Leveraging Mobile Technology to Support Public Speaking Skills, S Aleem, P Croisetiere, A Jones, S Jucha, C Wessels

Tags: Research Report, presentation, public speaking, presentations, application, User Reviews, gestures, eye contact, attention grabber, Toastmasters International, Rexi Media, target audience, online application, Schmeidler, Lance E. Schmeidler, motivational speeches, Communications Department, Lance Schmeidler, public speakers, Pew Internet Project, Toastmaster's International, Toastmaster International, Needs Analysis, Paula Croisetiere Allisyn Jones, Shelia Jucha, constructive feedback, presentation delivery, Public Speech
Content: GROUP 3 Leveraging Mobile Technology to Support Public Speaking Skills Needs Analysis & User Research Report Samar Aleem · Paula Croisetiere Allisyn Jones · Shelia Jucha · Christine Wessels
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Table of Contents Background ....................................................................................................................... 1 Problem .............................................................................................................................. 1 User Research .................................................................................................................... 3 Instrument: Online Survey............................................................................................. 3 Survey Results ................................................................................................................. 3 Subject Matter Expert Interviews .............................................................................. 13 Product Review of Existing Public Speech Mobile Training and Support Applications on the iTunes Market ............................................................................... 17 Preface ......................................................................................................................... 17 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 17 Products ........................................................................................................................ 18 Secrets of Success for iPhone .................................................................................... 19 Presentation Clock for iPhone and iPad ................................................................. 22 Presenter Pro for iPhone ............................................................................................. 25 Presenter Pro for iPad ................................................................................................. 29 Prompster Pro TM - Teleprompter for Public Speaking............................................ 32 Design Considerations ................................................................................................ 36 target audience Demographics.................................................................................. 38 Knowledge Gap ............................................................................................................. 39 learning environment | Interface | Context of Use................................................. 40 Performance Goal/Interface Requirements .............................................................. 41 Goal............................................................................................................................... 41 Types of Learning......................................................................................................... 42 Task Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 43 Preliminary Conclusions.................................................................................................. 47 team member Roles and Responsibilities ................................................................... 48 Table of Figures................................................................................................................ 49 References ....................................................................................................................... 50
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Background Public speaking is a skill that often elicits feelings of anxiety and fear whether the speaker is delivering a keynote address to a large group of graduating underclassmen, providing a project status update to clients, teaching a new group of students, or delivering a monologue in a one-man play. Combes et al. (2008) suggests these visceral responses are due in part to several factors such as "skill deficiency, fear of evaluation, audience scrutiny, lack of experience, poor preparation, introversion, and/or low self-esteem" (p. 43). People with high anxiety as Bandura (1997) explains, "magnify the formidableness of the tasks and their personal inadequacies ...worry about the ... consequences of failing, imagine perturbing scenarios of things to overcome, and otherwise think themselves into emotional distress and faulty performance." (Bandura, 1997, pp. 235­236).These self-perpetuated expectations make it extremely challenging for an individual to be an effective public speaker. Fears and anxiety are powerful emotions that can intimidate even the brightest minds to yield the floor to other more experienced speakers, even if it means suffering adverse consequences. To add to this cycle, each attempt to speak in public that is perceived by the speaker as a failure, is an act of self-sabotage that further reinforces the individuals fears. Mastering the art of public speaking is a skill that most people will need at some point in time. Whether the speaker is a kindergarten-aged child "showing and telling," a teacher, religious leader, politician, military leader, business developer, or doctoral student defending their dissertation; the goal is to communicate in a public forum effectively and efficiently. Problem Self-help books have been widely popular for decades however, you can only learn so much by reading. Public speaking is a behavior that must be practiced in order to become proficient. Toastmaster's International is an organization whose mission is to help amateur speakers develop fundamental skills and aid experts to refine and enhance their capabilities. At present, most of the members meet at a designated, physical, location on a routine basis to 1
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report practice, critique, and continuously nurture their skill. This approach has been widely successful as this organization has members from all over the world. At present, all meetings are conducted at a physical location. Public speaking by its very nature requires an individual or individuals to stand before an audience, communicate an idea, tell a story, persuade the audience, or present information. The Toastmasters model is based on a ten-speech program where each speech type builds on the skills developed on the previous speech. Most Toastmaster International meetings are sixty minutes long. In this time two people are scheduled to speak, two people are designated evaluators, and the rest of the group listens intently to the speaker. At the end of the speech, the evaluators provide very specific feedback based on the objectives of the particular speech which is then followed by feedback from the rest of the group. At the end of the feedback session, the speaker is then asked to comment on how they feel they performed, what they thought they could do better, and note successes. This strategy has been very successful however, due to time limits only two members of a group may speak at meetings that occur one or two times per month. Members are permitted to speak at other clubs to gain additional feedback so they can refine their skills until they feel ready to take it to the next level of speech. The main drawback is that there is a limit to how many times a speaker can get in front of an attentive audience within a given timeframe. One of the benefits of the Internet is that anyone can access it anytime, anywhere. social media is commonplace and most people have access to a video camera and social media. By leveraging these technologies we hypothesize that creating an online community of practice (CoP) would serve to offer more opportunities for speakers to stream live webcasts (with shared video so the speaker can gauge the audiences' engagement) and/or record themselves asynchronously and solicit feedback at the convenience of the reviewers just as they would at a meeting. What's more we can integrate mobile technology to extend access to individuals who are comfortable using the technology. After reviewing a number of mobile applications geared towards supporting public speakers, most of them were very limited. Features included timers to help speakers ensure they kept to pre-designated time, tele-prompters (which detract the speaker from making eye-contact with the audience and stunt 2
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report movement), PowerPoint slide design tips, and strategies for preparing a speech (framework). In a nutshell, none of the products employed the use of social media for the purpose of obtaining constructive feedback. A more detailed analysis is available in the Product Review section of this document. The end goal of this process is to develop a solution that will help learners develop new behaviors that will result in a stronger ability to present or speak in public. User Research Instrument: Online Survey A well-informed design is drawn from carefully crafted measurement instruments, triangulation of data, and a careful and objective evaluation of the data collected. In order to design a solution that addresses the needs of the potential users, as a first step, we developed an online survey using Google Docs. This method was selected for several reasons, it was easy to develop, distribute, and capture data all in a single location. The survey was designed to capture input surrounding the challenges speakers face, their level of experience, formal training background, and basic demographics. The survey was distributed to select individuals with a range of experience for the purposes of collecting feedback from novice to expert levels. We employed both closedand open-ended questions for the purposes of obtaining both hard data and narrative responses designed to allow for respondents to elaborate on their initial binary answers. Survey Results A total of 85 users responded to the online survey. Below are the questions from the online user survey followed by a graphic representation of the data. This data will be used to further refine the target audience, identify knowledge gaps, and isolate key features of the mobile solution. 3
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Question 1 What is one aspect of public speaking you struggle with most?
Figure 1 - Speaker Challenges
Challenges
5%
8%
8%
Engage/Connect
37%
11% Timing
Delivery
Preparation
Audience
Other 31%
*1) Remuneration 2) Spittle 3) Very comfortable just frustrated with being asked to speak often 4) Incorporating humor
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Question 2 How do you practice before you make a presentation? Figure 2 - Preparation Methods 5
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Question 3 If you do practice before a presentation/speech, how much time do you invest?
Figure 3 - Time Spent Practicing
Average Practice Time
15%
1%
50% 34%
< 1 Hour 1 Hour 2-4 Hours > 4 Hours
According to the survey, over 50 percent of respondents practice for one hour or less prior to a presentation. As such, there is high probability that many of speakers suffer from performance anxiety due to a lack of preparation. Question 4 Have you ever watched a video of yourself making a speech or listened to a recording? Figure 4 ­ Used a Recording Device to Watch Themselves Speak
38% No Yes 62%
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Question 4A (Follow-up to Question 4) If you answered yes to question 4, what were the results? Reviewing a videotaped presentation provides the presenter the opportunity to see how others see and hear them. Used as a method for practice and refinement, this strategy aids in reducing nervousness and increasing selfconfidence while building their public speaking skills. After reviewing the recording, respondents who employed this strategy indicated that they were pleasantly surprised by their performance thus indicating that many speakers are extraordinarily critical of themselves. By recording themselves they were able to identify successful behaviors as well as areas for improvement such as meaningful vocal inflection, speed, use of fillers, vocalizations that did not communicate what they were thinking, and long pauses. They also observed their position within the space, body language, facial expressions, posture, body movements/fidgeting, and of eye contact. Several respondents noted that they needed to infuse energy into the speech in order to make a better connection with audience. Most respondents reported a positive experience that helped them to improve their skills while a few reported feeling awkward while reviewing the recordings. Question 5 What training/classes have you had in presentation/public speaking? Figure 5 - Public Speaking Training/Experience 7
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report The data shows most of the respondents have had some training, and some continue to hone their presentation skills. Organizations like Toastmasters International consider public speaking essential to developing leadership skills. Acting classes were mentioned by a small percentage of respondents and is really only valuable for practice in front of an audience. Because actors take on roles they are not themselves and can hide behind their character. Dinah Shore confided she had to study public speaking to comfortably host her show. Question 5A (Follow-up to Question 5) If you have had training what tips/advice were helpful? Would you recommend it to others? Why/why not? The responses either indicated the respondents had no training, or they just simply provided recommendations. The survey pool consisted of many Toastmasters International members who recommended becoming a member. As one respondent noted: "Toastmasters International works because you learn by doing." Other respondents also noted that it offers a safe environment to practice every aspect of the public speaking process, from preparing your material to delivery and evaluation. Toastmasters International employs a tenstep program whereby members begin with an "Ice Breaker" speech in which they talk about three or four things about themselves with a time limit of about five minutes. Each speech has a set of objectives that the speaker aims to achieve. These objectives are then used by a designated evaluator to provide the speaker with specific constructive criticism that both recognizes successes and indicates areas for improvement. Following the evaluator the rest of the group is encouraged to provide feedback as well followed by a brief selfevaluation by the speaker. Depending on the type of presentation or speech you are making has an impact on the way it is delivered. However, every speaker aims to communicate an idea, concept, or story, or persuade an audience. Visual aids and humor are useful as long as they add to the presentation and do not distract the audience or used as a crutch or mechanism for hiding. Many respondents advised: practicing in front of an audience of at least one or two people; viewing feedback as an opportunity to improve; paying attention to how quickly you speak; using an outline or bulleted notes; and where possible, knowing the characteristics of the audience. 8
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report After reviewing all of the respondents' input the following tips were of particular interest as it pertains to design considerations: 1.) The most helpful tip when presenting is to have an overall message. Convey it up front and at the end of the presentation so the audience is left with a main takeaway. 2.) Breathe and talk slowly. Nerves tend to speed up our rate of speech. 3.) Do not recite every word on a slide. Less is more when writing/creating a slide, then verbally elaborate on the points. 4.) Practice!" Other responses focused on the audience, read the audience, they will tell you (visually) when it is time to move on to the next topic, and when to ask questions vs. lecture. Set a time limit and stick with it. Some unique responses included: think of yourself as naked (read the Naked Presenter), women should use a serious voice rather than a girlie voice. Mostly it's Practice! Practice! Practice! Question 6 What type of presentation do you usually give? The charts below show that the majority of respondents present some sort of status reports with internal training on policy and procedures coming in at a close second. The third largest category consisted of presentations/speeches all sorts from software demonstrations and academic research findings to awards ceremonies, Team Building exercises, and motivational speeches 9
Figure 6 ­ Types of Presentations
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Question 7 How often do you present at work?
Figure 7 ­ Number of times respondents present or speak in public annually
Frequencies
1% 20%
19% 1%
None Once 2 - 5 times a year
6 - 14 times a year
23%
15 times or more
36% Given 100's of presentations and speeches
Question 8 For statistical purposes please indicate your age range.
Figure 8 ­ Respondent Ages
8%
17%
21%
15%
19%
14%
6%
20-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55-64 Over 65
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Question 9 Please indicate your education level Figure 9 ­ Respondent Levels of Education 5% 1% 23% 11% Question 10 Please indicate your gender. Figure 10 ­ Respondent Gender 65%
Needs Analysis/User Research Report Masters or PhD Some graduate school Undergraduate Degree 60% Some Undergraduate High school 35% Male Female
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Question 11 What is your occupation? Figure 11 ­ Respondent Occupations 4% 2% 8% 8% 9% 10% 10%
Needs Analysis/User Research Report
25% 13% 11%
Education/Training & Support Technical Specialist Business/Business Development Marketing/Finance /Communications Human Resources/ Admin. Support IT Professional Project/ Program Manager Law/Ethics Other* Military
* Other (Housewife [1], PhD Student [1], Social Worker [1], Service Coordinator [1]) Subject Matter Expert Interviews In-person Interviews In order to identify best practices, strategies, and methods for learning how to become a proficient speaker or enhance existing competencies, we engaged in face-to-face interviews with select individuals deemed as subject matter experts (SMEs).
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Lance E. Schmeidler Background Lance Schmeidler is the basic course coordinator for the Communications Department at GMU. He coordinates and manages the Comm 100 and 101 courses. He is responsible for quality assurance as it pertains to course instruction, textbook selection, and ensuring the department acquires and maintains the technology needed to support the educational needs of their programs. The Communications department uses Course Compass, a learning content management system (LCMS) similar to BlackBoard. They selected this product was it provides a larger range of resources such including e-learning tools and online textbooks. Challenges When asked about some of the more prominent challenges the students in his program face, he indicated that self-confidence as the number one obstacle. He describes his student body as highly intelligent (high GPAs) with a high level of desire to develop their skills to address a wide variety of audiences. He also expressed that most of his students enter the classroom with some background in public speaking gained in high school and extracurricular activities. Students accepted into the College of Communications are eager to expand and build their public speaking competencies and the courses provided by the program are designed to help them achieve these goals. Learning Strategies Courses offered by the department emphasize practice, but even more importantly, instructors challenge their students by varying the context of the presentation or speech (e.g. telling a story, debating, persuasion). classroom activities include self-evaluation (reflection) and peer and instructor evaluation based on specific protocols. Students are also strongly encouraged to practice their speeches and presentations outside of the classroom in front of at least two people before they deliver in the classroom. The mainstay of the program is "plan, prepare, and practice." These strategies aim to reduce anxiety and increase self-confidence lending to more effective and engaging speaking capabilities. Technology Mr. Schmeidler stated that it is common practice to record students' presentations and post them to a server hosted by George Mason University 14
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report (GMU) where they are instructed to review the recording. They are then asked to review or critique themselves by identifying opportunities for improvement and recognize behaviors that met their objectives. It is unclear if the instructors have other students review their peer's recordings and provide feedback. As it pertains to the goal of this project, one of the design considerations includes use of social media to solicit constructive feedback from other members of the community of practice, in this case, the students' peers either within the class or the entire department. Further, there is potential to expand this capability to involve other groups within the university (or beyond) who seek to develop their speaking skills. Non-Verbal Communication Many of the courses also concentrate on body language, facial expressions, stage presence and eye-contact as part and parcel of public speaking. Specifically, students are required to move from left to right within the speaking area, pay attention to their posture, gestures, and making eye-contact with members of the audience and to refrain from using fillers, pausing, rifling through notes and outlines, and reading directly from a PowerPoint slide deck. Techniques for Combating Fillers Some speakers have a tendency to use what is often referred to as "fillers." Fillers are non-specific words such as "um," "you know," "er," and pauses to allow them a moment to collect their thoughts and continue their speech. To help students reduce the frequency (and eventually eliminate) these fillers, the audience is instructed to raise their hand every time the speaker uses a filler. The speaker is immediately made aware of this faux pas and must pause for a few moments and then continue with the presentation. Leveraging Mobile Technology According to Lance, there are many considerations that come into play in order to develop a valuable mobile application to aid public speakers. He went on further to say that the goal of the department's student speakers is to manage their presentations/speeches as if they were a conversation. Public speaking by its very nature is performance-based and requires a dialogue between the speaker and the audience (i.e. eye contact, energizing the audience) which may prove to be the most challenging objective if the goal of the application is to help learners connect with the audience. Elocution is quantifiable and is much easier to evaluate and in his opinion, may be the best way to approach design. If the application is designed to be asynchronous (i.e. learners posting 15
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report videos and soliciting feedback) we face a major obstacle, how do we gauge an audience when there is no audience? With this realization, perhaps our design ought to involve a supplementary synchronous feature such as an online collaboration component where the speaker presents to other users via webcam live on a tablet where they can see the other viewers' reactions as they speak. Lessons Learned We asked Lance to discuss an experience of a presentation or speech gone awry. He recalled a situation where he was given a little over a day's notice to address a subject that covered a broad range of topics and was accompanied by an excessively long title. With such a short-fused deadline, he didn't have enough time to sit down and plan, prepare, and practice so he had to adapt. This experience taught him that there may be times when he is called to speak with little notice and as such, must be adaptable. Over the years he's gained a great deal of experience and now prides himself on his ability to adapt to the context of the situation and deliver. Suggestions As it pertains to the goals of this project, Mr. Schmeidler recommended that we focus on understanding who our target audience is and to look into Rosetta Stone. Rosetta Stone is a world-wide renounce language education program that employs visual and auditory learning strategies aimed at helping learners become fluent in new languages. He [Lance] said that their products include exercises where the learner records themselves so they can compare their tone and pitch to that of a fluent speaker. This helps learners to improve their speaking capabilities and brings a more natural delivery to the way they communicate in the new language. 16
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Product Review of Existing Public Speech Mobile Training and Support Applications on the iTunes Market Preface Though Apple and Android both have application libraries, I chose to review applications in the Apple market because they are vetted by Apple and tend to offer higher quality products. The Android market carries and abundance of applications, many of which do not seem to have been subjected to any quality assurance testing and have a higher tendency not to perform on particular devices. apple products all use the same operating system and have a limited number of screen sizes and resolutions whereas Android has dozens of products making it more challenging for developers to create applications that work across all Android-based hardware. Introduction The following products were accessed from Apple's iTunes Store on October 14, 2012. The goal of this analysis is to identify features of existing mobile applications designed to teach or support users as they build their public speaking skills. It is noteworthy to mention that the reviewer was unable to identify any applications that employ augmented reality as a feature. The reviewer used the following key words to search for products geared towards public speaking: public speaking; how to present; speech; leadership; AR speech; and various iterations of these terms. These search terms identified over 200 applications though a large majority of them had nothing to do with supporting public speakers or aiding users in building their speaking skills. It is also important to note that the reviewer did not download and use any of these applications and relied entirely on the vendor's feature descriptions, ratings for all versions of the product and of the current version, and feedback provided by users who downloaded and used the product. User feedback is volunteerbased and candid thereby allowing for honest evaluations without any obvious concerns of bias. It is also important to take into consideration that from a general stand point, users are more likely to post negative reactions than positive, as such the average ratings tend to be lower than if all users were 17
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required to at a minimum, rate the application using a Liker scale of one to five stars, five stars being the highest positive rating and one start being the lowest.
Products
The products selected for review were selected for their various approaches to
teaching and supporting public speakers.
Product Name
Hardware Compatibility
Cost
Metrics
Secrets of Success
iPhone
$0.99
Presentation Clock
iPhone & iPad $0.99
Presenter Pro iPhone
Free
Presenter Pro iPad
Free1
Prompster ProTM
iPad
$4.99
1 Full version available for $2.99. 18
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Secrets of Success for iPhone Application
Screenshots
Ratings
Value %
All versions
3/5
60%
Current version
4/5
80%
Total Ratings 388
Cost $0.99
Description Now one of the top selling paid business apps!!--Carry a Carnegie Coach in your pocket to help you engage with clients, prospects, peers and management anytime, anywhere. Need to motivate your team -- click on "Be a Leader" and see how the pros do it. Do you have conflict in the department -- click on "Gain Cooperation" to see the right way to get everyone rowing in the same direction. Need to enhance your relationships -- watch the wrong way and then the right way to build trust. You'll find secrets of success to be your indispensible pocket coach every time you face one of those tough "people issues." Key Features 90 video clips to show you exactly how to behave in every situation Time tested Worry Principles that help you manage and overcome stressful situations Valuable Tips on how to motivate and engage yourself and your team Daily Dose of Confidence--receive a daily tip that will keep you feeling positive and enthusiastic
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Overall Impression: This product provides users with access to examples of good public speakers. Without access to the actual application it is difficult to know how the vendor determines what constitutes a "good" speech. As such, there does not appear to be any Quantitative data supporting the definition of what makes for a good presentation. One of the advantages of this product is the "Worry Principles" component which is designed to help users overcome the obstacles faced by public speakers. Based on general feedback from the online survey of both amateur and seasoned speakers, confidence is a critical component towards an energetic and engaging presentation. This application further seeks to build learner confidence with their "Daily Dose of Confidence" feature that provides a daily affirmation to help learners maintain an optimistic attitude. User feedback indicate a generally positive response to the application as a whole however some experienced technical difficulties pertaining to video and sound. An even smaller number of users complained that the application was over priced ($0.99) for what they received. 21
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Presentation Clock for iPhone and iPad
Application
Screenshots
Needs Analysis/User Research Report
Ratings
Value %
All versions
4.5
95%
Current version
4.5
95%
Total Ratings 49
Description This app does one thing, but it does it extremely well. If you give presentations, training, tutorials, or speak publicly, this app is for you. Beautifully animated, with large, easy-to-read numbers that change colors at threasholds you determine. When the time hits 0:00, the colors invert (black on red) and continue counting up indicating how long you've gone over. Fully customizable options and simple touch controls. Key Features Create and save as many timers as you want from 0 minutes to 99 minutes and 59 seconds Set time limits for color warnings to change the clock to green, yellow, and red Timers can be configured to give audible and/or vibration alerts when crossing a time limit threashold ­ but if you want a completely silent countdown, that's okay too Output times to an external display using the TV Out adapter
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Overall Impression This product's greatest benefit is enabling speakers to pace themselves. It employs traffic light colors based on the user's pre-programmed times indicating the amount of time the speaker has to complete a section or an entire presentation. This product may be used for practice or on the stage. The alerts may be programmed to be silent, vibrate the hardware, or even provide audible tones thus allowing the user to move around the speaking area. User feedback indicated a desire for a feature that would prevent the speaker from accidentally brushing their hand on the time and inadvertantly pausing it. Another user indicated that they would like to be able to input a time (e.g. 10:00am) as an end point allowing the timer to calculate the amount of time the speaker has left. The overall appeal of this product is its simplicity. Create and save as many timers as you want from 0 minutes to 99 minutes and 59 seconds Set time limits for color warnings to change the clock to green, yellow, and red Timers can be configured to give audible and/or vibration alerts when crossing a time limit threashold ­ but if you want a completely silent countdown, that's okay too Output times to an external display using the TV Out adapter 24
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Presenter Pro for iPhone Application
Screenshots
Needs Analysis/User Research Report
Ratings
Value %
All versions
3.5
70%
Current version
3.5
70%
Total Ratings 326
Description Download Presenter Pro if you want to refine your presentation skills and change the way you present. Your presentations will never be the same again. There is now a new version called Presenter Pro for iPad. Presenter Pro is a professional presentation training application. It is an amazingly rich and comprehensive resource for becoming an exceptional presenter and for creating phenomenal presentation. Whether you're a corporate executive, manager, sales executive, trainer, or lawyer, this advanced presentations skills application will help you present ideas powerfully and persuasively. Key Features Advanced presentation skills techniques with eye-catching supporting graphics, audio, and video clips. Direct access to Rexi Media for additional presentation skills coaching or PPT design guidelines A "tip shaker" for accessing hundreds of quick tips for your presentations. Shake the device while viewing any of the sections for a quick tip. A checklist features, which enables you to store and e-mail any topic pharagraph(s) you want to refer to later.
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Expert User Reviews Presenter Pro was recently featured in the iPhone Life winter edition as the "Editors Choice." It has been in the Economist twice and an Apple commercial. "This is a great app for personal presentations skills. The advice is actionable, and will help anyone raise their game without having to invest in days of training." ­ Stan Christensen, Lecturer on Negotiation at Stanford University "Effective presentation skills are critical to growing a company's business. Presenter Pro has not only helped me polish my presentations, but allows me to keep those skills sharp while on the go." ­ Tom Hale, Chief Product Officer, Linden Lab, makers of Second Life "Too often you never get a second chance to present. I find that Presenter Pro allows you that chance on the plane or in the car to make sure that your presentation is unique and memorable. Sometimes this is the the difference between winning and losing the big deal. It is such a valuable tool for any sales professional." ­ Deron Miller, SVP Sales, Americas, Nuance Communications, Inc. 26
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Overall Impression This product employs a variety of educational techniques with regard to specific behaviors and activities that the learners can do to help improve their speaking skills. Features include a step-by-step process from preparation to execution, vocal qualities, guidance on non-verbal behaviors (body language), tips for designing slides, daily expert tips, and access to Rexi Media online coaching and PowerPoint design guidelines. Overall this is a comprehensive application appropriate for all levels of speakers and would serve as a good baseline for a more interactive product that invites individual custom feedback on user-posted videos by integrating social media such that allows for other users within the community of practice to view and rate. Advanced presentation skills techniques with eye-catching supporting graphics, audio, and video clips. Direct access to Rexi Media for additional presentation skills coaching or PPT design guidelines A "tip shaker" for accessing hundreds of quick tips for your presentations. Shake the device while viewing any of the sections for a quick tip. A checklist features, which enables you to store and e-mail any topic pharagraph(s) you want to refer to later. 28
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Presenter Pro for iPad Application
Screen Shots
Needs Analysis/User Research Report
Ratings
Value %
All versions
--
--
Current version
3/5 60%
Total Ratings 53
Description Have you ever attended a presentation where the presenter galvanized and mesmerized you so much that you wanted to beat on your chest and go out and do wonderful things afterwards? That presenter most likely learned from the practical techniques included in Presenter Pro. Rexi Media and SOAP partnered to develop Presenter Pro for the iPad. Presenter Pro for the iPad was created because of one reality; good presentations are stimulating presentations. They radiate. They breathe. They inspire. And they last. Imagine being able to produce and deliver earth-shattering presentations that endure and enable others to act. Whether you're a corporate executive, manager, sales executive, trainer, or lawyer, this advanced presentation skills application will help you present ideas powerfully and persuasively. Presenter Pro for the iPad is not only cognitively engaging but aesthetically pleasing. The app is packed with hundreds of beautiful, high-resolution graphics; it may take a few minutes to download, but the wait is worthwhile. For a small fee you can upgrade to the Full version of Presenter Pro right within the app. This will give you access to 75% more content! Key Features 29
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Advanced presentation skills techniques, amplified by beautiful and practical examples Ability to Email any of the content and examples to your friends and colleagues Bookmarking Free sample template Elegant, easy to use interface Direct access to Rexi Media for additional presentation skills coaching and PPT design guidelines Sample User Reviews 30
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Overall Impression: Though this application has stunning visuals, after reviewing a number of the user feedback on iTunes, it seems this is a pretty app that touts great features but essentially just lectures the user on basic speaking skills. There is a paid version that gives users access to "75% more features" however, it is only accessible from within the free version. Based on the description, screen shots, and user feedback, this application is less interactive and focuses more on the aesthetics of the application itself. 31
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Prompster Pro TM - Teleprompter for Public Speaking
Application
Screen Shots
Needs Analysis/User Research Report
Ratings All versions Current version Total Ratings
Value % 3.5/5 70% 4.5/5 90% 71
Description THE ULTIMATE PUBLIC SPEAKING COMPANION Eliminate cue cards, flash cards, notes and scripts forever. FEATURED BY APPLE AS NEW AND NOTEWORTHY Prompster PROTM is the ultimate teleprompter for the iPad. It smoothly scrolls easily readable text for audible presentations. PERFECT FOR BUSINESS PRESENTATIONS & PUBLIC SPEAKING It is the ideal app for practicing and delivering public speeches, lectures, podcats, radio scripts, video scripts, and for any other scenario that requires a speaker to communicate with an audience using notes or a script. 32
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Key Features VIDEO RECORDING* Video recording and PIP (picture in pictures) for iPad2* Users Only DIGITAL AUDIO RECORDER Great for practice sessions or live presentations Hear your speech the way others do Improve your speaking skills by lstening to recorded sessions to identify areas for improvement Transfer recorded audio files to your Mac or PC using iTunes files share
OTHER FEATURES Scroll text at variable speeds Start and stop scrolling at any time Tape and scroll text to quickly get to any section of the document Tracks elapsed time Increase or decrease the scrolling speed and font size on the fly Create or edit documents within Prompster PROTM Copy and past text from Apple's Pages, Email, or any other app that contains text Import .txt documents using iTunes file sharing Export .txt files via email
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Overall Impression Even our President uses a teleprompter to address the nation! This his application is a great supplemental tool for helping users pace themselves and provides a neat and clean way of organizing thoughts and key points. The one draw back is that the user is probably likely to remain stationary when speaking and may come across as stagnant while standing in one place reading a script. One of the unique features this product offers is PIP or Picture in Picture which, allows the user to see themselves while they speak. It emulates speaking in front of a mirror which provides instant feedback to the user while they speak. This product is largely well-received by users as having an intuitive interface, use for a variety of speaking engagements, and capturing and sharing content. One reviewer indicated that they would like to be able to import and delete multiple files at the same time, and have more control over the size of the text. 35
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Design Considerations Common User Obstacles Based on the feedback received from the online survey, the four top obstacles faced by public speakers are the following: Not enough time to practice Fear of how the audience receives the presentation (negative projection), low-self esteem Difficulty controlling physical responses to fear, anxiety, and stress Poor or lack of preparation Features (Informed by Online Survey and User Product Reviews) Mobile applications enable users to be more productive during "down time" (e.g. riding the train to work, waiting in line, etc.) thus providing users with more time to learn, prepare, and practice. To overcome fear practice, guidance, constructive feedback, and positive reinforcement are key to breaking a selfsabotaging cycle of being overly critical of oneself. Providing users with access to best practices, examples of successful presentations, and structure are possible solutions. After reviewing the aforementioned applications, the following features are recommended for the development of a new mobile product: Quantified feedback on expert presentations designated as "good" Tips, strategies, and best practices for overcoming fear, anxiety, and stress with actionable practices and suggestions Positive affirmations that encourage learners to approach speaking in public with an optimistic attitude Enable controlled pacing using auditory, tactile (vibrating phone), and visual cues; timing based on a specific amount of time (in minutes) or by entering the desired end time (e.g. 10:00am) with a count down Provide users with a structure for preparing and executing their public speaking engagements Teleprompter to replace note cards and slide notes Guidance on body language and exercises for avoiding behaviors that distract the audience (can we use AR for this?) Picture in picture (PIP) allowing the user to see themselves as they speak Recording of practice and formal speeches with upload capability to a community of practice where other members may use a rating system 36
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report (thumbs up/thumbs down) and comment area for constructive feedback and adulation (increase speaker confidence and raise self-esteem) Ability to upload text documents for use in teleprompter feature Conclusion In terms of hardware, functional, and aesthetics, we must aim to develop an intuitive interface, employ the three-tap rule (no more than three taps to access any area or function). If we are to employ all of the features listed above including the teleprompter and pacing timer, a tablet to increase legibility. Another consideration is designing a product that also supports users with disabilities by allowing for resizing of text, using audible tones (for pacing), and where possible, enabling the vibration feature. To offer a comprehensive product, it is recommended that developers design a dual-purpose product designed to prepare and educate learners as well as a support aid. This broadens the potential consumer pool and provides both memory and cost savings to the buyer. Additionally, offering a product based on Apple's iOS, we reduce the potential of the product's features not working on any particular device. 37
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Target Audience Demographics The demographics of our survey respondents are a good indication of the probable demographics of our target audience. The following are the background demographics of those users that responded to our survey: their ages span a wide range; starting their professional career or looking forward to retiring soon, with most in the lower and upper ranges; 20-29 and 45-54, 55-64. The majority of our survey users are well educated; 59% with graduate degrees and 22% with undergraduate degrees. About twice as many users are female versus male. Most of our survey users are business professionals working full time in corporate, government, and academic or educational environments. Most survey users spend less than 4 hours practicing their presentation; 50% only 1 hour and 25% 2-4 hours. Most survey users employ multiple ways to practice and prepare. A vast majority prepare nonverbally; 87% write out their presentation to prepare, 73% go over it in their heads, and 60% do both. Some also include a verbal practice; 37% do a dry run with colleagues and 23% practice in front of a mirror. The survey users give presentations quite often; 25% perform over 15 presentations a year and 27% present 6-14 times a year. In addition, the members of Toastmasters International represent a user pool with the same learning goal as our target audience; to become more confident about and improve performance in public speaking and presentation delivery. Their posted2 demographics for members are: 52% of members are female and 48% are male. The average member age is 45.8 years. 25.4% of members are between the ages of 18 and 34. 74% of members have a bachelor's degree or higher. 35% of members have a master's degree or higher. 2 Member Demographics. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2012, from Toastmasters International: http://www.toastmasters.org/Members/MembersFunctionalCategories/AboutTI/MemberDemographics.aspx 38
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report What industries employ Toastmasters International? 17% professional, scientific and technical services 15% finance, insurance and real estate 8% educational services 14% other Only 3.2% of members are unemployed. According to Pew Internet Project3, more than half of all adult cell phone owners use their phones to access the internet. A cell internet user is anyone who accesses internet or email on their mobile phones. 55% of all adult cell phone owners use their phones for one or both of these reasons. Based on the results of this survey 88% of all adult in the U. S. own cell phones and that means 49% of all U. S. adults go online using their cell phones. Based upon the demographic data from our survey users and Toastmasters International members, our target audience will be mature, well educated professionals, slightly more than half being females. Even though they conduct numerous presentations in a year, not a lot of time is spent preparing. Most of the time individuals do not perform their practice sessions out loud, very rarely recording it, rather they write it down and go over it in their heads. Further, based upon Pew Internet findings, a vast majority of our target audience own cell phones, over half being smartphones, and almost half of the cell phone users will go online with their phones. Knowledge Gap According to the survey and the interviews conducted during the research process there are several reasons people struggle with public speaking. The survey results show that most people struggle with being anxious and nervous when speaking in front of an audience and not being prepared enough before a presentation. Delivery of the speech, staying within a certain time limit, 3 Cell Internet Use 2012 Main Findings. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2012, from Pew Internet Project: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Cell-Internet-Use-2012/Main-Findings/Cell-InternetUse.aspx 39
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report engaging, and connecting with the audience are also key factors that come into play. Interviewing several subject matter experts helped support the data we collected in the online user survey. From the interview with a communication faculty member at GMU, we gathered that there are many ways to prepare for a speech or presentation and most people are not aware of the different techniques that can help them. Some the techniques that are taught in communications classes are practicing in front of an audience, in front of a mirror, recording the presentation and being able to study it later, getting feedback from the audience right away to correct errors and gaps. Practicing the speech or presentation also helps with nerves and anxiety over speaking in front of people. These classes also offer help with engaging with the audience and using body language during presentations. Most people who have not had any training in public speaking often do not realize the different ways to prepare themselves for a speaking engagement. If they are not part of a group similar to Toastmasters International or a Public Speaking course, they are not able to get feedback on their presentation skills and ways to improve them. Studying techniques and reading about them without applying them does not help as there is no reaction, feedback or comments offered on ways to improve their presentations. There is a need for an easily accessible application that would allow the users to connect with people, get feedback on their presentations, and be able to study their own presentations. Learning Environment | Interface | Context of Use The learning environment is an on demand, whenever the user has the time and opportunity to accomplish their learning activities of preparing and organizing the speech content, practicing the presentation and incorporating suggested techniques to gain confidence, and evaluating recorded practice sessions, either their own or other users, to improve its quality. Mobile technology will allow users to interact with the application on the plane, train, metro, or in a carpool. They can also utilize the application in the evenings after the family is settled down for the night or first thing in the morning before others awaken or even on lunch breaks at work. The portability of today's mobile apps allows for this flexibility in time and location, much different from the traditional scheduled class time and physical classroom environments of the past. 40
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report A possible learning scenario might include the user taking brief moments to think about the content of their upcoming presentation and jotting down notes in their mobile device as reminders to themselves; areas of concentration could include the major points or objectives of the speech, the introduction or attention grabber, the closing or selling point, and possible items of humor or storytelling that can be inserted. At a later time, as their schedule permits, they would accumulate and organize these thoughts and ideas to compile an outline for their presentation and then, as they are able to find chunks of time, fill in the details to complete the fully written speech. Once completed, they can now practice and record the presentation in a quiet location, utilizing their mobile device. The practice session videos will be reviewed online by the user and other designated evaluators. Physical data such as timings, eye contact, and vocalizations will also be diagnosed. Based upon the input received, the user can repeat sessions until they are satisfied; practicing, recording, reviewing, and receiving feedback again. The evaluation of the final practice speech is particularly important and is imparted by a large number of individuals to provide the user with a greater feeling of accomplishment and strong confidence in their presentation content and delivery. Performance Goal/Interface Requirements Learning Goals The goal of the 4P mobile application is to enable individuals to develop and enhance their public speaking skills using a self-directed application that allows them to learn at their own pace. As the survey results showed, most people struggle with anxiety, time management, sounding professional and rehearsed, speaking articulately and maintaining eye contact. The application would provide users with an interactive practice environment that will help them gain confidence in their speaking ability, connect with the audience, organize their presentation effectively, practice with ad-hoc audience questions, master time management, while also receiving feedback from peers. 41
Types of Learning
Needs Analysis/User Research Report
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General information/Knowledge: The 4P Application seeks to provide educational content to help novice learners acquire the basic skills necessary for planning, preparing, practicing, and ultimately performing. The application shall include valuable guidance on how to structure a given type of presentation, insights on how to engage the audience using body language, stage presence, eye-contact, gestures, props, and humor as appropriate. A key component of the application must include a live webcast feature. Based on Mr. Schneibler's recommendation, the only way for a speaker to gauge the audience's level of engagement is to be able to see their reactions (i.e. facial expressions, body language, laughter, etc.). This cannot be achieved recording one's self and posting it online for critique by other members of the community. However, this does not diminish the value of posting recordings of speaker's online and soliciting feedback. By enlisting this feature, learners have access to as many audiences as they feel they need, to obtain as much constructive feedback as they feel is necessary for them to develop their skill. Feedback from users in the product competition analysis and discussion with the VAST Toastmaster International group revealed that novice users benefit from a structured approach. In essence, the application shall provide the learner with a framework including objectives and strategies to help them prepare a speech or presentation. The President of VAST mentioned that speakers experience difficult in selecting a topic to present as such, he suggested integrating a topic repository. All of these components combined are aimed at providing users with the strategies, methods, techniques, and exercises necessary to help them develop their skills. Analysis: The 4P Application will provide individualized feedback to users by assessing the speakers. Users will also get feedback from other users once they have shared their presentations. Evaluation: Constructive feedback is the key to refining this skill as such, learners will receive feedback from members of the CoP including a self-evaluation for comparison purposes. The synchronous webcast feature will enable the user to 42
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report gauge audience engagement. Together these features enable all of the feedback speakers receive in a Toastmasters International event. Interface Requirements: The application will be interactive, collaborative, ondemand, allow for synchronous or asynchronous speeches, and provide constructive feedback based on specified protocols and a thumbs up/thumbs down rating system. Task Analysis The tasks related to the cognitive learning goals of gaining confidence about speaking in public and organizing the presentation to be well prepared involves ensuring a clear understanding of the content and conveying the major points in the speech or presentation and then practicing and evaluating it and receiving feedback. By practicing verbal expression of these main elements in a clear and concise manner with a simulated or collaborating audience, the users become more comfortable and confident with the content and its delivery. The additional physical learning goals of becoming aware of movement of the body during the speech, ensuring the timing of the presentation, and maintaining eye contact with the audience will be addressed with evaluation of learner practice sessions, both by the learner themselves and collaboratively by other individuals. The practice sessions can be evaluated in person with a live audience or by collaborative technological review of a recording of the session. The use of tools in the tasks is paramount; first utilizing a presentation tool such as PowerPoint to assist with the content management and organization, second using a tool to record the practice sessions, such as an audio recorder or more preferably a video recording or webcam, third employing technology allowing self-assessment at a minimum and collaborative evaluation at best, and lastly utilizing a technology that would capture and analyze body movements, timing, and eye contact. The combination of these devices allows the user to engage in public speaking simulations and evaluate them prior to the final presentation 43
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report itself, which reduces the level of anxiety and discomfort and improves performance. Specific learning tasks involved would be: After noting that ten online application users had evaluated their recorded speech, the user reviews the feedback provided and takes notes to improve their next practice. The user evaluates their own video of their practice, being especially aware of their body posture, gestures, and eye contact. While practicing in front of a mirror, the user sees the augmented predefined cues on the teleprompter, as well as the large audience that is watching them as they rehearse. The user can review the report produced by the application that shows the timing of their presentation, start to finish, and the numbers of "um"s and "ah"s and "you knows", as well as how long the pauses stretched between verbal sections of content. Post a question to the online community forum of application users for a suggestion to their need for an attention grabber based upon the objective or main goal of their presentation. Enter a tip in the application users online speech journal. The tasks are not required to occur chronologically from top to bottom, rather the users can accomplish them in the order that works best for them. However, for purposes of clarification, an example hierarchy of tasks is shown below. 1. Prepare presentation 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Main objective 1.1.2 Attention grabber 1.2 Body 1.2.1 First supporting item 1.2.2 Second supporting item 1.2.3 Third supporting item 1.3 Conclusion 1.3.1 Summarize 1.3.2 Closing remark 1.4 Main points 1.4.1 Brief outline 1.4.2 Goals to convey 44
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report 1.4.3 Abbreviated supporting details 1.5 Confidence and comfort with content knowledge 2. Practice speech 2.1 Read out loud complete written presentation 2.1.1 Familiarize content 2.1.2 Note areas of emphasis 2.1.3 Time reading 2.2 Verbalize introduction, supporting items, and conclusion 2.2.1 Setup parameters of main topics for teleprompter 2.2.2 Determine timing of subsections 2.2.3 Use vocal emphasis for attention grabber 2.2.4 Ensure hierarchy and flow of supporting items 2.2.5 Caution for um's and ah's 2.2.6 Emotionalize conclusion 2.3 Include body movement, gestures, and eye contact 2.3.1 Practice moving around front of room 2.3.1.1 Move from left to right and back to center 2.3.1.2 Move from right to left and back to center 2.3.2 Practice gestures 2.3.2.1 Practice gesturing with right arm 2.3.2.1.1 Determine comfort zone 2.3.2.1.2 Determine applicability 2.3.2.2 Practice gesturing with left arm 2.3.2.2.1 Determine comfort zone 2.3.2.2.2 Determine applicability 2.3.2.3 Practice gesturing with both arms 2.3.2.3.1 Determine comfort zone 2.3.2.3.2 Determine applicability 2.3.2.4 Practice gesturing with pointing hand 2.3.2.4.1 Determine comfort zone 2.3.2.4.2 Determine applicability 2.3.3 Maintain eye contact 2.3.3.1 Maintain eye contact with teleprompter dummy 2.3.3.2 Move eye contact amongst several audience members 2.3.3.3 Maintain eye contact for major areas of emotion or importance 45
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report 2.3.3.4 Maintain eye contact with focal point in room 2.4 Insert humorous anecdote 2.4.1 Google search if necessary 2.4.2 Review facial expression in mirror when rehearse 2.4.3 Consider appropriate placement 2.4.4 Determine applicability 2.5 Apply storyline to supporting item 2.5.1 Discover story related to major point 2.5.2 Practice integrating story in speech content 2.5.3 Determine applicability 2.6 Confidence and comfort with presentation format 3. Evaluate presentation practice 3.1 Self-evaluation 3.1.1 Consider coverage of content 3.1.1.1 Grab attention 3.1.1.2 Cover main topics 3.1.1.3 Flow from topic to topic 3.1.1.4 Interesting or emotional or persuasive conclusion 3.1.2 Observe body language, movement, gestures, and eye contact 3.1.2.1 Stand in one place or move 3.1.2.2 Do gestures look natural 3.1.2.3 Is eye contact persistent 3.1.3 Consider timing 3.1.3.1 Start on time 3.1.3.2 Timing of sections 3.1.3.3 End on time 3.2 Peer evaluation 3.2.1 Consider coverage of content 3.2.1.1 Grab attention 3.2.1.2 Cover main topics 3.2.1.3 Flow from topic to topic 3.2.1.4 Interesting or emotional or persuasive conclusion 3.2.2 Observe body language, movement, gestures, and eye contact 3.2.2.1 Stand in one place or move 46
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report 3.2.2.2 Do gestures look natural 3.2.2.3 Is eye contact persistent 3.2.3 Consider timing 3.2.3.1 Start on time 3.2.3.2 Timing of sections 3.2.3.3 End on time 3.3 Technology evaluation 3.3.1 Timing 3.3.1.1 Start time 3.3.1.2 Timing of sections 3.3.1.3 End time 3.3.2 Eye contact 3.3.2.1 Persistent eye contact occurrences 3.3.2.2 Movement of eyes to left count 3.3.2.3 Movement of eyes to right count 3.3.3 Vocalizations 3.3.3.1 Count of um's 3.3.3.2 Count of ah's 3.3.3.3 Count of you know's 3.3.3.4 Count of long pauses 3.3.3.5 Count of loud emphasis 3.4 Confidence with final presentation Preliminary Conclusions Based on the feedback received, the vast majority of the potential users are highly educated yet they suffer from performance anxiety due to several key factors: Projection (fear of how the audience perceives them and/or the content of the presentation) Failure to prepare and practice (either because they do not have the time or do not employ effective practice strategies such as practicing in their head) Low self-confidence The ultimate goal of the P4 mobile application at this point in the process 47
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report will allow individuals to practice public speaking within their own space on their own time, allow them to set their own goals, provide them with critiques and evaluations from peers, receive challenges, and helpful personalized tips for becoming a successful public speaker. With this practice within this application many of the addressed issues that many adults face with public speaking will no longer be struggles, but rather turned into a skill. Team Member Roles and Responsibilities Team Member Roles and Responsibilities Samar Aleem Role: Team Member Responsibilities: Interview GMU Professor, Learning/Performance Goal, Knowledge/training gap Paula Croisetiere Role: Team Member Responsibilities: data analysis, field research for Toastmaster's, Cover Design, Communications Documenter Allisyn Jones Role: Team Lead Responsibilities: Background, Problem Analysis, Learning/Performance Goal Shelia Jucha Role: Team Member Responsibilities: Task Analysis, Define Learning Environment, Demographics of Target Audience Christine Wessels Role: Team Member Responsibilities: Quantitative Data Analysis of Online Survey, Competitive Product Analysis, Technical Editing, Final Formatting 48
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report Table of Figures Figure 1 - Speaker Challenges ........................................................................................ 4 Figure 2 - Preparation Methods ...................................................................................... 5 Figure 3 - Time Spent Practicing ..................................................................................... 6 Figure 4 ­ Used a Recording Device to Watch Themselves Speak........................... 6 Figure 5 - Public Speaking Training/Experience ........................................................... 7 Figure 6 ­ Types of Presentations .................................................................................. 10 Figure 7 ­ Number of times respondents present or speak in public annually...... 11 Figure 8 ­ Respondent Ages.......................................................................................... 11 Figure 9 ­ Respondent Levels of Education ................................................................ 12 Figure 10 ­ Respondent Gender................................................................................... 12 Figure 11 ­ Respondent Occupations ......................................................................... 13 49
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Needs Analysis/User Research Report References Bandura, A. (1997) Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control (New York, W. H. Freeman and Company). Brown, T., & Morrissey, L. (2004). The Effectiveness of Verbal Self-Guidance as a Transfer of Training Intervention: Its Impact on Presentation Performance, self efficacy and Anxiety. Innovations In Education And Teaching International, 41(3), 255-271. Combes, B. H., Walker, M., Harrell, P., & Tyler-Wood, T. (2008). PAVES: A Presentation Strategy for Beginning Presenters in Inclusive Environments. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 41(1), 42-47. Friend, J., Adams, A., & Curry, G. (2011). Breaking News: Utilizing Video Simulations to Improve Educational Leaders' Public Speaking Skills. Journal Of Research On Leadership Education, 6(5), 234-249. 50

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