to study an unknown word. They can, for example, study the grammatical structure of the sentence, determining if the unknown word is a verb, a noun, or a modifying word. They can look for similarity to a familiar word. They can look for relevant information in surrounding words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs. All of these involve the strategic use of contextual clues. Direct instruction in vocabulary should thus be enhanced by contextual reading and by learning good strategies for studying an unknown word. Incidental learning of vocabulary in reading can seem quite inefficient (an average fifth grader has only a one-in-twenty chance of internalizing a word from context); however, if that fifth grader spends twenty-five minutes a day reading, the student will encounter 20,000 unfamiliar words during the year. If she/he learns one-in-twenty from context, that will be a thousand words per year. If the teacher could add another twenty-five minutes of reading time per day, the student would learn two thousand new words per year just from context (Nagy, 1988). In the study of vocabulary, the teacher may emphasize instruction in the following: · Classifying words by meaning · Classifying words by function · Finding synonyms/antonyms · Creating analogies (a strategy in which a reader uses familiar words or word parts to under- stand unfamiliar words). Other ways to encourage vocabulary development include: · Routinely encourage and direct the study and discussion of content area words, technical words, etymologies, Greek and Latin prefixes, suffixes, and roots. · Play word games individually, in pairs, in small groups, or in whole group settings.
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· Encourage students in activities such as synonym building, near-synonym distinctions, and semantic trees to expand and develop more precise, sophisticated vocabulary. · Ask students to create glossaries of new words they encounter in their reading. · Routinely ask students not to stop with the definition of the word, but to discuss its usage and shades of meaning in the context in which it was used. · Encourage students to create and update continually a notebook of new vocabulary items encountered in their reading. · Teach students how and when to use a dictionary or glossary.
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Comprehension Comprehension is the focal point of reading--a dynamic, interactive process of constructing meaning. Reading is a complex process which requires the coordination of cues as sources of information: sound/symbol relationships, syntax, semantics, and context. The three cueing systems--the graphophonic, the semantic, the syntactic--come together for the reader in comprehending written text and in providing a foundation for success. Graphophonic cues deal with the reader's knowledge of the sound-symbol match. As readers process print, they quickly receive information from print and accurately match their knowledge of words and sound-symbol relationships. Proficient readers ask themselves, "Is this word familiar? Does this sound and look right?" Semantic cues are meaning cues including words, concepts, prior knowledge, and experience. These are used as readers bring their knowledge of the world, feelings, attitudes, and beliefs to the printed page. Proficient readers are always attuned to the question, "Do I understand what the author is referring to?" Syntactic cues refer to knowledge about word order or the grammatical structure of language. If readers have opportunity to read a variety of syntactic patterns, they will be more familiar with the sentence structures they encounter and be better able to reconstruct the writer's message. Proficient readers ask themselves, "Does this sound like language?" Pragmatics is the way a reader considers the context in which the text occurs. Proficient readers have a wide background of experience with language in many situations such as the home, playground, classroom, and storybooks. They understand that the language one would use in a formal situation is different from that used in an informal situation; the language of science or nonfiction is different from the language of literature. Proficient readers ask themselves, "Is this the language that should be used in this situation?" In comprehension, proficient readers use all three cueing systems and pragmatics, in different degrees, during the preparation, engagement, and response stages of reading. Proficient readers understand the characteristics of different modes of text, such as the expressive or personal (e.g., journals, learning logs), narrative or story (e.g., folk tales or novels), poetic (e.g., nursery rhymes), dramatic (e.g., skits or puppet plays), and expository or informational (e.g., persuasion or newspaper articles). Proficient readers adapt the strategies they use in preparing to read, engaging in reading, and responding to what they have read according to their purpose for reading and according to the mode of text they are reading. Proficient readers also use contextual clues as a valuable comprehension strategy. They use text structure, including the organization of the text and their knowledge of the characteristics of the genre they are reading, to aid comprehension. Strategic readers reason their way through text, using problem-solving strategies and context clues to differentiate between what they do and do not understand, to form hypotheses and then test them, to relate previous paragraphs to what they are reading, to look for consistency and completeness in light of available information, and to be open to other possible explanations or interpretations.
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Preparation Before reading, proficient readers: · Preview the text. · Activate and build upon background knowledge. · Set purpose for the activity (motivation). · Focus their attention on the task. · Make predictions about the content.
Engagement During the reading process, proficient readers: · Check their understanding by paraphrasing the author's words. · Monitor comprehension by using context clues. · Integrate new information with existing knowledge. · Reread and revise their purposes, predictions, and understanding. · Use a "fix-up" strategy when they do not understand. · Give complete attention to the task. · Persevere with difficult text.
Response After reading, proficient readers: · Summarize what has been learned. · Reflect on and evaluate the information and ideas in the selection. · Respond and make applications of the information and ideas. · Seek additional information, if needed. · Decide if they have achieved their purpose.
(Orange County Public Schools, 1988, and Cambourne, 1988)
The proficient reader:
· Understands that different purposes and different texts require particular reading/thinking strategies. · Identifies the task and sets the purpose of reading. · Chooses appropriate strategies, such as rereading, summarizing, and looking for relation- ships. · Self-monitors for comprehension.
Ways to strengthen comprehension include:
· Read aloud to students every day in every subject and then allow time to discuss reading before, during, and after the reading.
· Provide ample time for text reading, including application of strategies in real-reading situations and independent practice accompanied by constructive feedback.
· Provide guided reading instruction for all students through direct instruction, discussion, guided practice, and modeling of comprehension strategies such as summarizing, using the structural elements of text, drawing conclusions, making generalizations, monitoring understanding, and noting agreement or disagreement with prior knowledge.
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· Scaffold and provide guided practice of student reading of different modes of text. · Provide ample time and opportunity for reflection on independent reading through written or verbal responses and for constructive feedback. · Provide opportunity for students to work independently and collaboratively, using reading and writing to address real-life problems and concerns. · Give students opportunities to demonstrate their comprehension through critical and creative responses to reading; for example, with plays, dioramas, discussions, letters, debates, art projects, or puppetry. · Provide teacher-directed instruction in reading for inference; for example, how to read between the lines and beyond the lines and to justify their inferences with evidence from the text. · Use concept maps and diagrams, reciprocal teaching, QAR (Question, Answer, Response), story maps, cloze, and story structure to help students understand and comprehend text.
Strategies Used By Good Readers
Proficient readers are able to apply strategies flexibly, selectively, independently, and reflectively. They consciously monitor their own thinking as they read, set purposes, ask themselves questions, recall prior information, look for organizational patterns, and assess the efficiency of their strategies. They know how to monitor whether they "know" material as compared to simply having read it and understood it.
Proficient readers also adjust the rate at which they read, depending upon the purpose for reading and upon the genre. For example, a reader who is looking for a specific piece of information may scan the text quickly. The same reader may read much more slowly when reading critically or reading carefully for detail. Some genres, such as a short story, can be read relatively quickly; other genres, such as poetry, may require slower reading, and even rereading.
Pressley and Afflerbach (1995) have demonstrated the importance of study strategies such as (1) overviewing before reading, (2) looking for important information in text and paying greater attention to it than to other information, (3) changing reading strategies when comprehension is not proceeding smoothly, and (4) carrying on a responsive conversation with the author.
Some ways to teach good reading strategies include: · Use thinking aloud, modeling, and demonstrating the kinds of questions proficient readers ask themselves as they read. · Provide opportunities for students to model and explain to others how they monitor as they read.
· Teach students to take effective notes by selecting relevant information and recording it in a useful format.
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· Conference/debrief with students independently, in small groups, or in whole groups asking them to explain what strategies they used in reading. · Teach students to use visual organizers, mnemonics, organizational systems, media resources (including dictionaries and glossaries), KWL, mapping, think-alouds, and self-regulating strategies. Fluency Efficient readers take in, very nearly, each and every word of text, translating the words to sounds and evoking the word's meaning in a process that is so smooth, and so fast, that they are not even aware of doing so (Crowder and Crowder, 1992). Efficient readers must be able to "break the code" that relates the spelling of a word to its sound and meaning so quickly and so accurately that the decoding process coordinates smoothly with the process of constructing meaning. Fast and accurate word identification is thus correlated with strong reading comprehension.
Ways to foster fluency include: · Provide time and opportunities for students to read and reread materials on their independent reading level. · Provide opportunities for repeated reading of text through shared reading, independent reading, choral reading, home reading, reader's theater, puppetry, etc. · Give students access to reading materials with increasing levels of difficulty, from materials that can be read independently to materials that are more challenging. Ensure that students spend time every day reading in materials that they can read independently. · Help beginning students develop a workable number of high-frequency words that can be recognized at a glance (e.g., the, of, are, you) so that the student's focus is not diverted from comprehending. · Model fluent reading for students and then reread the same text with them to support fluency. · Use techniques such as taped reading, choral reading, and repeated readings in direct teacher instruction with children who have difficulty with reading fluency. · Help students learn how to develop essential background knowledge before reading. · Every day find ways to engage all students in a variety of different reading activities, including independent reading of books of their choice.
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Appendix A
Stages of Literacy Development Literacy is a process that continues through life. Teachers need to be aware of the stages of literacy so that they can help move each child to the next stage. Early Emergent Literacy usually occurs in preschool. In this stage, children come to view reading and writing as activities in which people engage. They know that books contain stories, but they do not yet understand fully the alphabetic principle or the conventions of print. They show interest in print and begin to develop preferences for particular stories and skills in handling books. Writing is generally scribbling, making letter-like shapes, or imitating cursive writing. In Emergent Literacy, during the earliest primary years, children begin to use concepts about print and understand principles of text. For example, they know that the text, as well as the picture, conveys meaning; they may be able to read some words like their name or familiar environmental print. In writing, children use letters of the alphabet, usually consonants, to represent syllables. As children move into the primary years, they progress to the Developing Literacy stage. They demonstrate phonemic awareness; apply phonics knowledge to decoding unknown words; and comprehend narrative picture books, poems, short chapter books, and informational and practical materials. They have an increasing understanding of print conventions and of the alphabetic principle. They are developing a sight vocabulary of functional words. In writing, they are composing sentences to make sense and learning to develop ideas in a logical progression. They write about topics of personal interest in various modes, letters, stories, notes, poems, etc. Children are also learning conventional spacing, capitalization, and spelling. Early Independent Literacy should occur in the early elementary years. Children should set their own purpose for reading--for interest or for information. They discuss and express their ideas orally or in writing on literary, informational, and practical materials. They begin to read independently for extended periods of time. In writing, they record observations and ask and answer open-ended questions about information or ideas; they use detail and organization in their writing; and they produce writing and artwork to reflect personal response and understanding of text. Independent Literacy occurs by the mid-elementary years. Children should efficiently use strategies for comprehension and they should self-correct quickly. They read confidently and independently in multiple modes of text. In writing, their text is easily understood with good ideas, organization, coherence, and increasing sophistication in the conventions of print. Expanding Literacy is the goal of later elementary and secondary years. Expanding readers read widely, critically, and frequently for a variety of purposes in a variety of modes. These readers understand literary elements as well as the conventions of expository text; they can read analytically and thoughtfully. In writing, they have voice and control, and they write for a variety of reasons and in diverse modes.
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Appendix A
The Importance of Reading and Literature Reading aloud to students of all ages, every day, is extremely important. It allows students to experience text that is too difficult for them to read independently--exposing them to complex sentence structure, vocabulary, richness of idea, and language they may not otherwise be able to experience. It establishes a sense of the patterns of written language, a basis for literary development, and rich experiences which students can discuss and write about. In addition, it fosters their motivation and love of reading. Reading itself is the single most valuable activity for developing children's comprehension. The amount of reading that a child does is correlated with growth in reading comprehension, richness of oral storytelling, vocabulary, verbal fluency, content-area achievement, and general knowledge (Anderson et. al., 1984; Adams, Treiman, and Pressely, 1996; Stanovich, 1993). Through reading multiple modes of text, students encounter new vocabulary, new syntax, new facts, and new perspectives. When they read good literature, they encounter rich ideas and language, and when the reading-writing connection is stressed, they learn to incorporate that richness of language and idea into their own writing. In order to fulfill their greatest potential, all students should be encouraged to read as broadly, frequently, and reflectively as possible.
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Bibliography Adams, M. (1997). Memorandum to Dr. Henry L. Johnson. Notes on reading narrative. February 5, 1997. Adams, M. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Adams, M., Trieman, R. and Pressley, M. (1996). Reading, writing, and literacy. In Handbook of child psychology, I. Sigel and A. Renninger, (Eds.) Vol. 4: Child psychology in practice. New York: Wiley. Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J. and Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers: The report on the commission of reading. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education, U. S. Department Of Education. Brewer, J. A. (1995). Introduction to early childhood education: Preschool through primary grades. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Cambourne, B. (1988). The whole story: Natural learning and the acquisition of literacy in the classroom. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TBA. Clay, M. (1991). Becoming literate: The construction of inner control. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Composition in the English language arts curriculum K-12. (1989). Albany, NY: The State Education Department. Crowder, R. and Crowder, R. (1992). The psychology of reading: An introduction, second edition. NY: Oxford University Press. Cunningham, P. (1995). Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. New York, NY: Harper Collins. Diamond, L. and Mandel, S. (1996). Building a powerful reading program: From research to practice. Sacramento, CA: California State University Institute of Education Reform. Felton, R. (1993). Effects of instruction on the decoding skills of children with phonological-processing problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, (9), 583589. Fox, B. (1996). Strategies for word identification: Phonics from a new perspective. Columbus, OH: Merrill. Gentry, R. (1997). My kid can't spell. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Gentry, R. and Gillet, J. (1993). Teaching kids to spell. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
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Guidelines for developing oral communication curricula in kindergarten through twelfth grade. (1991). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association. Laminack, L. and Wood, K. Spelling in use. (1996). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Listening and speaking in the English language arts curriculum k-12. (1989). Albany, NY: The State Education Department. Mayer, J., Lester, N. and Pradl, G. (1983). Learning to write/writing to learn. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton and Cook. Nagy, W. (1988). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Olson, C. (1983). Fostering critical thinking skills through writing. Educational Leadership, 42, 28-39. Pressley, M. and Affenbach, P. (1995). verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Arlbaum Associates, Inc. Primary program foundation document. (1990). British Columbia: Ministry of Education. Routman, R. (1996). Literacy at the crossroads: Crucial talk about reading, writing, and other teaching dilemmas. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Shaughnessy, M. (1977). Errors and expectations. New York: Oxford. Shefelbine, J. (1995). Learning and using phonics in beginning reading. Scholastic Literacy Research Paper, 10, Scholastic Inc. Stanovich, K. (1993). Does reading make you smarter? Literacy and the development of verbal intelligence. In Advances in Child Development and Behavior, H. Reese, (Ed.) 24, 33-180, San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Stosky, S. (1983). Research on reading/writing relationships: A synthesis and suggested directions. Language Arts, 60 627-642. Strickland, D. (1996). In search of balance: Restructuring our literacy programs. Reading Today, 14, (2), 320. Sweet, A. (1993). Transforming ideas for teaching and learning to read. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
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Teaching reading: A balanced. comprehensive approach to teaching reading in prekindergarten through grade three. (1996). Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education. Templeton, S. (1992). New trends in an historical perspective: Old story, new resolution ­ Sound and meaning in spelling. Language Arts, 69, 454-463. The primary program: Growing and learning in the heartland. (1993). Nebraska Department of Education, Iowa Department of Education, Iowa Area Education Agencies, Head-Start Collaboration Project. Lincoln, NE: Nebraska Department of Public Education. Tierney, R. J. and Leys, M. (1986). What is the value of connecting reading and writing? In B. T. Peterson (Ed.3) Convergences: Transactions in reading and writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Weaver, C. (1994). Reading processes and practice: From socio-psycholinguistics to whole language. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
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Appendix A
Appendix B
K-2 Grade Span Continuum
Written Language
Reading
Writing
Students can: · Use enabling strategies and skills to read texts by using: Phonics Structural analysis Decoding High frequency words Self-monitoring All sources of information. · Use comprehension strategies to read texts designed for early independent readers: Preparation strategies Self-monitoring Summarizing Interpreting information · Connect and compare new concepts and vocabulary with own experiences. · Use specific vocabulary to explain new information in own words. · Read self-selected texts independently for 20 minutes daily.
Students can: · Write short paragraphs to narrate events or report information. · Compose and create effective communications, using specific vocabulary and appropriate form for the intended audience/purpose. · Use grammatical elements ­declarative and interrogative sentences, noun, verb, modifier­to elaborate meanings for interest and clarity. · Use written language conventions­paragraph form, capitalization, and punctuation­to aid a reader. · Write most words using correct spelling and/or using phonetic spelling for specialized, technical vocabulary.
Oral Language Students can: · Increase oral and written vocabulary by listening, discussing, and responding to literature that is read and heard. · Discuss authors' /speakers' use of different kinds of sentences, nouns, verbs, and modifiers and their effects on the comprehension of a listener/reader. · Begin to use formal language and/or literary language in place of oral language patterns, as appropriate. · Use oral communication to identify, organize, and analyze information.
Other Media/Technology Students can: · Use media and technology to demonstrate comprehension. · Use media resources to make connections with prior experiences and new information. · Use media and technology to compose and convey ideas and information. · Use media and technology to enhance communication.
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Appendix B
3-5 Grade Span Continuum
Written Language
Reading
Writing
Students can: · Apply phonics and structural analysis to develop automatically in word recognition. · Apply extended knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and root words to identify unknown words. · Use fix-up strategies when meaning breaks down (selfquestion, reread, visualize, read on, retell). · Apply a variety of reading and thinking strategies according to purpose and text. · Integrate information and ideas selectively from own experience and text(s). · Comprehend, respond to, and make connections with fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama. · Assess validity, accuracy, and value of information and ideas. · Expand literacy through research and inquiry.
Students can: · Use writing process elements to compose fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama for different audiences and purposes. · Use writing as a tool for thinking, learning, and reflection. · Write for informational, persuasive, and narrative purposes. · Apply grammar conventions and language usage appropriately in a variety of contexts. · Compose final draft with few errors in grammar and language conventions.
Oral Language Students can: · Present information clearly and concisely. · Communicate for a variety of purposes and audiences. · Engage in active listening and clear, precise oral communication. · Apply grammar and language conventions appropriately in a variety of contexts. · Develop increasing control over grammar and language conventions.
Other Media/Technology Students can: · Enhance written, oral, and visual communication through the use of media and technology. · Use media and technology as a tool. · Use critical analysis to evaluate media messages. · Conduct research using a variety of print and non-print resources.
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Appendix B
6-8 Grade Span Continuum
Written Language
Reading
Writing
Students can: · Understand the text which includes inferential as well as literal information. · Extend the ideas of text by making connections to their own experiences and other readings, drawing conclusions, and by making inferences. Literary Text · Integrate personal experiences with ideas in the text to draw and support conclusions. · Appreciate the world and how it is depicted through language. · Be able to identify some of the devices authors use in composing text. Informational Text · Apply text information appropriately. · Connect background information with ideas in the text to draw and support conclusions. Practical Text · Apply information or directions to complete a task.
Students can: · Write to different audiences for a variety of purposes. · Create an effective response to the task in form, content, and language. · Express analytical, critical, and/or creative thinking. · Demonstrate an awareness of the purpose and intended audience. · Use logical and observable organization appropriate to the task. · Show effective use of transitional elements. · Use sufficient elaboration to clarify and enhance the central idea. · Use language (for example variety of word choice and sentence structure) appropriate to the task. · Compose with few errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, and capitalization that interfere with communication.
Oral Language Students can: · Speak and listen appropriately and effectively for different purposes, in varied contexts, and to different speakers/audiences. · Participate in formal and informal discussions and seminars as articulate speakers. · Present to groups fluently and effectively.
Other Media/Technology Students can: · Use word processing and/or desktop publishing for a variety of writing assignments/projects. · Use electronic resources for research. · Select and use technological tools for class assignments and presentations. · Engage in ethical behavior in the use of technology. · Make translations of their understanding from one communication mode to another (e.g., drama/reading).
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Appendix B
9-12 Grade Span Continuum
Written Language
Reading
Writing
Students can: · Understand complex text which includes inferential as well as literal information. · Extend the ideas of the text by making inferences, drawing conclusions, and making connections to their own personal experiences and other readings. · Make connections between inferences and the text that are clear, even when implicit. Literary Text · Integrate their personal experiences with ideas in complex text to draw and support conclusions. · Explain the author's use of literary devices. Informative Text · Apply text information appropriately to specific situations. · Integrate their background information with ideas in the text to draw and support conclusions. Practical Text · Apply information or directions appropriately. · Use personal experiences to evaluate the usefulness of text information.
Students can: · Create an effective response to the task in form, content, and language. · Demonstrate reflection and insight and evidence of analytical, critical, or evaluative thinking. · Use convincing elaboration and development to clarify and enhance the central idea. · Use logical and observable organization appropriate to the task. · Use effective transitional elements. · Reveal personal style or voice. · Use language appropriate to the task and intended audience. · Compose with few errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation and capitalization that interfere with communication.
Oral Language Students can: · Speak and listen appropriately and effectively for different purposes, to different speakers and audiences, and in different contexts. · Participate in informal discussions, seminars, and interviews as articulate speakers and insightful listeners. · Give formal oral presentations with fluency and effectiveness.
Other Media/Technology Students can: · Articulate important issues of a technology-based society. · Engage in ethical behavior in the use of technology. · Use word processing and/or desktop publishing for a variety of complex assignments/projects. · Use electronic resources for research. · Select and use technological tools for class assignments, projects, and presentations. · Abide by Fair Use and Multimedia Copyright Guidelines, citing sources of copyrighted materials in papers, projects, and multimedia presentations.
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Appendix C
K-2 Students Can · Use enabling strategies and skills to read texts by using: phonics structural analysis decoding high frequency words self-monitoring all sources of information. · Use comprehension strategies to read texts designed for early independent readers: preparation strategies self-monitoring summarizing interpreting information · Connect and compare new concepts and vocabulary with own experiences. · Use specific vocabulary to explain new information in own words. · Read self-selected texts independently for 20 minutes daily.
Strand Skill Continuum
Written Language: Reading
3-5
6-8
Students can:
Students can:
· Apply phonics and structural
· Understand the text which
analysis to develop automatically
includes inferential as well as
in word recognition.
literal information.
· Apply extended knowledge of
· Extend the ideas of text by
prefixes, suffixes, and root words
making connections to their own
to identify unknown words.
experiences and other readings,
· Use fix-up strategies when
by drawing conclusions, and by
meaning breaks down (self-
making inferences.
question, reread, visualize, read Literary Text
on, retell). · Apply a variety of reading and
· Integrate personal experiences with ideas in the text to draw and
thinking strategies according to purpose and text.
support conclusions. · Appreciate the world and how it
· Integrate information and ideas
is depicted through language.
selectively from own experience · Be able to identify some of the
and text(s). · Comprehend, respond to, and
devices authors use in composing text.
make connections with fiction,
Information Text
non-fiction, poetry, and drama. · Apply text information
· Assess validity, accuracy, and value of information and ideas.
appropriately. · Connect background information
Expand literacy through research and
with ideas in the text to draw and
inquiry.
support conclusions.
Practical Text
· Apply information or directions
to complete a task.
9-12 Students can: · Understand complex text which includes inferential as well as literal information. · Extend the ideas of the text by making inferences, drawing conclusions, and making connections to their own personal experiences and other readings. · Make connections between inferences and the text that are clear, even when implicit. Literary Text · Integrate their personal experiences with ideas in complex text to draw and support conclusions. · Explain the author's use of literary devices. Information Text · Apply text information appropriately to specific situations. · Integrate their background information with ideas in the text to draw and support conclusions. Practical Text · Apply information or directions appropriately. · Use personal experiences to evaluation the usefulness of text information.
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Appendix C
K-2 Students Can · Write short paragraphs to narrate events or report information. · Compose and create effective communications, using specific vocabulary and appropriate form for the intended audience/ purpose. · Use grammatical elementsdeclarative and interrogative sentences, noun, verb, modifierto elaborate meanings for interest and clarity. · Use written language conventions-paragraph form, capitalization, and punctuation-to aid a reader. · Write most words using correct spelling and/or using phonetic spelling for specialized, technical vocabulary.
Strand Skill Continuum
Written Language: Writing
3-5
6-8
Students can:
Students can:
· Use writing process elements to · Write to different audiences for a
compose fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama for different
variety of purposes. · Create an effective response to
audiences and purposes.
the task in form, content, and
· Use writing as a tool for thinking,
language.
learning, and reflection. · Write for informational, persuasive, and narrative
· Express analytical, critical, and/or creative thinking. · Demonstrate an awareness of the
purposes.
purpose and intended audience.
· Apply grammar conventions and · Use logical and observable
language usage appropriately in a
organization appropriate to the
variety of contexts.
task.
· Compose final draft with few
· Show effective use of transitional
errors in grammar and language
elements.
conventions.
· Use sufficient elaboration to
clarify and enhance the central
idea.
· Use language (for example
variety of word choice and
sentence structure) appropriate to
the task.
· Compose with few errors in
spelling, grammar, punctuation,
and capitalization that interfere
with communication.
9-12 Students can: · Create an effective response to the task in form, content, and language. · Demonstrate reflection and insight as well as evidence of analytical, critical, or evaluative thinking. · Use convincing elaboration and development to clarify and enhance the central idea. · Use logical and observable organization appropriate to the task. · Use effective transitional elements. · Reveal personal style or voice. · Use language appropriate to the task and intended audience. · Compose with few errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation and capitalization that interfere with communication.
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Appendix C
K-2 Students Can · Increase oral and written vocabulary by listening, discussing, and responding to literature that is read and heard. · Discuss authors'/speakers' use of different kinds of sentences, nouns, verbs, and modifiers and their effects on the comprehension of a listener/reader. · Begin to use formal language and/or literary language in place of oral language patterns, as appropriate. · Use oral communication to identify, organize, and analyze information.
Strand Skill Continuum
Oral Language
3-5
6-8
Students can:
Students can:
· Present information clearly and · Speak and listen appropriately
concisely. · Communicate for a variety of
and effectively for different purp0oses, in varied contexts,
purposes and audiences.
and to different
· Engage in active listening and
speakers/audiences.
clear, precise oral
· Participate in formal and
communication. · Apply grammar and language
informal discussions and seminars as articulate speakers.
conventions appropriately in a
· Present to groups fluently and
variety of contexts.
effectively.
· Develop increasing control over
grammar and language
conventions.
9-12 Students can: · Speak and listen appropriately and effectively for different purposes, to different speakers and audiences, and in different contexts. · Participate in informal discussions, seminars, and interviews as articulate speakers and insightful listeners. · Give formal oral presentations with fluency and effectiveness.
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Appendix C
K-2 Students Can · Use media and technology to demonstrate comprehension. · Use media resources to make connections with prior experiences and new information. · Use media and technology to compose and convey ideas and information. · Use medial and technology to enhance communication..
Strand Skill Continuum
Other Media/Technology
3-5
6-8
Students can:
Students can:
· Enhance written, oral, and visual · Use word processing and/or
communication through the use
desktop publishing for a variety
of media and technology.
of writing assignments/projects.
· Use media and technology as a · Use electronic resources for
tool.
research.
· Use critical analysis to evaluate · Select and use the technological
media messages. · Conduct research using a variety
tools for class assignments and presentations.
of print and non-print resources. · Engage in ethical behavior in the
use of technology.
· Make translations of their
understanding from one
communication mode to another
(e.g., drama/reading).
9-12 Students can: · Articulate important issues of a technology-based society. · Engage in ethical behavior in the use of technology. · Use word processing and/or desktop publishing for a variety of complex assignments/projects. · Use electronic resources for research. · Select and use technological tools for class assignments, projects, and presentations. · Abide by Fair Use and Multimedia Copyright Guidelines, citing sources of copyrighted materials in papers, projects, and multimedia presentations.
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Appendix C
APPENDIX D CONTENT OF A READING AND LITERATURE PROGRAM K-12* A balanced reading and literature program requires that students experience a variety of literary forms and genres. The pages that follow suggest many opportunities for helping students gain independence in reading for aesthetic and personal response, for information, and for critical analysis and evaluation. FICTION Picture Books (Mother Goose, ABC and counting books, concept books, wordless books, pattern books, easy-to-read books)
Distinguishing Features
Comments
· Plots are simple, fast-paced, predictable. · Characters and their actions appeal to young children. · Illustrations contribute to story line. · Rhyme, repetition, refrain encourage reading aloud. · Story and language appeal to sense of humor through word play, nonsense, surprise, exaggeration. · Illustrations encourage participation through naming, pointing, seeking.
Picture books provide pleasure for beginning readers, familiarize them with the language of books, and enhance understanding of concepts and abstract ideas. Picture books can also be used with advanced readers to introduce story structure, allegory, characterization, or the effects of certain literary devices.
Traditional Literature Folktales
· Time and place are generic (e.g., "Once upon a time in a faraway castle...") · Stories are not intended to be accepted as true. · Plots use predictable motifs (ogres, magic, supernatural helpers, quests). · Story line is frequently a series of recurring actions. · Characters are one-dimensional. 2004
Traditional literature continues the oral tradition and reveals the values and beliefs of a culture. It provides opportunities for discussing human problems and solutions, morals and values, and contributions of different cultures to our own society. Folklore is a natural source of material for storytelling, creative dramatics, creative writing, and artistic interpretation.
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Appendix D
Myths · Stories are seen as true in the represented society. · Plots are usually associated with theology or ritual. · Accounts frequently explain natural phenomena. Fables · Tales concern human conduct with moralistic overtones. · Animals exhibit human qualities and behaviors. Legends · Plots record deeds of past heroes. · Stories are presented as true. · Stories are usually secular and associated with wars and victories. Epic literature · Long narratives detail the adventures of a single heroic figure. · The center of action revolves around the relationship between the heroic figure and the gods. · The main character symbolizes the ideal characteristics of greatness. · Many were originally written as poetry or songs. · Language is lyrical, stately, and rich with images.
Traditional Literature
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Appendix D
fantasy and science fiction
· Characters or settings depart from what is realistic or expected. · The author makes the impossible believable through logical framework and consistency, characters' acceptance of the fanciful, and use of appropriate language. · Characters include humanized animals, good and evil stereotypes, eccentrics, heroes and heroines with magical powers, or extraterrestrial beings. · Plots may reflect a heroic battle for the common good (high fantasy) or adventures of real characters in an enhanced setting (light fantasy). · Science fiction relies on hypothesized scientific advancements and raises questions about the future of humanity.
Reading fantasy nurtures the imagination and can help young students come to grips with the differences between reality and truth. For older students, fantasy and science fiction can be useful vehicles for examining issues related to human survival in an uncertain future. Well-written fantasy provides exemplars of well-constructed plots, convincing characterization, universal themes, and evocative language.
Realistic fiction
· Content addresses aspects of coping with life (peer relationships, death, identity, family problems, handicapping conditions, courage, survival). · Plots, settings, and characters reflect those found in real life. · Endings are not always happy, but reality is frequently relieved by wit and humor.
Realistic fiction that is honest and authentic evokes feelings of personal identifications with the story characters and allows students to discover that their experiences, needs, and emotions are not unique. Realistic fiction can help students gain insight into their own feelings as well as understand the feelings of others. It can also allow students to try on roles and rehearse possible future experiences. Realistic fiction can stimulate discussion and provide "a way in" to other kinds of reading for reluctant readers.
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· Stories are grounded in history but not restricted by it. · The historical setting is an authentic and integral part of the story. · Characters' actions, dialogue, beliefs, and values are true to the historical period. · Themes include loyalty, friendship, courage, and the conflict between good and evil. · Tightly woven plots have elements of suspense, danger, or intrigue. · Plots are fast-paced and frequently involve foreshadowing or flashback. · The plot is carried by the dialogue. · The number of characters is limited. · Description and narration are infrequently used. · Structure is well-defined, with segments clearly divided by acts or scenes. · The play's ending marks the resolution of the conflict.
Historical fiction Books and stories of historical fiction can make the past more vivid and interesting to students. They can supplement content-area textbooks at all grade levels, providing knowledge about the people, beliefs, hardships, and events of a particular historical period. Historical fiction helps students to discover their own heritage as well as to see and judge the events of the past. Mystery The best mysteries have well-drawn characters and well-structured plots. Students enjoy reading them and can improve their problemsolving skills, reading rate, reading for details, and vocabulary development through this traditional form. DRAMA Plays appeal to young students for their immediacy and brevity. Their use provides clear illustration of story structure, allows for participation by several students at a time, and encourages dramatic interpretation of other genres. For all students, the challenge to write a play would underscore the uniqueness of this literary form, in which the plot, theme, and characterization are carried by the dialogue.
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NONFICTION
Informational books and articles
· Information is factual and may be supported by detailed descriptions, examples, definitions, or quotations from authorities. · Mode of presentation may be expository, narrative, or descriptive. · Content may include history and geography, science and nature, hobbies and crafts, experiments, discoveries, and how things work. · Organization follows a logical pattern and may include textual aids (e.g., table of contents, chapter headings, marginal notes). · Illustrations clarify text and add authenticity.
Informational books and articles are excellent resources for reading, writing, or hands-on activities on topics of interest. They are frequently superior to textbooks in that they may provide sharper focus, present more specialized information, or more clearly reveal the author's point of view. They are an effective vehicle for teaching organizational patterns such as cause-effect, comparison-contrast, time order, or sequence. At all levels, informational material provides provocative content for discussion, from how kittens grow to Shakespeare's England.
Biography
· Subjects include explorers; political heroes and heroines; and achievers in literature, science, sports, the arts, and other disciplines. · Effectiveness depends on accuracy, authenticity, and an appealing narrative style.
Reading about the achievements of others may help students to see history as the lives and events of real people and to appreciate the contributions of all cultures. For adolescents, biographies may help to increase their own aspirations and provide role models for their own lives. They also serve as a useful vehicle for studying bias, fact vs. opinion, and characterization.
Books of true experience
· Content relates to specific episodes or events from a person's life over a limited time span. · Author may be the central figure or an objective narrator.
Books of true experience provide an in-depth look at a contemporary or historical event or a series of related events. Students will broaden their understanding of those events and situations by seeing them in their cultural and historical context as well as by observing the effects of those events on a number of people.
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Essays, journals, letters, and personal accounts
· Content is based upon or adapted from original documents in diary, letter, or essay form.
Documentary records on such diverse topics as slavery, life in 12th-century England, or songs of the American Revolution provide excellent supplements to historical fiction or resources for creative dramatics.
Historical documents and speeches
· Official statements of social and political significance may include information about the author and setting of each document.
Reproductions of original documents help students discover the language and style of early writers as well as provide clues to the lifestyles and attitudes of people in an earlier time. Contemporary speeches may be used as a source of information about political and social issues, as a basis of comparison with the language and concerns of the past, and as a vehicle for the study of persuasion.
Newspapers and news magazines
· Writing style is simple and direct. · Current events are reported accurately and objectively. · Organization is based on who, what, when, where, why, how. · Vocabulary is functional. · Content provides something for every student: news, editorial, comics, new discoveries in science, real math problems, etc.
Newspapers and news magazines are adult media, thereby providing motivation for reluctant readers. The best news stories are models of conciseness and clear writing; the best editorials are models for teaching students to write for a particular audience and purpose. Newspapers are practical, flexible, inexpensive supplements to an English language arts curriculum.
POETRY
· Poems give the effect of a song; are told with dramatic flair; usually focus on a single incident; frequently use dialogue, refrain, and repetition. · Content usually deals with heroic deeds, love, tragedy, feuds.
Ballads Ballads continue the oral tradition and are an excellent source of material for dramatization.
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· Verses tell a story. · Action is fast; plot develops rapidly and is usually related in chronological order. · Humor is frequently employed. · Poems are rhythmic and melodic, evoking images and inspiring memorization. · Content is usually personal or descriptive. · Verses usually contain 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter, with an elaborate rhyme scheme. · Poem depends upon rhythm and cadence, rather than rhyme, for its effect. · Verses have five lines with first, second, and fifth lines rhyming; third and fourth lines are shorter and rhyme with each other. · Content is usually humorous, with last line ending in a surprise twist. · Form consists of 17 syllables within 3 lines (5-7-5). · Content relates to mood or feelings evoked by nature or the seasons. 2004
Narrative Story poems are among students' favorite poetic forms. For this reason, they provide an excellent way of capturing students' interest in poetry. Lyric Lyric poems are frequently the first poems students want to memorize because of their rhythm, beauty of language, and reflection of a poet's personal response to a topic. Sonnet Sonnets are long enough to allow for development of thought, yet they require precision in language and form. For this reason, sonnets provide excellent examples of disciplined use of rhyme, rhythm, and imagery. Free Verse The lack of rhyme and less predictable meter of free verse make this form a good introduction to the question "What is poetry?" Students are frequently surprised to learn that rhyme is not a requirement of poetry. Patterned Poetry Limerick Asking students to write their own patterned poetry encourages word play and challenges them to create rhyme and rhythm in a structured format. Both the reading and the writing of patterned poetry demand discipline. Writing it requires searching for the perfect word to express the desired image. Reading it requires constructing inferences to recreate the poem's meaning. Many students enjoy composing patterned poetry in pairs or teams.
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· Structure may follow a 2-46-8-2 syllable pattern or may follow a simpler form using words per line in a 12-3-4-1 pattern. · Structure follows a diamond shape of seven lines, as follows: one noun, two adjectives, three participles, four related nouns or a phrase of four words, three participles, two adjectives, one noun. · Structure follows a 5-7-5-77 syllable pattern. · The message of the poem is revealed through the choice and arrangement of words on the page.
Cinquain Diamante Tanka Concrete Poems Reading and writing concrete poems can help students to appreciate the importance of putting meaning before structure and can aid visual imagery, encourage creative thinking, and make abstract ideas more immediate and tangible. This poetic form is also fun to create at the computer.
* The information in this chart is adapted from the following: D. Norton. Through the Eyes of a Child. Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co., 1983. C. Huck. Children's Literature in the Elementary School. Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1982. B. Cullinan. Literature and the Child. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1981.
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GL Competencies

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