Multi-objective emission constrained economic power dispatch using differential evolution algorithm, SK Soni, V Bhuria

Tags: Differential Evolution, continuous spaces, economic dispatch, optimization, Power Systems, standard IEEE, algorithm, load demand, load demands, initial population, global optimization, nonlinear function, EED, pp, power dispatch, interior point method, New York, J. Inst, R. Storn, A.J. Wood, optimal power flow, Power Apparat, power system, Compromise Solution, Fuel Cost, crossover operation, amplification factor, economic load dispatch, Wiley Interscience, Genetic algorithm, Sunil Kumar Soni, population size, population, mutation operator, population vector, parameter vectors, Vijay Bhuria, inequality constraints, Multi-objective, generation, Power Generation, stochastic search technique, J. Global Optim, IEEE Trans, B.F. Wollenberg, atmospheric emission, cost function
Content: ISSN: 2277-3754 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 2, Issue 1, July 2012
Multi-objective Emission constrained Economic
Power Dispatch Using Differential Evolution
Algorithm Sunil Kumar Soni, Vijay Bhuria
Abstract--The main aim of power utilities is to provide high quality power supply to the consumer at lowest possible cost and minimum emission while operating to meet the limits and constraints imposed on the generating units. The economic emission dispatch (EED) problem is a sub problem of an optimal power flow. In this paper, Differential Evolution (DE) based optimization technique is presented to solve the economic emission dispatch (EED) problem which is a nonlinear function of generated power. DE is a population-based stochastic search technique that works in the general framework of Evolutionary Algorithms. The design principles of DE are simplicity, efficiency and use of real coding. It starts to explore the search space by randomly choosing the initial candidate solutions within the boundary. Then the algorithm tries to locate the global optimum solution for the problem by iterated refining of the population through reproduction and selection. In this paper differential evolution technique is presented to solve the economic load dispatch problem which is a nonlinear function of generated power. In the experimental study, Differential Evolution (DE) is analysed and demonstrated on standard IEEE 30 bus system consisting of six generating units. Key words- Economic Dispatch, Emission Dispatch, Multi-objective function, Price Penalty Factor, Differential Evolution (DE). I. INTRODUCTION Economic emission dispatch (EED) has become an essential function in operation and control of modern power system and it is a sub problem of an optimal power flow. The main aim of the economic emission dispatch problem is to find an optimal combination of the output power of all the online generating units that minimize the total fuel cost and reduction of pollution level up to a safe limit of the generation and supplies the power demand while satisfying unit constraints, equality and inequality constraints [1]. The major part of the power is generated due to the fossil fired plants and hence their emission contribution cannot be ignored. Fossil fired electric power plants use coal, oil, gas as primary energy resources and produce atmospheric emission whose nature and quantity depend upon fuel type and its quality. The particulate matter such as ash and gaseous pollutant i.e. CO2, NOX (oxides of nitrogen) etc. are produced due to coal. Hence it is a needed to reduce the emission from there fossil fired plants either by design or by operational strategies [2]. In classical Economic Load Dispatch (ELD)
problem, mathematical model of fuel cost function has been approximated as a single quadratic cost function [3]. A number of conventional optimization techniques have been applied to solve the EED problem such as linear Programming (LP) [4], nonlinear programming (NLP) [5], quadratic programming (QP) [6], and interior point methods [7]. Although these conventional techniques offer good results but when the search space is non-linear and has discontinuities they become very complicated with a slow convergence ratio and sometimes unable to find the optimal solution. To overcome these difficulties new numerical methods are needed which have high speed search to the global optima and does not suffer from the problem of local minima [8]. In the recent years the soft computing techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) [9], Evolutionary programming (EP), Simulated annealing (SA), Tabu search (TS) technique, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) [10-11-12] etc. may prove to be very effective in solving nonlinear EED problems. In 1995 Storn and Price [13] have proposed one of the most prominent new generation evolutionary algorithm i.e. Differential Evolution (DE) to exhibit consistent and reliable performance in nonlinear and multimodal environment [14] and proven effective for constrained optimization problems. The advantages of DE over other EAs, like simple and compact structure, few control parameters, high convergence characteristics, have made it a popular stochastic optimizer. In this paper differential evolution technique is presented to solve the economic emission dispatch problem which is a nonlinear function of generated power. In the experimental study, Differential Evolution (DE) is analyzed and demonstrated on standard IEEE 30 bus system consisting of six generating units.
The primary objective of EED problem is to determine the
most economic loading of the generating units such that the
load demand in the power system can be met. The EED
planning must be performed satisfying different equality and
inequality constraints. Consider a power system having N
generating units each loaded to
. The generating units
should be loaded in such a way that minimizes the total fuel
cost while satisfying the power balance and other
constraints. The economic emission dispatch problem is an
optimization problem that determines the power output of
ISSN: 2277-3754
ISO 9001:2008 Certified
International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)
Volume 2, Issue 1, July 2012
each online generator that will result in a least cost system total system loads. Equilibrium is only met when the total
operating state with minimum emission. The EED problem system generation equals the total system load (PD) plus
can then be written in the following form:
system losses (PL)
Minimize f(x)
Subject to: g(x) = 0
h(x) 0
The exact value of the system losses can only be determined
f(x) is the objective function, g(x) and h(x) are respectively the set of equality and inequality constraints. x is the vector of control and state variables.
by means of a power flow solution. The most popular approach for finding an approximate value of the losses is by way of Kron's loss formula (6), which approximates the losses as a function of the output level of the system
A. Objective Function
(1) Cost-
The objective of the ELD is to minimize the total system
cost by adjusting the power output of each of the generators connected to the grid. The total system cost is modelled as the sum of the cost function of each generator (1). The generator cost curves are modelled with smooth quadratic functions and is given by:
D. Inequality Constraints
Generating units have lower
and upper ( )
production limits of power output of the unit. These
bounds can be defined as a pair of inequality constraints, as
Where N is the number of online thermal units, is the active power generation at unit i and , and are the Fuel cost coefficients of the generating units. (2) Emission- The atmospheric pollution such as sulphur oxide (SOX), nitrogen oxide (NOX) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) caused by fossil fuel generator can be modelled separately. The emission equation of generation can be expressed as
Where , and are emission coefficients of the generating unit. B. Multi-Objective Economic Dispatch EED is a multi-objective problem, which is combination of both economic and environmental dispatches that individually make up different single problems. At this point, this multi-objective problem needs to be converted in to single-objective form in order to fulfil optimization [15]. The conversion process can be done by using price penalty factor. However, the single-objective EED can be formulated as shown in below equation
Where hi is the price penalty factor, and is formulated as follows
Where is
the Maximum Power generation of the
unit in MW.
C. Equality Constraints
The equality constraint is represented by the power
balance constraint that reduces the power system to a basic
principle of equilibrium between total system generation and
(i=1, 2, 3............, NG)
Differential Evolution is a simple and efficient adaptive
scheme for global optimization over continuous spaces. In
this section, we review the differential evolution (DE)
algorithm that was used for searching the optimum solution
of ELD problems. Differential evolution solves real valued
problems based on the principles of natural evolution [16]
using a population P. the population size remains constant
throughout the optimization process Differential Evolution
(DE) is a parallel direct search method which utilizes NP,
D-dimensional parameter vectors, In DE, a population of NP
solution vectors is randomly created at the start this
population is successfully improved over G generations by
applying This optimization process is carried out with three
basic operations mutation, crossover and selection operators,
to reach an optimal solution [17]. The main steps of the DE
algorithm are given bellow:
Until (Termination criteria are met)
as a population for each generation G. NP does not change
during the minimization process. The initial vector
population is chosen randomly and should cover the entire
parameter space. As a rule, we will assume a uniform
probability distribution for all random decisions unless
otherwise stated. In case a preliminary solution is available,
the initial population might be generated by adding normally
distributed random deviations to the nominal
. DE generates new parameter vectors by
ISSN: 2277-3754
ISO 9001:2008 Certified
International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)
Volume 2, Issue 1, July 2012
adding the weighted difference between two population constant
which has to be determined by the user.
vectors to a third vector. Let this operation be called
Is a randomly chosen index
mutation. The mutated vector's parameters are then mixed ensures that with the parameters of another predetermined vector, the
gets at least one parameter from
target vector, to yield the so-called trial vector. Parameter D. Selection
mixing is often referred to as "crossover" in the
The selection operator forms the population by choosing
ES-community and will be explained later in more detail. If between the trial vectors and their predecessors (target
the trial vector yields a lower cost function value than the vectors) those individuals that present a better fitness or are
target vector, the trial vector replaces the target vector in the more optimal. This optimization process is repeated for
following generation. This last operation is called selection. several generations allowing individuals to improve their
Each population vector has to serve once as the target vector fitness as they explore the solution space in search of optimal
so that NP competitions take place in one generation. More values.DE has three essential control parameters: the scaling
specifically DE's basic strategy can be described as follows: factor (F), the crossover constant (CR) and the population
A. Initialization
size (NP). The scaling factor is a value in the range [0, 2] that
The first step in the DE optimization process is to create controls the amount of perturbation in the mutation process.
an initial population of candidate solutions by assigning The crossover constant is a value in the range [0, 1] that
random values to each decision parameter of each individual of the population. Such values must lie inside the feasible bounds of the decision variable. B. Mutation After the population is initialized, The mutation operator
controls the diversity of the population. The population size
determines the number of individuals in the population and
provides the algorithm enough diversity to search the
solution space.
To decide whether or not it should become a member of
generation G+1 the trial vector
is compared to the
creates mutant vectors by perturbing a randomly selected target vector using the greedy criterion. If vector
vector xa with the difference of two other randomly selected yields a smaller cost function value than then
vectors xb and xc, Where xa, xb and xc are randomly chosen set to
otherwise, the old value is retained.
vectors among the NP population, and a b c. xa, xb and xc are selected anew for each parent vector. The scaling
constant F is an algorithm control parameter used to adjust the perturbation size in the mutation operator and improve algorithm convergence. For each target vector
In the study of experiment, DE algorithm is tested over standard IEEE 30-bus power system with six generating units as shown in figure 1.
a mutant vector is generated using a
differential mutation operation according to following
Where F is a real and constant factor, commonly known as scaling factor or amplification factor, is a positive real number, typically less than 1.0, that controls the amplification of the differential variation
with random indexes
C. Crossover
DE uses binomial crossover operation this crossover
constant CR is an algorithm parameter that controls the
diversity of the population The crossover operator creates the
trial vectors, which are used in the selection process.
In order to increase the diversity of the perturbed parameter
vectors, crossover is introduced. To this end, the trial vector:
(3) is formed, where
J = 1, 2, .....,D
In (4)
is the evaluation of a uniform random
number generator with outcome
. CR is the crossover
Fig 1: Single Line Diagram of IEEE 30-Bus Test System The algorithm is tested for load demand 500MW, 700MW and 900MW. The coefficient EED problem and transmission loss coefficients matrix are taken from Rughooputh and King (2003). The transmission loss coefficients matrix is given by equation
ISSN: 2277-3754 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 2, Issue 1, July 2012 Table3. Best Fuel Cost Solution for the Test Power System.
V. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Here the Multi-objective EED problem is solved by the DE algorithm for the standard IEEE 30-bus power system. In this case study problem, the variable given in Table 1. A test system having six thermal units is considered. The proposed method is applied for EED with load demands 500 MW, 700MW and 900 MW and it is compared with FSGA and NSGA-II. Minimum fuel cost solution with all load demands are considered in Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4. Table1. Coefficient of Fuel Cost, Emission and Capacities of the Six Generating Units.
Table4. Best Fuel Cost Solution for the Test Power System.
Table2. Best Fuel Cost Solution for the Test Power System.
Minimum NOX emission effect solution for EED problem with all load demands are considered in Table 5, Table 6 and Table 7. Table5. Best Emission Effects (NOX) For the Test Power System.
ISSN: 2277-3754
ISO 9001:2008 Certified
International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)
Volume 2, Issue 1, July 2012
Table6. Best Emission Effects (NOX) For the Test Power System.
Table9. Best Compromise Solution for the Test Power System with 700 MW.
Table7. Best Emission Effects (NOX) For the Test Power System.
Table10. Best Compromise Solution for the Test Power System with 900 MW.
Table 8, Table 9 and Table 10 give the best compromise solution for EED problem using DE, FCGA and NSGA-II with load demand 500 MW, 700 MW and 900 MW for six generator system. Table8. Best Compromise Solution for the Test Power System with 500 MW.
VI. CONCLUSION In this paper the difficult optimization problem is solved by using DE algorithm. In order to prove the effectiveness of algorithm it is applied to three different cases with six generating units. Cases 1, 2 & 3 are 500 MW, 700 MW & 900 MW. The multi-objective problem is converted in to single objective form by means of price penalty factor with the consideration of problem constraints. After comparing the results with other algorithm it is observed that DE is well suited for obtaining the best solution, so that both fuel cost and emission effect are reduced for different load demands.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are thankful to Director, Madhav Institute of Technology & Science, Gwalior (M.P) India for support and facilities to carry out this research work.
ISSN: 2277-3754
ISO 9001:2008 Certified
International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT)
Volume 2, Issue 1, July 2012
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