Human Geography, Caesars Palace, active learning, College Board, regional geography, SPU, Active Learning Strategies, William Pattison, Pittsburg State University, full professors, High School Geography Project, Advanced Placement, professional learning communities, Plymouth State University, Jay Sarno, Advanced Placement Human Geography, Geography Education Standards Project, Eric Clearinghouse, critical thinking, Fort Hays State University, Lena Ballone Duran, Hyun Joong Kim, Concordia University, Eastern New Mexico University, Lamar University, Armstrong Atlantic State University, University Richard Bieker, Suffolk County Community College Mark Bellnap, quantitative and qualitative data, Black faculty shortages, full professor, mixed methods, total population, faculty shortages, Social Science Index, Jay Jackson Sarno, Austin Peay State University, qualitative and quantitative data, Northwest Missouri State University, Geography Classroom, Geographic Education National Implementation Project, National Geographic Society, collaborative communities, intensive collaboration, professional development, National Geography Standards Project, Circus Circus, ancient Rome, David Schwartz, Geography Teacher, New York, Jay Sarno Jr., National Social Science Journal, National Social Science Association, Collaborative learning, cooperative learning, National Social Science Association Mailing Address, Bankruptcy Judge Corporate Caesar, Austin Peay University, Bowling Green State University, Caesars Entertainment Corporation, Las Vegas
Volume 49 Number 2 2018 NATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL Official Journal of the National Social Science Association
Name of Publication: NATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL Issue: Volume 49 # 2 ISSN 2154-1736 Frequency: Quarterly Offices of Publication: National Social Science Association Mailing Address 2020 Hills Lake Drive El Cajon, CA 92020 Office Address: 9131 Fletcher Parkway, Suite 119 La Mesa, CA 91942 On Line journals: http://nssa.us E-mail address: [email protected]
; [email protected]
The National Social Science Journal is being abstracted in: Cabell's Directory; Eric Clearinghouse; EBSCO, Economic Abstracts; Historical Abstracts; Index to Periodical Articles; Social Science Source; Social Science Index; Sociological Abstracts; the University Reference System. We wish to thank all authors for the licensing of the articles. And we wish to thank all those who have reviewed these articles for publication This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Editor, Barba Patton EDITORIAL BOARD Editorial Board: Nancy Adams., Lamar University Stanley Alexander, Suffolk County Community College Mark Bellnap, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Richard Bieker, Delaware State University Benita Bruster, Austin Peay University Sue Burum, Minnesota State University, Mankato Jose da Cruz, Armstrong Atlantic State University Robert Dewhirst, Northwest Missouri State University Amy Shriver Dreussi, University of Akron Talitha Hudgins, Utah Valley University James Mbuva, National University Barbara Peterson, Austin Peay University Pegly Vaz, Fort Hays State University
NATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL Volume 49 #2 Table of Contents
Using Active Learning Strategies in Major Assignments
Timothy J Bailey, Catherine A Hooey, Pittsburg State University
Hyun Joong Kim, Plymouth State University
STEM in the Park: A Model Program that Provides Roots for STEM learning
Emilio Duran,Eric Worch, Lena Ballone Duran, Jacob Burgoon,
Bowling Green State University
William Pattison's Content and Pedagogy in the Geography Classroom: A
Research Study of A.P. Human Geography Teachers
Jayson D. Evaniuck , Eastern New Mexico University
Jeffrey M. Byford, The University of Memphis
It's a Lego Life: The Building Blocks of Aging
Patricia M. Kirtley, Independent Scholar
William M. Kirtley, Central Texas College
Welcome to Caesars!
The First Themed Casino in Las Vegas
Patricia M. Kirtley, Independent Scholar
William M. Kirtley, Central Texas College
Listening for Healing: Introducing Educators to the Use of Children's
Books for Bibliotherapy and Self-to-text Strategies.
Shannon M. Leinen, Kathleen B. Wheeler, Concordia University, Nebraska
Where Have All The Black Academicians Gone?
A Case Study Mixed Methods Evaluation Of Shortages In
Black Faculty In Higher Education
Erin Lynch, Marsha Lyle-Gonga, Austin Peay State University
QuikTrip vs. RaceWay
Amber Payne, Ethan Smith, Kimberly Gibson, Abigail Patanao,
Dr. Beheruz N. Sethna, The University of West Georgia
The End of Germany: The Impact of Muslim Migration
Marcus Stadelmann, The University of Texas at Tyler
NEW YORK AND THE END OF MR. MADISON'S WAR
Harvey Strum, The Sage Colleges
Using Active Learning Strategies in Major Assignments Timothy J Bailey, PhD Pittsburg State University Catherine A Hooey, PhD Pittsburg State University Hyun Joong Kim, PhD Plymouth State University The Challenge: Breaking from the traditional teaching pedagogy of lectures and passive learning This paper explores the application of active learning strategies to larger scale, time-intensive assignments in junior and senior level university classes. Activities associated with active learning methods will be assessed in the context of sustainability-related assignments in geography. While there are many quick active learning strategies: think-pair-share, one minute papers, small group discussion, brainstorming, etc., the focus of this paper is on strategies that are much more demanding and time consuming for the student, particularly assignments that contribute substantially to their final grade (typically 20-30%). Challenges to the various methodologies, including open ended student-driven learning and assessment of individual performance in group activities will be discussed. For decades, it has been common for geography to offer formal lecture-based courses and separate lab courses, or at least lab components. These labs typically require the application of concepts that are introduced in the lecture, where information is presented via lecture delivery with passive learning by the student. Formal exams are the primary method of assessment. For many instructors, active learning has meant lab assignments and research papers for individual students. While it is not uncommon for labs to be completed by pairs of students, the numerous challenges associated with the assessment of individual performance within groups precludes other group activities. Over the past several years, pedagogy in geography has expanded to include a number of active learning strategies that have changed the way information is presented and the way student learning is assessed. These are often perceived as a radical shift and polarize faculty in terms of what is suitable delivery and suitable assessment. This lack of consensus is due, in part, to the lack of understanding of the assumptions / pedagogy behind the application and assessment of active learning approaches. This is amplified by the fact that there is no universally accepted definition of `active learning'. Bonwell and Eison (1991) note in their Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) report that the term has never been precisely defined in the relevant educational literature. The authors provide a working definition: "Active learning engages students in two aspects doing things and thinking about the things they are doing" (Bonwell and Eison, 1991:19). Berry (2008:150) refines this somewhat, suggesting that four key elements characterize all active learning approaches: "(1) encouragement of critical thinking, (2) responsibility for learning placed on the learner, (3) engagement in open-ended activities, and (4) organization of the learning activities by the educator." There is a growing body of research (Doyle, 2011; Zull, 2011; Prince, 2004; Weimer, 2002) that indicates that to learn, students must do more than just listen. They must engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation. This may suit many geography courses, because field/lab assignments are a typical way of applying the concepts learned in lectures. The big difference is 1
facilitating the learning of foundational information through other than the instructor-controlled environment of the formal lecture. Active Learning Strategies: An Overview Within the greater active learning milieu, there are three related approaches that have been identified as being most conducive to active learning. While all involve group activities, each has its own set of challenges with regard to level of content control by the instructor and the assessment of student learning outcomes. Collaborative learning: This is an instructional method where students work together in small groups toward a common goal. The core element is the emphasis on student interaction as much as it is on content learning. It is less structured than cooperative learning (see the section that follows) and the tasks are more open-ended. The instructor basically abdicates their leadership role (Cooper and Robinson, 1997; Rockwell, 1995a, 1995b). As such, it is more closely tied to social constructionism--the development of jointly constructed ideas that form the basis for our shared knowledge or assumptions (Lock and Strong, 2010; Leeds-Hurwitz, 2009). Skills gained, such as collaboration and conflict resolution, are very valuable in the real world but harder to evaluate in terms of individual contribution. Typically, assessment takes place at the group level, as individual efforts are obscured by the process itself. Consequently, high performing students may not favor this type of activity. Cooperative learning: This involves a structured form of group work where students pursue common goals. The assignment is typically more structurally defined than in collaborative learning, and requires greater project design and monitoring/direction by the instructor (Cooper and Robinson, 1997; Rockwell, 1995a, 1995b.). This approach is seen to better align with the methodology of building a foundational or traditional knowledge base. Typically, students are assessed individually as well as a group. Many students who are grade-sensitive feel more secure with this emphasis, knowing they will be rewarded for their individual contribution (peer assessment, self-assessment, group assessment, etc.). Problem-based learning: As the label implies, this begins with a problem introduced at the beginning of the instruction cycle. Students work together in small groups to solve real-world, application-type problems related to the course material. The problem, and solving it, provides the context and the motivation for the learning that should follow. It is always active, but may not be collaborative or cooperative. It also typically requires more self-directed learning on the part of the student/students (Prince, 2004). The challenge for the faculty is assessing the value of knowledge growth by the student versus the extent of project completion. Assignments: strategies and objectives To facilitate active learning, we have been working to incorporate these three strategies in our upper level courses, as these are most applicable to major assignments. These methods do not have to be used in isolation; combining them in different ways allows the creation of innovative and thoughtful learning opportunities. The examples that follow demonstrate the ways in which we use and combine them to different extents in our exercises. More relevantly, different methods can be used at different stages throughout the progression of an assignment. Case study presentations and evaluations (limited cooperative group): The overall goal of this assignment example is for each student to complete the analysis of a resolved case study in resource conflict management. As the first step in the process, in order to choose the most appropriate case study for analysis, each student presents an overview of two potential case studies to the class. Then, as a group (faculty and students), everyone helps explore the potential of each case study using a common set of criteria (identified by the instructor): policies, stakeholders, identifiable relationships, etc. The group goal is to help each student select the best case study for a follow-up indepth study by the individual. The final grade is based on the individual. Experience to date indicates that the class as a whole feels more invested in all of the materials and processes related not only to their work but to their classmates' work as well. The individual feels safer and more likely to succeed with the group's input. 2
Case studies presentations and evaluations (cooperative group): Following a formal lecture of the broader topic/issue at hand (such as New Urbanism
or urban sustainability), small groups are required to independently research, present and write about case studies in order to demonstrate their understanding and application of content. Next, the class works as a whole to evaluate these examples, using popular metrics (provided by the instructor). This assignment structure allows both the group and the individual to be graded on contribution. To date, the ability of groups to select examples of greatest interest to them has resulted in high quality student work. It has fostered cooperation that has carried over to other projects. Being involved in the evaluation of others' work helps individual students gain critical thinking skills and acquire additional perspectives on the application of the content. Potential applications to local community settings (collaborative group): Following group presentations of materials on sustainability case studies, small groups examine their own community and select applications they think would be beneficial. They then create a presentation explaining what, where, why, and how. The end goal is to create a variety of options that could be presented to our city commission, and displayed at our undergraduate research forum. This is an open-ended assignment. Group grading is typical. A major objective here is the expansion of their community sustainability awareness; this has, in some cases, led to civic engagement and action. Simulation exercises (collaborative group): As a lengthy final group assignment in an urban geography/development class, the students are required to draw on the content learned and apply it as they see fit to a redevelopment scenario. Building on a simulation created by the Urban Land Institute (ULI) entitled Urban Plan, the students are presented with a hypothetical inner city and a request for proposals from the mayor, where they will redevelop a few blocks into a new neighborhood. In this structured assignment, there are land use needs, budget restrictions, environmental and societal complications, etc. The emphasis is on content application as compared to learning new materials. This is an open-ended assignment. Group grading is typical. This exercise has proven to be highly successful in boosting content retention, small group communication, and conflict resolution. Simulation and role playing exercises (collaborative group, cooperative group): As a lengthy final group assignment in an urban planning class, the students are required to draw on the content learned and apply it as they see fit to a new suburban development scenario. Building on a simulation created by the ULI entitled Dilemmas of Development, the students are presented with a request for proposals from the mayor, where they will develop a new suburban community. In this exercise, each student in the group is given a specified role (developer, land planner, environmental planner, etc.) the major priorities of the roles conflict. Further, each group will make formal presentations before a county commission and community members (made up of faculty with roles) in a multi-meeting scenario. This requires the groups to create a plan and then evaluate, recreate and present twice more. The emphasis is on critical analysis and conflict resolution. This is an open-ended assignment. Both group and individual grading is possible. This also has proven to be very effective in increasing content retention, small group communication, and conflict resolution. Internship assignments/technology focus (problem-based, collaborative group): One of the possibilities for our upper level classmen is to partake in an internship/service learning course. The traditional model of internships (Wentz and Trapido-Lurie, 2001; Jackson and Jackson, 2009) involves the organization or business mentoring, directing and assessing projects. In contrast, our faculty work with local and regional agencies to identify GIS-related projects that are desired/beneficial to them. Given that most agencies in our agency want GIS-related data/products but lack any expertise to pursue these, we provide the opportunity for students to work on the desired projects in-house (using universityprovided hard/software). These projects are assigned to groups of students who take the lead in determining a course of action and producing a solution/product. Faculty leadership is kept to a minimum if possible; instruction and direction are given as needed, primarily to maintain an appropriate level of quality control. If possible, individual grades are assessed. This non-traditional structure has proven to 3
substantially benefit the students and help develop long-term collaborations between our program and various regional community organizations (Kim, 2012). Site visits/field trips/conferences (collaborative group, experiential): Faculty are beginning to work on an alternative/extra credit assignment related to a regional site visit (day trip) or attendance at a professional conference (3-day event). Students create small groups; each group is assigned a topic area and must report on the related activities discovered during their trip. The main goal is for the students to see talk put into action and to get a sense of some of the obstacles that reality presents. This is a pass/fail graded experience. Issues to be resolved We have found that for these strategies to be effectively implemented, faculty need to change from the common way of organizing lecture content (i.e. select a text, follow the general progression, supplement with additional materials to add specific relevance to the course goals). Basically, a reversed course planning approach works best starting from the end to get to the beginning (Fink, 2003). This involves first identifying student learning outcomes (SLOs), determining what you and the students need to do in order for the students to achieve the objectives (teaching and learning activities?), and determining how you and the students will know if the SLOs have been attained (assessment and documentation?) (Allen, 1996). Breaking from the passive learning approach of traditional lectures necessitates assessing what degree of instructor guidance versus instruction is necessary. The simple fear of losing control of content covered in a semester is a common and major obstacle. For most of us, it is not how we were taught in our undergraduate degrees. Recent research points to the finding that the person doing the teaching is less important than how students are taught and what they are expected to do (Doyle, 2011). According to Smith et al (2005:2): "engaging students in learning is principally the responsibility of the teacher, who becomes less an imparter of knowledge and more a designer and facilitator of learning experiences." When should active learning be used during instruction? Studies show that activities before lecture and readings result in deeper learning, understanding and transfer. The concept of studentdirected learning without first understanding the key concepts to focus on is unsettling to many instructors. The fear of wasting too much time in simple discovery of the issue is seen as limiting (if not destructive) to being able to build a knowledge base in a semester. How do we tie this to traditional assessment and concepts of measured value added? Many faculty (and universities) are pressed to validate their efforts with metrics that measure knowledge gained. The growing use of pre-test/post-test, exit tests, discipline-based field tests, etc. have created an environment that is best served by quantitative measurement. Gains through group work, collaborative and cooperative learning, and conflict resolution skills are not easily assessed. This discourages expanding their use. In a related sense, department chairs also must provide assessment data to university administrators. The difficulties in evaluating student gains in different courses and majors tends to bring us back to the default need for a formal test grading structure measuring individual success. This is especially the case in a department that is diverse in terms of programs (our department, for example, is headed by an anthropologist who oversees undergraduate degrees in Geography, History, International Studies, Justice Studies, Philosophy, Political Science, Social Work, and Sociology.) Active learning and the expectation of individual assessment add hurdles to an already complex management problem
. Conclusions Passive learning strategies are coming under fire for not fully engaging students in learning and not creating the generic skill sets desired by employers. The latter includes critical analytical thinking, oral and written communication, effective teamwork and problem-solving, applying knowledge and skills in real-world settings, etc. (Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2015). The use of active learning strategies begins to address these shortfalls. Despite the challenges associated with their implementation, active learning puts more of the educational experience directly in the hands of the student, leading to a more meaningful educational experience. Further, these are becoming more commonplace in higher education (President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2012). 4
References Association of American Colleges and Universities. 2015. Falling Short? College Learning and Career Success. https://www.aacu.org/leap/public-opinion-research/2015-survey-falling-short. Accessed April 22, 2016. Allen, J. 1996. Learning Outcomes in Higher Education. Studies in Higher Education, 21 (1): 93-108. Bonwell, C.C. and J.A. Eison. 1991. Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ASHEERIC Higher Education Report No.1, George Washington University
, Washington DC. Berry, W. 2008. Surviving Lecture: A Pedagogical Alternative. College Teaching, 56 (3): 149-153. Doyle, T. 2011. Learner-Centered Teaching: Putting the Research on Learning into Practice. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. Cooper, J. and P. Robinson. 1997. Small Group Instruction in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology. Journal of College Science Teaching
, 27 (6): 383-388. Fink, L.D. 2003. Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Jackson, R. and M. Jackson. 2009. Students Assessment of a Semi-directed Internship Program. Journal of Geography, 108 (2): 57-67. Kim, H.J. 2012. Development of a GIS Internship Program in a Rural Setting. Papers of the Applied Geography Conferences, 34: 265-271. Leeds-Hurwitz, W. 2009. Social Construction of Reality. In S. Littlejohn, & K. Foss (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Communication Theory. (pp. 892-895). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing. Lock, A. and T. Strong. 2010. Social Constructionism: Sources and Stirrings in Theory and Practice. Cambridge University Press. President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. 2012. Engage to Excel. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-engage-to-excelfinal_feb.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. Prince, M.J. 2004. Does Active Learning Work? A Review of the Research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93 (3): 223-231. Rockwell, H.S. III. 1995a. Cooperative and Collaborative Learning. The National Teaching and Learning Forum, 4 (6): 8-9. Rockwell, H.S. III. 1995b. Cooperative and Collaborative Learning. The National Teaching and Learning Forum, 5 (1): 8-10. Smith, K.A., S.D. Sheppard, D.W. Johnson and R.T. Johnson. 2005. Pedagogies of Engagement: Classroom-based Practices. Journal of Engineering Education, 94 (1): 1-15. Urban Land Institute. Urban Plan: Developing Communities Series. Website: uli.org Urban Land Institute. Dilemmas of Development: Developing Communities Series. Website: uli.org Weimer, M.E. 2002. Learner-centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Wentz, E. and B. Trapido-Lurie. 2001. Structured College Internships in Geographic Education. Journal of Geography, 100 (4): 140-144. Zull, J.E. 2011. From Brain to Mind: Using Neuroscience to Guide Change in Education. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. 5
STEM in the Park: A Model Program that Provides Roots for STEM Learning Emilio Duran Bowling Green State University Eric Worch Bowling Green State University Lena Ballone Duran Bowling Green State University Jacob Burgoon Bowling Green State University STEM is an acronym for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, disciplines that play a pivotal role in our knowledge-based global society. STEM is not a collection of numbers and facts; it represents a way of thinking about the natural and manufactured processes we experience every day. The significance of STEM in our lives is easy to see: a rapidly growing population and ever more complex systems of human interaction demands creativity and innovation to solve the important social, economic, health, and environmental problems we face every day. STEM is an essential part of that problem-solving process, and is therefore more important than ever as we continue to face greater and more complex problems. As competition in the global marketplace grows for a highly skilled, highly educated workforce that has the ability to work independently and creatively, the STEM approach seeks to meet the challenge (Brown & Martinez, 2012). It has been estimated that by 2018, eight million jobs in the STEM fields will be available in the U.S. Unfortunately, it has been reported that the vast majority of U.S. students will be unprepared to fill them (Carnevale, Smith, & Melton, 2011). This situation is partly due to a disparity of access to excellent STEM education programs, which disproportionately affects children of color and those from low-income communities. For example, only 15% of low-income 4th graders are proficient in science (Nation's Report Card, 2011). These students, in particular, need to be provided with exposure to high-quality STEM education that may open doors to success as technological innovators and engineers. By the time some graduate high school, many are not prepared to major in STEM fields in college, and nearly 80% of future careers will require some STEM educational background. Therefore, a stimulating STEM education is essential for developing the basic analytical, problem solving and critical thinking skills central to academic achievement and workforce readiness in the 21st century (Afterschool Alliance, 2013). Furthermore, it has been documented that early exposure to STEM supports children's overall academic growth, develops early critical thinking and reasoning skills, and enhances later interest in STEM study and careers (National Research Council, 2011). It is clear that if students are given opportunities to participate in engaging real-world STEM activities, they will learn the STEM concepts and thinking skills necessary to solve the complex problems of our world. Not surprisingly, investing in STEM education is a critical part of the Obama Administration's mission to keep America competitive in STEM through supporting high-quality education and workforce development (The White House, 2012). In addition, there is mounting and prolific evidence that structured non-school science programs may feed or stimulate the science-specific interests of adults and children, may positively influence academic achievement for students, and may expand participants' sense of future science career options (Bell, 6
Lewenstein, Shouse, & Feder, 2009). Therefore, learning about STEM is not only beneficial for those who will eventually pursue a career in STEM, but for all of us, in order to make the best decisions for ourselves and our families, and to be responsible citizens of our country and the world. Cognizant of these factors, STEM in the Park was created as a free community event designed to stimulate and engage children in STEM fields. Moreover, STEM in the Park seeks to contribute to STEM education by providing opportunities for adults and children to explore the many aspects and applications of STEM in their lives. STEM in the Park unites area families, teachers, university faculty, and community resource providers to engage in a free program of inquiry-based STEM activities, explore STEM careers, and experience a local university, in hopes of inspiring a new generation to increase education in the sciences. Through this event we strive to engage children and their families in their own success, leading to improved student learning and interest in STEM related fields. The specific goals of STEM in the Park are: (1) to actively engage children and adults in hands-on, interactive STEM activities; (2) to increase preK-16 student interest in STEM activities and STEM-related careers; and (3) to increase public knowledge of STEM businesses and educational opportunities in the area. STEM in the Park features dozens of interactive STEM activities facilitated by higher education institutions, pre-K-12 educational agencies, community non-profit organizations, and local businesses. People attending the event enjoy free food and can visit as many STEM activity stations as they desire. The event operates based on the generosity and talent of STEM professionals, businesses, and organizations in northwest Ohio, many of whom donate their time in the name of STEM education. Methods Setting The venue for STEM in the Park has shifted from an all-outdoor green space to an all-indoor space to a combination of indoor and outdoor spaces. With the majority of activities occurring inside, the impact of adverse weather on the event's success is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the indoor venue has one way in and out, which makes it easier to check-in attendees, provide freebies, meal tickets, and a map. Participants Attendance was measured for the public attendees, volunteers, and exhibitors. Public attendance was documented as a gate count when families entered the venue and checked in. In 2016, a total of 163 exhibitors offered hands-on activities with the help of 1076 volunteers provided by the exhibitors and the event organizers. Event volunteers signed in when they began their shift. Surveys Post-event surveys were mailed to all families who provided an email address. The survey included several demographic items. Exhibitors received a link to a different post-event survey. Surveys included Likert-scale items and open-response items. Results Attendance The growth in public attendance at STEM in the Park has been staggering since its inception in 2010 (Figure 1). In 2016, 3,660 people attended STEM in the Park more than 2.5 times the attendance for the first event. Attendance has increased by an average of almost 16.5% per year. Figure 1. Annual attendance for STEM in the Park. Exhibitors came from private businesses, non-profit organizations, pre-K-12 institutions, and institutions of higher education. In 2010, STEM in the Park featured 177 exhibitors and by 2016, there were more than 937 exhibitors, over a five-fold increase (see Figure 3). This averages to over a 21% increase in the number of exhibitors attending STEM in the Park per year. The response rate for the survey emailed to public attendees in 2016 was nearly 55% (n = 2010). The demographic survey items indicate that 81% of the public respondents identified themselves as Caucasian, 5% as Black, 4% 3% Hispanic, 4% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 3% Multiracial. Approximately 23% of public survey respondents reported an annual family income greater than $100,000, 31% reported an income between $75,000 and $100,000, 21% between $50,000 and $74,999, 11% between $35,000 and $49,999, 9% between $20,000 and $34,000, and 5% below $20,000. Public respondents in 2016 identified 119 different cities/towns as their home, representing 28 counties in Ohio and Southern 7
Michigan and extending as far south as Cincinnati, which is 185 miles from the event site (see Figure 2). Figure 2. 2016 distribution of participants' home communities in Northwest Ohio and Southeast Michigan. Activity Stations In 2010, STEM in the Park featured 45 activity stations. In 2016, there were more than 163 STEM activity stations, over 3.5 times more stations since 2010 (see Figure 3). This increase in the number of activity stations averages nearly 16.5% per year. Most activity stations included hands-on activities and games, and provided attendees with opportunities to observe and interact with several kinds of artifacts, animals, animal coverings, earth materials, and technology. Many of the activity stations included "makeand-take" activities that resulted in products attendees could take with them. Some of the make-and-take products included silly putty, "element" bracelets, "flubber", ice cream, butterfly larvae necklaces, and solar ovens made from pizza boxes. In addition, many of the activity stations provided attendees with take home activity cards. The cards included directions and an explanation for an activity that would allow the attendees to extend their STEM discovery at home after the event. Attendees' survey responses indicate the activity stations appealed to the preferences of many different people. Many attendees specifically mentioned being impressed with the variety of activities at STEM in the Park. Three attendees wrote: · I was impressed with the variety of activities and the ability for my 3 year old to be able to find activities that he could understand and enjoy. · This was our first year ever attending and we were blown away with the amount of science activities. You touched on every age from preschool (even earlier) to my age. · It had activities for a wide variety of ages and scientific disciplines. Figure 3. Annual number of activity stations at STEM in the Park. Almost all of the activity stations were mentioned as a favorite by at least one survey respondent. The number of times an activity was identified as a favorite were tallied. Activities identified by at least 10% of the 2016 survey respondents are shown in Table 1. Table 1. 2016 activities mentioned by at least 10% of attendees. Impact on Attendees Children's Attitudes Toward STEM. Most survey participants believed the STEM in the Park activities were highly engaging and positively impactful on children's interest in STEM (see Figure 4). In fact, when participants were asked to rate the impact of the event on their children, most respondents answered that STEM in the Park increased their children's interest in STEM topics (86%) and in STEM careers (66%). Notably, 55% of the respondents affirmed that STEM in the Park greatly increased children's interest in STEM and 38% indicated that the event greatly increased their children's interest in STEM careers. Figure 4. STEM in the Park impact on children's interest in STEM and STEM careers. Qualitative data collected from the surveys support the numerical responses. For example, attendees wrote: 8
· My children LOVED this event! They are still talking about the day and the activities that they did. Before we even reached the parking lot, they were asking to come back next year. · I was really made aware at this event how interested one particular child of mine is in a certain area of science. It was so fun to watch each child gravitate to their certain interests. · Both of my daughters (ages 6 and 5) loved STEM. They didn't want to leave and were upset because we weren't able to visit every station. They were very engaged the whole time! Children's STEM Knowledge and Awareness. The findings from the 2016 STEM in the Park evaluation demonstrate that STEM in the Park successfully reached its goals of increasing attendees' awareness of STEM-related organizations and events in their community, and improving attendees' knowledge about and interest in STEM and STEM careers. Most attendees believed that STEM in the Park substantially increased their children's knowledge about STEM and that their children were much more interested in STEM after attending STEM in the Park. A summary of these findings is depicted in Figure 5. Figure 5. STEM in the Park impact on attendees' STEM knowledge and awareness. Family Enjoyment. Overall, the attendees' comments were very positive. Many attendees wrote how impressive the event was, and expressed their gratitude for being able to attend a free community event with a free lunch. Attendees also mentioned how helpful and friendly the exhibitors and volunteers were. Some of the attendees wrote: · I was very impressed with the variety and quality of the experience while being a completely free experience!! Very nice!! · Free lunch, great exhibits, friendly volunteers, and it is all FREE! · Everyone was very friendly and helpful. · Great job everyone! Likelihood of Families' Return. Likewise, most attendees said it is very likely that their family will attend STEM in the Park next year. Many attendees also commented about their attendance in the future. Some attendees wrote: · Had an amazing time and can't wait to come back next year and try more of the activities. · The event was great and we will definitely be attending next year. · We thought it was an awesome event. We can't wait until next year! · I have told many people about it and told them, they need to go next year! · We are looking forward to attending next year. Impact on Exhibitors The opinions of exhibitors were surveyed as part of ongoing assessment and improvement of STEM in the Park. The exhibitors saw first-hand how engaged and interested attendees were in STEM in the Park activities. As shown in Figure 6, 100% of the exhibitors who facilitated the hands-on activities believed that STEM in the Park was a worthwhile experience and 95% believed the experience was beneficial to their organization. Figure 6. Exhibitors' beliefs about the worth of participating in STEM in the Park. These results are supported by open-ended responses. For example, some exhibitors wrote: · [The children] were excited, trying to "beat" the other children building parachutes at the same time--- this challenge activity was fun for children AND adults! Parents could be heard relating the activity to real life experiences they may have had before. · The adults were participating heavily in the activities as well. What was really cool was seeing the adults interact with other like-minded adults and starting connections between resources that they use. 9
· The children were enthusiastic, energetic, asked questions, and even more or less patiently waited in line to make a "really big bubble". Discussion Results of this analysis suggest that the organizers of STEM in the Park achieved its three goals: (1) to actively engage children and adults in hands-on, interactive STEM activities; (2) to increase preK-16 student interest in STEM activities and STEM-related careers; and (3) to increase public knowledge of STEM businesses and educational opportunities in the area. With regard to goal 1, attendance at STEM in the Park has increased at an average annual rate of 16.5%. The planning committee worked hard to keep up with the growing attendance by adding activity stations and exhibitors at a comparable pace, 16.5% and 21% respectively, and expanding the venue to comfortably accommodate the greater demand. Public survey responses indicate that families are pleased with the number and variety of activities in order to address the interests and abilities of children of different ages. It requires extensive preparation for STEM in the Park to be a success. Planning is a twelve-month process led by a planning committee. The event would not be possible without the generous donations from local businesses, funding from regional and national foundations, and university departments that provide activities and/or are involved in STEM-related fields. Exhibitors are sent an initial invitation to participate between March-May. The response includes physical requirements, such as water, electricity and tables, the number of volunteers, and a draft of the take-home activity card. Follow-up invitations are sent through July. An event of this scale would not be possible without the assistance of student volunteers. They help with the venue setup, exhibitor check-in & set-up, and attendee registration, as well as monitor the lost child area. Volunteers are available to assist exhibitors with their activities, prepare, distribute, and replenish snacks and water for families, deliver lunch and water to exhibitors, and assist families in the dining area. In sum, volunteers assist with the set-up, tear-down, and everything in between. Several advantages of the indoor/outdoor format over the outdoor only were noted earlier. Additional advantages have been gleaned from the surveys. For example, families prefer the indoor location because they feel it is more efficient for visiting more activity stations (not as spread out) and it is more conducive for keeping their eye on their children - there is only one way in/out. Exhibitors mainly prefer the indoor location so their materials/papers don't blow everywhere and they don't have to worry about the weather. However, with its enormous popularity and increasing attendance, STEM in the Park has outgrown its 127,000 ft2 of indoor space; therefore, an indoor/outdoor format is now required to meet the demand. The return to including outdoor space has enabled the addition of activities that would otherwise not be possible because they are just too big or messy to be inside, such as the bubble foam shooter, earth excavator, concrete mixing, and water blasters. The second goal for STEM in the Park is to increase preK-16 student interest in STEM activities and STEM-related careers. Caregivers' responses indicate that this goal is being met. The majority of respondents said STEM in the Park increased their child's interest in STEM and STEM careers. STEM occupations make up over 6% of US employment and 8 million STEM jobs will be available in the US by 2018 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017), yet it is projected that 2.4 million of these jobs will go unfilled despite the fact that STEM occupations out earn non-STEM fields by 12-30% across all education levels (Smithsonian Science Education Center, 2017). Many students lack the skills and interest to pursue STEM careers (Carnevale, et al., 2011). It is imperative, therefore, to engage students in science experiences early and to maintain a level of student interest through high school that is high enough to encourage post-secondary studies in STEM fields. Survey results showed that STEM in the Park does spark children's interest in STEM and STEM careers at an early age and increases their children's knowledge of STEM. In fact, over 80% of the respondents said that STEM in the Park had increased their own knowledge of STEM. Increasing public knowledge of regional STEM businesses and educational opportunities is the third goal of STEM in the Park. Survey responses completed by exhibitors show that this goal has also been met. All of the exhibitors believed that STEM in the Park was a worthwhile experience and 95% believed 10
the experience was beneficial to their business. Exhibitors must believe that their time, effort and money are a good business investment in order to sustain their continued involvement. Without their willingness to share their expertise through engaging hands-on activities, STEM in the Park would not be possible. Conclusion The findings from the 2016 STEM in the Park evaluation demonstrate that STEM The findings from the 2016 STEM in the Park evaluation demonstrate that STEM in the Park successfully reached its goals of increasing attendees' awareness of STEM-related organizations and events in their community, and improving attendees' knowledge about and interest in STEM and STEM careers. Most attendees believed that STEM in the Park substantially increased their children's knowledge about STEM and that their children were much more interested in STEM after attending STEM in the Park. In sum, the global marketplace necessitates a skilled, educated workforce that has the ability to work independently and creatively. STEM and STEM education are essential for developing the basic analytical, problem solving and critical thinking skills central to academic achievement and workforce readiness in the 21st century. Therefore, young people require opportunities to participate in engaging real-world STEM activities to show the significance of STEM in their daily lives. Events like STEM in the Park provide opportunities to increase awareness, interest, and knowledge in STEM and STEM careers by providing engaging and meaningful opportunities for people of all ages, especially children and underrepresented groups, to explore the many aspects and applications of STEM in their lives. The findings from the evaluation report were extremely positive and demonstrated that STEM in the Park successfully reached its goals of increasing knowledge and interest in STEM and STEM careers. 11
References Afterschool Alliance. (2013). Defining Youth Outcomes for STEM Learning in Afterschool.Retrieved from: http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/STEM_Outcomes_2013.pdf Bell, P., Lewenstein, B., Shouse, A. W., & Feder M. A. (Eds.). (2009). Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. Washington DC: The National Academies Press. Brown, B., & Martinez, D. (2012). Engaging diverse learners through the provision of STEM education opportunities: Southeast Comprehensive Center briefing paper. Retrieved from http://secc.sedl.org/resources/briefs/diverse_learners_STEM Carnevale, A., Smith, N., & Melton, M. (2011). STEM: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Retrieved from http://cew.georgetown.edu/STEM/ National Research Council. (2011). Successful K12 STEM education: Identifying effective approaches in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Committee on Highly Successful Science Program for K12 Science Education. Board on Science Education and Board on Testing and Assessment, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Smithsonian Science Education Center. (2017). The STEM imperative. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from: https://ssec.si.edu/stem-imperative The Nation's Report Card. (2011). Science 2011 national assessment of educational progress at grade 8. National Center for Educational Statistics. Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2011/2012465.pdf The White House, President Barack Obama. (February 2013). Preparing a 21st century workforce. Retrieved from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ microsites/ostp/2014_R&Dbudget_STEM.pdf Fayer, S., Lacey, A., & Watson, A. (2017). STEM occupations: Past, present, and future. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from: https://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2017/science-technology-engineering-and-mathematicsstem-occupations-past-present-and-future/pdf/science-technology-engineering-andmathematics-stem-occupations-past-present-and-future.pdf 12
4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2009
1392 177 2010
1392 270 2011
775 342 338 2012 2013 2014 Event Year
3459 770 2015
3660 937 2016
0 20 40 80 miles
Number of Stations
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2009
114 80 58 2012 2013 2014 Event Year
Table 1 Activity Station Create A Butterfly Larva Necklace Reptiles are "Cool" The Science of Sports Zone Bubbles: Phun with Physics Ice Cream in a Bag What's a Polymer? Flubber! Marine Touch Tanks
# of Times Activity Mentioned 83 65 45 40 38 35 30
% of Survey Respondents Who Mentioned the Activity 28.6 22.4 15.5 13.8 13.1 12.1 10.3
Percentage of Attendee Responses
38% 34% 28%
0% 0% 0%
Interest in STEM (n = 280) Interest in STEM Careers (n = 264)
Much less A little less About the same A little more Much more
Percentage of Attendee Responses
70% 60% 50% 40%
Adult STEM Knowledge Children's STEM
(n = 292)
Knowledge (n = 282)
7% 2% Awareness of STEM Organizations and Resources (n = 291)
Not at all Very slightly Moderately Substantially
Percentage of Exhibitor Responses
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
95% 5% 0% 0% A Worthwhile Experience
Disagree Somewhat Disagree
72% 23% 4% 0% Beneficial for My Organization Somewhat Agree Agree
William Pattison's Content and Pedagogy in the Geography Classroom: A Research Study of A.P. Human Geography Teachers Dr. Jayson D. Evaniuck Eastern New Mexico University Dr. Jeffrey M. Byford The University of Memphis Introduction In 2001, President George Bush
signed No Child Left Behind (NCLB) into law. No Child Left Behind led to sweeping changes in all school subjects to include geography which sought to narrow the emphasis within social studies to become more precise. High school geography was affected in several ways. First, NCLB recognized geography as a subject warranting highly qualified teacher status, resulting in state geography certification to teach grades 7-12 geography (Daley, 2003). Second, certification requirements created a challenge as many high school geography teachers had limited college coursework in geography or lacked the geography endorsement test. As a result, many high schools dropped geography or opted to the United States and World History prominent level of approval among social studies teachers. By 2001, after years of successful geography growth, high school geography was in danger of losing a foothold in the high school classroom. The emergence and continued the growth of Advanced Placement (A.P.) Human Geography within high schools since 2001 helped offset geography's decline. The College Board A.P. Human Geography curriculum reflects extensions of the curricular work that began in the 1960s with High School Geography Project (College Board 2015a; Murphy & Hare, 2016). Despite limitations in college training, A.P. Human Geography teachers have sought to mitigate deficiencies in content training with the vast selection of summer College Board training, webinars through the National Council for Geographic Educators, teacher communities, and blogs (Lanegran & Zieglar, 2016). Such accessibility enables new educators to access and find inspiration in geography content and curriculum materials from the past to aid instruction for today's Advanced Placement Human Geography classrooms. Since the pedagogical revolution in geography and the social studies in the 1960s William Pattison distinguished himself as a notable influence for geography curriculum (Murphy, 2014; Robinson, 1976). He was considered a leader in clarifying the academic discipline of geography amidst a time of contention and change in geography within the college and secondary schooling. In the 1950s and 1960s, professional geographers hotly debated the nature of geography (James, 1967; Walter & Bernard, 1973). Newly emerging spatial and topical geographers often clashed with traditional regional geographers on geography's nature and structure. Amongst such a climate, William D. Pattison presented his monumental Four Traditions of Geography to the National Council for Geographic Educators (Pattison, 1964). Rather than taking sides, Pattison argued for a more inclusive approach to geography acknowledging four distinct traditions of geography originating in the classical Greek world (Table 1). An additional focus of the traditions was to bridge the gap between professional and school geography. [Insert Table 1 Here] While Pattison's Four Traditions of Geography gained significant notoriety amongst professional geographers, his contributions also reached high school geography. Before publishing the Four Traditions, William Pattison wrote an Advisory Paper for Teachers Associated with the High School Geography Project (Pattison, 1962a). The Advisory Paper offered the initial pedagogical foundation for the emerging High School Geography Project (HSGP). As first project director of HSGP, he helped initiate the globally influential high school geography curricula. Though HSGP yielded modest 17
popularity in the early 1970s, its usage declined with curricular changes in the 1970s and 1980s. Despite limited usage in schools, the curriculum inspired geographic education internationally and future writers of American geography curriculum (Gunn, 1972; Helburn, 1998; Niemz, 1978; Renner & Slater, 1974; Stoltman, 2010). The current study demonstrated a clear lineage from Pattison's work to National Geography Standards of the 1990s (Geography Education Standards Project, 1994). Further, the study explored William Pattison's ideas among teachers of A.P. Human Geography. Research Study Despite an era of growth before No Child Left Behind, geography education, specifically Advanced Placement Human Geography was not immune to pedagogical challenges that plagued teachers of high school geography. Numerous authors highlight and address the lack of teacher training as a significant problem for A.P. Human Geography's future success (Lanegran & Zieglar, 2016; Murphy, 2000; Sharma, 2005; Trites & Lange, 2000). A 2014 report for the National Geography Society Education Foundation indicated the majority of pre-service social studies certified teachers had only three credit hours of college geography (National Geography Society, 2014). The current problem represents a persistent trend in high school geography's history. The problem underscores numerous attempts at increased training for high school geography teachers (Boehm, Natoli, & Peterson, 1994; Helburn, 1998; Koelsh, 2008; Meyer, 1946; Pattison, 1962b). As of 2015, A.P. Human Geography is the second fastest growing Advanced Placement course (College Board, 2015b). Such enrollment increases provide greater opportunities for professional development. One professional development opportunity is the collective re-examination of William Pattison's contributions to geography education. While trace elements of Pattison's pedagogy and planning stages exist, few researchers have investigated the pedagogical impact of his material in the modern geography classroom. This investigation focused on teachers of A.P. Human Geography and their incorporation and utilization of Pattison's educational and content guidelines. Such an investigation provides support and evidence needed for A.P. Human Geography growth among high schools nationally. Building on previous research, the researchers interviewed A.P. Human Geography teachers to gain the answers to the following question: To what extent do A.P. Human Geography teacher's pedagogy approaches align with William Pattison's noted articulations in geography education? In answering this research question, teachers were interviewed to gather information on the following related issues: a) what are high school geography teachers' perceptions of Pattison's pedagogical approaches? b) What are high school geography teachers' perceptions of Pattison's geography content strategies? c) To what extent are A.P. Human Geography teachers guided by content and pedagogical approaches aligned with Pattison's Four Traditions of Geography and Advisory Paper? and e) what are A.P. Human Geography teachers' experiences in geography content training? Methods and Sample Selection A qualitative case study methodology was used to conduct the study. Creswell stated, "case study research is a qualitative approach in which the investigator explores a bound system (a case) or multiple bounded systems (cases) over time, through detailed, in-depth data collection involving multiple sources of information (Creswell, 2007, p. 73). This particular investigation lent itself to a case study due to the bounds intrinsically set upon the research within the confines of A.P. Human Geography teacher perceptions. The purpose of the examination was to explore teachers' perceptions of noted geographer and curriculum specialist William Pattison's approaches. From the research questions, eight semistructured interview questions were developed to capture participants' perceptions. Each research questions had two sub-questions aligned to the research question while providing opportunities for participants' opinions. Research for the study took place at seven different high schools in the western region of a Southeastern state. Among the seven schools selected through two-stage random sampling, represents a mixture of private and public, rural, urban, and suburban schools. Likewise, considerable variance in 18
enrollment and Advance Placement course offerings existed between the schools. Seven teachers were selected to participate in the study. One A.P. Human Geography teacher represented each of the seven schools identified as participants. Six of the seven schools are within a metropolitan statistical area with a population of over one million. Selected teachers represent schools with diverse economic and ethnic backgrounds. School sites ranged from high performing to lower performing in the region of the state. All interviews were tape recorded to ensure the accuracy and later transcribed. Notes were taken for each interview describing nonverbal cues and posture for each participating teacher. Through the use of triangulation, similarities and differences were identified and observed among participants from each of the seven school settings. Each school was compared to one another to trace the development of teachers' perceptions of Pattison's content and pedagogical use. Research Findings The purpose of this study was to explore high school geography teacher perceptions of William Pattison's pedagogical and content developments of the 1960's. With teacher and learning variables, previous research, and the research questions in mind, three dominant themes emerged. Themes determined by terms, concepts, and categories were interpreted by the researchers. Themes were designed to answer both the research questions and be neither static nor mutually exclusive. Themes were developed from the frequency of data and uniqueness of participant feedback. The first theme indicates inquiry approaches pedagogically aligned with William Pattison's are embraced among A.P. Human Geography teachers. The second theme denotes William Pattison's area studies tradition is best woven into a thematic framework. The third theme suggests collaborative professional learning communities with fellow A.P. Human Geography teachers enhance teaching and practice. The first theme identified through data analysis was, inquiry approaches pedagogically align with William Pattison's pedagogy are embraced among Advanced Placement Human Geography teachers. All seven of the teachers interviewed demonstrated support for inquiry-based education. Such inquiry-based geography finds a voice within William Pattison's (1962a) Advisory Paper for Teachers Associated with the High School Geography Project and Geography in an Urban Age (High School Geography Project, 1968). All seven of the teachers interviewed offered evidence of inquiry-based learning within their classes. Teachers provided two categories of inquiry approach: 1) spatial analysis and meaning through content connections; and 2) data-based inductive models. Teacher participants offered spatial analysis of geographic content for enabling local geography connections as the most popular inquiry-based approach. Five of the seven teachers reported on the importance of spatial analysis and map relationships. Brad, an experienced A.P. Human Geography teacher, summarized teacher perspectives by suggesting "Maps should be able to analyze and interpret and to extract the information from it beyond just what is being shown in the actual image itself." Teachers continually discussed the importance of spatial analysis in their classrooms for helping students make meaningful connections with geography content. The teacher is repeatedly pointed to spatial analysis for addressing geographic questions of the where and why. Student utilization of maps to facilitate analysis and connections between places is consistent with Pattison's Advisory Paper (1962a) as well as his Four Traditions of Geography (1964). Support for spatial analysis in the geography classroom adds to existing geography education literature. Spatial thinking and analysis are critical to the academic field of geography (Gersmehl, 1970, 2005; Golledge, 2002). Jo, Bednarz, and Metoyer (2010) stated spatial thinking is a foundational thinking skill cultivated within geography classrooms. Further, Jo & Bednarz (2009) developed a three-dimensional taxonomy of spatial thinking. Teacher responses existed within all three levels of the taxonomy; however, Advance Placement Human Geography teachers placed greater emphasis on level three complex spatial reasoning within their class. Nick spoke favorably of such spatial reasoning inherent in A.P. Human Geography stating, "So I think that much data is significant, not just like straight up maps and graphs, but breaking down, okay what does this mean? What will be inferred beyond and may be understanding the causes?" The researchers believe support among A.P. Human Geography teachers for spatial analysis is most likely a derivative of the College Board Course Description's (2015a) influence on teacher practice. 19
College Board requires Advanced Placement teachers to receive training in the curriculum and approval of a syllabus aligned with the curriculum. Within the A.P. Human Geography curriculum, geospatial skills and geospatial data are foundational learning outcomes woven throughout all seven of the course units. Overall teachers had positive perceptions of Pattison's articulations of spatial studies and aligned practices. The researchers believe William Pattison's influence on Advanced Placement Human Geography teachers can be traced indirectly through the course curriculum rather than teacher study of his ideas. A clear relationship exists between William Pattison's pedagogical and content articulations and the A.P. Human Geography Course Description (Murphy & Hare, 2016). The second theme identified was William Pattison's area studies tradition should be woven into a thematic Advance Placement Human Geography framework. William Pattison articulated area studies or regional geography as one of his four traditions. In the late twentieth century, professional geographers vigorously discussed the merits of regional as well as thematic approaches to geography (Korsen & Kusek, 2016). Amongst the fiery academic debates, many geographers advocated the benefits of both regional and thematic geography leading to hybridization in geography courses (James, 1967; Walter & Bernard, 1973). Currently, A.P. Human Geography curriculum is organized thematically rather than regionally (College Board, 2015a). Within such a framework, teachers overwhelmingly support regional integration into the thematic course. All seven teachers agreed upon the importance of weaving regional geography into the existing thematic structure. Kate, who earned a minor in geography stated, "The other thing I think that ends up happening naturally is you start to see in the thematic approach of geography, themes within the regions come forward because these thematic geographical chords are all interplaying with each other." Despite such support for regional geography, numerous challenges were communicated among teachers. Ninth and 10th-grade students most often take Advanced Placement Human Geography. Teachers suggested that incoming students
often lack the foundational regional geography knowledge necessary for course mastery. Teachers often directed blame for such student shortcomings at new state social studies requirements, which have removed stand-alone geography classes in middle and high school curriculum. Additionally, several teachers noted the College Board curriculum places greater emphasis on thematic content depth at the expense of geographical breadth. As a first year A.P. Human Geography teacher struggling through the curriculum, Jenn suggested regional guidance for the course could help with organization. She described her intentions to integrate regional concepts over the summer. "What I'm going to do, because I taught World Geography, I'm going to go look at the World Geography book because I still have the teacher edition at my house. I'm going to say, "where did this fit?" It is believed (by the researchers) that such uneasiness of teachers integrating necessary regional components combined with students' limited prerequisite knowledge highlights a need for enhancing regional geography support materials within the Advanced Placement Human Geography course. Infusing regional concepts into a thematic course has received attention within higher education (Bacon, 1979; Klein, 2003; Korson & Kusek, 2016). Literature within A.P. Human Geography is limited. Hall and Johnston-Anumonwo (2016) suggested local topics and subtopics for A.P. Human Geography's thematic curriculum. William Pattison's Advisory Paper (1962a) cautioned against high school geography that is dominated by local schemes. Rather, he argued for the importance of both regional and topical geography. The recognition of the distinction between regional and topical geography and their interdependence can be quite valuable to the teacher of geography as he attempts to organize the complexity of his material into a form which will be most meaningful to his students. (p. 9). All seven of the teachers interviewed, as well as the College Board Advanced Placement Human Geography Course Description and William Pattison's Advisory Paper spoke to the importance of regional geography (College Board, 2015a; Pattison, 1962a). The College Board emphasizes regional integration in the curriculum; however, in most cases, the curriculum allows teachers the freedom to determine how regional integration is applied. The openness of the curriculum as it related to regional geography might explain why the three teachers with four or more years AP Human Geography teaching 20
experience demonstrated greater harmony is integrating regional geography into thematic curriculum citing concrete global examples. The third and final theme identified was, collaborative professional learning communities with fellow Advance Placement Human Geography teachers enhance teaching and practice. Six out of seven teachers underscored the impact of collaboration with other A.P. Human Geography teachers. Five of the six communicated such collaboration as the most critical approach to enhancing growth as an AP Human Geography teacher. Within the literature, such cultures of learning and dialog are referred to as professional learning communities or PLCs (Dufour, 2004). The importance of collaboration within Advanced Placement Human Geography remains a work in progress within current research. Dede & Frumin (2014) noted the benefits of the College Board online advance placement community in an Advance Placement STEM setting. Lanegran & Zieglar (2016) noted the growing online teacher community with A.P. Human Geography. Teachers pointed favorably to formal school district communities offered as well as informal communication between fellow teachers. Interestingly, amongst the seven interviews, responses dealing with local school districts were focused on accountability measures and often communicated negatively. The lone exception to negative perceptions towards school districts came in conjunction with district planned advanced placement collaborative communities. Kate, a private school teacher with four years experience teaching the class emphasized collaboration stating, "And I think that creating that network is so important because you build off each other. So I think that is essential." In his second year teaching A.P. Human Geography, Chris advocated for greater frequency of district sponsored PLC meetings. He stated, "But I would like to see more collaboration and intensive collaboration throughout the year within the local district with just A.P. Human teachers, I know I would benefit from that." Participants embraced collaboration whether in the first year teaching Human Geography or fifteenth. Norman's professional background offers a unique insight into the importance of collaborative communities for A.P. Human Geography. Norman was the first teacher in his state to teach the course in 2000. In addition to nearly ten years spent as a test reader, he has served as a College Board consultant for Human Geography. Norman spoke highly about his professional development through intense content collaboration at College Board test readings. Regarding professional learning communities, he stated, "I think that it needs to be ongoing. Okay, we need to establish professional learning communities (PLC) that are on-going, working bodies." Norman also addressed the challenge of A.P. Human Geography PLC's in small districts in stating: "First of all, I live 60 miles from the nearest Starbucks. Moreover, second, of all, there aren't three AP Human Geography teachers within 60 miles of that Starbucks. So what do you do? You know, we have got to come up with that outline." Norman spoke with heightened passion on the topic of PLCs in Advanced Placement Human Geography. Based on his interactions with hundreds of teachers nationwide through training and readings, he is convinced collaboration remains an important front line for the course's furtherance. Echoing Norman's call for more collaboration, Sarah Bednarz (2016) circulated a call for research specific to A.P. Human Geography. She identified the effectiveness of professional development, the online Advanced Placement Teacher Community, and greater understanding of teacher course mastery for further study. The strength of six out of seven teachers advocating for more collaborative efforts in A.P. Human Geography affirms the importance of such a call. It is believed by the researchers that consistent collaboration through professional learning communities is vital for reinforcement and refinement of evolving content, course pacing, and sharing of best practices. It came as no surprise that newer teachers commented on the importance of professional learning communities. Surprisingly, there was not only consistent support across all levels of experience and content background, but the strongest endorsement for PLCs came from one the most experienced. Conclusion and Implications During the study, seven teachers from seven different schools described perceptions and experiences with William Pattison's geography content and pedagogical approaches. Teachers offered descriptions of 21
experiences with geography content training. Among Pattison's educational approaches, teachers embraced numerous inductive and inquiry learning methods. Teachers supported blending regional geography within the thematic Advanced Placement Human Geography curriculum, yet first and secondyear teachers struggled with a harmonious integration. All seven teachers emphasized the importance of collective communities among A.P. Human Geography teachers. Overall, teachers utilized Pattison's content and pedagogical articulations within their classrooms. The researchers believe teacher practice aligned with William Pattison's Four Traditions of Geography due to their overarching influence on curricular developments of the 1990's, namely the Geography Education Standards Project (1994) and development of the A.P. Human Geography course (Heburn, 1998; Murphy & O'Hare, 2016) rather than teacher study of Pattison's work. The current investigation suggests the lineage of Pattison's work is still alive in high school geography classes over fifty years later. Despite support for the four traditions, newer teachers communicated difficulty integrating regional geography within their thematic curriculum. It is believed by the researchers that less experienced teachers would benefit from supplemental support materials directed at integrating regional geography. Among William Pattison's pedagogical approaches, inquiry-based learning resonated with teacher participants. Inquiry approaches such as spatial analysis of maps, `doing geography,' simulations, and song analysis were among methods endorsed by teacher participants. Spatial analysis and `doing the work of a geographer' were core practices within William Pattison's (1962a) Advisory Paper for Teachers Associated with the High School Geography Project. It is believed by the researchers that such practices have followed a lineage from High School Geography Project to National Geography Standards Project in the 1990s to the A.P. Human Geography Course Description. Lastly, the current investigation sheds light on the importance of collaboration among Advanced Placement Human Geography teachers. Work should be done to understand better and develop collaboration networks for AP Human Geography teachers. Perhaps such work could minimize the persistent challenge of limited geography training which has existed since the course's inception. References Bacon, R. S. (1979). Building a curriculum in introductory human geography through core concepts. Journal of Geography, 78(4), 152-156. Bednarz, S. W. (2016). Placing Advanced Placement® Human Geography: Its Role in U.S. Geography Education. Journal of Geography, 115(3), 84-89. Boehm, R.G., Natoli, S.J., & Peterson, J.G., (1994). The guidelines for geographic education. Social Education
, 111(2), 41-53. College Board AP. (2015a). Human geography course description. New York: College Board. College Board AP. (2015b). AP Program Participation and Performance Data 2015. Retrieved from https://research.collegeboard.org/programs/ap/data/participation/ap-2015 (Accessed 06/2017). Creswell, J.W. (2007). qualitative inquiry
and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Daley, R. (2003). No geographer left behind: A policy guide to geography and no child left behind act of 2001. Geographic Education National Implementation Project. Washington, DC. Retrieved from ERIC: ED480174. Dede, C., & Frumin, K. (2014, July). Unlearning and mirroring: Transforming instruction. Education Week. Dufour, R. (2004). What is a Professional learning community
? Educational Leadership, 61(8), 6-11. Gersmehl, P. (1970). Spatial Interaction. Journal of Geography, 69(9), 522-530. Gersmehl, P. (2005). Teaching Geography. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. 22
Geography Education Standards Project. (1994). Geography for life: National Geography Standards 1994. Washington DC: National Geographic Society. Golledge, R.G. (2002). The nature of geographic knowledge. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92(1), 1-14. Gunn, A. M. (1972). Legacy for the Seventies. An Analysis of the High School Geography Project in Relation to New Developments in Geographic Education Worldwide. Montreal: Centre Educatif et Culturel. Hall, C., & Johnston-Anumonwo, I. (2016). Perspectives on Cultural Geography in AP® Human Geography. Journal of Geography, 115(3), 106-111. Helburn, H. (1998). The high school geography project: A retrospective view. Social Studies 89(5), 212-218. High School Geography Project. (1968). Geography for an Urban Age. New York: Macmillan. James, P.E. (1967). Introductory geography: topical or regional. Journal of Geography 66(2), 52-53. Jo, I. & S. Bednarz. (2009). Evaluating Geography Textbook Questions from a Spatial Perspective: Using Concepts of Space, Tools of Representation, and Cognitive Processes to Evaluate Spatiality. Journal of Geography 108(1), 4-13. Jo, I., Bednarz, S., & Metoyer, S. (2010). Selecting and designing questions to facilitate spatial thinking. The Geography Teacher 7(2), 49-55. Klein, P. (2003). Active learning strategies and assessment in world geography classes. Journal of Geography 102(4), 146157. Koelsch, W.A. (2002). Stanley hall, child study, and the teaching of geography. Journal of Geography 101(1), 3-9. Korsen, C., & Kusel, W. (2016). The comparison of a thematic approach to teaching a world geography course. Journal of Geography 115(4), 159-168. Lanegran, D.A., & Zeigler, D.J. (2016). Advanced placement human geography: Looking back and looking ahead. Journal of Geography 115(3), 90-94. Meyer, A.H. (1946). College geography and its relation to teacher training in secondary school geography: Second report of committee on standards of certification for the teaching of geography in schools. Journal of Geography 45(2), 45-47. Murphy, A.B. (2000). Teaching advanced placement human geography. Journal of Geography 99(3), 93-97. Murphy, A.B. (2014). Geography's crosscutting themes: Golden anniversary reflections on the four traditions of geography. Journal of Geography 113(5), 181-188. Murphy, A.B., & Hare, P.R. (2016). The nature of geography and its perspectives in ap human geography. Journal of Geography 115(3), 95-100. National Geographic Society. (2014). Status of Geography Education in the United States. Washington D.C.: Brysch, C.P. Niemz, G. (1978). Annual Meeting of the Association of German Geographers: The German High School Geography Project. Retrieved from ERIC: ED153901. Pattison, W.D. (1962a). Advisory paper for teachers associated with the High School Geography Project. Los Angeles: University of California. Pattison, W.D. (1962b). Geography in the high school. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 52(3), 280-284. Pattison, W.D. (1964). The four traditions of geography. Jounral of Geography 63(5), 211216. Renner, J., & Slater, F. (1974). Geography in an Urban Age: Trials of High School Geography Project Materials in New Zealand Schools. Geographical Education, 2(2), 195-205. Retrieved from ERIC: EJ121688. 23
Robinson, J.L. (1976). A new look at the four traditions of geography. Journal of Geography 75(9), 405-412. Sharma, M. (2005). Teaching ap human geography. The Geography Teacher 2(1), 22-23. Stoltman, J.P. (2010). Geography and the new social studies: The high school geography project and georgia geography curriculum project. In B.S. Stern (Ed.) The New Social Studies, 167-192. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Trites, J., & Lange, D. (2000). Challenges of teaching advanced placement human geography. Journal of Geography 99(3-4), 169-172. Walter, B.J., & Bernard, F.E. (1973). A thematic approach to regional geography. Journal of Geography 86(4), 156-160.
Table 1 William Pattison's Four Traditions of Geography
1. Spatial Tradition
Analysis of relationships between and among places and movement as explored spatially with maps
2. Area Studies Tradition
Regional organization as a way to order and understand the world.
3. Man-Land Tradition 4. Earth Science Tradition
Focuses on human and environmental relationships. Includes how culture is impacted by the physical world as well as man's imprint on the natural environment. Embodies study of the earth, the waters, and the atmosphere. Involves the study of natural processes of the earth.
It's a Lego Life: The Building Blocks of Aging Patricia M. Kirtley Independent Scholar William M. Kirtley Central Texas College Abstract The authors discovered treasure, not made of gold, in their search for a way to organize information gained from an Aspects of Aging seminar presented at the 2016 National Technology and Social Science Conference in Las Vegas. Their review of the past helped them resolve the tensions of a lifetime. They found secrets of living longer and better. Their quest centered on the challenge and opportunity individuals face at nine stages of adult life. The authors gained an appreciation for the wisdom and understanding displayed by the elderly. There is so much to learn from those who have achieved significant levels of moral and spiritual development. The authors used the theory of developmental psychologists to discover the lessons of life by examining personal, economic, and spiritual aspects of each stage in the life cycle. Like many developmental psychologists they included personal stories, in this case their own, to illustrate the challenges people face at each stage. Introduction The word "Lego" is a combination of two Danish words meaning, "play well." This company is now the most recognized brand in the world and delights both children and adults who love to create and design using the interlocking plastic pieces. Life itself is a great deal like a Lego kit. Inside each box are several numbered plastic bags and a visual, non-verbal booklet of instructions. The builder can carefully open the bags in numerical order and follow the directions or dump everything out and muddle along at his or her own pace. Most builders find a few directions are very helpful and prevent mistakes, frustration, and failure not to mention broken and lost pieces. We hope this paper will help some individuals build and reinforce their lives now and prepare a strong and resilient foundation for their future. The authors provide the directions for their Lego life structure in their survey of the literature of developmental theory. They analyze the building blocks of the ages of life: the conflicted 20s, transitional 30s, mid-life 40s, triumphs and trials of the 50s, adjustments in the 60s, the serene 70's, the awesome 80s, noble 90s, and the celebratory 100's. The writers also give personal examples of their own lives for each of the stages. In so doing, they reviewed and reconciled the psychological tensions of a lifetime and, hopefully, provide valuable lessons for people from all the stages of life (Erickson, Erickson, & Kivnick, 1986, p. 141). The authors used developmental theory to analyze the stages of adult life according to the nature of each stage, as well as, health, economic, social, spiritual, and personal factors. Survey of of the Literature Art appraisers determine the value of a painting through provenance. They research the chain of ownership for a particular work. This paper centers on the work of developmental psychologists who see life as a series of age-related transitions to periods in which people exhibit typical behavior patterns. The ancients developed characterizations of the stages of human life. Solon, the Greek lawgiver, the Torah, and Shakespeare all note the division of the human lifespan into ages (Kohut, 2011). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed a theory of psychosexual stages. Carl Jung (1875-1960) outlined a theory 25
of adult individuation. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) researched his theory of cognitive learning by observing his three children. Pulitzer prize winner, Erik H. Erikson (1902-1994) based his theory of psychological development on Freudian principles. Erikson posited each ego stage had its primacy at a particular age level or segment of the life cycle, from infancy to old age using interviews as his chief research method. He and his co-authors, Joan M. Erikson, and Helen Q. Kivnick interviewed twenty-nine octogenarians from their seminal work, Vital Involvement in Old Age ((1986). Erik Erikson acknowledged his theory was descriptive and did not adequately explain how or why this development occurred (McLeod, 2013). Joan M. Erikson (1902-1997), an artist and craftswoman helped her husband develop the theory of the life cycle. Writing at the age of 93, she apologized for leading people to believe they could achieve wisdom in the eighth and last stage of life. In a poignant video, she argued people in their eighties and nineties must undergo yet another trial. They must relive the crises of all the earlier stages before resolving tensions between integrity and despair in their old age (Erikson, J. 2010). Abraham Maslow
(1908-1970) developed a hierarchy of needs, a positive account of human behavior. He believed humans grew through five stages of needs to self-actualization, a stage where a person finds meaning to life. He studied subjects in their 50s and 60s. Maslow (1962) in Toward a Psychology of Being, described those he believed were the most self-actualized as, those whose selfacceptance made it more possible for them "to perceive bravely the real nature of the world and also made their behavior more spontaneous (less controlled, less inhibited, less planned)" (p. 139). Daniel Levinson, a Yale University psychologist, was one of the founders of the field of adult development. He is also remembered for his studies on authoritarian personalities and development of the F scale. Levinson discussed the developmental tasks and/or crises one addresses within each stage, as well as, how they contribute to the progression of development. Some controversy surrounded his research method. He based his best selling work, The Seasons of a Man's Life (1976), on a series of onehour interviews with forty different men. His later work, The Seasons of a Woman's Life (1996) also made the bestseller list. It indicated women tend to follow the same age-related patterns as men, even if there are some significant differences. Gail Sheehy borrowed Levinson's theory of stages and transitions, copied his methodology, added lively interviewees, and used the designer psychology of Cosmopolitan magazine to produce Passages (1974), a book designated as one of the most influential books of our times by the Library of Congress. Sheehy lacked the authority and understanding of developmental psychologists, although she did study under Margaret Meade as an undergraduate. Sheehy popularized the notion of mid-life transitions in an effort to better understand her own midlife crisis (xv). Developmental psychologist Lawrence Kolberg (1827-1987) expanded Piaget's theory of moral development. He used stories to illustrate moral dilemmas. Kolberg asserted moral reasoning had six stages, a process concerned with justice and reaching far into adulthood. His last stage centered on individual matters of conscience. Ken Wilber
(b. 1949) integrated several models of development into his post-modern, megatheory. Wilber (2014) in his YouTube video, Models of Development, contended all models have six to eight levels; one should not get bogged down with one model; an individual can be at different levels in different models; and emphasized transition periods can last from four to five years. In Eye to Eye (2011), Wilber observed how difficult it is to attain higher states of consciousness, "Since the Ultimate State of Consciousness is your Present State of Consciousness, there is obviously no way to cause, produce, effect, or manufacture that which is already the case--and even if you could, the result would be noneternal" (as cited by Helfrich, 2007). Wilber inspired the work of Carol Gilligan (b. 1936), Don Beck (b. 1937), and James Fowler (1914-2015). Gilligan argued in an article for the Harvard Educational Review (1977) "In a different voice, women's conceptions of self and morality," Kohlberg, who based his early studies solely on male participants, missed the fact that "The moral judgments
of women differ from those of men in the greater extent to which women's judgments are tied to feelings of empathy and compassion and are concerned more with the resolution of `real life' rather than hypothetical dilemmas" (p. 490). 26
Beck, author of the influential work, Spiral Dynamics (1996), designed an eight-step, colorcoded, spiral chart depicting the stages of consciousness. Managers urge people to use Beck's model "to help us recognize whether we are reacting or responding" (Janke, 2016). Novelist M. Scott Peck used Fowler's six-stage model of spiritual development in his portrayal of characters exhibiting characteristics of love and justice. The Conflicted Twenties Building Blocks - Levinson described the twenties in his article, "A Conception of Adult Development" (1986), as a time of "the greatest contradiction and stress" (p. 5). Sheehy in her work Passages (1974) described two impulses at work during these years (p. 119). One is to find a partner and develop a career; the other to explore and experiment. She argued the balance between these two urges determined how people emerge into adulthood. Erikson looked at this period as a time of conflict between intimacy and isolation, a time when people explore long-term relationships with someone outside the family. He believed avoiding relationships led to loneliness, and depression, while successful completion of this stage led to a sense of commitment and love. (McLeod, 2013). People in their twenties now wait longer before marrying. The average age for marriage for men from 1970 to 2011 increased from 23 to 28.3 years. The average age of marriage for women increased from 20 to 25.8 years (Why Marriage Matters, 2016). Although one in four in this age group never marry, the institution itself is still popular. A June 20-23, 2013 Gallup poll revealed 54% of Americans are married and another 24% would like to marry (Newport and Wilke, 2013). A Pew Research Report also indicated people between 18 and 34 are more likely to live with a parent than to get married or move in with a romantic partner. In 2014, 32.1 percent of young adults lived with a parent. The percentage of men (35%) especially African-Americans and Hispanics living with parents is higher than women (29%). This tendency started during the 2008 recession when 20-year-olds experienced weak pay and diminished job opportunities (Markjarvis, 2016). Health There are several factors that influence one's health. The first is behavior (40%). Establish good health habits and avoid risky ones at twenty and one may reach one hundred years of age. People can't do anything about the second factor, heredity (30%), but they can make sure they maintain an active social life (15%), have good health care (10%), and live in a safe environment (5%) (Hughes, 2010). Risky behaviors include smoking and riding motorcycles. Use protection and test for sexually transmitted diseases. Those who become habituated to drugs need to seek help. Plan preventative, dental, hearing, and eye exams. Maintain vaccinations and blood pressure screenings. Family health history is important. Eat a healthy diet, reduce time in the sun, and use sunblock. Find a good dentist, health care provider and establish a relationship with them. Exercise daily. Take a first aid course and perhaps save a life. Obtain personal records from parents and keep them up to date in a safe place. Spiritual Everyone has a spiritual side, even if the only manifestation is total denial. This is not necessarily being "churched" but is a possible element. Simply acknowledging an elemental psyche or soul and value the power of love, joy, freedom, and beauty in people, places, and things is immeasurably fulfilling. Everyone needs to daily honor their thoughts and decisions in the light of reflection. Not easy to do? Absolutely! But it can and should become a habit. Combine it with another activity. Take a cup of coffee and find a quiet place to think through the day. Go for a walk outside and let thoughts soak in like the weather. Give up negative energy and find a way to replace it. Focus on what you want and need. Be honest. Determine how to achieve even a tiny bit of an elemental building block. These building blocks accumulate and one's hopes may become reality. One can achieve a different goal or find his or her ambitions diverted due to unforeseen circumstances like the loss of a loved one or death of a spouse. Daily reflections help people adapt. Economics Carefully assess one's financial situation. Minimize the cost of college by attending community college. Gail Marksjaris, a personal finance advisor, counseled keeping college loans below one year's salary. She urges students not to forget those loans and to pay them off within ten years to avoid paying excessive interest. She noted about twenty-eight percent of new college graduates end up 27
selling possessions or taking emergency payday loans because they have not budgeted well. In an article in the Oregonian, Marksjaris (2016) recommended a 50-30-20 budget; fifty percent for essentials like rent and food, thirty percent for entertainment and indulgences like eating out, twenty percent for savings and retirement (p. C3). Upon accepting a job, check to see if the company offers a 401(k) or investigate a Roth IRA. Get the full match from the employer or risk leaving money on the table. Remember these investments earn compound interest over a lifetime. Save $377 a month at age 25 and it will reach $1 million dollars by age 65. Arielle O'Shea of NerdWallet urged young people to reconsider the amount they invest each time they earn a raise (C-6). The tax advantage often means one's take-home pay remains the same. One financial expert advised twenty-year-olds to max out their tax-deferred retirement contributions from their first paycheck stating, "You can learn about asset allocation and investing later, but you can never recover lost time" (Wohlner, 2016). The authors - The authors eagerly embraced the adult world. They both graduated from college. Bill enlisted in the US Army Reserve and after basic training found a job teaching social studies at the high school level. Pat completed college, a year of internship, and passed her national exams. She became a medical technologist
at a local medical center. The authors married, and decided it was time to have children. Pat gave birth to two beautiful daughters. Health concerns meant half-time work and full time motherhood for Pat. Bill earned a Masters Degree in Education. The authors ate lots of soup and homemade bread. Bill contributed to state and federal retirement plans. They decided to invest in the stock market since Pat's retirement plan was inadequate. Bill swam and enjoyed, as a result of Army Reserve, an annual physical, weigh-in, and physical fitness test. Transitional Thirties Building Blocks Confucius noted a man has his feet firmly planted on the ground by thirty. Levinson in The Seasons of a Man's Life found not all of the 40 men he surveyed had a strong foundation. Everyone of them experienced a mid-life crisis in their 30s or 40s. Levinson divided the lives of his subjects into five categories (1976, p. 150). Despite their differences their similarities grew more apparent as they advanced through the stages of life. 1. Type A was advancement within a stable life structure. Fifty-five percent of the interviewees fell into this category. Life was good for them and they advanced toward major goals. 2. Type B, twenty percent of the men, showed decline within a stable life structure. These men suffered problems related to health, work, or loss of a loved one. In the case of two academics, their universities denied them tenure. 3. Type C involved an individual searching for a new life structure. These, thirteen percent of those Levinson surveyed, reached a point where they believed the only way out of their flawed lives was a new occupation or spouse. 4. Type D featured a change in life structure as a result of job advancement. This type comprised only seven percent of the men surveyed. An apparent blessing often turned into a curse. 5. Type E, the last seven percent of the interviewees, fell into an unstable life structure. Their volatile family life coupled with the lack of education resulted in a lifetime of instability. Health - Harried 30 year-olds often neglect their health. Screenings for cholesterol and diabetes become important. It is easy to drink to relieve stress. Set a limit of no more than two drinks per day for men and one per day for women. Maintain sexual and reproductive health. About 85 percent of people under the age of 50 report episodes of back pain. Good posture, proper lifting techniques, and strengthening exercises keep backs healthy. Metabolism slows down in the 30s. Aging bodies replace muscle with fat. Include regular weight bearing and strength-training workouts in any exercise program. Exercise 3060 minutes on most days of the week. Monitor mental and emotional health. Get enough sleep. Survey safety hazards. (Healthy Living in your 30s, 2012). Spiritual Make time for relationships. Never underestimate the value of a relaxing bath, a short walk, or meditation. In Fowler's fourth stage model of spiritual development, individuals reflect upon and examine the basic tenets of their faith. Fowler believed this occurred ideally in the 20s, but acknowledged 28
most people don't reach it until the 30s. Religious groups often discourage such questioning because it undermines their power. Have the courage to examine the spiritual beliefs you had as a youth in comparison to the needs of adult life experiences (Johnston, 2009). Economic It is time to formalize financial planning. Consider how you will pay for your children's college education. Profit from the advice of a financial planner or stockbroker. Set up a bank account and check on state bond programs to pay for their education. Revisit insurance needs. The authors - The authors and fifty-five percent of the people surveyed by Levinson fell into the category of advancement within a stable life structure. Bill accepted a direct commission as an Officer in the Army Reserve. He earned an MA in history at the University of Oregon at age 33. Pat worked nights at the hospital as a medical technologist passing off childcare responsibilities to Bill when she left for work in the evening. They purchased a house. They traveled to Japan and to the East coast to visit friends and family. Bill moved to a new Army Reserve unit with the opportunity for rapid promotion and opportunity to teach for the Command and General Staff College. Mid-life Forties Building blocks Erik Erikson, Joan Erikson, and Helen Kivnick (1986) point out the tremendous demands on people in their forties. They recalled a Hindu saying that described people in middle age as maintaining and perpetuating the world "in terms of the interrelated realms of people, products, and ideals" (p. 73). I read this quote to my daughter who is in her 40s. She replied, "I got it Dad, I'll add it to my to do list." The demands of this age exact a price. The "Forlorn 40s" according to Sheehy are the years "in which the dreams of youth demand reassessment, men and women fall out of sync, sexual panic may emerge, and yet the greatest opportunity for self-discovery awaits" (Passages, back cover). Sheehy believed everyone goes through a mid-life transition. Some pass through it smoothly, for others it is a time of crisis and despair. It is characterized by a crucial marker event or by a series of changes. The nature and quality of these changes have huge ramifications as people re-evaluate their life structure. Serious depression can accompany this transition. Men and women realize they are aging and their physical strength and appearance is declining. People between the ages of 40 and 59 may find they have to care for elderly parents, in addition to personal problems, and the stress of adolescents in the family. The problem is time, resources, and the question among siblings of who and how to take care of declining parents (Sosar, 2016, March 21). Brothers and sisters must set aside childhood rivalries and plan what is best for their mothers and fathers or embark on a familial journey of bitterness and blame. Health - Doctors advise people in their 40s to have a physical exam every 2 or 3 years. Pay attention to age related problems like stress and depression. Continue to screen blood pressure, cholesterol, and maintain a healthy weight. Now is the time for a baseline EKG and colorectal cancer screening. Forty-year-old women should consider an annual clinical breast exam, pelvic exam, mammogram, PAP Test
, and bone density test. Additional screening test
s for men include a testicular exam. Men should talk to their doctors about PSA screening and prostate cancer
risk (Healthy Living in your 40s, 2012). Economics - People in their 40s face planning on how to pay for a college education for their children. Talk to friends, seek professional help, and involve your children in the discussion. Consider a community college, scholarships, and work study, to save money. The FAFSA student aid form is horrible, but there is some flexibility in filling it out. College will cost more than you want to pay, but try to minimize the amount of debt incurred. Spiritual Fowler described the rewards of this struggle. People in mid-life transition are more aware of their finiteness and limitations, but also, more at ease with paradox and contradiction. Fowler said people are willing to engage in dialog with those of other faiths and spiritual practices as a means of examining their own truths. If they successfully work through the problems of mid-life transition they can make real contributions to society. However, unresolved conflicts can lead to mental and spiritual paralysis and passivity (Johnston, 2009). 29
Authors The authors dealt with stress by drinking alcohol. Thank God we realized we had to quit. Sobriety helped us deal with our problems. We sought help at personal effectiveness seminars and reevaluated our priorities and goals. The authors entered their fifties with renewed energy and commitment. They planned Bill's retirement from both Army Reserve and teaching high school. Bill visited a career counselor who used the results of his Myers-Briggs test to lead him to rekindle his dream of earning a doctorate. The changes made by both authors during these trying times enabled them to enter their fifties with a sense of vindication, excitement, and hope. Bill ran many road races and several triathlons. The entire family enjoyed national and international volksmarches. Triumphs and Trials, The Fifties Building Blocks - Sheehy characterized this age as the fabulous fifties, a movement from success to significance, a time of mellowing. She contended those who learned the lessons of the forties can come to terms with themselves in their fifties. She maintained how you viewed yourself determined the poorness or richness of this period (Passages, p. 487). She claimed educated persons show increased performance at this age. Subsequently, their speed declines, but not accuracy. Levinson noted in A Man's Life (1976), "it is impossible to get through middle adulthood without having at least a moderate crisis in either mid-life transition or the age fifty transition" (p. 62). Those who fail to transition in the forties develop a crisis in their fifties. It is characterized by a pressing fear of becoming irrelevant in work, marriage, or other relationships. Levinson believed it is not too late to build a stable life structure, but those who find themselves in this situation have much work to do. Health -The stress of working, as well as, caring for teenagers and adult parents can affect one's health. In addition, there are physical signs one is aging at fifty. If this does not convince you of your mortality, read the names of people in the obituaries who were younger than you when they died. To improve longevity: eat healthy, stay active, maintain a healthy weight, don't smoke, get enough sleep, and reduce stress. Continue the medical tests applicable to men or women in their forties (Healthy Living in your 50s, 2012). Economics - The costs of putting children through college, health insurance, and retirement seem insurmountable, but if one plans properly he or she can retire in their fifties. There are several reasons why one should consider early retirement. The ravages of stress may diminish a person's ability to enjoy retirement. People who die never enjoy the benefits of their hard work (Motley Fool, 2016). Follow your dream and do something you always wanted to do. Attend workshops on retirement given by unions, associations, employers, and financial advisers. The Authors - The authors went through a period of rapid transition in their early fifties. They faced the challenges of an empty nest, both retirement from Army Reserve at age 54 and teaching high school at age 55. Going back to school required planning, budgeting, and living apart. Bill earned his doctorate at 57 and began work teaching college classes for Central Texas College on deployed U.S. Navy ships starting at age 58 and accepting nineteen challenging assignments through his 60s. Pat's mother died. Pat and her sister prepared their mother's home for sale and grieved together. The fifties brought sorrow, but also a new career, travel, and satisfaction with life. Bill continued to run and do volksmarches with Pat. At 58, he discovered a new physical activity, Tai Chi. Adjustments in the Sixties Building Blocks According to Levinson, there were two stages to the sixties. The period from 60-65 is fraught with challenges, if you have not done the work you needed to do in the forties and fifties. Some people equate retirement from work with death. Some believe a flashy black Mustang convertible will help them hold onto their youth and prove they have "made it." Levinson wrote "A man fears the youth within him is dying and only the old man an empty dry structure devoid of energy, interests or inner resources will survive for a brief and foolish old age" (1975, p. 35). Many cultures celebrate the 60th birthday with extravagance. They believe a person has completed a full life cycle. Following this achievement, a person begins a new life cycle. Most people enter a more stable period by the second stage of the sixties. Freed from the responsibilities of mid-life, they learn to 30
live out of center stage. They take pride in the accomplishments of their children. Hopefully, they have grandchildren to nurture, spoil, and love. Tell them stories of their parents "Relive magical moments of life even while you look forward to new experiences" (Khurana, 2016). Health Pablo Picasso said, "One starts to get young at age sixty and then it is too late" (cited in Khurana, 2016). But it isn't too late, even if you haven't made the best choices at earlier stages. Contact a health care provider if you notice changes in cognitive function or mental health. Watch for gait imbalance. Learn the warning signs of heart attack and stroke. Quit smoking if you have not all ready. Drink moderately or not all. Maintain a healthy weight and exercise. Keep inoculations including influenza, pneumonia, and shingles current. Whooping cough or pertussis is making a comeback among seniors whose immune systems grow weaker as they grow older (Meyer, p. A19). Do a thorough check of living quarters. Make sure the smoke detector in the house works. (Healthy Living in your 60s, 2012). Sixty percent of falls take place in the home. Take steps to reduce the risk of falls. Sharon Johnson (1916), professor emeritus from Oregon State University noted eighty percent of homes have one hazard, and forty percent have five or more (p. C2). She provides a fall safety checklist at www.agefriendlyinnovators.org. Economics - Make an appointment with Social Security as soon as you turn 60. The first meeting with a Social Security counselor is an eye-opener. The authors chose early retirement based on the fact the payout in increased social security checks would not occur until their eighties. They decided they would rather collect social security benefits in their 60s when they could enjoy it. Now is the time to consider advance directives, long-term health care, and funeral plans. The Authors Prior planning eased the authors' transition to the 60s. Bill traveled the globe teaching on Navy ships. He earned an instructors certificate in Tai Chi. Pat's Summer course in Children's Literature in the United Kingdom led her to enroll in Vermont College of the Fine Arts and earn a Master of Fine Arts. She retired after forty years at the same hospital. The authors found opportunities to write, publish, and travel with the National Social Science Association. The Serene Seventies Building Blocks Septuagenarians can follow the dictates of their hearts. However, there are still difficult transitions for those who have unfinished work from previous stages and increased risk of a chronic or life-threatening disease. This is the time when people start to think of you as old, but remember 70 is just a number. Health - There's a lot to do to now, maintaining mental and physical health increases longevity, and reduces the risk for physical and mental disability. Have a positive outlook. Stay as active as possible. Watch for depression, adapt, and learn. Make healthful lifestyle choices--don't smoke, eat right, practice good hygiene, and reduce stress. As you age, people are more likely to experience emotional trauma associated with grief for friends, loved ones, and spouses who have passed. Dealing with loneliness caused by multiple losses can lead to a diminished investment in life, especially when combined with other issues, like financial concerns (Healthy Living in 70s and older, 2012). Get the best medical help available. Watch your posture and take care of your feet. Make sure you get a good night's rest. Watch weight and caloric intake. Be aware of, and take measures, to counter frailty or diminishment of the tasks of every day living. Take safety precautions. See a health care provider regularly and follow his or her recommendations. You can move away from aggressive screenings. Hooray! No more colonoscopies (Cohen, 2016, April 8). Economic - Even though you are retired you still need a budget. If you have not started thinking about the diminished capacities that come with elderhood, talking it through early when everyone is still healthy can help (Sarammpour, 2916, Oregonian, p. D2). It is time to start before a decision is forced upon you and while you have a good grasp of your finances. Many equate confinement in a facility with abandonment. They remember the stigma of the poorhouse. The want to stay in the homes they own as long as possible, even if they are lonely. Friends, neighbors, and relatives often help seniors maintain their independence. There are professionals who provide home care for bill paying, medication reminders, shopping, and home 31
modification. Investigate retirement homes, assisted living, nursing homes, and hospice care. As the amount of care increases so does the cost. Spiritual Septuagenarians reevaluate experience from the perspective of time (Erikson, Erikson, Kivnick, 1986, p. 129). They tend to be more religious than younger people. Many seniors no longer view conflictual events as paradoxes and achieve a sense of oneness with all things. They help those in need. They communicate their experience and wisdom to the next generation. Fowler uses the word "subversive" to describe these people because their views are so radically different from earlier age groups (Johnston, 2009). Authors - Parents dream of seeing their children grow up healthy and successful. Both daughters earned advanced degrees, found good jobs, and married wonderful men. We became grandparents. Pat earned an instructors certificate in Tai Chi. The authors published four books in their 70's. Politics of Death (2012), Healthy Grieving (2015), America Cries (2016) and a digital textbook, Strategic Literacy (2017). In 2015, the NSSA selected one of the authors' publications as Paper of the Year. In the same year, Bill became president of the association. Serious health issues occurred. Yet, after two surgeries and five weeks of radiation, Bill recovered from a cancerous tumor on his leg. His oncology social worker and spiritual advisor helped him come to terms with his mortality during this challenging period. Awesome Eighties Building Blocks Levinson described the 80s as late late adulthood, a time when one comes to terms with ones own mortality. He typified this stage as a period of diminished capacities, but with the potential to enjoy longevity. The Torah calls it a time of special strength of age (Levinson, p. 325). Health There is less need for preventive screenings for octogenarians. However, caregivers must take care to prevent falls, watch for the early signs of dementia, and the diminishing of daily life skills. Eighty-year-olds need a flu shot every year. They need to practice tai chi, dance, or swim. Movement helps them maintain mobility and independence. Seniors must keep on learning, read a book, keep a journal, do a crossword puzzle, or figure out how to send pictures of loved ones on an ipad (Hoefler, 2013). One eighty-year-old expressed it this way, "There is an inclination just to let go. . . to set there in the evening and watch TV because that is the easiest thing to do" (Erikson, Erikson, & Kivnick, 1986, p. 309). Fitness reporter Kerry Justich (2016) in her article, "80-Year-old body builder: Age is nothing but a number" reported that Ernestine Shepherd limits her daily diet to 1,700 calories including egg whites, chicken, and vegetables. Shepherd runs ten miles a day and advises people to find something they like to do and motivates them. The number of elderly people living alone increased by 30% during the last decade. Seniors should avoid isolation and depression by embracing the world they have, attending social events, and keeping in contact with family. The death of a spouse, friends, or child can devastate elders. Sharon Johnson reminds us phone calls are welcome, especially for seniors with limited mobility. She notes Friendship Line for the Elderly has a national 800 number (April 10, p. C2). Spiritual Artist Joan Erikson (2010) claimed people in their eighties and nineties faced all the challenges they encountered in earlier stages of life. She believed many elderly faced despair with increased loss of their physical abilities. She said many feel incompetent and might act out just to assert their autonomy. They may lose their sense of identity when they no longer feel they have a role to play in work, family, or retirement living. Joan Erikson believed people can meet these crises, just as they overcame challenges in previous stages of life (Friede, 2014). Authors Several family members reached their eighties. Pat's very active mom often drove much younger friends completely across Portland OR to the airport for early morning flights. She, her older sister, and much of our family accompanied us to Las Vegas for an NSSA meeting. The oldsters attended shows, gambled, and stayed up late. One morning when we all met for breakfast we noticed our 30-year-old daughter and her husband could hardly stay awake. They finally confessed they decided to chaperone Pat's mother and aunt. Apparently the elders were still playing Black Jack at 3:00 am with Aunt Elsie enjoying multiple long-necked beers. 32
At eighty, Bill's grandfather and namesake, sailed alone to Hawaii on a cruise ship. Family lore indicates that, though he was a janitor, he was not intimidated by any rich or influential shipmates and thoroughly enjoyed his solo adventure. Bill's aunt, Sister Imelda Joseph, remained active in affairs of her religious order well into her 80s. She was well known as an excellent educator, an outstanding educational administrator, and an absolutely ruthless poker player. Noble Nineties Building Blocks - The 90s are a time for reflection on a life well lived. Stephanie Wong (2016) in a PopSugar interview, "45 life lessons written by a 90-year-old woman," asked Regina Brett about the social and spiritual aspects of aging. Brett gave the following responses: Life is too short to waste time hating anyone. Forgive everyone everything. Make peace with your past so it won't screw up the present. When it comes to chocolate, resistance is futile. Burn the candles; use the nice sheets. Wear fancy lingerie." Health People in their 90s report a generally healthy life. If they incurred serious illnesses they recovered quickly. They are conscious of their food intake, maintain a moderate well-balanced diet, and avoided obesity. They are physically active most of their lives and either never smoked or quit in their early years. They drank alcohol moderately or not at all (Weis-Numeroff, p. 223). Spiritual Regina Brett is an excellent example of Ken Wilber's explanation of where meaning is found "not in outward actions or possessions, but in the inner radiant current of your own being, and in the release and relationship of these currents to the world, to friends, to humanity at large, and to infinity itself" (as cited by Helfrich, 2007, p. 11). She is a complete person according to any model of human development. Authors Soon after we bought our house forty years ago, a single retired telephone operator, June, moved into our neighborhood. She loved children and knew everything that happened on our block. She led a busy social life well into her eighties and nineties until several falls limited her mobility and prevented her from driving. She organized our whole neighborhood to help her. Each neighbor had specific tasks, either grocery shopping, buying pet food, taking her to various medical appointments, or providing transportation to and from her hairdresser every Thursday. She kept in contact with her friends by phone, watched Fox News, and never missed a televised NASCAR race or major league baseball game. Pat provided a detailed phone list of local transportation choices to help her when we traveled. Each community has options including free transportation to medical appointments, local bus service vans for handicapped, taxi service, etc. She died at age 93, much loved by our entire neighborhood and independent to the end. Celebratory 100s Building Blocks In the past, reaching the age of one hundred was an amazing achievement. The Torah describes it as being already dead and passed away from the world (cited by Levinson, p. 325). The average life expectancy for Americans today is twice what it was for their grandparents. Centenarians are the fastest growing segment among the elderly. In total numbers, the United States has the most centenarians with current estimates as high as 72,000 (Goodman, 2016). The number of long-lived people is increasing so rapidly, experts on aging created a new stage of life, the super-centenarian, for people over 110. Health Ellen Hughes MD, PhD, a professor at the University of California San Francisco medical school, in her video, "The science of healthy aging: living better not just longer" (2010) argued the same things keeping 20-year-olds healthy, preserve the lives of centenarians. A healthy life-style accounts for forty percent of centenarians' longevity. Interviews of those over 100 years old indicate most advised eating moderate portions of nutritious foods. Some were vegetarians (Adler 2013). They watched 33
their weight. They generally had their own teeth, but may have problems brushing and maintaining oral health. The stereotype of ill-tempered, sedentary, old people is a myth. Numerous interviews on YouTube, like Interview Girl's "Conversation with a Centenarian (2013) demonstrate one does not reach the age of 100 without a positive outlook, exercise, and mental activity. Almost all centenarians reported being active throughout their life. Exercise decreased stress and anxiety. Yoga, tai chi, dance, or even taking a walk with a friend maintained social connections and promoted mental and physical health. Centenarians spoke of how they learned to shake off the negative things of life, adapt, and move on (Goodman, 2016, Affect). social relationships
constitute fifteen percent of wellness for people of all ages. Interviews of centenarians consistently reported they maintained a happy and active social life. Loneliness and depression constituted a real problem for those who outlived their contemporaries and children. Most centenarians received support from their children and unpaid caregivers. A loving family was universally important to them. They enjoyed their roles as matriarchs or patriarchs and many spoke of the pleasure of watching younger generations grow and flourish. Heredity plays the largest part, about thirty percent, in longevity (Hughes, 2010). This explains how some centenarians made unhealthy choices, but continued to thrive. The YouTube video, "Five people over 100 years old Crazy secrets. (2015)" is well worth watching. One Interviewee drank three cans of Doctor Pepper per day, another drank three Miller Hi Life beers and a shot of scotch each day. A 120 year-old woman smoked, drank port wine, and ate 1 kilogram of chocolate a week. Another centenarian attributed her longevity to lifelong celibacy. These 100-year-olds prove the value of longevity genes. Their stories say much about their will to live and joi de vivre. Economic Many centenarians have suffered stress from their finances and having lived through the great depression of the 1930s have some remarkable insights on finances. They paid cash for their first car and remember with pride owning their home free and clear of a bank loan. They view debt as a fourletter word and think young people buy too much on credit confusing needs and wants. They admit they might have done better financially, but point to a lifetime of saving, and investment in stocks, real estate, or mutual funds. Centenarian Carlos Mussenden summed up the feelings of his age group on wealth, "Rich in love, rich in friends, rich in your work, rich with family that is what I call rich" (Franklin and Adler, p. 97). Spiritual - Centenarians have experienced a lifetime of disappointment, loss, and sorrow, as well as, success, fulfillment, and joy. They have learned to let negative things go and forgive everyone everything. Humor is the best and cheapest medicine. Laughter dispels depression and brings back positive memories. Nothing can withstand the assault of laughter. If you want to find someone who has found meaning to life as it relates Maslow's stage of self-actualization to them, talk to a centenarian. Conclusion The evidence presented by the authors of this paper indicates two things. First, the life cycle of stages and transitions developed by Levinson has validity for most people. Everyone is affected by choices as well as chance, but they all encounter similar challenges at approximately the same age. Everyone goes through a mid-life transition; for many it is a time of crisis. Seventy year olds have much the same concerns whether they were pot smoking flower children or intent on building a stable lifestyle. Second, theorists like Joan and Eric Erikson, Maslow, Wilber, and Fowler, using the concept of stages of development, offer much in explaining spiritual, ethical, and moral development, especially for those seventy years and older. Those who seek success in the completion of a Lego kit quickly learn that following the directions is the most valuable tool. Helping hands from experts is welcome, but often ignored until it is almost too late. Occasionally key pieces may disappear or break. However, there is usually a small bag of these essential parts included in each kit. Life is a lot like that as well. Each decade has certain activities that will make the next stage not necessarily easier but a little better. Careful personal reflection is essential. Some mistakes are inevitable; 34
but, recognition of those errors is the first step in correction. Unpredictable forces may cause damage. A determined builder may need expert advice to remedy the situation. This is a time for careful planning and creativity. A picture of the completed project appears on the outside of each Lego kit. Life obviously doesn't do that. But each individual can imagine what that picture will be and strive toward that end. That image should be realistic and strong. Aging will occur and, with careful attention and planning, it can be rewarding and fulfilling at each step, day by day, and block-by-block. Resources Adler, L. (2013, August 14). 7 Life secrets of centenarians. Planning to live to 100? Here's a guide from those who have already made it. Next Avenue. Retrieved from Editorial Staff at Health Communities. (2012). Healthy living in your 30s. Retrieved at Editorial Staff at Health Communities. (2012). Healthy living in your 40s. Retrieved at Editorial Staff at Health Communities. (2012). Healthy lining in your 50s. Retrieved from Editorial Staff at Health Communities. (2012). Healthy living in your 60s. Retrieved from Editorial Staff at Health Communities. (2012). Healthy living in your 70's and older. Retrieved from Erikson, J. Old age I. A conversation at 90. Davidson Films.Retrieved at /youtu.be/158CneVeJkk> Erikson, J. (1994, uploaded on 2012). Old age II. A conversation with Joan Erikson. Davidson Films. YouTube. Retrieved at Erikson, E., Erikson, J., & Kivnick. Vital Involvement in old age. New York: Norton and Co., 1986. Five people over 100 years old crazy secrets. (2015). S. C. Videos. Retrieved from YouTube at Franklin, S. & Adler, L. (2013). Celebrate 100. Hoboken (NJ.): Wiley. Friede, E. (2014). Joan Erikson's 9th stage of psychological development. Life Transitions and Completion Website. Retrieved at Gilligan, C. (1977, November). In a different voice, women's conceptions of self and morality. Harvard Educational Review. 47 (4), 481-517. Goleman, D. (1989, February 7). For many, turmoil of aging erupts in the 50's. New York Times. Retrieved at< http://www.nytimes.com/1989/02/07/science/> Goodman, S. (2016). How many people live to 100 across the globe. The Centenarian. Retrieved from Goodman, S. (2016). Affect of companionship on living to 100, The Centenarian. Retrieved from Helfrich, P. (2007). Ken Wilber's Model of Development; an overview. A compilation for research and study in pdf format. Retrieved from Hoefler, A. (2013). Age is just a number: Tips from active 80-year-olds. MBG (Mind Body Green). Retrieved at Hughes, E. (2010). The science of healthy aging: living better not just longer. University of California Television. retrieved at Interview Girl.com. (2013). Conversing with Centenarians. Retrieved at Jahnke, R. (2016, May 23). Personal Email, Forward challenge golden ppportunity. Johnson, S. (2016, April 10). The telephone is a home health aid. Mail Tribune, p. C2. Johnson, S. (2016, July 3). Our granddaughter is learning about senior living. Mail Tribune, p. C2. Johnson, S. (2016). Age -Friendly innovators website. Retrieved at Johnston, M. (2009). Exploring spiritual Development. Exploring spiritual development. Retrieved at 35
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Welcome to Caesars! The First Themed Casino in Las Vegas Patricia M. Kirtley Independent Scholar William M. Kirtley Central Texas College Abstract This paper chronicles Jay Sarno's life, vision, and the history of his hotel-casino, Caesars Palace. Sarno built the first themed casino in Las Vegas in 1966. He sought to recreate the glory of ancient Rome, a fantasy world where everyone was a Caesar. He adorned it with replicas of Greek and Roman art. Caesars catered to men's desire to take risks with high stakes gambling. The Palace appealed to their hunger for fine food, attractive women, elegant shopping, and top entertainment. Sarno died of a heart attack in 1984, the victim of a lifetime of debauchery. His casino, hotel, and the Forum shopping center live on, a testament to the power of imagination to draw customers in and induce them to spend without guilt. Introduction The Roman theme at Caesars fit his fantasy of life. J. C. Sarno Greek mythology told the story of Icarus who used wax to attach wings of feathers to his arms and escape prison. He soared too close to the sun in the exhilaration of flight. The wax melted and he fell to his death into the sea. Memorialized in a famous painting by Breughel, his imminent demise is lost in appreciation for his incredible ingenuity. Jay Sarno (1922-1984), a profoundly flawed human being, envisioned and created the first themed casino hotel in Las Vegas. His profligate lifestyle led to his early death. His opulent hotel-casino remains, a simulacrum of Ancient Rome. Postmodernists gravitated naturally to Las Vegas and Caesars Palace. Literary theorist Fredrick Jameson in Postmodernism and Consumer Society (1988) introduced the notion of pastiche, "a wild in which stylistic innovation is no longer possible, all that is left is to imitate dead styles, to speak through the masks and with the voices of the styles in the imaginary museum" (p. 4). Theorist Jean Baudrillard in Simulacra and Simulation (1981) asserted that Las Vegas is the "absolute advertising city" where consumers can find a greater variety of large-scale reproductions than in any other place (p. 91). Postmodern architect Robert Venturi noted in Learning from Las Vegas (2001), "The agglomeration of Caesars Palace and the strip as a whole approaches the spirit if not the style of the late Roman forum with its eclectic accumulations" (p. 51). Sarno believed that high rollers enjoyed the things he liked: a casino that pampered men with gourmet restaurants, strong drinks, attractive women, and a chance to demonstrate how real men took risks. He chose a Roman theme as a setting for this fantasy. Gamblers disembarked from their limousines in an entrance decorated with copies of the most famous statues in the world. It made no difference who you were or where you came from. If you had the money, you were Caesar. Sarno achieved his dream, made a fortune, and lost it. He lived life with no regrets. This paper analyzes his life, vision, the hotel-casino he built, the artwork he commissioned, and the concept of the first themed resort in Las Vegas. 37
Jay Sarno Welcome to Caesars. I am your slave. (Greeting of cocktail servers at Caesars on opening day.) Jay Jackson Sarno, born in 1922, was the son of Jewish immigrants from Poland. He grew up in St. Joseph, Missouri during the depression. His father was a cabinetmaker. He was the second to the last of seven brothers and a sister. Jay Sarno Jr., his son, observed that "a lot of what made him tick" was his upbringing. "He didn't like being poor" (Hopkins, 1992, p. 92). He attended the University of Missouri, majoring in business. During World War II, he served in the Pacific. After the war, Sarno ran a tile company and became a contractor in Miami, Florida with his college friend, Stanley Mallin. They met with Jimmy Hoffa in 1958 and secured a loan from the Teamsters Pension Fund. They built the flashy Atlanta Cabana motor hotel in Atlanta, Georgia complete with fountains, statues, and mirrors. Deanna DeMatteo, in her website on the history of the Las Vegas Strip (2017), quoted Sarno on a visit to Las Vegas after a 1961 gambling trip. "The Flamingo was sick like an old storage room. The Desert Inn was a stable" (p. 1). Sarno considered how hard he worked building motels, when even bad hotels in Las Vegas made huge amounts of money. He decided he was going to build a truly opulent casino. He returned home and told his wife about his dream. She believed him because she knew there was no one more determined than her husband. While on a trip to Italy, Sarno conceived the idea of building his casino with a Greco-Roman theme. Dr. David Schwartz (2013) author of Sarno's biography Grandissimo quoted him as exclaiming to his wife while crossing St. Peter's square at the Vatican, "This is it! This is what my hotel is going to look like" (p. 63). It did not matter that the final product contained a potpourri of replicas from Rome to the Renaissance. No one cared, Sarno reasoned, at least any one who came to his hotel. Sarno's notion of a themed hotel was a total concept, from art, to architecture, to the costumes for the cocktail waitresses. Melinda Sheckells, a reporter for Hollywood Reporter (2016) quoted Sarno's son, J. C. Sarno as saying his father's idea of marketing research was, "I'll do what I think is fun, and everyone else will think the same thing is fun, too!" (p. 1). Sarno insisted there was no apostrophe in Caesars. He stated, "I'm going to create a feeling that everyone that is in the hotel is a Caesar" (as cited in Early, 2000, p. 71). The total cost for constructing the hotel was 19 million dollars. Hal Rothman (2002) author of Neon Metropolis, noted the finished edifice reflected Sarno's design. "The casino was elliptical, reflecting his belief that egg-shaped structures relaxed people" (p. 18). Sarno included an elaborate garden replete with mass reproductions of art so that people could "leave the real world and enter this fantasy world." (as cited in Sheckells, 2016, p. 1). "Caesars Palace guests are meant to have passed through the other side of a movie screen to become stars in a Hollywood inspired projection of ancient Roman opulence and decadence" (Malamud and Guthrie, 2001, p 251). In so doing, the theming distanced guests psychologically from their everyday world, and "concerns that might inhibit their gambling" (Hess, 1993, p. 89). Caesars caters to "high rollers" those who could afford to risk thousands of dollars, enjoy gourmet food and drink, spend a fortune on opulent entertainment, and purchase the latest in haute couture. Sarno spent one million dollars at the inauguration of the hotel on August 5, 1966. The invited 1,800 guests, including Adam West, Eva Gabor, and Jimmy Hoffa, received an invitation scroll from an actor dressed as a centurion. The guests consumed two tons of filet mignon, three hundred pounds of crabmeat washed down with 50,000 glasses of champagne. Singer Andy Williams headlined the show. Two years after the opening of Caesars, Sarno built a family themed casino called Circus Circus. His new casino featured a circus tent with daily acts. Sarno dressed as a ringmaster and led the show. High rollers and dealers found acrobats whizzing over their heads distracting. Sarno never decided if Circus-Circus was for adults who wanted to act like children or for parents who wanted to park their children while they gambled. He eventually admitted Circus-Circus was "one my many not-so-good ideas" (as cited by Schwartz, 2013, p. 211). Circus Circus suffered the same chronic mismanagement and mob involvement as Caesars Palace. Federal agents raided the casino and charged Sarno with offering an agent the largest bribe in the history of the FBI. Under oath, Sarno admitted, "I have a very raucous personality" (cited by Schwartz, 38
2013, p. 213). His lawyer, Oscar Goodman, got him acquitted. The Nevada Gaming Commission brought pressure on Sarno to leave the gaming business. In 1975, he sold Circus Circus to Bill Pennington and Bill Bennett, a Del Webb executive. Sarno grew frustrated when his dream of building a mega hotel called "Grandissimo" never materialized. His gambling addiction continued. His diabetes, obesity, gout, and lifetime of debauchery took a toll on his health. He died of a heart attack in a room at Caesars in the arms of one of his paramours on 21 July 1984 at age 62. The story that made the rounds of the blackjack dealers and croupiers, was that Sarno "departed this life in the most fantastic suite, inside the most gorgeous hotel in the world, with a beautiful girl, owing the IRS a million bucks" (Schwartz, 2013, p. 266). Corporate Caesar A monumental achievement Bankruptcy Judge Corporate Caesar maintains the audacity and swagger of its founder. Caesars Entertainment Corporation was the first gaming company listed on the New York Stock Exchange (CZR). Caesar's empire includes fifty-three casinos and seven golf courses in seven different countries, as well as, an online gaming platform. It is the world's most diversified casino-entertainment provider in the world. It endured a spectacular bankruptcy in 2015. Many people including Robert Deniro and Gordon Ramsey lost a great deal of money. Presently, Caesars advertises, "Caesars Means Business." Before 1967, the Nevada State Gaming Commission required every stockholder in a gaming company to pass a background check in a misguided attempt to keep the mob out of gaming. With corporations excluded from the business, the only source of investment funds was the one used by Sarno, Jimmy Hoffa and the Teamsters Pension Funds. The passage of the Corporate Gaming Act allowed corporations to build the super casinos of Sarno's dreams (Rothman, 2002, p. 21). Restaurant owners Stuart and Clifford S. Perlman bought Caesars in 1968 for $60 million and changed the company's name to Caesars World. Business improved, especially after the idea for an automatic cash machine (ATM) revolutionized the gaming industry in 1969. The house no longer had to vet players. Gamblers could now play with instant cash on credit. Gambling pioneer Bill Harrah merged his company with Caesars World to form Caesars Entertainment Corporation in 2005. The following year Harrah hired Gary Loveman, a professor at the Harvard Business School. Loveman created Total Rewards, a sophisticated customer tracking system allowing him to personalize marketing for several different casinos. Loveman observed "We want to know not only what you're worth," but what you could be worth, and we want to treat you consistently with that" (Cohan, 2005, p. 1). Caesars Entertainment Corporation increasingly turned to buyout firms and hedge funds for financing after it lost 18 billion dollars during the 2008 recession. With creditors clamoring for payment of debt, Caesars Entertainment filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2015. Two years later, Bankruptcy Judge Benjamin Goldgar allowed the Corporation to separate its gaming operations form its property assets to attain higher price-to-earnings ratios compared to those of their highly regulated gaming operations. This allowed Caesars to once again borrow money and focus on restoring the Harrah's and Horseshoe brands (Rucinski, 2017, p. 1). Caesar's Entertainment Corporation leads the industry in corporate citizenship and responsibility. Each of the corporation's properties has a Code Green team that investigates and confronts environmental issues including encouraging employees and guests to spend time outdoors. The Corporation promotes diversity and inclusion in hiring and in selecting suppliers (Caesars Entertainment Corporation Website, 2017, Diversity). Caesars embraces the modern notion that it is just good business to advocate corporate responsibility, but always with a touch of its founder's chutzpah. 39
Spectacles, Stunts, and Sports Let the games begin! Caesars Palace earned the sobriquet "Home of Champions" by hosting a conglomeration of lavish displays, iconic entertainers, and sports events all directed towards satisfying the desires of men who love to take risks. On a gambling trip to Caesars, daredevil Evel Knievel imagined jumping his motorcycle over the gardens and statuary in front of the casino, a distance of 141 feet. On 31 December 1967, Knievel paid his respects to Sarno. After two showgirls accompanied him to the jump site, he said a prayer, and headed down the ramp. An unexpected loss of speed on the take off ramp caused him to come up short, landing on a safety ramp. Knievel flew over his handlebars into the parking lot of the Dunes. He fractured his pelvis, suffered a concussion, broke both ankles, and remained in a coma for 29 days. The film of this unfortunate event amazingly became an advertisement for Caesars. Sammy Davis Junior first appeared on stage in Vegas in 1945. He helped end segregation in the 1950s by announcing he would not play in any hotel at which he could not stay. Frank Sinatra and the Rat Pack supported his decision. In the 1970s, Davis joined Ruby Duncan's welfare rights movement. Duncan, a motel maid with a 9th grade education and seven children, organized a coalition of welfare mothers, lawyers, clergy, civil rights leaders, movies stars and housewives. On a spring day in 1971, she led 1500 activists past the statue of Caesar and into his palace. They shut down gambling at the Palace for over an hour (Orlek, 2015, p 7). Caesar provided bread and circuses for the people of Rome. Caesars Palace delivered first class entertainment including Andy Williams, Liberace, Diana Ross, Lena Horne, Harry Bellefonte and modern performers Cher, Shania Twain, and Dolly Parton. Currently appearing are Mariah Carey, Elton John, Rod Stewart and Celine Dion. The storyline in The Hangover (2009), an R rated comedy filmed at Caesars, chronicled the adventures of four men at a bachelor party. When they check into the Palace, Alan (Zack Galifanakis) asked, "Does Caesar live here?" (Hangover, "Does Caesar Live Here?). They rented a Villa suite that cost $4,200 a night and embarked on a night of carousing. The men woke up the next day with no memory of the previous night and commenced a journey of discovery that included car crashes, ransom, and a punch from Mike Tyson. The Hangover turned into an advertising bonanza for Caesars. Other films using Caesars Palace as their location included Rain Man (1988) starring Dustin Hoffman and Tom Cruise and Oceans 11 (2001). Producers filmed several television shows such as the Partridge Family and Keeping up with the Kardashians at Caesars. They filmed an episode of the TV show Xena, Warrior Princess "When in Rome" (1998). Xena prevailed in combat against gladiators and eventually resolved several conflicts. After the filming, the costumed actors spent time gambling in Caesars Palace. The favorite sport of ancient Romans was chariot racing. The Palace held a number of motorized versions of this event including a world championship Formula One race in 1981 and 1982. These races were a financial disaster and the desert heat melted drivers and spectators alike. The Casino also hosted a CART (IndyCar) event won by Mario Andretti and a Stadium Super Trucks competition. Romans loved to watch professional gladiators and boxers. Modern day gladiators in the form of professional wrestlers participated in a number of spectacular events at Caesars Palace. WrestleMania IX (1993) featured Hulk Hogan's comeback. Promoters billed it as "The World's Largest Toga Party" (Powell, 2015, p. 1). The casino staged the area to look like a Roman coliseum with guards, trumpeters, live animals, and announcers clad in togas. Other wrestling events included Clash of the Champions in 1995 and World Championship Wrestling's Monday Nitro. The center of the boxing world moved from Madison Square Garden to Caesars Palace in the 60s. Caesars featured boxing matches with some of the era's greatest fighters: Sugar Ray Leonard, Marvin Hagler, Larry Holmes, Oscar De La Hoya, Muhammad Ali, and Mike Tyson. Ray "Boom Boom" Mancini defended his title against Korea's Duk Koo Kim in 1982. In the 14th round, Mancini landed a left hook in Kim's face. The referee stopped the fight. An ambulance took Kim to a hospital where he died of a blood clot in his brain. Frank Sinatra acknowledged Mancini for "The greatest fight I have ever seen" that night in the showroom (Kriegel, 2012, Sports Page). 40
Caesars Palace featured ice hockey in the desert. In the summer of 1991 the hotel/casino hosted a pre-season game between the New York Rangers and Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. The hotel laid out a rink over the parking lot. It held firm despite 95-degree temperatures. A crowd of 3,000 watched Wayne Gretzky lead the Kings to a 5-2 win. Roman emperors put on spectacular events to amuse the citizens of Rome. They favored blood sports with gladiators fighting to the death. Sarno displayed a fondness for "spectacle, stunts, and gimmicks" (Malamud & McGuire, 2001, p. 263). Corporate Caesars perpetuated his legacy, sponsoring events that appealed to a male clientele, violent sports like wrestling, boxing, and hockey. The Roman games included gladiators fighting to the death and dramatic productions. Caesars perpetuated that bequest by featuring events and happenings involving film stars and entertainers. Art and Statuary at Caesars Live the Legend. Following is a relatively strenuous walking tour, but well worth the effort. Everything comes together: Sarno's vision and venality, a pastiche of copies of great art from different artists and time periods, and decorative art that validates a fantasy of consumption. First one sees the gardens and the wonders they contain. One enters the casino under triumphal Roman arches or alights from a limousine under the cantilevered port cloche. Entering the labyrinth of Caesars is easier than departing. This clever architectural wonder keeps guests gambling, shopping, and eating. Consider taking three separate walks: the gardens, the interior of the Casino, and the Forum Shops. On his visit to Europe, Sarno photographed columns, pilasters, and flying buttresses. He bought Carrara marble, similar to that used by Michelangelo and hired sculptors at the cost of $200,000. Sarno ordered a conglomerate of reproductions of famous Western art including: three statues by Michelangelo, three statues of Venus, and several works depicting scenes of "Roman military conquests and women as booty" (Malamud & McGuire, 2001, p. 255). Some of the statues have plaques identifying the name of the artist and the work. However, most of them have nothing on the plinth identifying the artist or the subject. "Caesars collapses the historical specificity of individual Roman emperors into one mega-emperor. What matters most is the category "emperor" rather than any particular ruler (Malamud & McGuire, 2001, p. 253). This is not a museum containing authentic original works of art. It is a casino adorned with replicas. The artwork's function is to provide an elegant setting in which consumers feel free to spend extravagant amounts of money. The artworks detailed in this paper are a small part of the vast holdings on display at Caesars Palace. 1. The Gardens Caesars gardens lie across Las Vegas Boulevard from the Flamingo. There is a copy of the Bernini fountain in Piazza Navona featuring a Triton. A reproduction of the Apollo Belvedere (c. 2nd century); and a copy of the quadriga, a gold-leaf four-horse chariot group from atop the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (351 BC) in Turkey are also situated in the garden. 2. Winged Victory Of Samothrace The original 2nd century BC statue of the Greek God of victory stands on a landing in a staircase in the Louvre Museum. This commanding replica is located in the gardens in front of Caesars Palace and is framed by a lengthy reflecting pool, amid jets of water. This site is appropriate for a commemoration of the ancient naval battle, even if it is in the middle of the desert. 3. The Sphinx A sphinx, located next to the Winged Victory on Las Vegas Boulevard, is a winged creature from Greek mythology, with a lion's body and woman's head and torso. This terrifying creature strangled all who could not answer her riddle, but killed herself when Oedipus answered the riddle correctly. 41
4. Caesar Prima Porta The most noticeable statue is a 200-foot replica of Augustus of Prima Porta located on a traffic island in the vehicle entrance to Caesars Palace. This statue is anonymous, but immediately recognizable as the corporate logo for Caesars Entertainment Corporation. The original dates from the 1st century AD. Workers discovered it in 1863 on the grounds of the villa of Caesars wife, Livia. It is now on display at the Vatican museum. The statue portrays this handsome confident young ruler attired in military garb. He is moving forward, one hand held high in a gesture common to orators, and the other grasping the baton of command. Cupid lies at his feet. 5. Brahman Shrine The Brahman Shrine located to the left of the gardens is an unexpected place for reflection. This cast bronze gold-plated statue is 14 feet tall and portrays the Hindu and Buddhist god of creation. Brahma has four heads and eight arms. Its housing is covered with tiny pieces of beveled glass. The smell of incense and the sight of seven-colored flower garlands greet visitors. Tiny elephants, sacred to Brahma, grace the base of the shrine. A Thai newspaper tycoon gave this copy of the Brahman Shrine to Caesars in 1983. A plaque at its base notes that the donor's intent was to provide a "place of prayer which in turn bestows prosperity and good fortune on those who come to visit and make their hopes and wishes known (Braham, 2009, p. 1). 6. Capture of the Sabine Women This statue stands in a small island amidst the traffic headed for the main entrance to Caesars Palace. Flemish sculptor Giambologna (1529 1608) sculpted the original in 1582. Many prefer to call the statue the Abduction or Capture of the Sabine Women, rather than dealing with the ugly implications of the title, Rape of the Sabine Women. The original is located in the Loggia del Lanzi, Florence, Italy. Giambologna carved this 13.5 foot statue from a single block of marble. He strove for a sense of action and movement particularly in its vertical lines. The statue's spiral construction offers many vantage points. The terrified Sabine woman is firmly in the grasp of a Roman soldier. Her father lies vanquished at his foot. Giambologna displayed his skill as a sculptor in portraying both sexes of three different ages. The legend of the Sabine Women is one of the founding myths of Rome. It provided a lurid explanation of how the first Romans used force and cunning to marry outside their social group (exogamy) and develop a strong populace capable of dominating their neighbors as a Republic and Empire. Romulus slew his brother Remus and became the sole ruler of Rome. Mostly men settled in the city that would bear his name. Romulus sought to remedy the lack of women by proclaiming a feast day to which he invited the Sabines, a neighboring tribe. At a signal from Romulus, his soldiers killed the Sabine men and took their women by force. Titus Livius in The History of Rome (1905) described the "abducted maidens" as "despondent and indignant" (para. 1.9). He goes on to say that Romulus himself talked to them and asked them to forego such feelings and to "give their affections to those whom fortune had made masters of their persons" (para. 1.9). The statue, carved in Italy to exacting specifications was one of the first sculptures to adorn Caesars Palace when it opened in 1966 and one of Sarno's favorites. Sarno recalled the difficulties he encountered in shipping The Capture of the Sabine Women to the United States; "I had to argue like hell to get the sculptor to ship it to America. He feared that it would be damaged in transit" (cited by DeMatteo, 2017, p. 1). Invited guests exiting their limousines next to the statue may see this statue as "simply classy, a fancy sculpture of naked people, that marks the entry as elegant" (McCombie, 2001, p. 57). The massive porte cochere at Caesars is the largest cantilevered structure of its kind. There is lots of activity: taxi stands, bellboys, and people arriving at Caesars Palace. Six marble statues stand on pedestals in niches on each side of the revolving front door; three are of Venus, and one each of Hebe, Bacchus, and David. Sarno specified the sculptors in Italy reproduce these statues at the same height. 42
7. Three Venuses (See appendix A). Jay Sarno thought so much of the Goddess of sex and beauty that he commissioned copies of three different Venuses. A farmer discovered the original Venus de Milo, on the Island of Milos in 1820. A French Officer bought the statue as a gift to the king. The king donated the statue to the Louvre. The statue represents the practice of early Greek sculptors using different blocks of marble for the body and arms of a statue. They used brass pins and metal rods to affix them to the statue. One of the statue's missing arms held her garment and the other an apple. The statue's arms, jewelry, and the plinth with the name of the sculptor disappeared after the statue arrived in Paris. French artistic authorities lost them because they wanted to show that their new acquisition was superior to the Venus de Medici, a statue Napoleon looted from the Italians. They claimed the greatest Greek sculptor of all, Praxiteles, carved it during the classical period. Scholars soon uncovered the fraud. They attributed the statue to a lesser sculptor and to a much later period. Other scholars insisted that it was a copy of a Roman statue. Still others believed the statue was of a female sea goddess, Amphitrite. The answers to these assertions remain a subject of scholarly dispute (Puchko, 2015, p. 1). The second statue, the Venus de Medici is a Roman copy of a 1st century Greek original. Its sculptor tried to enhance its value by falsely attributing it to the original Greek sculptor. The Venus de Medici now resides in the Galleria Uffizi in Florence, Italy. Venus looks over her left shoulder. Her head is in profile. Her arms circle protectively in front of her body. Her son Cupid (desire) and an Amoretti, a winged child riding a dolphin, are at her feet. These figures signaled to the Greeks and Romans that beauty was not an end in itself, but a means to desire and procreation. The pope documented the statue at the Villa de Medici in 1638. However, he thought it lewd and sent it to Florence. Napoleon brought it to France after he conquered Italy. Antonio Canova sculpted the third statue, Venus Italica (1815-1822). The original is in the Galleria Pitti, Florence, Italy. Canova's sponsors commissioned him to replace the Venus De Medici seized by Napoleon. On obtaining a cast of the De Medici statue, he discovered that the turn of her head was due to a mistake made by restorers (Honour, p. 686). Canova told his sponsors that as an artist of the highest caliber, his only choice was to create a new original statue. Art historian, Hugh Honour, related a story that explains the attitude of Canova's masterpiece. The artist hired a young woman model. As she was disrobing, Canova's brother entered the room from behind her. Alarmed, she stood and grasped the drape to her body. Canova exclaimed this was the pose that he wanted. He pulled out his sketchpad and recorded the moment (Honour, n.d. p. 669). 8. Three Statues (See appendix A). At the far left of the entrance stands a life-sized replica of David (1504) carved by Michelangelo. The original is on display in the Academia Gallery in Florence. The block of Carrara marble used by Michelangelo contained several flaws. It lay unused for forty years in a courtyard until the master selected it as a test of his genius. The statue depicts the moment before David's fight with Goliath. His weight rests on his back foot, a confident attitude that shows him ready for battle, bristling with latent power, yet fully aware of his disadvantages. The city of Florence commissioned Michelangelo to create the statue as part of a series of statues meant to adorn the roofline of the city's cathedral. For this reason, Michelangelo sculpted David's head and torso disproportionally larger, to give it the proper perspective when displayed from a height. Overwhelmed by the beauty of the statue, Michelangelo's patrons decided not to place it on the Cathedral, but rather in the central square, where all could view it. Michelangelo intended this statue of a naked man as religious art. Notice the details that reference the biblical story of David and Goliath. His left hand holds a rock and his right a sling. He has only his courage, wit, and the power of God in his battle with a fearsome foe. The people of Florence adopted the statue as a symbol of their struggle for autonomy and independence. One might miss this statue located in a very busy place and accompanied by five other masterpieces of sculpture. However, inside Caesars, there is a magnificent 18-foot likeness of Michelangelo's iconic masterpiece. 43
Another Michelangelo statue, Bacchus (1495) portrays the god of wine and revelry. The body is naturally robust as a happy self-assured example of endless pleasure. His posture is relaxed and inviting. He holds a goblet of wine in his right hand and the skin of a tiger in his left. He adorned his hair with a wreath of sacred ivy leaves. The satyr by his side steadies and balances him. The Cardinal who commissioned the statue thought it blasphemous and refused to accept the finished work. Put a suit on Bacchus and he could be any of the young men doing business and seeking pleasure at Caesars. His name graces the expensive all you can eat buffet. The original of Hebe by Adrian de Vries (18th century) is in a private collection. Hebe is the goddess of youth, spring, and forgiveness. In mythology, she is the daughter of Zeus and Hera, and cupbearer to the gods on Mount Olympus, serving them the nectar and ambrosia that keeps them youthful. She also served as chambermaid to several of the feminine goddesses. She married Hercules and bore him twin boys. She is associated with the Roman goddess Juventas. The copy at Caesars depicts her with the freshness of youth, holding her symbols; a bowl and pitcher, to better serve the gods.
9. Capture of the Sabine Women The muted tones, marble fixtures, and elegant, yet classic furnishings in the entryway to Caesars Palace welcomes visitors to one of the most luxurious resorts in Las Vegas. It is like opening the doors to the imagination of Jay Sarno. Two hammered bronze bas-reliefs frame the narrow entryway. The one on the left is of an ancient battle. The one on the right is another rendition of the Rape of the Sabine women.
10. Augustus Caesar A seven-foot bronze statue of Augustus Caesar greets those who come through the main entrance. Supposedly it is good luck to rub Caesar's left index finger. This statue is a second smaller copy of the Augustus Prima Porta statue.
11. Three Muses
There is a large oval lobby to the left of the Augustus statue. At the center is a statue of the three
graces, also called sisters or muses. They sit atop a large water fountain. They represent music, poetry,
and fine arts, or alternately, beauty, charm, and grace. Their Greek names are Aglaia, Thalia, and
Overhead a domed ceiling features paintings similar to those found in Rome. Behind the check-in
desk larger than life paintings depict gods, chariots, and beautiful white horses. Sculpted ceilings and
ornate details make this hotel lobby a tourist attraction in itself. Sarno insisted the lighting fixtures
resemble the sun, a very important theme in ancient Rome.
12. Capture of Sabine Women A white, marble bas-relief, the third depiction of the Capture of the Sabine Women, graces the wall near the Bacchanal Buffet. Apparently representations of this early incident in Roman mythology intrigued Sarno. Artists relish the opportunity to create these artworks featuring a variety of figures in tension-filled postures.
13. Cleopatra Cleopatra's Barge, the floating lounge at Caesars Palace, is an ornate replica of the craft that transported the royalty of Egypt on the Nile River. The classic nightclub features live music and DJs where customers can literally rock the boat. Frank Sinatra and the "Rat Pack", Dean Martin, Sammy Davis Jr., Peter Lawford, and Joey Bishop, made this bar their own private clubhouse. The Payard Patisserie, located around the corner is an excellent place for a latte, and a French pastry.
14. David A second larger and more impressive David stands in the atrium of the Appian Way shops. Mel McCombie (2001), an art historian noted that, due to architectural design, the startling first view of the
famous statue is, "from the waist down" (p. 58). Slightly larger than the original, it stands 18 feet high and weighs more that nine tons. Supposedly, it depicts the tense moment before David slew Goliath, but upon consideration it portrays a strong young Jewish shepherd who has enough chutzpah to think he can defeat the giant. The statue came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city-state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states, and by the hegemony of the Medici themselves. 15. Joe Louis Sarno respected champions. The statue of boxing legend Joe Louis, the "Brown Bomber," stands at the entrance of the sports book. The statue is seven and a half feet tall and weighs 4,500 lbs. Louis, portrayed in a boxer's crouch, was the world heavyweight-boxing champion from 1937 to 1949. Louis won 52 of his fights by knockout. He fought in 27 championship fights. He joined the Army during World War II and worked tirelessly for his country. Caesars has a special relationship with Louis. The IRS hounded Louis for back taxes and he experienced financial difficulties in the 1970s. Ash Resnick, the vice president at Caesars, an Army buddy of Louis, gave him the job as a greeter (McKenzie, 2010, p.1). In 1981, Louis died at age 66 of a heart attack in Las Vegas. Jesse Jackson and Frank Sinatra delivered eulogies in the sports book ("Services Friday," 1981. p. 1). Congress passed legislation allowing his burial in Arlington Cemetery. He was truly an American hero. 16. The Colosseum To the right before the entrance to the forum, Caesars Entertainment Corporation replaced the Circus Maximus showroom with the $108 million Colosseum in 2003 to house the Celine Dion musical performance. Some aspects of the contemporary architecture reflect the lines of one of the world's most famous buildings, the Roman Colosseum. The name of that ancient structure is the Latin word for gigantic. The difference between the two structures is that the one in Rome was a stadium for 50,000 citizens and the one in Las Vegas is a theater seating 4,298 people. 17. Fortuna A 25-foot statue of the Roman goddess of luck graces the exit from the casino and entry into the Forum Shops. She holds a cornucopia containing the riches she gives her followers. She was also the goddess of the dawn and distribution of grain. She appears blindfolded in front of courthouses, symbolizing the impartiality of justice. The Greeks called her Tyche. They considered her luck capricious, while the Romans thought luck came to those whom the gods favored. At her feet lies an excellent interactive map to guide visitors through the cobblestone streets of the Forum. 18. Forum Enter the Forum Shops at Caesars named after the shops at the center of ancient Rome. It is a 636,000-square-foot high-end shopping mall built as an extension wing of the main hotel and casino in 1992. It is known as the shopping wonder of the world. "This is not your standard mall. The statues talk. The Sky does tricks" (Emperors Guide, 1997, p. 1). The spiral escalator is one of 103 in the world. The Forum is a fanciful recreation of the ancient marketplace in Rome, complete with Roman columns, statues and fountains. The ceiling lights simulate night and day every hour. The corporation that owns the Forum remodeled the lighting in 2012 to include computer controlled laser projectors to replicate the starry skies at night. The Forum is widely entertaining and highly effective in marketing, a postmodern demonstration of the logic of consumer capitalism (McCombie, 2001, p. 53). It is the highest grossing mall in the United States with annual sales of $1610 per square foot. Michael Schulman, author and Las Vegas expert, observed people come to Vegas predisposed to spend money: Even if it's a store they have at home, people are more likely to splurge because psychologically the strings on the purse are loose (2016, July 15, p. 1). The Forum is open from 10 AM until 11 PM. It contains 160 specially stores such as Armani, Vuitton Gucci, Dior, Cartier, and Versace. Small replicas of the statues at the main entrance to Caesars 45
adorn the niches above the shops. 19. Salt Water Aquarium Cobblestone streets lead shoppers to the very end of the mall. There is an Apple store, a Nike outlet, a Cheese Cake Factory, and the Fall of Atlantis fountain. The latter uses fire, water, smoke, ninefoot animated figures, and teeth-rattling narration to tell the story of the Myth of Atlantis, every hour on the hour. The 50,000-gallon circular, salt-water aquarium located in back of the fountain features over 500 tropical fish, including sharks and stingrays. Conclusion Jay Sarno built the first themed casino in the city of sin, din, and gin (Schwartz, 2013, p. 44). He believed "that a casino should not be merely a hotel with gambling tables, but an island of fantasy in a mundane world" (Hopkins, 1997, p. 92). Sarno lived a dissolute life marred by excessive gambling, eating, and promiscuity. He had complete disregard for any social marker except wealth. The artistic pastiche he created masked these inherent weaknesses. It didn't matter that the art in Caesars Palace represented diverse periods and styles. No one cared, at least the high rollers that frequented his hotel. For those who do care about the art, there is much to discover. Caesars Palace supplied a vision of Rome "a city of ivory columns and fluttering togas, now and forever" (Schwartz, 2013, p. 62). The Roman Empire acquired art from those they conquered including the eight Egyptian obelisks that grace the Eternal City. They copied Greek art and put it on display. Sarno imitated the Romans and, at the same time, provided a place where men of wealth, or at least a credit card, could satisfy their desires. Baudrillard, the French philosopher, believed that consumption was more important than production in postmodern society. He argued that consumption manipulated people's needs with signs and symbols creating settings in which they have a propensity to consume. Consumers may envision only one object, but those in control want them to purchase as many things as possible. George Ritzer and Todd Stillman (2001), two sociologists, amplify Baudrillard's theory in their article in [email protected]@gement, "The Modern Las Vegas Casino-Hotel: The Paradigmatic New Means of Consumption." They view Caesars Palace and the Forum Shops as "cathedrals of consumption" where consumers are tempted to satisfy their most expensive desires without regard to cost (p. 83). Jay Sarno probably was not familiar with Baudrillard, but he risked everything on the altar of conspicuous consumption to realize his dream. In so doing, he changed the city of Las Vegas forever. Works Cited Appignanesi, R. (1995). Introducing postmodernism. New York: Totem Books. Augustus Prima Porta statue at Caesars Palace, Las Vegas (2011, August 4). Retrieved at Baudrillard, J. (1981). Simulacra And Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Brahma Shrine (2009, July 28). Outdoor altars. Retrieved from Caesars Entertainment Corporation Website. (2017). Retrieved from DeMatteo, D. (2017). Las Vegas Strip History. Retrieved at History of Caesars Palace in Las Vegas (1962 -1967). (2009, May 5). Casino Top 10. Retrieved at http://www.casinotop10.net/caesars-palace-casino> Honour, D. (n.d.) History of Canova's Venus. The Burlington Magazine. Retrieved at Hopkins, A. D. (1997) Jay Sarno: He came to play. In Sheehan, E. (Ed.) (1997). Players the Men who Made Las Vegas. Reno: University of Nevada Press. Jameson, F. Postmodernism and Consumer Society (1988). Pdf at art.ucsc.edu/sites/default/files. Kriegel, Mark. (16 September 2012) A step back. New York Times. Sports Page Retrieved at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/17/sports/families-continue-to- heal Lee, X. (2004). Las Vegas Travelogue, Caesars Palace. Retrieved at Livius, T. (1905). The History of Rome. Vol. 1 in Everyman's Library trans, Rev. Canon Roberts, Ed. Ernest Rhys. London: J. M Dent & Sons Ltd. Knievel, E. Website n.d. Retrieved at http://evelknievel.com/the-man/> Malamud, M. and McGuthrie, D. (2001). Living like Romans in Las Vegas, in Joshel, S, Malamud, M, and McGuthrie D. (Eds). (2001). Imperial projections, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. McCombie, M. (2001). Art appreciation at Caesars Palace. p. 53-66 in Harrington, L. Ed. (2001). New York: Blackwell Publishing. McKenzie, K. (2010, May 14). Vblog vegas.com. Sculpting Las Vegas. Retrieved at Puchko, K. (2015, July 21). 15 things you should know about the `Venus de Milo. Mental Floss. Retrieved at http://mentalfloss.com/article/65911/15-things-you-should- know- about-venus-de-milo Rain Man - Caesars Palace, Las Vegas (2016). (Tom Cruise & Dustin Hoffman). YouTube. Retrieved at < www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1S7p3v5t1M> Resende, M. (2015, August 2). Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis Jr. YouTube, Retrieved at https://video.search.yahoo.com/search/video?fr=yfpRitzer, G. & Stillman, T. (2001). The Modern Las Vegas casino-hotel: the paradigmatic new means of consumption. [email protected]@gement. Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 83-99. Rothman, Hal. (2002). Neon Metropolis. New York: Routledge. Rucinski, T. (2017, January 17). Caesars wraps up $18 billion bankruptcy case, eyes future. Reuters. Retrieved at Schwartz, D. (2013) Grandissimo. Las Vegas: Winchester Publishing. Schulman, M. (2016, July 15). Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved at www.hollywoodreporter.com > Services Friday for Joe Louis. (1981, April 14). AP News. Retrieved at www.nytimes.com/.../services-friday-for-joe-louis.html Sheckells, M. (2016, July 15). Caesars Palace turns 50: An oral history of the Las Vegas hotel and casino. Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved at < http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/features/caesars> Suryanarayanan, S. & Ishta D. (2014). Legend of Brahma. Retrieved at https://www.ishtadevata.com/blog/legenbrahmfour-heads.html Swann, G. (2013, July 29). How the rape of the Sabine women helped me sue for peace and racial harmony. Retrieved at http://selfadoration.com/how-the-rapeof-the-sabine-women helped-mesue-for-peace-and-racial-harmony/5196 of Sabine women Taylor, T. (2017). Caesars place in boxing history. Ringside Boxing Show. Retrieved from http://www.ringsideboxingshow.com/CaesarsPalaceHistory.html Trones, M. (1995). Ed. Literary Las Vegas. New York: Henry Holt and Co. Venturi, R., Brown, D., & Izenour, S. (2001). Learning from Las Vegas. Cambridge: MIT Press. When in Rome. (1998). IMDb, retrieved from < http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0751571/ 47
Venus de Milo Venus de Medici
Listening for Healing: Introducing Educators to the Use of Children's Books for Bibliotherapy and Self-to-text Strategies. Dr. Shannon M. Leinen Concordia University, Nebraska Dr. Kathleen B. Wheeler Concordia University, Nebraska Abstract The book Fox (2001) by Margaret Wild and Ron Brooks provides a storyline that allows the reader to determine the meaning, and conclusion, of the narrative. The characters encounter the themes of struggle, hurt, and love, multiple times in the story. These are relatable feelings for many of life's experiences and social constructs. The conclusion of the story is open and allows the reader to determine the outcome of the characters' relationships and destinies. It is due to this relatable and open dialogue that Wild and Brooks create that allows the reader to become engaged, and motivated, to participate in the narrative as Fisher (1987; 1994) presents in his paradigm, permitting for a Self-to-text (STT) understanding of self to take place, and also provides evidence that this children's book could be used for Bibliotherapy. Introduction After encountering the children's book Fox by author Margaret Wild and illustrator Ron Brooks (2001) and learning of its positive therapeutic use in a drug recovery group, a formal interest in Bibliotherapy, using this text, was initiated. Wild and Brooks' picture book was read by several individuals outside of the drug recovery setting, and because of its universal nature and powerful storyline, each person revealed a personalized reaction. "Fox challenges such prejudices, and its publication acknowledges the importance of mature, emotional investigation in the picturebook form" (Sheahan-Bright, n.d.). In this research, middle-level education majors were asked to be participants in a study involving a reading of the book Fox (Wild & Brooks, 2001) and engage in self-reflective questioning. The goal of this research is to understand if Bibliotherapy could be used informally in a classroom setting using a relatable narrative. The researchers found value in revealing if an individual could better understand their life story as they were listening to an engaging storyline and perhaps find a sense of self-healing through the storytelling process. Literature Review Bibliotherapy The term Bibliotherapy was first coined by Samuel Crothers in 1916 when he referenced books as tools for healing (Pardeck, 1994). Bibliotherapy is a phenomenological method and a process where individuals must tap into their consciousness and relate to the subjective experience they are processing (Marlowe & Maycock, 2000). Ultimately, Bibliotherapy is meta-analysis (Macdonald, Vallance, & McGrath, 2013). For this study we will use a definition by Stamps (2003) which defines "Bibliotherapy is a strategy that helps students overcome or deal with a current problem or issue in their lives" (p. 26). Biblotherapy is seen as very economical and encourages patient involvement within this therapy process (Hallstead, 2002; Chamberlain, Heaps, & Roberts, 2008). Counseling in Educational Settings Educational settings often allow students to ponder new questions of information and their own selfefficacy. According to Allen (et al., 2012) even libraries could be the perfect setting, due to the access to books and to education professionals, for one to look for introspection. 49
Narrative Paradigm Walter Fisher's Narrative Paradigm (1987; 1994) reveals that narration is part of basic human nature and that stories can explain the human condition. Due to the social construction (Berger & Luckman, 1967) of storytelling, the completion of one's interaction with narrative (Fisher, 1987; 1994) can take on many forms as the interpretation process is individualized. It is in this individualization of the story, due to one's own lived experiences, that stimulates the accomplishment of catharsis (Allen, et al., 2012). Bibliotherapy is a self-help method that can be used for minor health problems (Macdonald, Vallance, & McGrath, 2013). "Perhaps the terminology itself is what is most problematic for nonclinical practitioners because it is easily associated with licensure and medical treatments" (Ya-Ling, 2008, p. 48). Self-to-Text In the education field, Self-to-Text (STT) is a term which describes how readers will interact with a text, often in a book or paper form, in a way that allows for individuals to understand themselves and their peers (Falk-Ross &L'Allier, 2006). The technique of STT, or connecting with the text that they are reading, can be taught to students for both intellectual and emotional understanding (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000). In addition, individuals experiencing STT tend to be highly motivated to continue to read and connect to the text because the readers are engaged, they feel they understand the situation and/or characters in the story, and they feel as though the time invested in reading is purposeful (Tovani, 2000; Irwin, 2003). When evaluating the reader's response, it is important to understand that the style and technique the author employs in the story is influential (Rosenblatt, 1978) "Children, however, will hear and remember a story differently than how it is read to make it better fit their needs" (Allen et al., 2012, p. 47). Hayes and Amer (1999) agree that children will discuss their experiences freely when narrative is used as a mediation. However, a person's behaviors must change, accompanying the emotional response, for there to be proof that a STT experience has occurred (Marlowe & Maycock, 2000). Method In this qualitative study fourteen participants engaged with Margaret Wild and Ron Brooks' book Fox. The researchers engaged in purposeful sampling by gathering intense data from small group(s) (Patton, 2002). The participants in the purposeful sample presented here were all above 18 years of age and Education Majors in a small, private University in the Midwest using purposeful sampling (Patton, 2002). The researchers were invited to a university classroom where the participants were read the book, Fox, out loud. Summary of Fox The book Fox begins when characters Dog and Magpie meet after enduring a bushfire. A slow and deliberate friendship begins due to the persistent kindness of Dog and mutual physical injuries that complement one another as they embark on a journey. Fox enters the story and is welcomed by Dog, but not by Magpie. Fox makes Magpie uncomfortable. Fox exploits the insecurities of Mapie by tempting her three times to join him on a journey which separates her from Dog. Fox reveals his emotional abuse intentions to hurt Magpie and to destroy the friendship between Dog, Magpie, and Fox. Thus, all three characters are left in solitude. Magpie hops away on a journey home. The resolution of all the character's dilemmas is left to the reader as they reflect on their personal optimism or pessimism as constructed by their own life experiences. Qualitative Interview Process An interview guide was prepared in advance for this research and approved by the University IRB. The participants were given a list of questions concerning their feelings about the book, characters, genre, picture, and text. Each question asked for comment concerning the participants' feelings and interpretation of the book's storyline. and immediately. Participant responses were anonymous. Data Analysis This qualitative case-study was designed to observe the phenomenology of the how the participants processed the story, Fox (Patton, 2002, p. 104). The data was collected in this case-study and each set of participant responses were analyzed and coded in order to identify emerging themes 50
(Cresswell, 2009). This study could easily be replicated for comparison of themes providing evidence of validity and reliability. Husserl (n.d.), a philosopher of phenomenology, believed humanity could only know things that they experienced through their senses. This study predicted that individuals experiencing a reading of the book Fox (2001) may encounter a phenomenological bibliotheraputic experience when the participants heard the story, and thus the questions were formulated with analytic induction (Patton, 2002, p. 94). Thus, the following research questions were hypothesized for this case-study: RQ1: Does Margaret Wild and Ron Brook's book, Fox, bring a person to realize their life story? RQ2: Could Bibliotherapy be used in an educational setting? Findings After reviewing the findings that were gathered from the participants, transcribing the interviews, and coding the results, themes were revealed in this case-study. The insight from the students, as concluded through the gathered interview responses, generated valuable discernments to how the book Fox (2001) created phenomenological bibliotheraputic experiences for the participants. This section will introduce and describe the themes that emerged from the examination of the transcripts. Pictures and Text Nine of the participants mentioned that the illustrations within the book that captured their attention the most was the close up of Fox's eyes. The other image significantly noted was the image of Dog and Magpie sitting together and looking at their reflections in the water. The text on the page says, "Dog is waiting. He persuades her to go with him to the river bank. `Hop on my back,' he says, `Look into the water and tell me what you see.'" (Wild, 2001, p. 3). One participant interpreted this page to convey, "There, the animals realize they can work together despite their disabilities and be what each needs to continue on" (personal communication, November 16, 2016). The print in the book Fox (2001) is rough, laid vertically at times, lacks uniformity in size, style, and positioning, written in scratchy writing and requires the reader to physically turn the book at times to read the text. When asked for a reaction to the book's colors and print the participants' identified that they were generally more comfortable with traditional print order but found themselves intrigued and at times bothered with the style the author and illustrator chose. Words commonly found describing the words and the text included: curiosity, unconventional, haunting, engaging, and child-like. The readers felt that the colors in the artwork were also appealing. The book provides mostly illustrations using large amounts of red, orange, brown, and black which seemed unconventional to the readers. Relation to Characters There are three main characters in the story: Dog, Magpie, and Fox. Six participants stated they related the most to Magpie. Five of the participants related the best to Dog. Two of felt they were most like Fox. Of the fourteen participants only one shared that they didn't enjoy the book and when asked if they related to any of the characters the participant shared that they did not relate to the characters as, "[T]hey were all depressing in their own way" and that the ending of the story was, "Awful, too depressing for a Children's book" (personal communication, November 16, 2016). The rest of the participants conveyed a positive experience with reading the book and enjoying the storyline and the characters in the book. Thirteen of the participants also categorized themselves as individuals with a generally optimistic worldview. Individuals who relate to Magpie revealed internal reflections of temptation, straying from loving relationships, and stories of trauma influencing life choices. Individuals who relate to Dog revealed internal reflections of being loyal in unfaithful relationships, jealousy, and displaying trust. Individuals who relate to Fox revealed internal reflections of desiring to be understood, being on the outside of relationships, having hurt which leads them to take desperate measures in interpersonal interactions. Story Ending Margaret Wild ends the book Fox (2001) abruptly leaving the reader to determine the fate of the characters. This hasty ending bothers the readers but they are each able to articulate what they believe happened to the characters beyond the written words. The participants show their optimism by revealing themes of hope, perseverance, redemption, and the ability for friendships to overcome obstacles. The 51
interviewees felt that each of the characters would be doing self-reflection while evaluating the value of their friendships and complications to mending them. A few of the participants, who struggled with the hasty resolve of the book wrote out a happy ending the author should consider. Life Story For this study, it is important to understand if the participants were able to use Fox (2001) to relate to their life-story. Again, with the exception of one participant, the interviewees were easily able to present detailed reasons why this book related to their life-story. Participants detailed stories of toxic boyfriend/girlfriend relationships, disobeying parents, lies that have gone poorly, being hurt by others, or experiencing jealousy. Several of the participants spoke about their spiritual journeys when reflecting about how this book related to their life-story. Themes of temptations and redemption took on Christ-story narrative in the participant responses. Again, it should be noted, that this study was conducted at a private Christian University. Six of the participants specifically spoke about how a Christ-story, or themes of God's forgiveness, are found within Margaret Wild's book. Bibliotherapy The interviewees in this study are legal adults and being trained to be professional educators. When the participants were asked if Bibliotherapy could be used in an educational setting these young professionals were cautious yet optimistic. Several suggested that it was important for the educator to find the right text for the students to relate to both in age and in topic. Many felt that using Bibliotherapy in the classroom was a way to avoid singling a student out while addressing and talking about important issues. The themes revealed in this case-study were strong and created insight to the participant reaction to the book Fox (2001). With the exception of one participant, the interviewees seemed open to the idea of relating the book to their own lived experience and contemplating the uses of Bibliotherapy. Conclusion The book Fox (2001) by Margaret Wild and Ron Brooks provides a storyline that allows the reader to determine the meaning and conclusion of the narrative. The characters encounter the themes of struggle, hurt, and love multiple times in the story. The conclusion of the story is open and allows the reader to determine the outcome of the characters' relationships and destinies. It is through this relatable and open dialogue that Wild and Brooks create that allows the reader to become engaged, and motivated, to participate in the narrative as Fisher (1987; 1994) presents in his paradigm, permitting for a Self-to-text (STT) understanding of self to take place, and also provides evidence that this children's book could be used for Bibliotherapy. After examining the findings of the qualitative interviews conducted, it is evident that Margaret Wild and Ron Brook's book, Fox (2001), is able to bring people to realize their life story. After examining the findings of the qualitative interviews conducted, it is also evident that Bibliotherapy may be used in an educational setting in two ways. First, the participants, although volunteers, were read the story in a classroom setting. The book was presented and the students listened and were given some questions to reflect upon. The students could use their senses to interact with the physical book, hear the book read to them, and see the pictures and words projected on a large screen in front of the room. Due to the majority responses, the participants were able to articulate how the book related to them and emotional items they were working through individually. Second, as these individuals happened to be aspiring teachers, they wanted to responded to the concept of Bibliotherapy being used in the classroom. The participant responses were futuristic as they reflected on how they may use this tool with their impending students. It should be noted that future interviewees may not have this reaction as they may lack teacher-education training. However, as every individual, consciously and unconsciously, searches for an outlet for catharsis perhaps reading and listening can be an outlet suggested for individual healing. Bibliotherapy in the classroom setting may be a source for exploration. 52
References Allen, J.R., Allen, S.F., Latrobe, K.H., Brand, M., Pfefferaum, B. Elledge, B., & Guffey, M. (2012). The Power of Story. Children & Libraries: The Journal of the Association For Library Service to Children, 10(1), 44-49. Berger, P.L. & Luckman, T. (1967). The social construction or reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York, NY:Random House. Briggs, C.A. & Pehrsson, D. (2008). Use of Bibliotherapy in the Treatment of Grief and Loss: A Guide to Current Counseling Practices. Adultspan Journal, 7(1), 32-42. Cresswell, B. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mix method approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Falk-Ross, F., & L'Allier, S. (2006). Cross-Cultural Self-to-Text Connections: An Examination of the Diverse Life Experiences of middle schoolers. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 34(4), 3-12. Fisher, W. (1987). Human Communication as Narration: Toward a Philosophy of Reason, Value, and Action. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. Fisher, W. (1994). Narrative Rationality and the Logic of Scientific Discourse. Argumentation, (8), 21-22. Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding. Portland, ME: Stenhouse. Hayes, J.S. & Amer, K. (1999). Bibliotherapy: Using Fiction to Help Children in Two Populations Discuss Feelings. Pediatric Nursing, 25(1), 91. Husserl, E. (n.d.). Ideas for a pure phenomenology and phenomenological philosophy. First book. Irwin, R. (2003). Personal constructs and the enhancement of adolescent engagement in reading. Support for learning, 18(1), 29-34. Macdonald, J., Vallance, D., & McGrath, M. (2013). An evaluation of a collaborative bibliotherapy scheme delivered via a library service. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 20(10), 857-865. Marlowe, M. & Maycock, G. (2000). Phenomenology of Bibliotherapy in Modifying Teacher Puntiveness. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 161(13), 325. Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications. Pardeck, J.T. (1994). Using literature to help adolescents cope with problems. Adolescence, 29,421-427. Rosenblatt, L.R. (1978). The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of literary work. Carbondale, IL: University Press. Sheahan-Bright, R. (n.d.). On `Fox', by Margaret Wild and Ron Brooks. Retrieved February 21, 2017 from https://griffithreview.com/fox-margaret-wild-ron-brooks/. Stamps, L.S. (2003). Bibliotherapy: How Books Can Help Students Cope With Concerns and Conflicts. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 70(1), 25-29. Sousa, D. (1998). Is the Fuss Bout brain research Justified?. Education Week, 18(16). 52. Tovani, C. (2000). I read it, but I don't get it: Comprehension strategies for adolescent readers. Portland, ME: Steinhouse. Wild, M. & Brooks, R. (2001). Fox. La Jolla, CA: Kane/Miller. Ya-Ling, L. (2008). Helping Children Cope. Children & Libraries: The Journal of The Association For Library Service to Children, 6(1), 47-49. 53
Where Have All The Black Academicians Gone? A Case Study Mixed Methods Evaluation Of Shortages In Black Faculty In Higher Education Erin Lynch, Ed.D Marsha Lyle-Gonga, Ph.D Austin Peay State University As higher education institutions have witnessed in the last 72 months, conversations about diversity and race in America have captured the minds of academicians and politicians alike. For nearly 50 years, institutions of higher education (IHEs) have sought to increase their compositional diversity. In efforts to create environments in which the student population can reflectively look upon faces similar to their own standing behind lecture podiums, or in lab coats. Universities have sought to implement significant retention and recruitment initiatives geared toward faculty (Whitaker, Montgomery, & Martinez-Acosta, 2015), as well as apply principles of Critical Mass theory to diversify the student compositional demographics. Yet, despite these attempts, which vary in degree across the country, there still exists a national shortage of Black faculty across the board in higher education. In brief, the literature provides a timeline as to where Academe has been regarding this topic. In 1985, Harvey and Scott-Jones called the black professorate "elusive." In 1992, Tack and Patitu claimed we were in "peril." In 2000, the Black professorate comprised four percent of the total population of faculty in higher education, compared to 87% who were White American (Allen, Epps, Guillory, Suh, & BonousHammarth, 2000). A quarter of a century after Harvey and Scott-Jones (1985), Black faculty is still statistically "elusive" and overwhelmingly underrepresented in the classrooms of American higher education. According to general data from NCES (2005, 2013), six percent of the total assistant professors in fall 2003 were Black. However, by the time this cohort would have obtained full professor rank (generally seven years later), they represented four percent of faculty with full professor rank. In the grand picture, the same fall 2003 cohort of assistant professors represented less than two percent of the total professoriate. However, by fall of 2011, Black full professors represented less than one percent of the total professoriate. Theoretically, the attrition rate for Black faculty from early career (assistant professor) to tenure status (full professor) is 94 percent. In more practical terms for every ten early career Black faculty joining academe, nine will not make it to full professor. Researchers have examined the shortcomings from multiple angles; from contributions of the achievement-gap (or education-debt) to pipeline issues to implicit and institutionalized retention, tenure, and promotion problems (Allen et al., 2000; Bensimon, 2005; Ladson-Billings, 2006; Rovai, Gallien, & Stiff-Williams, 2007). In light of situations like those in Ferguson, Baltimore, and University of Missouri, there is a more pressing concern to increase the presence of underrepresented minorities to engage IHEs in more critical conversations regarding cultural inclusivity around America's campuses. Purpose of the Study As a means to examine the issue of Black faculty shortages, a mixed methods case study was conducted to provide contextualization of quantitative and qualitative data about the current landscape for Black faculty at a single public university (SPU). The intellectual merit of this case study, while not generalizable to other IHE's, can serve as a model for structuring research for other IHEs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to address three research questions: R1: What are the current trends of applications, hiring, and retention for Black faculty? R2: How do Black faculty rates at SPU compare to national trends? 54
R3: Do particular institutional habitus factors contribute to trends specific to Black faculty? Method A mixed methods approach was selected on account of the fully contextualized capabilities of this type of research. Quantitative approaches demonstrate strength in measurements of specific variables and factors and the relationships between those variables and factors, but data are disconnected from the contextualization from which they may have developed (Castro, Kellison, Boyd, & Kopak, 2010). In contrast, although qualitative research provides for a rich and meaningful capturing of complex human experiences in authentic contexts (Castro, et al., 2010), qualitative research has limitations to include reliability. Thus, to explore an issue as complex as to the factors contributing to Black faculty shortages, a mixed method approach was used. As supported in the work of Creswell, Plano Clark, Gutmann, and Hanson (2003), three lines of inquiry are critical in mixed methods research: priority, implementation, and integration. The first component of priority addresses a study's emphatic use of quantitative or qualitative data. The second component of implementation refers to the order by which data are collected, either sequentially, concurrently, or in parallel. Lastly, the component of integration indicates the phase in which the qualitative and quantitative data are analytically connected. For this case study, a sequential, explanatory mixed methods design was selected for its strength as a research strategy to examine complex issues. The rationale for this methodology was that quantitative data collected provides an overall landscape of the internal and external factors contributing to Black faculty shortages, while the qualitative data and its analysis explain the descriptive statistical results. Quantitative Phase Four quantitative elements were examined to describe the current landscape for Black faculty at SPU: faculty positions held, SPU hiring trends by college, national proportionality trends by SPU proportionality trends, and national faculty retention rates by SPU retention rates. Full time positions. The first was the six-year trends in full-time positions held by Black faculty by college (Table 1.0). As evidenced in Table 1.0, College D and F have the highest percentages of Black faculty (respectively, 12.74% and 10.13%), while College A and E have the two lowest percentages of Black faculty (respectively, 4.17% and 3.29%). [See Table 1] Hiring Trends. As demonstrated in Table 2.0, the Colleges A and E have had the greatest hiring ability since 2014 (respectively, 21 and 13 positions). Of the 21 posted positions in College A, there were 14 Black applicants, of which 13 met the requirements for the positions, and 1 was hired. Of the 13 posted positions in College E, there were 20 Black applicants, of which 20 met the requirements for the positions, and none were hired. In the remaining colleges, College B, nine positions have been available, with eight Black applicants, of which seven were qualified, and none were hired; College C one position has been available, with one Black applicant, of which one was qualified, and none was hired; College D four positions have been available, with ten Black applicants, of which nine were qualified, and none were hired; College F three positions have been available, with five Black applicants, of which five were qualified, and none were hired. Overall, 95% of the Black applicants that applied for faculty positions met the qualifications for the positions, but only less than two percent were hired (1 applicant of 53 positions). [See Table 2] Proportionality Trends. In fall of 2013, national data trends illustrated the cumulative ethnic minority faculty approximated 21.5% of the total full-time professorate, of which only less than six percent was comprised of Black faculty in all ranks to include: other faculty, lecturers, instructors and assistant, associate, and full professors. Descriptive data for the case study university demonstrate percentages on par with 2013 national averages for the number of full-time Black faculty. 55
[See Table 3] A z-score analysis shows no statistical significance between SPU percentages and national findings. For the raw score 5.5%, z = .0841. This z-score indicates that the numbers of SPU Black faculty is not statistically different than national averages. Additional data show national proportionality trends for Black faculty slightly rising from 2005 to 2013 (Table 4.0), and SPU proportionality trends are fluctuating. [See Table 4] Retention Trends. National Retention trends of Black faculty were calculated for a single cohort. Theoretically, assistant professors in 2003 would reach Full Professor rank in seven years between 2010 and 2013, depending on the university. Data for total number of assistant professors in 2003, associate professors in 2005, and full professors in 2009 and 2013 were used to approximate the national retention rates of Black faculty (Table 5.0). [See Table5] Despite NCES (2005, 2013) data demonstrating that 1.5 percent of the total professoriate in 2003 was comprised of Black faculty, and that by fall of 2011, Black full professors represented .09 percent of the total professoriate, this additional data suggest national retention rates are approximately 70% from assistant to full professor, without more exact hiring numbers, the general trend suggests nearly three-quarters of Black faculty are retained. Limitations in this quantitative descriptive data includes the addition of new Black faculty entering academe at ranks of assistant or associate during years in which promotions would theoretically occur. Without disaggregating the new hires each academic year, the national retention rates have the potential to be inflated. However, in the current case study these general rates were then compared to Black faculty retention numbers at SPU. According to IPEDs data and hiring records, in fall of 2016 SPU should have begun the academic year with 40 full-time Black faculty members. This number is calculated based on the compounded hiring rate of Black faculty and the sum of contracted faculty (Table 6.0). [See Table 6] According to Table 6.0, a total of 40 Black faculty should have started the 2015-2016 academic year, comprising of 11% of the SPU professoriate; however, the actual percentage was six percent with 22 starting the year. Data suggest faculty shortages exist in the inability to retain Black faculty. When evaluating the retention rates there is a six-year mean of 68%, with the lowest quartile at 61%in 2010, and the highest quartile at 77% in 2005 (Figure 1.0). [See Figure 1] On average SPU maintains 19-20 full time Black faculty per academic year. Retention rate data demonstrate an average of 68% of the Black faculty is retained (Table 7.0), which is less than 75% of the contracted faculty each year persist to retention. This lack of persistence also contributes to lower percentages of tenured Black faculty and faculty with Full Professor rank. Currently, 40.9% of the Black faculty is tenured; 31.8% is on Tenure-track, and 4.5% is not on Tenure-track. The approximate 33% of the faculty who are on a tenure-track, but have yet to secure it are the most vulnerable population for not persisting. [See Table 7] As evidenced in the quantitative data collected, while the percentage of Black faculty at SPU is not statistically different from national percentages, hiring trends reflect that Black faculty are not being hired at rates similar to their peers, yet SPU proportionality trends are above national proportionality trends. The quantitative area of significance was in the retention rates of SPU Black faculty compared to national numbers, 56
which may be slightly inflated without specific new hire data. Data for SPU retention rates have fluctuated over the last decade, but the trend is more downward than flat or upward. The line of inquiry for the second, qualitative phase of the study was based on these data. Qualitative Phase Research question three was specific to the qualitative lines of research, explaining the institutional habitus factors, or structural dispositions of an institution, that contribute to trends in Black faculty shortages (Thomas, 2002). Following the construct of sequential, explanatory methodology a series of structured questions were provided to two populations, human resources and current Black faculty. Former Black faculty were contacted to elicit perceptions on contributed to their lack of retention, but there was a zero response rate. The qualitative phase was shaped by two themes from the quantitative phase: recruitment of black faculty and retention of black faculty. Recruitment. Two forms of recruitment practices are typical, low-involvement and highinvolvement, and both provide distinct results. Reported through an open-ended response to the question, "How does SPU recruit Black faculty?" SPU specifically engages in low-involvement recruitment. Lowinvolvement recruitment is defined as using general ads and sponsorships rather than high-involvement ones with employee endorsements and detailed recruitment ads (Collins & Han, 2004). High involvement recruitment practices include non-passive approaches like direct contact with candidates, or using employee endorsements for social validation. SPU's low-involvement recruitment is in the form of general ads in the fall edition of Chronicle of Higher Education. Also, SPU currently uses the Diversity and Affirmative Action Package features with Higher Ed Jobs.com, where ads are marketed to diverse demographic groups by a third party vendor. Lastly, staff ads are targeted to professional organizations, but faculty positions are not. Retention. The literature in the area of student retention research provided guidance on the development of questions for SPU Black faculty. The literature indicates students are more consistently retained when they are engaged at the university (Kuh, Cruce, Shoup, Kinzie, & Gonyea, 2008; Thomas, 2002; Trowler, 2010). Coates (2005) identifies engagement at the "national measure of student persistence," and Thomas (2002) indicates it is the institutional habitus, or structural dispositions of the university that contributes to the retention and satisfaction of students. Theoretically, faculty engagement may also contribute to retention rates and persistence to tenure. In order to explore levels of engagement, Black faculty were contacted and asked to report the service they have provided to the university by way of assigned/selected college and university committees. Of the total population, there were nine respondents (37.5% response rate). Collectively, the nine respondents have served on 16 university committees with overlapping years of service on faculty senate, undergraduate research and creative activity committee, and the diversity committee. Two respondents reported not being assigned to any university committees in the years that they have been employed. The nine respondents have also served on 11 college committees, across five of the seven colleges with overlapping years on a college's social committee, a college's Curriculum Committee, and a college's minority task force. The respondents reported serving on multiple Hiring Committees, and those committees were so frequent that they could not be quantified. The combined data from the quantitative phase and responses from the qualitative phase were analyzed for programmatic recommendations. Results Three categories were analyzed: recruitment, retention, and engagement of Black faculty at SPU. The analysis of these three components from the study became the foundational basis for the development of programmatic recommendations to improve the rates of Black faculty to align more closely with Black student enrollment rates (18%). Recruitment. Based on rates of Black applicants for faculty job postings, there is a 95% rate of eligibility and in four sample positions of the 53 for which SPU has hired since 2014, an average of less than six percent of the applicants self-identified as Black (Table 8.0). In the Colleges with the two lowest percentages of Black faculty, two sample positions were explored. Data indicate for the College A position 8.1% of the applicants were Black, one received an on campus interview, yet none were hired. For the College F position, less than seven percent of the applicants were Black, candidates selected for 57
interview did not self-report, and no Black applicants were hired. For comparative analysis, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) were evaluated for percentages in the labor market (Appendix A). BLS data demonstrate higher percentages of Blacks with career experience, but the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) shows there are gaps in rates of Blacks vs. Whites in earning doctorates, and also shows that despite the career experience, the academic requirements are not being obtained to make Blacks readily available for particular positions in higher education. [See Table 8] Labor field percentages show that in health science fields Blacks comprise 15.6% of the work force. In the education fields Blacks comprise 10.1% of the work force. In the fields of math and sciences, Blacks comprise 8.5% of the work force. Lastly, in fields related to arts and language, Black comprise 6.2% of the work force. Descriptively speaking, there are pre-pipeline shortages in fields related to art and language, and math and sciences. In exploring data from the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED), similar trends exist. The National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) provides descriptive statistics of the number of individuals who earn doctorates, a general minimum requirement for faculty candidates at SPU. A decade ago, data from Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (2004) reported that there were some natural science fields in which Blacks had not earned doctorates, while 41.3% of doctorates earned were in education. According to the NSF-SED of the over 1800 doctorates earned in 2013, none were earned in the fields of applied physics, classics, music performance, zoology, and 14 other areas (2013). Using this descriptive information provides overview of the number of eligible candidates nationally for faculty positions (Table 9.0). There is a clear shortage in eligible candidates in particulars fields, despite incremental growth in the number of earned doctorates by Blacks. However, online data bases like NSF's Webcaspar provide explicit numerical information as to which institutions are producing doctorates of color, and can be used as recruiting tool. [See Table 9] There are two contributory factors in the area of recruitment: pipeline shortages and indirect recruitment. As evidenced in the four sample positions, low-involvement recruitment practices have yielded an average of less than six percent of Black applicants. In total, 95% of the Black applicants that applied for faculty positions through our current low-involvement recruitment practices met the qualifications for the positions, but only less than two percent were hired. Shortages in national rates of doctorate completion for Blacks are a prohibiting factor on the availability of Black faculty. Use of more high-involvement recruitment measures through specific marketing to Universities that produce the greatest numbers of Black Ph.Ds. will potentially increase the percentages of Black applicants. Attracting Black faculty is only the first step, engaging and subsequently retaining them is the second. Engagement. Sampson (1991) presented a multilevel theory for community social organization. He determined that there exist "positive effects of residential stability on a measure of social cohesion is accounted for by increased level of friendship/acquaintanceship ties and decreased level of anonymity" (p.43). In other words, at the macro-level of the community, people are less mobile when they have increased social ties within their community, and Sampson's (1991) theory about community is applicable to retention of Black faculty. Theoretically at SPU, there are three dimensions of social organization, the University level (macro), the collegiate level (meso), and the departmental level (micro) (Figure 1.0). [See Figure 2] According to the respondents, Black faculty are more engaged at the macro-level of the organization, meaning they are more involved with broader university level committees. The involvement at the meso-level of collegiate committees, according to Sampson (1991), is more impactful on generating "residential stability" 58
which is retention in the context of higher education. Decreasing faculty mobility and non-persistence to tenure will increase the numbers of Black faculty at SPU. Addressing the practices and policies of engagement at the meso-levels, or even micro-levels, of the organization will likely positively affect the retention rate of current and future Black faculty. Conclusion A mixed methods approach to addressing the research question related to structural dispositions suggests there is a connection between those dispositions and trends related to Black faculty at SPU. The use of low-involvement recruitment practices are one such institutional habitus that impacts the frequency of direct involvement with potential Black candidates who meet university requirements for employment. Research indicates implementation of high-involvement recruitment, rather than low-involvement recruitment, will increase the rate of applicants (Collins & Han, 2004). In addition, the use of highinvolvement recruitment practices (detailed ads, etc.) also is likely to yield high-information recruitment practices, where recruiters present potential applicants with more information about an organization and its brand than what the applicant may typically already know (Collins, 2007). Cable and Turban (2003) indicate that an organization's reputation will impact the applicant behaviors, therefore in theory by combining, high-involvement and high-information recruitment practices, SPU and other universities should be able to more directly control their perceived brand-equity as well as attract Black candidates that are unfamiliar with their University. The other structural disposition is that of engagement. Since Black faculty respondents report being more engaged at the macro-level than at the meso-level, a shift in primary point of engagement for the community social organization is critical. Implementing a model such as the COPE© model could potentially aid in such an intervention. Developed to address retention issues for minority faculty to include ethnic and generational minorities, COPE© model layers the research of theoretical community building, social organization theory, strategic planning, and mentorship theory into one programmatic model that will systematically tackle the multidimensionality of issues related to minority retention. [See Figure 3] In summary, while SPU do not demonstrate a statistically significant lower number of Black faculty than national averages, there is a downward trend in retention of Black faculty. As with other IHE's facing similar issues, recruitment and retention practices will need innovative interventions. Implementation of high-involvement and high-information recruitment practices will impact the brandawareness and competitiveness of the applicants, through attracting more targeted populations. Use of tools like the NSF Webcaspar database to develop lists of University's with longitudinal track-records of producing Black doctorates in fields for which IHE's would be hiring, is one such way to leverage free technologies to increase high-involvement recruitment. Development of innovative retention programming, like the COPE© model, will impact the institutional habitus through the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels of engagement for Black faculty. In general, a systemic use of retention programming at universities will likely provide fidelity to changes in the retention rates of Black faculty nationally. 59
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College College A College B
SPU Black Faculty
20102011 6 4
20112012 5 5
20122013 5 5
20132014 5 5
20142015 5 5
20152016 5 5
5yr % of University Faculty
19 19 20 21 21 20
Table 1.0 Number and percentages of full-time Black faculty per college
6.44 12.74 3.29 10.13 9.99 7.78
.3% .7% .7% .5% .2% 5.3%
Table 2.0 Two year faculty posting, Black applicants, qualifications, and hiring trends
*electronic data only available from 2014, on account of new system in HR
Hired 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Number Number Percentage (%)
2013 SPU Black 21
2013 National Black 43,188 791,391 5.45%
Table 3.0 Z-Score significance of SPU Black faculty percentages to national percentages
Table 4.0: Comparative proportionality trends between National and SPU percentages
Percentage of Retention by Descriptive category (%)
2003 Assistant to 2005 Assistant
2005 Assistant to 2009 Associate
2009 Associate to 2013 Full
Table 5.0 Approximate retention rates of Black faculty nationally
2003 Assistants to 2013 Full
Academic Year Starting Faculty
End of Year Anticipated Total
Table 6.0 IPEDs reported data on Faculty by Ethnicity and projected numbers by hiring data
*Human Resources electronic data base established in 2005
Figure 1.0 Quartile ranks of Retention Rates 2005-2015
Academic 2005 2006 2007- 2008- 2009- 2010-
2008 2009 2010 2011
% Retained 77% 86% 69% 68% 80% 61%
Table 7.0 Percentages of retention of Black faculty at SPU
Position # 241xxx
Table 8.0 Sample percentage (%) of Black applicants
Black Applicants (N) (%) 2 (2.9% ) 5 (6.5% ) 3 (4.2% ) 4 (8.1%)
Black Candidates Interviewed 1 (33%) 0 (0%) unreported unreported
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1,897 1,741 1,789 1,891 1,961 2,168 1,938 1,899 Table 9.0 Number of Doctorates awarded to Blacks from 2006-2016
Departmental Committees College Committees University Committees
Figure 2.0: Multilevel social organization theory applied to faculty engagement. (Figure 3.0).
QuikTrip vs. RaceWay Amber Payne Ethan Smith Kimberly Gibson Abigail Patanao Dr. Beheruz N. Sethna The University of West Georgia Abstract The major objectives of this research were to determine the factors which determine choice of a gas station, and to examine differences in perceptions between two competing gas stations. While location of a gas station is an important dimension, the design of this study eliminates that dimension from consideration by studying two well-known brands of gas stations which are located right next to each other. Data was collected from 401 respondents within about a six-hour period using a unique methodology called the Marketing Carnival. Methods of analysis included descriptive statistics, tests of differences between means to examine gender and race differences, chi-square tests, correlations, and regressions. Conclusions and recommendations were made based on the analysis. Introduction Cars are commonly owned and driven in our society, and so nearly everyone needs to fill gas on a regular basis. The major objectives of this research were to determine which factors determine choice of a gas station, and to examine differences in perceptions between two competing gas stations. Clearly, location of a gas station is an important dimension, and so this study was designed in such a way as to eliminate that dimension from consideration. The two gas stations selected for this study were QuikTrip and RaceWay, both well-recognized brands in this part of the United States, which are located on the same side of the main road (separated only by a small side road) connecting Carrollton, Georgia with I20; see Figure 1. Because of this, there is less likelihood of skewed results due to location and difficulty getting to each gas station. The sample for this study was college students at the University of West Georgia (Fall, 2016 headcount of 13,263), who constitute almost exactly half the population (49.93%) of the city of Carrollton (26,562 in 2016). This means that a very substantial proportion of market for gas stations in Carrollton consists of UWG students. We examined which factors students take into consideration when choosing a particular gas station, and studied if there was a clear preference for one gas station over the other and if so, which one and why. [SEE FIGURE 1] Methodology The first ten questions of our questionnaire served to gather demographics about the respondents; these told us things such as their age, ethnicity, income, and if they own a vehicle. Following this set of questions was a series of Likert-scaled questions designed to examine preferences for QuikTrip over RaceWay or vice-versa. Finally, we employed ratio-scaled questions that asked respondents to allocate twenty-five points among the following factors: price, cleanliness, quality of gas, price of snacks/drinks, and quality of snacks/drinks. These questions were intended to help examine relationships between the importance of certain factors and a preference towards a gas station, so that we could find the reasons 65
behind why people prefer a certain gas station over another one. The entire questionnaire is shown in Appendix 1. The method we used to complete this research was the "Marketing Carnival" (Sethna, 2005). We set up games corresponding to our questions and allowed respondents to choose to participate in the games or simply fill out a survey, rewarding them with candy either way. For our questions using the Likert scale, we had a game in which respondents shot a nerf gun at one of five cars' gas tanks, depending on their answer for the question. For our ratio questions, we had five parking meters into which respondents inserted a chosen amount of coins, with the number of coins in each parking meter representing a portion of the twenty-five total points for these questions. Visual depictions of these games are shown in Figure 2. We had a total number of 403 respondents, which yields an approximate margin of error of ±5 percentage points. [SEE FIGURE 2] Analysis We analyzed the 403 responses using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This Analysis section is organized into the following sub-sections: 1. Data Summary: A description of key variables 2. hypothesis tests: Tests of one mean and differences between means 3. Tests of Association: Chi-Square tests, correlations, and regression analyses Data Summary Gender: Figure 3 shows that 63.52 percent of our sample was female, and 35.98 percent of our sample was male. We did a test of one proportion to examine if our female proportion was consistent with that of undergraduate students at UWG, which is 63.68 percent, and found that it there was no significant difference (p > 0.29) between the sample proportion of females, and that of the population, i.e. the undergraduate student body of the university. So, we concluded that our sample was representative of the UWG undergraduate population in terms of gender. [SEE FIGURE 3] Importance of Price, Cleanliness, Gas Quality, Price of Snacks or Drinks, Quality of Snacks or Drinks: [SEE FIGURE 4] The bar graph shown in Figure 4 depicts the average respondent's answer when asked to distribute 25 points among each of the following factors depending upon how important each one is to him/her: Price, Cleanliness, Quality of Gas, Quality of Snacks/Drinks, and Price of Snacks/Drinks. Price, cleanliness, and gas quality were the three most important dimensions overall. Hypothesis Tests: Tests of Differences Between Means Table 1 shows tests of differences between means to check for gender segments among perceptions of various dimensions of QuikTrip and RaceWay. We found that females were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to agree that QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are of better quality than those of RaceWay. Males were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to choose RaceWay and buy snacks/drinks at RaceWay. No other variables showed significant gender differences. [SEE TABLE 1] 66
Table 2 shows a gender test regarding importance of different factors. We found that females, unsurprisingly, gave Cleanliness a significantly higher level of importance (p < 0.05). No other variables showed significant gender differences. [SEE TABLE 2] Table 3 shows that there was a significantly higher level of importance of price for whites, or Caucasians (p < 0.05), and a significantly higher level of importance of gas quality for blacks, or AfricanAmericans (p < 0.05). [SEE TABLE 3] Tests of Association Chi-Square Tests Table 4 shows a Chi-Square test on Ethnicity and "More Likely to Choose QuikTrip" which indicates that blacks or African-Americans were more likely to agree or strongly agree than whites or Caucasians, and whites or Caucasians were more likely to strongly disagree, disagree, or feel neutral. The Chi-Square test showed that this ethnicity difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). [SEE TABLE 4] Another Chi-Square test with Ethnicity and "More Likely to Choose RaceWay" is presented in Table 5. It showed that this ethnicity difference was not statistically significant at p = 0.05. [SEE TABLE 5] Table 6 shows a Chi-Square test with Gender and "More Likely to Choose QuikTrip." We found that females were more likely than males to agree or strongly agree, and males were more likely to feel neutral. The Chi-Square test showed that this gender difference was statistically significant (p = 0.05). [SEE TABLE 6] Table 7 shows a Chi-Square test with Gender and "More Likely to Choose RaceWay." We found that females were more likely than males to strongly disagree or disagree, and males were more likely to feel neutral. The Chi-Square test showed that this gender difference was statistically significant (p = 0.05). [SEE TABLE 7] Regression Analyses We did a regression with the dependent variable being More Likely to Choose QuikTrip, and the following independent variables: · Buy Snacks/Drinks at QuikTrip · QuikTrip Gas is of High Quality · QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality · QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are Cheaper Table 8a shows that we have successfully explained 35.5 percent of the variance in the dependent variable "More Likely to Choose QuikTrip." [SEE TABLE 8a] 67
[SEE TABLE 8b] From the results shown in Table 8b, we can conclude: that an overall preference toward QuikTrip depends upon the respondent typically buying snacks/drinks at QuikTrip, believing that QuikTrip gas is of high quality, and believing that QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are of better quality. Respondents who thought that QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are cheaper actually tended to not have a preference for QuikTrip. Therefore, the implications for QuikTrip management are to emphasize the quality of gas and its perception, and likewise for the snacks and drinks. We did another regression analysis with the dependent variable being More Likely to Choose RaceWay, and the following independent variables: · Buy Snacks/Drinks at RaceWay · RaceWay Gas is of High Quality · RaceWay's Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality · RaceWay's Snacks/Drinks are Cheaper Table 9b shows that we have successfully explained 33.3 percent of the variance in the dependent variable "More Likely to Choose RaceWay." [SEE TABLE 9a] [SEE TABLE 9b] From the results shown in Table 9b, we can conclude that an overall preference towards RaceWay depends upon the respondent typically buying snacks/drinks from RaceWay and believing that RaceWay's snacks/drinks are of better quality. So, the implications for RaceWay management are to emphasize the quality of their snacks and drinks. Correlation Analysis [SEE TABLE 10] Table 10 shows that, when respondents valued price more, they were less likely to agree that they would choose QuikTrip when gas costs the same at the two gas stations. We also found that respondents who valued price more said they are more likely to go to their non-preferred gas station when the gas price is lower at that one. However, this does not necessarily reflect respondents' behavior, only their perceptions of their behavior, due to the "halo effect." Conclusions Our sample is found to be representative of the University of West Georgia undergraduate population in terms of gender. We found a significant preference for QuikTrip over RaceWay among the sample as a whole. We also found that, among price, cleanliness, perceived quality of gas, price of snacks/drinks, and quality of snacks/drinks, respondents cared most about price, cleanliness, and gas quality, respectively. We found that blacks or African-Americans cared less about price and more about gas quality than whites or Caucasians. We can conclude that blacks or African-Americans, in general, are willing to pay more for better quality gas. QuikTrip Over 75 percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they would choose QuikTrip over Raceway, and the mean for this question was 4.26 on the Likert scale, with 1 corresponding to "strongly disagree" and 5 corresponding with "strongly agree." All of our Likert scale questions regarding QuikTrip had means significantly greater than 3, and the variables "More Likely to Choose QuikTrip" and "Same Gas Price, More Likely to Choose QuikTrip" had means significantly greater than 4; in other words, respondents had a strong preference towards QuikTrip, typically buy snacks/drinks from QuikTrip, 68
believe that QuikTrip's gas is of higher quality, and that QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are both cheaper and of higher quality. Females were more likely than males to say that they would go to QuikTrip is the gas price was the same and that QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are of higher quality. We also found that blacks or AfricanAmericans were more likely to have a preference towards QuikTrip than whites or Caucasians. We found that respondents who valued price more were actually less likely to say they would go to QuikTrip when the gas price was the same at both gas stations. An overall preference towards QuikTrip was dependent upon typically buying snacks/drinks at QuikTrip, believing that QuikTrip's gas is of high quality, and believing that QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are of high quality. Respondents that said that they believe that QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are cheaper were actually less likely to say that they would choose QuikTrip over RaceWay. RaceWay We found that more respondents felt neutral about RaceWay than QuikTrip, but each Likert scale question regarding RaceWay had a mean significantly less than 3, so respondents said that they would not choose RaceWay over QuikTrip, do not typically buy snacks/drinks at RaceWay, do not believe RaceWay's gas is of high quality, and do not believe RaceWay's snacks/drinks are cheaper or of high quality. Males were significantly more likely than females to say that they would choose RaceWay over QuikTrip and that they typically buy snacks/drinks at RaceWay. Blacks or African-Americans were more likely to have polarized feelings regarding RaceWay while whites or Caucasians were significantly more likely to feel neutral. We found that an overall preference for RaceWay over QuikTrip was dependent upon typically buying snacks/drinks at RaceWay and believing that RaceWay's snacks/drinks are of higher quality. Recommendations QuikTrip We recommend for QuikTrip to focus on advertising quality of both gas and snacks/drinks because those factors determined if our respondents had an overall preference towards QuikTrip. We suggest to not advertise low prices for snacks/drinks because respondents who believed that QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are cheaper than RaceWay's tended to not have a preference towards QuikTrip. We also recommend to continue to keep facilities clean because females are more likely to have a preference towards QuikTrip than males, and females reported a higher importance of cleanliness. Because blacks or African-Americans were also more likely to have a preference towards QuikTrip and they value quality of gas over price, we suggest to advertise gas quality rather than focusing too much attention on gas price. RaceWay We recommend for RaceWay to focus on both quality and price of snacks/drinks because those variables were what caused respondents to choose RaceWay over QuikTrip. While males were found to be more likely to prefer RaceWay than females, they were not more likely to value any factors more than females. However, among the sample in general, price was the highest-rated factor, and over half (58.6%) of our sample agreed or strongly agreed that they would go to their non-preferred gas station if the gas price was cheaper. Therefore, RaceWay would benefit from having cheaper gas and focusing attention on snacks/drinks instead. Limitations We used a convenience sample rather than a random sample, so we could not ensure accurate representation; for example, our sample is not representative of the University of West Georgia undergraduate population in terms of ethnicity. Given the chance to do this again, we would do a few things differently. First, we would not include the question regarding approximate annual income. There were many outliers, and a large portion of the 69
respondents left it blank or simply had no income. This information would likely be useful with a sample of older respondents, but college students typically have a low, or lack of, income. We had no significant findings with this variable. We would also reword several questions, such as "I typically buy snacks/drinks at QuikTrip" for clarity. For this variable, specifically, we would probably make it ratioscaled by asking respondents how many times, on average, they buy a snack or drink at QuikTrip per month. This would also allow us to do tests of correlation between this variable and other variables. Lastly, we would clarify the wording of the final five questions or explain them to all respondents. We had problems with these variables not adding up to 25 for several respondents, and many respondents asked us about them while they were completing the questionnaire. We did adjust the scores to add up to 25. The questions were still useful, however, so we would not remove or change the questions themselves. References Sethna, B. N. (2005). The Marketing Carnival. Decision Line, 36 (2). 4-7, 14. Figure 1: Location of QuikTrip and RaceWay Figure 2: Marketing Carnival Games 70
Figure 3 Gender: Figure 4: Importance of Various Factors 71
Table 1: Gender Differences in Perceptions (* Significant at the 0.05 level)
More Likely to Choose QuikTrip
More Likely to Choose RaceWay
Same Gas Price, More Likely to Choose Male
Same Gas Price, More Likely to go to RaceWay Male
Buy Snacks/Drinks at QuikTrip
Buy Snacks/Drinks at RaceWay
QuikTrip Gas is of High Quality
RaceWay Gas is of High Quality
If the Gas Price Rose at Preferred Station, Male
Would go to the Other
QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality Male
Female RaceWay's Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality Male
QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are Cheaper
RaceWay's Snacks/Drinks are Cheaper
Table 2: Gender Differences in Perceptions Importance of Price Importance of Cleanliness Importance of Gas Quality Importance of Price of Snacks/Drinks Importance of Quality of Snacks/Drinks Quality * Significant at the 0.05 level
Gender Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
Table 3: Race/Ethnicity Differences in Perceptions
Importance of Price
White or Caucasian
Black or American
Importance of Cleanliness
White or Caucasian
Black or American
Importance of Gas Quality
White or Caucasian
Black or American
Importance of Price of Snacks/Drinks White or Caucasian
Black or American
Importance of Snacks/Drinks
of White or Caucasian
Black or African- 175
* Significant at the 0.05 level
Mean 9.76* 7.91 5.57 5.75 3.96 4.72* 2.89 3.23 2.83 3.39
Table 4: Race/Ethnicity Differences in Likelihood of Choosing QuikTrip
More Likely to Choose QuikTrip
Strongly Neutral Agree, Agree
% within Ethnicity 4.0% % within QTvsRW 38.9%
% within Ethnicity 6.3%
% within QTvsRW 61.1%
% within Ethnicity 5.1%
% within QTvsRW 100.0%
Value df Pearson Chi-Square 19.082a 2
Likelihood Ratio 19.570 2
N of Valid Cases 352
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is 9.00.
Total 176 100.0% 50.0% 176 100.0% 50.0% 352 100.0% 100.0%
Table 5: Race/Ethnicity Differences in Likelihood of Choosing RaceWay Crosstab
More Likely to Choose RaceWay
Strongly Disagree, Disagree
Strongly Neutral Agree, Agree
% within Ethnicity 63.6% % within RW vs QT 54.6%
% within Ethnicity
% within RW vs QT 45.4%
% within Ethnicity 58.2%
% within RW vs QT 100.0%
Value df Pearson Chi-Square 5.610a 2
Likelihood Ratio 5.632 2
N of Valid Cases 352
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is 14.00.
Total 176 100.0% 50.0% 176 100.0% 50.0% 352 100.0% 100.0%
Table 6: Gender Differences in Likelihood of Choosing QuikTrip Crosstab
More Likely to Choose QuikTrip
Strongly Disagree, Disagree
Strongly Neutral Agree, Agree
% within Gender 6.3%
% within QT vs RW 76.2%
% within Gender 3.4%
% within QT vs RW 23.8%
% within Gender 5.2%
% within QT vs RW 100.0%
Value df 6.024a 2
N of Valid Cases
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum
expected count is 7.59.
Total 256 100.0% 63.8% 145 100.0% 36.2% 401 100.0% 100.0%
Table 7: Gender Differences in Likelihood of Choosing RaceWay Crosstab
More Likely to Choose QuikTrip
Strongly Disagree, Disagree
Strongly Neutral Agree, Agree
Gender Female Count
% within Gender 64.5%
% within RW vs QT 68.2%
% within Gender 53.1%
% within RW vs QT 31.8%
% within Gender 60.3%
% within RW vs QT 100.0%
Value df Pearson Chi-Square 6.026a 2
N of Valid Cases
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is 7.59.
Total 256 100.0% 63.8% 145 100.0% 36.2% 401 100.0% 100.0%
Table 8a: Adjusted R2 Model Summary
R Square .362
Adjusted R Square .355
Std. Error of the Estimate .808
d. Predictors: (Constant), Buy Snacks/Drinks at QuikTrip, QuikTrip Gas is of High Quality, QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality, QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are Cheaper
The F-value (or the ANOVA) shows that the regression as a whole is significant at the 0.000 level.
Table 8b: Regression Coefficients and Model Coefficientsa
Std. B Error
Buy Snacks/Drinks at QuikTrip
QuikTrip Gas is of High Quality
QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are of Better .170 .052 Quality
QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are Cheaper
a. Dependent Variable: More Likely to Choose QuikTrip
More Likely to Choose QuikTrip= .354 x Buy Snacks/Drinks at QuikTrip + .301 x QuikTrip Gas is of High Quality + .169 QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality - .105 QuikTrip's Snacks/Drinks are Cheaper
Table 9a: Adjusted R2 Model Summary
R Square .336
Adjusted R Square .333
Std. Error of the Estimate .884
b. Predictors: (Constant), Buy Snacks/Drinks at RaceWay, RaceWay's Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality
The F-value (or the ANOVA) shows that the regression as a whole is significant at the 0.000 level.
Table 9b: Regression Coefficients and Model Coefficientsa
Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients
Std. Error Beta
Buy Snacks/Drinks at .432
Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality
a. Dependent Variable: More Likely to Choose RaceWay
More Likely to Choose RaceWay= .456 x Buy Snacks/Drinks at RaceWay + .226 x RaceWay's Snacks/Drinks are of Better Quality
Table 10: Correlations Correlations
Same Gas If the Gas
Same Gas Price, Price, More More
Price Rose at Preferred
Importan Likely to Likely to Station,
Annual ce of Choose Choose Would go to
Income Price QuikTrip RaceWay the Other
Approximate Annual Pearson
Importance of Price
Sig. (2-tailed) .480
N Same Gas Price, More Pearson
Likely to Choose Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .083
N Same Gas Price, More Pearson
Likely to Choose Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) .143
N If the Gas Price Rose at Pearson
Would go to the Other Sig. (2-tailed) .052
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Appendix 1: Questionnaire This questionnaire is for a class project in MKTG 3804. It is a confidential survey; your name is not being recorded, and no individual results will be used only aggravated data. If you do not wish to answer a question(s), you may decline to answer. Thank you for your time and cooperation. 1) Gender: Male Female Other 2) Ethnicity: _______________ 3) Age: ____ 4) Are you a student at the University of West Georgia? Yes No 5) Approximately how many miles do you live from UWG? ____ (If you live on campus, put "0") 6) Do you own a vehicle? Yes No 7) Approximately how many days per week do you drive a vehicle? ____ 8) How many times per week do you buy gas? ____ 9) Approximately what is your annual income? ____
Directions: For the following questions, respond to the statements by circling your level of agreement or disagreement with them.
10) When given the choice between QuikTrip and RaceWay, I am more likely to choose QuikTrip.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
11) When given the choice between QuikTrip and RaceWay, I am more likely to choose RaceWay.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Strongly Agree 5
12) If gas is the same price at both gas stations, I am more likely to go to QuikTrip.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Strongly Agree 5
13) If gas is the same price at both gas stations, I am more likely to go to RaceWay.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Strongly Agree 5
14) I typically buy snacks/drinks at QuikTrip.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Strongly Agree 5
15) I typically buy snacks/drinks at RaceWay.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Strongly Agree 5
16) Gas at QuikTrip is of high quality.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Strongly Agree 5
17) Gas at RaceWay is of high quality.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Strongly Agree 5
18) If the price rose more than a few cents per gallon at my gas station of choice but remained constant at the other gas station, I would go to the other one.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Strongly Agree 5
19) QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are of better quality.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
20) RaceWay's snacks/drinks are of better quality.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
21) QuikTrip's snacks/drinks are cheaper.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
22) RaceWay's snacks/drinks are cheaper.
Strongly Disagree Disagree
Agree 4 Agree 4 Agree 4 Agree 4
Strongly Agree 5 Strongly Agree 5 Strongly Agree 5 Strongly Agree 5
Which of the following factors are most important to you? Directions: Please allocate points so that the sum is equal to 25. The higher the number, the more important that factor is to you. For example, if you give "price" 20 points, "cleanliness" 5 points, and the remaining 0 points, you feel that price is very important, appearance is somewhat important, and the other factors do not matter at all.
25. Perceived Quality of Gas
26. Price of Snacks/Drinks
27. Quality of Snacks/Drinks
TOTAL must be:
Thank you for your participation!
The End of Germany: The Impact of Muslim Migration Marcus Stadelmann The University of Texas at Tyler Abstract This paper will show how demographic changes and the migration wave of 2015 are affecting Germany. After discussing global and European demographic changes, the paper will analyze economic, social, and political problems caused by Muslim migration to Germany and then end with a discussion of the rise of the populist right in Germany. Introduction Current projections show that most of the global population growth in the 21st century will be centered on the African continent, where the population will rise to 2.5 billion by 2050 (2016 World Population Data Sheet). At the same time the population in Asia will increase by 900 million to 5.3 billion, while the American continent will add 223 million people to 1.2 billion (2016 World Population Data Sheet). The only continent that is experiencing a population decline is Europe where the population is expected to decline from 740 million to 728 million (2016 World Population Data Sheet). If these statistics hold true, the share of Europe's world population will decline from twenty-five percent in 1900 to four or five percent by 2050 (Laqueur, 2007). While the average European family had five children in the 19th century, this number decreased to 2.2 children in the 20th century. Today it has reached 1.6 children per European family (Laqueur, 2007). The number to sustain a population without experiencing population decline is 2.1 children per woman (Caldwell, 2009). As soon as the birth rate falls to 1.5 children per family, not even migration can hold a population steady over time and massive population decline will be the result (Reville, 2016). A comparison of global fertility rates is striking. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the average female has six children in a lifetime, while in the United States the fertility rate is 1.9 children per family (2016 World Population Data Sheet). Not surprisingly, Europe has become one of the oldest places on earth. The average European has been growing older since the 1950's due to an improvement in health care and lower birth rates. In 1950, only 8.0 percent of the population in Europe was over sixty-five years of age. By 2015, this increased to 17.6 percent (Desilver, 2015). In Germany, the number of people over sixty-five is even higher at 21.2 percent (Desilver, 2015). In Syria for comparison the number is only at 4.1 percent, while the United States sits at 14.8 percent (Desilver, 2015). Today, there are more people over sixty in Europe than under the age of twenty and the average European is thirty-seven years of age (Laqueur, 2007). This will increase to fifty-three years of age by 2050. In the United States on the other hand, the average person is thirty-five today and will be thirty-six in 2050 (Laqueur, 2007). Consequences of Population Decline In Germany, the population will drop from eighty-one million to sixty-seven million by 2060 (Reville, 2016). According to the United Nations this will result in a massive drop of the percentage of Germans participating in the workforce. By 2050, only forty-one percent of all Germans will still be working (Milliere, 2017). This will result in a plethora of socio-economic problems. Germany, and Europe as a whole, needs young people to work and pay into the pension system. Without this, the pension system will face collapse. Then pensions will have to be cut, retirement ages will have to be raised, or contributions to pension systems will have to increase. All of these are very unpopular political choices. 81
In addition a young workforce is needed to look after an older population in the Health Service sector and to repopulate rural areas. According to James Reville (2016), Germany needs to admit 533,000 immigrants per year to overcome its labor shortage and keep its population levels stable. For this reason, the United Nations, as early as the year 2000, recommended the replacement of the declining and aging European populations with Muslim migrants in a report entitled, Replacement Migration: Is It a Solution to Declining and Ageing Populations? (Flood, 2016). The report stated that only an influx of migrants could stop population decline and population aging in most European countries (Flood, 2016). The report further predicted that about 612,000 migrants were needed annually from 20002025 to overcome population loss in Europe and the European Union. After 2025 the number of needed migrants would increase to 1.3 million per year (Flood, 2016). These reports on the enrichment of Europe as the reports were called were very optimistic. It was assumed that Muslim migrants would be successfully integrated into European societies and become productive economic forces. At this time the exact opposite has occurred. In Great Britain for example Muslim unemployment is fifty percent for men and seventy-five percent for women (Igler, 2015). Muslims further have the highest birth rate of any group in the country and are rapidly contributing to increasing welfare state expenditures. So instead of contributing to European societies in a positive manner, overcoming population losses and budgetary woes, the exact opposite has happened. European leaders further assumed that these new migrants would readily abandon their long held and very traditional belief systems and integrate into European societies without much trouble, like earlier waves of migrants had done. However as James Reville (2016) points out: "European values are not universal and there is no necessary reason to expect that other civilisations will adopt these values simply because they come to Europe to partake of the technical and commercial fruits of western civilisation." The Case of Germany In 2016 the number of Muslims in Germany surpassed six million for the first time, giving Germany the largest Muslim population in Western Europe (Kern, 2017b). This meant that the share of the Muslim population increased to 7.5 percent of the population and it is predicted that Germany will have twenty million Muslims by 2020 due to continued migration, a high birth rate, and family reunification policies (4 members per family) (Kern, 2017a). This will amount to twenty percent of the population. Today, forty percent of all children born in Germany are born to foreigners and since 2005 the native population has declined by five percent while the number of new arrivals has increased by twenty-four percent (Milliere, 2017). If the current trend of Muslim migration and accelerated birth rates continues, Germans will be a minority in their own country by 2035 (Milliere, 2017). How did it come to this situation? In 2014, 280,000 refugees came to the twenty-eight countries making up the European Union. By 2015, this number had increased to almost two million, most of them trying to reach Germany. This mass migration had been caused by the ongoing Syrian civil war, the expansion of ISIS in the Middle East and the Arab spring revolutions of 2011, which by now had led to civil war in Middle Eastern countries such as Libya. By the end of 2015, over one million refugees had arrived in Germany, with only ten percent receiving a proper background check. Forty percent of all refugees were from Albania, Kosovo, and the Balkans and only twenty percent were actually Syrian (Kern, 2015). Why did German Chancellor Angela Merkel open up the country's borders and receive these migrants with open arms? The obvious answer seems to be related to the continued demographic decline of Germany and its economic needs. Merkel's policies were not of humanitarian nature but designed to keep the German population at its current level of 82.8 million (Kern, 2017b). According to Eurostat, about eighty-one percent of all refugees who applied for asylum in the European Union were under the age of thirty-five. For Angela Merkel these young working-age refugees presented the solution to a graying population. Migration would result in population growth, supply the country with working age people, who not only pay taxes, but also pay into the pension system, producing enough revenue to support the aging German population. The German government even suspended the Dublin Regulations, stating that if a person seeks refuge within the European Union he/she needs to stay in the EU country they come to first, to attract more refugees. 82
Socio-Economic Challenges Short term costs of migration have been high. Refugees had to be provided with housing, food, healthcare, and education. The German government now estimates that it will spend almost 100 billion Euros by 2020 to support migrants (Kern, 2017b). To make matters worse, most newly incoming migrants had no marketable skills, only twenty-five percent possessing a high school degree, and seventyfive percent having no vocational training at all (Kern, 2017b). Only four percent possessed skills needed in the Germany economy (Kern, 2017b) and only 34,000 or 2.8 percent, have found work in Germany at this time (Milliere, 2017). The rest has to rely on the German welfare state (Kern, 2017c). The German Commissioner for Immigration has stated that only one quarter of migrants will be employable within the next five years and another ten percent might be employable in ten years (Kern, 2017c). Almost twothirds of all migrants are expected to be on welfare for life (Milliere, 2017). As of June 2017, over one million migrants were on welfare in Germany. The top welfare recipients were from Syria (509,696); Turkey (276,399); Iraq (110,529); and Afghanistan (65,443) (Kern, 2017c). The socio-economic aspects of mass migration have been enormous for the German people. In many large German cities no go zones have been established. In these no go zones, German police, Christians, and especially Jewish Germans are not welcome. Sharia Police patrol these no go zones and is slowly taking over local schools and enforcing Sharia law. Sharia Law courts have being established and German judges are beginning to defer to their rulings. For example in May of 2016, a German appeals court recognized the marriage of a fifteen year old to her twenty-one year old cousin legalizing Sharia law in regard to first cousin and child marriages (Kern, 2017a). In addition, polygamy, which is legal under Islam, has become acceptable in many German cities. In Berlin, one third of Muslim migrants have more than one wife. Diseases, long eradicated in the West, have been brought back to Germany by migrants. These include Tuberculosis, Lassa fever and incurable syphilis. Immunity to these diseases had disappeared in the German population long ago and vaccines have been discontinued. Now emergency rooms and hospitals are overcrowded in Germany and the average German has to wait weeks to see a doctor. In addition, the demand for housing went up dramatically. Today about 350,000 new apartments are needed annually, but only 248,000 were built in 2016 (Kern, 2017b). With housing being in short supply the German government is now confiscating vacation homes without compensation to house refugees (Milliere, 2017). Crime Since the beginning of mass migration in 2015, crime has skyrocketed in Germany. The most famous example of migrant crime were the attacks on German women on New Year's Eve of 2015, when a mob of two thousand migrants sexually assaulted over 1200 German women in Cologne, Hamburg and Stuttgart (Kern, 2017a). In 2015, Germany saw 208,344 migrant crimes committed (Kern, 2016b). This data excludes data from three German states, Hamburg, Bremen and Nordrhein-Westfalen, and only lists solved crimes. Today, 570 crimes are committed per day by migrants, which results in twenty-three crimes each hour (Kern, 2016b). Overall this is an eighty percent increase in crime from 2014. Twentyfour percent of all migrant crimes are committed by Syrians, seventeen percent by Albanians, fourteen percent by Kosovars, eleven percent by Afghanis, and nine percent by Iraqis (Kern, 2016b). Most of the crimes involve theft and property crimes, but there were 36,010 assaults and 458 rapes committed by migrants (Kern, 2016b). Finally, there were 240 murders (2/3 among migrants themselves) (Kern, 2016b). The German government is now estimating that twenty to forty percent of all refugees are criminals. For this reason, life for the average German has changed dramatically. Attendance at movie theaters and theater productions is falling and women do not leave the house alone anymore. German women are starting to wear modest outfits to prevent being harassed by the new migrants (Milliere, 2017). Public schools are sending out mailings to parents encouraging female students not to wear revealing clothing because it might offend migrants and result in sexual assaults. Public swimming pools are considering gender segregation and the German capital of Berlin in similar fashion to Paris and London has now prohibited "sexy" adverting on billboards after complaints from migrants. Seventy percent of Germans fear for their lives if they use public transportation (Kern, 2017b). 83
Political Ramifications of Mass Migration Not surprisingly public opinion has turned against Chancellor Merkel and her migration policies. Today, sixty-two percent of all Germans believe asylum seeking is too high (Kern, 2016a) and sixty percent believe that Islam does not belong in Germany (Kern, 2017b). Fifty-seven percent of the German public believes Islam is threatening to German society and a full forty percent wants for Chancellor Merkel to resign (Kern, 2016 a). As of early 2017, the German populace seems to have had enough of Muslim migration and for the first time a majority of all Germans, fifty-three percent, is opposed to any further Muslim migration to Germany (Goodwin, Raines and Cutts, 2017). The political ramifications of Muslim mass migration have been earth shattering for the German political environment. In the September 24, 2017, elections to the German parliament, a populist right party, the "Alternative fuer Deutschland (AfD)", won seats for the first time in sixty years. Advocating an end to Muslim migration, the AfD won 12.6 percent of the vote and 94 seats in the German parliament. In the former East Germany the party even managed to get close to 23 percent of the vote and in the state of Saxony it won the election outright. With this surprising electoral showing the party came in third in the federal elections to the German parliament. In addition, the AfD has won seats in twelve of sixteen German State Parliaments as of November 2017. The party's successful campaign slogans were: "Islam is not a part of Germany" and "Burqas? We prefer Bikinis." How has Chancellor Merkel reacted to these unexpected migration problems. So far precious little has been done by the Chancellor. In September 2015, Germany reinstated its border controls and demanded that refugees should be redistributed to other European Union countries. An EU quota was established to redistribute refugees to each member state. The European Commission ruled on September 22, 2015, that it was legally empowered to redistribute migrants throughout Europe. However all of the Eastern European member states have so far refused to take in any Muslim refugees. In April 2016, the Merkel government for the first time passed laws in regards to migrants. Under these new laws, migrants have to attend German language training and integration training. If they refuse their benefits will be cut, but they will not face deportation (Kern, 2017a). In addition, in July 2016, a new rape law was enacted. Any form of non-consensual sex is now a crime and illegal. Previously the government considered rape only a crime if the woman had physical resisted. Finally, in December of 2016, Chancellor Merkel proposed a ban on the Burka and Germany deported 25,000 migrants who had committed crimes (Crabtree, 2016). Conclusion At this point Chancellor Merkel is paying a steep price for her migration policies. In the election of September 24, 2017, her party, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) suffered its worst electoral showing since 1949. Since then she has desperately attempted to form a new coalition government. However coalition talks with both the Green Party and the Free Democrats have fallen apart and she is now attempting to negotiate with her former coalition partner, the Social Democratic Party (SPD). Polls show that in new elections her party would suffer even worse losses at the expense of the populist right. Unless her migration policies change and the socio-economic problems caused by migrants are resolved, the populist right will continue to gain public support and more important votes, which has the potential to give Germany its first populist right government since the 1920's. References Caldwell, Christopher. (2009). Reflections on the Revolution in Europe. New York, NY: Anchor Books. Chamie, Joseph. (2015). International Migration. Great Decisions. New York, NY: Foreign Policy Association. Crabtree, Justina. (2016, December 28). Germany's immigration controversy rumbles. Retrieved from: http://www.cnbc.com/2016/12/28/germanys-immigration-controversy-rumbleson-as-550 Desilver, Drew. (2015, October 8). Refugee surge brings youth to an aging Europe. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact- 84
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NEW YORK AND THE END OF MR. MADISON'S WAR Harvey Strum The Sage Colleges On the evening of February 11, 1815, an unexpected interruption halted a concert at New York's City Hotel. A man rushed in and jumped on a table. Waving a white handkerchief over his head, he shouted, "Peace, Peace!" The sudden news brought the concert to an abrupt end, and audience poured out into the street. Within minutes the city was ablaze with candles. Church bells chimed and thousands of people carrying candles, lamps, and torches marched down Broadway. For one-night Federalist and Republicans buried their political differences and publicly embraced each other in celebration of the end of the War of 1812. A few days later, despite a foot of snow on the ground, New Yorkers, Federalists and Republicans, crowded the city streets for the official New York City celebration of the end of the war. Once again, for a day, the news of peace allowed New Yorkers, regardless of political persuasion to celebrate together. When news of peace reached northern New York, American officers stationed at Sackets Harbor crossed into Canada on February 25th to inform the British troops at Kingston. British officers kindly invited the Americans for a joint peace dinner, and toasted to the health of President James Madison. A British band played Yankee Doodle in honor of their American guests and the end of the war. Since June 1812 the War of 1812 had bitterly divided New Yorkers. The war not only divided the residents of the state of New York, but it proved one of most divisive conflicts in American history. Americans discovered how difficult it was to hold conflicting political opinions in the middle of a war. Peace briefly healed the political conflicts as everyone celebrated the joyous news that the bloodletting had ended. Even peace could not bury the deep political partisanship for very long. America's two major political parties, Federalists and Republicans, disagreed fundamentally about the wisdom of going to war against Great Britain in 1812 and continued to argue over the righteousness of the conflict throughout the duration of the war. In 1815 both sides fought over whether the war had achieved anything worth the financial and human costs of America's second conflict with the British. American and British negotiators agreed on peace on Christmas Eve 1814, but the agreement did not mention any of the issues that led the United States to declare war---impressment, seizure of American ships and cargoes on the high seas, and sailors' rights. The peace treaty omitted mention of Canada. Once the war began one of the goals became the annexation of Canada. Federalists described the war as a failure. Republicans considered it a triumph of American nationalism, a victory for the citizen soldier, and a second war for independence. Two hundred years ago partisanship was as deep and divisive in New York and national politics as it is today. For two years Federalist control of the Assembly and two-thirds of the Congressional delegation gave the Federalists the opportunity to block Governor Daniel Tompkins and the Republican majority in the Senate from effectively prosecuting the war and aiding the federal government financially. Federalist control of the majority of the Assembly and Congressional seats provided legitimacy for their opposition to the war since they controlled the more popularly elected branches of government. In 1812 the Federalists won 19 of 27 seats for Congress but after the 1814 election, they held only 6. In the Assembly, they retained 40 seats, but the Republicans had a 30-seat majority with over 70 seats. After reading the election results, Federalist Congressman Charles Goldsborough of Maryland wrote Albany Federalist Harmanus Bleecker," so complete a change...does not appear to be satisfactorily accounted for by the treachery of the Clintonians, and the...apostasy of Oliver Wolcott of which...I have heard the failure of the federalists imparted." Something else, "something more powerful and extensively operating cause" must explain the results. The destruction of the Niagara Frontier in the winter of 1813 - 86
14 creating 12,000 refugees, the lifting of the embargo just before the 1814 election, Federalist intransigence in the Assembly and Congress, and a rise in prices for agricultural produce created by troop needs in western New York contributed to a change in public sentiment. A certain element of inconsistency lingered on. Men of New York did not flock to the militia or join the U.S. Army after the disasters on the Niagara Frontier. Recruiters found it difficult to raise troops in 1813-14 and after the Republicans took control of the Assembly and Congressional delegation the situation did not improve. Most voters kept their feet at home by the fireside and did not rush to join in the conquest of Canada, but gave the supporters of the war a definite vote of confidence with the Republican landslide of 1814. New Yorkers repudiated the anti-war Federalists, but only for a season as New Yorkers appeared to turn from reluctant warriors to war hawks.1 Even though the war had dragged on for almost two years, the Administration did not try to neutralize Federalist opposition to the war by including them in a government of national unity. The exclusion of Federalists from a major role in American government created a sense of bitterness among some prominent Federalists. Using the pseudonym of "Observer," Gouverneur Morris asked, "Have the federalists a country?" In this country, "they are proscribed." Even those Federalists who during the American Revolution "were most eminent in council or the field," complained Morris, could not expect the appointment to "the humblest office." To the Federalists, denial of appointment to public office appeared bad enough but the inclusion of immigrants as recipients of Republican political largesse added humiliation to injury. "Let a wretch, whose crimes have driven him from his native land," observed Morris, "come forward, his head close-cropped, the countenance of a savage, with the manners of a blackguard, and the doors of office fly open."2 Morris expressed the resentment of some Federalists that their political opponents appointed immigrants to public office. On June 29th Federalists celebrated the fall of Napoleon. Gouverneur Morris used the occasion to deliver a stingier rebuke of democracy. "Democracy would bring down the virtuous and wise to thy level of folly," Morris feared, and persecute "the great and the good." Jubilant at the restoration of the Bourbons, Morris expressed his joy at the sight of "lawful princes surrounded by loyal subjects." After denouncing the Republicans for their hatred of England, "the land of our... forefathers," Morris called upon all Americans to rejoice at the restoration of the Bourbons whom Morris considered the friends of liberty and of the United States.3 Americans rejoicing at the victories of European monarchs appeared out of place. The statements of Morris about democracy and the Bourbons represented the most reactionary element in Federalist thought and helps explain why the Federalists felt out of place in early Nineteenth Century Jeffersonian America. Most Americans believed in equality between men, the very basis of the American form of governmenT. Morris attacked democracy because it meant equality. Morris symbolized the resistance of Federalists to the major trend in American society after the Revolution--toward greater democracy. The American Revolution meant a repudiation of a monarchy. It seemed ludicrous for Americans to rejoice at the restoration of monarchy. After all, the Americans fought the Revolution because they were not loyal subjects and rejected the legitimacy of lawful princes.4 Fully realizing the inherent contradiction in the Federalist celebrations, Republican Charles Holt described it as "strange and unholy rites." Both Holt and Henry Wheaton labeled the Federalist gathering as a British festival. Wheaton warned that the restoration of the Bourbons might lead the British ministry to contemplate "the recolonization of this country." Considering the festivities an "incitement to treason," Wheaton wondered if the Federalists would proceed from celebrating British victories over France to celebrating "the triumphs of Britain over America." Possibly provoked by the editorials of Wheaton and Holt approximately 2,000 Republicans surrounded Washington Hall on the evening of June 29. "They appeared much enraged, used much severe and insulting language," observed Zachariah Lewis, "and broke a number of windows." A couple of the Federalists received minor wounds. Peace officers soon arrived, dispersed the mob and arrested twenty or thirty "of the most turbulent rioters."5 The election got played out again in the Fourth of July celebrations in 1814. Republicans made clear, both in private and in public, that they did see the events in Europe furthering the cause of liberty. Americans should "turn their eyes from the old world, deformed as it is," argued Henry Wheaton and 87
"turn them upon the new---the only refuge of liberty." Wheaton articulated American exceptionalism. During the Fourth of July celebrations, Henry Wheaton urged Americans to unite and "sweep our enemies from the continent." Assailing the Federalists' loyalty, Martin Van Buren offered a toast to the "Bourbons and Cossacks of America...the times demand... their declaration of adhesion." Once again, Federalists used the celebration to attack the war. For example, Orange County Federalist William S. Buell in his oration declared it "our duty to evince our hatred of war, commenced for conquest" and added, "to resist oppression is a duty to God." Republicans and Federalists used the Fourth as an opportunity to restate their positions and attack their opponents. In effect, the 1815 campaign began on the Fourth of July. 6 Two days after the Fourth news arrived of a British fleet off Sandy Hook sending panic through the streets of New York. "There are very serious apprehensions...for the safety of this city," William Price told a friend. News of the burning of Washington further alarmed residents. George Brown noted that city's defenses depended on a "few undisciplined militia who ...could make little or no resistance." The Common Council appealed to Governor Tompkins and President James Madison for funds to complete fortifications at Brooklyn Heights, Harlem Heights, and Hell's Gate and asked citizens to volunteer their labor. Tammany joined with the pro-war American Federalists (Coodies) to organize a public meeting to encourage volunteers. For the next three months ethnic, political, fraternal, professional, and neighborhood groups volunteered their labor. Volunteers included 250 Italian and French immigrants, 1,000 Irish immigrants, Scottish immigrants, 500 English immigrants, 100 Germans, and over 1,000 African-Americans. Fifteen hundred Tammany braves well supplied with liquor provided by Matthew Davis worked on Brooklyn Heights. One hundred Columbia College students took up the spade and shovel. David Gardiner noted that "lawyers took their turn last week in a body," and he lamented that "my hands still bear testimony of my employment." Gardiner observed that the fear of a British attack put aside partisan animosities. "Party quarrels have entirely subsided," he wrote his sister Mary," and all have become staunch Patriots."7 Profit proved more persuasive than patriotism for some New Yorkers. "Two-thirds of the Army in Canada are this moment eating beef," reported Sir George Prevost, the ranking British official in Canada, "provided by American contractors drawn principally from...Vermont and New York." Droves of cattle crossed the Canadian American border despite the war to feed British troops. Without provisions from New York and Vermont British would have had difficulty feeding the civilian and military population in the winter of 1814-15. Elisha Jenkins, New York's Secretary of State from 1811-13, complained of the cattle, hogs, flour, candles, soap, butter, cheese, and leather reaching Canada from New York in the autumn of 1814. He suggested confiscation all cattle, hogs, and surplus agricultural produce within twenty miles of the border to stop the widespread smuggling. New Yorkers also smuggled manufactured good from Canada into the United States. Henry B. Livingston reported the widespread movement of British goods south along the Hudson River to New York City. In the end, economic necessity proved more important than borders or the state of war and neither the state nor federal government could stop the illicit trade with the enemy during the War of 1812.8 While on the surface the militia appeared more willing to fight in 1814 because of the attacks on the Niagara Frontier and fears of invasion at New York City and along the northern border the reality did not coincide with the image of staunch patriotism. Units of the militia from western New York served under General Jacob Brown at the battle of Chippewa. Men from Washington County marched north to Plattsburgh to defend the frontier from invasion. However, the reluctance of many militiamen to fight led to a repetition of the 1812-1813 militia problems. Republican militiamen from Saratoga County readily obeyed an order to defend New York City against an attack that never took place, but when Governor Tompkins changed their orders and sent them to the border near Plattsburgh they mutinied. Militia from Saratoga gave the Governor two alternatives: reverse the orders or discharge them. Failing to persuade them to accept his orders, the Governor agreed to send them to New York.9 Desertion remained an ongoing problem in 1814. Troops sent to Sackets Harbor from Herkimer and Montgomery counties deserted. Not singly nor in pairs, "but by companies and half companies." Herkimer's militiamen deserted and returned home in November 1814. In one week in early November, 88
about fifty left their post. Almost the whole of Montgomery's militia contingent at Sackets Harbor deserted. Even troops sent to defend New York City deserted. A large part of the Columbia County's militia went home in September. Finally, in late November with the possible attack on New York City appeared to pass most of the militia from upstate New York were discharged. Celebrating their return to civilian status, some of the discharge militia "led a fine riot in the suburbs of our city" reported the local press, "and some heads and windows were broken, and a leg of a watchman." City watchmen arrested thirty of the militiamen.10 Getting the militia to cross into Canada still posed a problem. "The citizen soldier was too often willing to listen to any argument that gave a pretext for resting quietly behind the constitution" General Brown complained. Of the 4,000-militia called out in 1814 to defend the Niagara Frontier "but a part would arrive," lamented Brown, "and but little hope could be entertained of getting any considerable number of them to face the enemy from the camp at Erie." Despite the rhetoric of the citizen soldier Brown knew the reality that most New Yorkers remained reluctant to "exert themselves at a distance from their Farms" and "the militia have done nothing or but little." Obtaining recruits for the U.S. Army proved just as much of a problem as in 1812 to 1813. Republican John Nicholas informed the President that "the getting of soldiers is a task of great difficulty." Militia who showed up might defend the state but would not invade Canada.11 Both the federal and state governments thought that conscription would solve the problem of the reluctant militia. A federal law got debated in Congress with New York's Federalist Congressmen voting against it and the state's Republicans voting for it. The bill died because of differences between the House and Senate. In New York Governor Tompkins called an emergency meeting of the legislature in the wake of the burning of Washington and perceived threats to the state. Addressing the legislature on September 27th, he suggested a revision of the militia laws to "relieve the poorer classes of the community of bearing that unreasonable burthen of militia duty" to make it more equitable and mandatory. The Republican majority agreed that the current law forced an unfair burden on the poorer classes of the community. Federalists opposed the state law as they did the federal legislation. The legislation divided men 18 - 45 into classes based on age, wealth, and family obligations for militia service. If any class failed to produce enough men, the state would draft the men and charge the class the cost of the equipment.12 Changes in the militia law became a partisan issue. In New York, the Council of Revision determined the constitutionality of legislation and it upheld the militia law. Federalist Chancellor James Kent voted against it. Replying to Kent' objections, Samuel Young, Speaker of the Assembly, and Senator Martin Van Buren charged the Chancellor with promoting disrespect for the law and encouraging sedition and disunion. Republicans defended both the proposed federal legislation and the new state conscription law. In the press, the Republicans defended the federal legislation as vital to the war effort and dismissed Federalist criticism that it would violate the Constitution. Republicans defended state conscription as necessary to make sure the wealthy participated and paid their share of the war's expenses.13 Federalists attacked the federal and state laws. Congressman Morris Miller told a political colleague that the proposed federal law was "unconstitutional and destructive to...personal liberty." However, Gouverneur Morris envisioned political advantage if Congress passed the federal conscription. "Had it passed, and attempts made to execute it," Morris speculated, "the people might have roused from a lethargy boding death to our rights." Federalist went after the state law with equal anger. "If the yeomanry of this state are prepared tamely to submit to the arbitrary provisions of this law," warned a Washington County editor, "they are prepared to relinquish all their rights." A Federalist editor in New York City considered the state law "more arbitrary and tyrannical...than even the Bonapartean conscription of France."14 Federalists organized town and county meetings and circulated petitions against the militia conscription. Two thousand Oneida County Federalists objected to becoming "soldiers, against their consent / for wars of / foreign conquest." Federalists of Granville, in Washington County, argued that the militia law bore "a great resemblance to the late terrific conscription system of France." Suggesting that enforcement of the law would meet with resistance Federalists in Bristol, Ontario County resolved," it is our duty...to oppose with...determined firmness...the first attempt to fasten upon us the chains of 89
despotism." Governor Tompkins realized the difficulties of enforcing the law and did not implement it before the war ended.15 Meanwhile, Nicholas Fish, Chairman of the Committee of Defense, tried to form a non-partisan city government but failed. The municipal election of 1814 degenerated into the usual bitter partisanship. Federalists won twelve of twenty seats in the Common Council, defeating the Republicans and Coodies. New York's election might be a harbinger that the Republican landslide of 1814 might have ended, and voters once again questioned the wisdom of the war. Throughout the winter of 1814 - 15 Republicans and Federalists continued to viciously criticize each other. Republicans denounced the Federalists as traitors and Federalists reminded voters of the misery produced by the war.16 When not busy criticizing the Federalists, the Republicans engaged in their usual internecine squabbling. John Armstrong's forced resignation as Secretary of War angered his supporters in New York. "Mr. Madison, in becoming either the author, tool, or dupe of the intrigue against General Armstrong," Henry Wheaton believed, "has. . . ruined his own reputation--destroyed the confidence of his most worthy friends and trampled principles underfoot." Assuming the 1816 Presidential nomination would come down to a contest between Armstrong and Monroe, Wheaton emphasized New York "will never submit to the perpetuation of the Virginia dynasty." With Republican control of the Council of Appointment, Tammany Hall looked forward to the removal of Clinton and any of his adherents the Federalists had kept in office. Beginning in early February 1815 the Council of Appointment made a clean sweep of Federalists. Martin Van Buren replaced Abraham Van Vechten as Attorney-General. Ruggles Hubbard, who became one of the four members of the Council, cautioned Van Buren against a wholesale removal of men whose only crime was loyalty to Clinton. Governor Tompkins hesitated to remove Clinton, but the insistence of Tammany Hall Republicans persuaded the Governor and the Council to appoint John Ferguson, Grand Sachem of Tammany Hall, in place of Clinton as Mayor of New York.17 News of the proposed Hartford Convention of New England Federalists sparked savage criticism from Republicans and split the Federalists. Republicans considered it a mixture of "seditious menace and impotent blustering." However, if the New Englanders voted for secession "New York will be able to prostrate" Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island. Republicans described the Federalist gathering as "John Bull's Convocation." While the convention "produced much anxiety" among New York Republicans and "is a detestable business," Assemblyman Ogden Edwards believed, "I am sure it does not mean rebellion, nor disunion . . . they dare not rebel."18 Secretly, the President and Secretary of War James Monroe, who replaced Armstrong, planned "measures of great activity" if the Hartford Convention opted for secession. Monroe asked Tompkins to monitor the convention, "should force of any kind be necessary," Monroe cautioned Tompkins, it should be directed only against the British "or in aid of good and faithful citizens, should traitorous measures be adopted, and such aid becomes requisite." Even though the convention adjourned making only recommendations for constitutional amendments, Republicans, including the New York Assembly, charged it sought "to make a peace with the enemy and forcibly separate" New England "from the Union."19 When New York Federalists met in October at a state convention they restated their opposition to the war but pledged to endorse defensive measures. They made no statement about the Hartford Convention. Former Congressman Egbert Benson thought of going to Hartford "to get them right" because he feared "they will . . . not take the federal course." Rufus King recommended postponing any action until the end of the war. Congressman William S. Smith did not anticipate "any national good" to "spring out of" the convention. Representing the most extreme opposition among Federalists to it, pro-war Oliver Wolcott, Jr. denounced it as "dangerous and wicked."20 At the opposite extreme, Gouverneur Morris hoped it would opt for secession. "The madmen and traitors assembled at Hartford," Morris wrote, "and if not too tame and timid, he hailed hereafter as the patriots and sages of their day and generation." Most Federalists, however, took a moderate approach. An Onondaga Federalist editor believed "of the purity . . . of . . . the Hartford Convention . . . there cannot exist the least doubt." While "great warmth is excited here among Federalists," Ebenezer Baldwin informed his father, for "many are reluctant that any steps 90
should be taken which will hazard a division of the union, but the staunch men of the party . . . agree in sentiment with" the New Englanders "and approve of the course taken." When the convention did opt for a moderate course and not secession, it relieved most New York Federalists. "I . . . am much pleased with the moderation . . . of the Report" of the convention, Baldwin concluded. He did not feel anyone "uninfluenced by party feelings" could object to the suggestions the convention recommended.21 On the evening of February 11, 1815, news of the Treaty of Ghent ending the war reached New York City. Word quickly spread to the New York Gazette and the staff rushed to Hanover Square on a cold Saturday evening shouting Peace, Peace! Nearby residents joined in the celebration of the end of the war. Workers in the office of the New York Commercial Advertiser celebrated the news by lighting every candle they could find and spreading the news to everyone they encountered. Thousands of New Yorkers filled the city' streets to express their happiness over the news of peace. For one night, recalled publisher Samuel Goodrich in his memoirs, Republicans and Federalists embraced each other as "whole night Broadway sang the song of peace." Describing the mood Eloise Payne wrote that there was an "overflow of popular joy... the whole city was shout and illumination." Over the next weeks as news spread around the state peace celebrations were held. Federalist Francis Adrian Van der Kemp, another Federalist, and two Republicans formed a committee is his village of Oldenbarnveld. Everyone paraded together, two hundred Federalists and Republicans, "all was harmony...not a single word disturbed our union." 22 Non-partisanship did not last very long. At Poughkeepsie, Federalists toasted to "Free trade and sailor rights; destroyed by embargoes, non-intercourse, and war." Wondering what the United States achieved by the war, Rufus King concluded, "the treaty of peace obtained nothing for which the war supposedly fought." While New York Federalists congratulated each other on the return of peace, they bitterly observed that the United States gained nothing from the war. As a result, Federalists used the failure of the Republicans to obtain their war objectives as the major issue along with conscription in the 1815 spring elections.23 Republicans attacked the Federalists and justified the war. "Let us turn a piercing eye to those savage hellhounds of Federalism," suggested John Fowler of Otsego, "who have tried to innervate the cause we are now supporting." John Nicholas railed against the "unprincipled faction." Republicans turned the War of 1812 stalemate into a triumphant American victory. "The brave heroes of Columbia have compelled the haughty and tyrannical nation," Fowler boasted "to bow her knee to the brave and generous Americans." At a peace celebration in Paterson, Putnam County Republicans toasted to "our army...the boasted veterans of Wellington have arrived, where are they?" As New Yorkers looked to the United States in the wake of the War of 1812, they stressed the uniqueness of America. Presbyterian Minister Rev. Samuel Blatchford noted that the "natural advantages of our country are beyond all others."24 During the 1815 campaign, Federalists railed against the war, the peace treaty, conscription, and war taxes. Dutchess County Federalists attacked the "odious conscription...taxes ...unnecessary war...and concluding a peace without obtaining one object for which the war was commenced." The editor of the Orange County Patriot blamed the war on President Madison and noted that the Madison administration failed to defeat the British requiring the United States to accept any treaty to end the war. In their appeal to the voters, Federalist state legislators reminded citizens that the Republicans failed to conquer Canada and failed to achieve any objectives for which the war was commenced concluding the time had come "to put other and better men in power."25 Republican legislators justified the war. "We have proved the practicability of a republic, such as ours, for the purposes of war," they told the voters. A Poughkeepsie editor boasted that we have "shown the world that...freemen are more than a match for veteran mercenary slaves." New York City Young Republicans boasted that the American victory meant that "the name of American is exalted to lofty preeminence in the eyes of the world" and would make foreign nations "extremely cautious how they commit future aggressions or dare to encroach upon the rights of freemen." During the 1815 campaign Republicans argued the war proved the value of republicanism, the ability of the citizen soldier, and made the United States respected around the world for its military prowess. They asked voters to choose between the party that sought to undermine the righteous stand of the American government and the party that fought to preserve the Republic.26 91
The results of the 1815 election pleased the Federalists. Because of the 1815 spring election, the Republican majority in the Assembly dropped from thirty-two to two while the Federalists gained twentytwo seats. In the State Senate races the Republicans carried five seats and the Federalists won four. Initially, it looked like a tie in the Assembly with each party winning 63 seats, but the Republicans claimed a seat in Ontario County that gave them a narrow majority. After the Republican landslide of 1814, it looked like the Republicans crushed the Federalists and the public strongly endorsed the war. However, the results of the 1815 election suggest that conscription, taxes and the status quo antebellum outcome of the War of 1812 created considerable dissatisfaction among the voters. In Herkimer County, a group of fifty mechanics persisted despite Republican threats, marched to the polls on Election Day to vote Federalist in protest `oppressive taxes." The Federalist upsurge in New York from 1808 - 1815 depended on voter opposition to national policies and state action, like conscription, tied to the foreign policies of the Jefferson and Madison administrations. Election returns from 1812 - 15 suggested that New Yorkers reacted to the effects of war-embargo, taxes, farm prices, conscription, military defeat, disasters on the frontier. New York entered the War of 1812 bitterly divided. The 1815 election results made clear that New Yorkers came out of the war just as divided as they entered the war. Federalist gains in 1808 - 09, 1812 - 13, and 1815 represented a protest vote by Federalists, some Republicans, and independent voters against the impact of Republican foreign policies upon the lives of New Yorkers.27 However, the war left a lingering legacy in New York City. A few merchants prospered from the war. The average New Yorker faced food and fuel shortages and many faced abject poverty. Trade restrictions imposed by the Madison Administration and repeated British blockades of the harbor and Long Island Sound increased unemployment and inflation. Prices for flour, coffee, sugar, tea, firewood, and coal soared beyond the means of many New Yorkers. Poorer city residents suffered hardships during the winters of 1813-14 and 1814-15. Conditions reached their nadir in the last year of the war forcing the city government to provide cash, food, and firewood for 19,000 people, one-fifth of the city's population. Poor relief became the largest item in the city budget during the War of 1812, Citizens' committees of the middle class and upper-class New Yorkers distributed additional food and fuel to the needy. Women in several charitable organizations assumed leadership positions to help poorer women, like the New York Female Assistance Society and Society for the Relief of Poor Widows. War-induced poverty lingered on. As late as February 1817, 15,000 people in the city relied on public and or private assistance. Because of the embargo of 1807-09 and the War of 1812 the value of New York City's exports did not recover until 1825. Contemporary political commentators argue that extreme partisanship is unique to current American politics. Studying the events of 1814-1815 in New York suggest that Americans viewed their political opponents two hundred years ago with the same level of suspicion and distrust. Many Federalists and Republicans did not accept the legitimacy of each other anymore that many Democrats and Republicans do today. Newspapers in 1814-15 were even more openly partisan and contemptuous of their opponents than they are in 2017. Using contemporary newspapers from the War of 1812 helps us understand the issues of the time and partisanship of political leaders and their constituents. Original letters form partisans like Gouverneur Morris or Henry Wheaton reveal that politicians shared the same level of partisanship in private letters as well as in public statements. Even Fourth of July orations and sermons by ministers did not remain immune from political partisanship. A New York Times columnist commented on a 2016 Pew survey showing that Democrats and Republicans shared mutual contempt for one another. Forty-five percent of Republicans view Democrats as a threat to the country. Most Democrats fear Republicans. This is nothing new. Federalists and Republicans expressed similar contempt for each other in 1814-15. Looking at newspapers, manuscript sources, and public orations confirm that reality of American politics and the continuity of mutual hatred between political parties.28 1 Charles Goldsborough to Harmanus Bleecker, June 11, 1814, Bleecker Papers, New York State Library (NYSL), Albany, N.Y. For the account of the American visit to Kingston on February 25, 1815, Alan Taylor, Civil War of 1812 (New York, 2010), 419 citing Donald Graves, ed., Merry Hearts Make Light Days; War of 1812 Journal of Lieutenant John Le Couteur. 104th Foot (Ottawa, 1993), 222. 92
2 New York Examiner, June 26, 1814; Manuscript copy, Gouverneur Morris Papers, Columbia University, New York City. 3 New York Evening Post, June 18-July 4, 1814; New York Commercial Advertiser, June 18-30, 1814; New York Gazette, June 20-July 4, 1814; New York Spectator, June 30, 1814; Albany Gazette, July 4, 1814; Salem Northern Post, June 23, 1814; Rufus King to Christopher Gore, May 24, 1814, John Jay to Rufus King, June 23, 1814; King Papers, New-York Historical Society (N-YHS); Rufus King to John Jay, June 20, 1814, Jay Papers, Columbia University; Francis Adrian Van der Kemp to Abigail Adams, July 12, 1814; Reel 418, Adams Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society (MHS), Boston; William W. Van Ness to Timothy Pickering, July 7, 1814, Reel 30, Timothy Pickering Papers, MHS; Jonathan Ogden to Hagemeister and Tisdorpf, June 30, 1814, Jonathan Ogden Letterbook, N-YHS; Gilbert Aspinwall to Winthrop Sargent, June 28, 1814, Reel 7, Winthrop Sargent Papers, MHS; Rufus King to Mathew Clarkson, June 19, 1814, Misc. Mss., New York Society Library (NYS), New York City; Diary, June 20, 29, 1814, Reel 2 Gouverneur Morris Papers, Library of Congress (LC), Washington, D.C.; Mathew Clarkson to David Clarkson, June 14, 1814, John Jay Papers, Columbia University. 4 New York Examiner, June 26, 1814. New York Spectator June 30, 1814. 5 New York Columbian, June 20 July 4, 1814; New York National Advocate, June 3 July 4, 1814; Hudson Bee, June 21, 1814. Henry Wheaton to Levi Wheaton, June 18, July 18, 1814, Richard Rush to Henry Wheaton Papers, Morgan Library, New York City; Henry Wheaton, Oration to Different Republic Societies, Fourth of July 1814 (New York, 1814) 6 Henry Wheaton to Levi Wheaton, June 18, 18, 1814, Henry Wheaton Papers, Morgan Library; Henry Wheaton, Oration to Different Republican Societies, Fourth of July, 1814 (New York, 1814); New York Columbian, July 4-15, 1814; Poughkeepsie Republican Herald, July 13, 1814; Hudson Bee, July 12, 1814; William S. Buell, Oration...Fourth of July, 1814 (New York, 1814) 7 George Brown to Erastus Corning, September 1, 1814, Box 1, Erastus Corning Papers, Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, N.Y.; William Price to James Clapp, July 30, 1814, Kernan Family Papers, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Minutes of the Society of St. Tammany, August 15, 22, 29, 31, 1814, Box 23, Kilroe Collection, Columbia University; David Gardiner to Mary Gardiner, August 25, 1814, Box 1, Gardiner Family Papers, Yale University, New Haven, CT. 8 Sir George Prevost to Lord Bathurst, August 5, 27, 1814, Edward Cruikshank, ed., Documentary History of the Campaign on the Niagara Frontier (Welland, 1904), Vol. 1-2, 1814, 173, 179-80; Elisha Jenkins to the Secretary of War, December 3, 1814, Reel 12, War, Unregistered Series, RG 107, National Archives (NA)Washington, D.C.; Henry B. Livingston to James Monroe, December 22, 1814, Reel 5, James Monroe Papers, LC. 9 Lansingburgh Gazette, September 13, 1814; Salem Northern Post, August 25September 15, 1814; Goshen Orange County Patriot, August 23, 1814; Memoranda of the Niagara Campaign, 1814, 65, Jacob Brown Papers, LC; W. Tisdale to Nathan Williams, September 3, 1814, Nathan Williams Papers, Oneida County Historical Society, Utica, N.Y. 10 New York Gazette, November 30, 1814; Diary of Aeneas Mackey, 206, New-York Historical Society; Canandaigua Ontario Repository, November 8, 1814; Hudson Northern Whig, September 6-20, 1814; Hudson Bee. September 13, 1814. 11 Memoranda of the Niagara Frontier, 1814, 60, Jacob Brown Papers, LC; Jacob Brown to Daniel Tompkins, August 1, 1814. Jacob Brown Letterbook, 129, LC; John Nicholas to James Madison, September 9, 1814, Reel 26, James Madison Papers, LC. 12 Charles Lincoln, ed. Messages of the Governors of the State of New York, 11 Vols. (Albany, 1909). II, 800-805; Daniel Tompkins to General Lewis, September 16, 1814, Hugh Hastings, ed., Public Papers of Daniel D. Tompkins, Governor of New York State, 1807-17, Vol. III, 530. 13 Martin Van Buren to Chancellor Kent, November 29, 1814, Amicus Juris Consultus (Van Buren) to Amicus Curiae (Kent), November 29, 1814, December 4, 6, 1814, Samuel Young to Martin Van Buren, December 1, 1814, Reel 4, Series II, Martin Van Buren Papers, LC; Albany Argus, November 29, December 9, 23, 1814, Albany Gazette, November 14 - December 5, 1814. 93
14 Morris Miller to Colonel Bruyn, November 30, 1814, Miscellaneous Manuscripts, N-YHS; Gouverneur Morris to Lewis Sturges, November 1, 1814, M Gouverneur Morris to Rufus King, January 7, 1815, Reel 3, Gouverneur Morris Papers, LC; Salem Northern Post, November 10, 1814; New York Commercial Advertiser, December 31, 1814. 15 Utica Patriot, December 13, 1814; Salem Northern Post, November 10 - December 8, 1814; Canandaigua Ontario Repository, October 1814 - January 1815. 16 New York Evening Post, September 22, November 18, 1814. 17 Henry Wheaton to Levi Wheaton, October 1, 8, 15, 22, December 18, 22, 1814, Ambrose Spencer to Henry Wheaton, October 10, 22, 1814, John Armstrong to Henry Wheaton, November 7, 1814, William Irving to ' Henry Wheaton, October 3, 15, 1814, Henry Wheaton Papers, Morgan; John Nicholas. to James Madison, September 9, 1814, Reel 26, Series II, James Madison Papers, LC; John Armstrong to William Elliot, October 3, 1814, Armstrong Papers, N-YHS; William Irving to Charles? December 18, 1814, Irving Papers, Columbia University; Morgan Lewis to James Monroe, September 2, 1814, September 11, 1814, Reel 5, Monroe Papers. LC. 18 Report of committee of state legislature, March 11, 1815, Vol. 8, Box 1, Assembly Papers, NYSL; James Monroe to Governor Tompkins, November 26, 1814, James Monroe to General Swartwout, January 11, 1815, Reel 1, Confidential and Unofficial Letters Sent by the Secretary of War, 1814-35, RG 107, NA; Henry Wheaton to Levi Wheaton, November 21, 1814, Henry Wheaton Papers, Brown University, Providence, R.I.; James Monroe to General Robert Swartwout, January 11, 1815, Swartwout Papers, New York Public Library; Ogden Edwards to William Van Ness, November 10, 1814, Miscellaneous Manuscripts E, N-YHS; Utica Columbian Gazette, October 11-November 8, 1814; John Savage to John Taylor, January 9, 1815, Barry Fenton to John Taylor, January 15, 1815, John Tayler to John Taylor, January 5, 1815, John Taylor Papers, N-YHS; New York Columbian, November 1814; Brooklyn Long Island Star, November 1814; New York National Advocate, November 1814; Albany Argus, November - December, 1814. 19 Ibid. 20 S. Van Rensselaer to Rufus King, October 25, 1814, Rufus King Papers, N-YHS; Hartford Convention, 1814, in Charles King, ed., Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, (New York, 1894-1900), Vol. V. 444-448. See original in Rufus King Papers, N-YHS; Poughkeepsie Journal, October 1814; William S. Smith to Abigail Adams, November 7, 1814, William S. Smith to John Adams, November 7, 1814, Reel 420, Adams Papers, MHS; Oliver Wolcott, Jr. to Frederick Wolcott, September 20, October 16, 1814, Alice Wolcott Collection, Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, CT. 21 Onondaga Register, December 28, 1814; Lansingburgh Gazette, November 15, 1814; Herkimer American, November 1814 concurred in the pro-Hartford Convention position; Hudson Northern Whig, November 22, 1814; Salem Northern Post, December 15, 1814; Ballston Spa Independent American, January 11, 1815; Canandaigua Ontario Repository, November, 1814 - January, 1815; New York Examiner, November, 1814-January, 1815; New York Evening Post, November, 1814-January, 1815; New York Commercial Advertiser, November, 1814-January, 1815; Gouverneur Morris to Le Ray de Chaumont, November 18, 1814, Reel 5, Governor Morris to Moss Kent, December 27, 1814, Gouverneur Morris to Benjamin Walker, December 28, 1814, Gouverneur Morris to Rufus King, January 7, 1815, Gouverneur Morris to Randolph Harrison, January 22, 1815, Reel 20, Gouverneur Morris to Timothy Pickering, October 17, 1814, Gouverneur Morris to Lewis Sturgis, November 1, 1814, Gouverneur Morris to Harrison G. Otis, November 8, 1814, Governor Morris to Timothy Pickering, December 22, 1814, Reel 3, Gouverneur Morris Papers, LC; Gouverneur Morris to Timothy Pickering, November 1, 1814, Reel 30, Timothy Pickering Papers, MHS; Ebenezer Baldwin to Simeon Baldwin, October 29, November 6, 15, 1814, January 7, 1815, Baldwin Family Papers, Yale; George Tibbits to n.n., December 14, 1814, Tibbits Papers, New York State Library (NYSL) 22 Samuel Goodrich, Recollections of a Lifetime, (New York, 1856), Vol. I, 496, 504; Eloise Payne to Catharine Sedgwick, February 15, 1815, Payne Papers, Columbia University; Francis Adrian Van der 94
Kemp to John Adams, February 18, March 7, 1815, Reel 422, Adams Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society. 23 Poughkeepsie Journal, February 22, 1815; Rufus King to Gouverneur Morris, February 15, 1815, Gouverneur Morris Papers, LC. 24 John Fowler to Benjamin Fowler, February 28, 1815, Benjamin Fowler Papers, New York Public Library; Poughkeepsie Journal, February 25, 1815; John Nicholas to Wilson Cary Nicholas, March 24, 1815, Wilson Cary Nicholas Papers, LC; Samuel Blatchford, A Sermon to the United Presbyterian Congregations...April 13, 1815 (Albany, 1815). 25 Poughkeepsie Journal, March-April 1815; Goshen Orange County Patriot, March-April 1815, Albany Committee of Correspondence, February 20, 1815, Broadside, Stephen Eno Papers, NYSL. 26 New York Republican Members of the Legislature, Address to the Electors of the State of New York, April 20, 1815 (Albany, 1815); Poughkeepsie Republican Herald, March-April 1815; New York Columbian, March-April 1815. 27 Herkimer American, May 4, 1815, reprinted in the New York Evening Post, May 12, 1815. 28 Timothy Egan, "Bridging the Canyon Across the Holiday Table," New York Times, November 25, 2017, A20. 95
SM Leinen, KB Wheeler