Mothers and Reentry: Relationship Findings, M Mogul, E Stelson, R Frasso, J Grisso, H Harner

Tags: Holly Harner, Jeanne Grisso, Rosemary Frasso, Marjie Mogul, Maternity Care Coalition Department of Research, School of Nursing and Health Sciences LaSalle University Purpose Exploratory, Children of incarcerated parents, parenting support, friends, Alternatives to incarceration, self-concept, relationship, children, friends and acquaintances, Perelman School of Medicine, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania, health organization, Mental health, MCC, Physical health, Pennsylvania Fifteen, Interviews, release from jail, Center for Public Health Initiatives, Perelman School of Medicine, School of Social Policy and Practice, University of Pennsylvania, semi-structured interviews, Community Programs, Maternity Care Coalition
Content: Mothers and Reentry: Relationship Findings Marjie Mogul, PhD, MBA 1; Elisabeth Stelson,, MSW, LSW, MPH 2; Rosemary Frasso, PhD, MSc, CPH 3; Jeanne Grisso, MD, MSCE 4; Holly Harner, PhD, MPH, CRNP, WHNP-BC 5 (1) Maternity Care Coalition Department of Research; (2) Perelman School of Medicine, School of Social Policy and Practice, University of Pennsylvania; (3) Center for Public Health Initiatives, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania; (4) Perelman School of Medicine, School of Nursing, Center for Public Health Initiatives, University of Pennsylvania; (5) School of Nursing and Health Sciences LaSalle University
Purpose Exploratory, in-depth examination designed to examine maternal perceptions of the reentry experience for mothers reuniting with their children after a short stay in jail Overall Aims: Investigate the reentry experience of mothers returning from a short stay in jail Identify facilitators to successful reentry for mothers of young children Inform interventions and policies to increase successful reentry and positive maternal and child outcomes
Background More than 75% of incarcerated women are in their childbearing years and are single parents Most women are the primary caretaker for their children prior to incarceration and will resume this role upon release 60% of female offenders are rearrested within three years Children of incarcerated parents are at risk for negative outcomes including low self-esteem, depression, behavior problems and juvenile delinquency Successful prison and jail reentry has been linked to improved health and social outcomes for both the mother and child
Women with a history of recent release from jail were recruited from the Maternity Care Coalition (MCC), a community-based maternal-child health organization located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with current and former program clients with young children who recently gave birth and had been released from jail for at least 30 days Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim Interviews ranged from 60 to 120 minutes in length Interviews were coded by two research team members and inter-coder discrepancies were resolved through consensus
Participant Characteristics Race African American White Latina
N=15 10 3 2
Mean Age Mean Number of Children Average Time Incarcerated Average Time Released
28 years 3 5.5 months 8.8 months
Results Participants reflect gender specific themes related to being a parent Themes were categorized according to: · Self-Concept · Role Identity/Transition · Physical and mental health · Navigating Formal and Informal Systems · Relationships with family, friends, community acquaintances, programs and larger systems Larger Systems: Criminal Justice, Public Benefits Neighborhood, Community Programs Family, Friends, Acquaintances Self-Concept/Role Identification Self-concept and Role Identity/Transition · Women had strong goal orientation as mothers, workers, and students · Also perceived themselves as "felons" and former "users" "Being a felon--like I have a few felonies--it's not even what I would do it's like who would hire me? That's what it is now. It's not a matter of I want to pick this job. It's like, is this job going to pick me?" Physical and Mental Health · gender differences for men's and women's health · Mental health: Tremendous stress and anxiety; Most had histories of trauma and substance abuse · Physical health: Related to the postpartum period Navigating Complex Systems Set up for Failure "And then it was like ­ when I went down to go do it, they were closed for something, so then I had to go back down that Monday before I went back down to welfare. It was just ­ it was absurd. Then going on welfare, it took a good seven hour a week when you go there--it's horrible, but everything I guess worked out in the end"
Formal and Informal Relationships Complex, Complicated, Challenging · Relationships with children, partners, family, friends and acquaintances formed the basis of the reentry experience affecting self-concept and role identity, physical and mental health, and the ability to navigate systems · Most relationships were complicated and included positive and negative components · All participants had some relationship with their child/children. Most had multiple children and different custody arrangements for each · Many forms of relationships with the baby's father · Participants identified the most challenging relationship was with their own mother · Some provided guidance and support · Most had troubling histories but still desired a relationship with their mother · Parenting was often framed by this history "I had a daughter for a reason, so I could like teach her the right things. Like my mom wasn't there for me. My mom, she lost me when I was one. So she didn't see me grow up. She didn't see my go on field trips. My mom wasn't there for my graduation. She didn't see me go to prom. So I don't want to miss none of that with my daughter". · Some participants had other female relationships with sisters, aunts and friends · Participants expressed concerns over acquaintances who may have been former user "friends" · There were mixed results in relationships with program service providers but most expressed the need for more parenting support and in meeting the concrete needs of parenting: "As long as he has his wipes, his diapers, his formula, his cereal, his clothes, a roof over his head, that's what makes me happy" Discussion and Recommendations Systemic problems set up to reinforce negative outcomes where everything is a barrier Basic concrete unmet needs such as child care, diapers and transportation Parenting support to address realistic goal orientation "Reentry Navigator" Alternatives to incarceration for non-violent offenders and pregnant women Gender responsive programming to meet the needs of incarcerated women Support for maintaining maternal-child relationships during and post-incarceration For more information, please contact Dr. Marjie Mogul, Ph.D., Director of Research, Maternity Care Coalition, [email protected]

M Mogul, E Stelson, R Frasso, J Grisso, H Harner

File: mothers-and-reentry-relationship-findings.pdf
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Author: M Mogul, E Stelson, R Frasso, J Grisso, H Harner
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