Non-formal education: information and planning issues, G Carron, RA Carr

Tags: NFE, Non-formal education, formal education, adult education, diversification, programmes, educational field, Argentina, planning, Gallart, Research Report, International Institute for Educational Planning, professional training, data collection, educational activities, personal development, International Institute, IIEP, information base, educational opportunities, formal schooling, activities, Roch Bibeau, information system, participation, vocational training courses, tertiary sector, formal school, vocational training, school system, diversified educational field, educational system, educational planning, school education, educational institution, basic education, personal development activities, Quebec Paris International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO, training programmes
Content: IIEP Research Report No. 90 Non-formal education: information and Planning issues by Gabriel Carron Roy A. Carr-Hill International Institute for educational planning
Non-formal education: information and Planning Issues
This report is part of the Institute's research on `The diversification of the educational field' IIEP Research Report No. 90 Non-formal education: information and Planning Issues Gabriel Carron Roy A. Carr-Hill Pans 1991 International Institute for Educational Planning (established By UNESCO)
The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of UNESCO or of the IIEP. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO or IIEP concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. The publication costs of this report have been covered through a grant-in-aid offered by UNESCO and by voluntary contributions made by several member states of UNESCO, the list of which will be found on the last page of this report. This report has been typeset using IIEP's computer facilities and has been printed in IIEP's printshop. International Institute for Educational Planning 7 - 9 rue Eugene-Delacroix, 75116 Paris UNESCO 1991
`
Introduction Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Appendices Appendix I Appendix II References
Contents
Page
1
Forms and dynamics of the diversified
educational field
5
Types of non-formal education
20
Who does what to whom?
33
The information base on non-formal education 47
Implications for planning
56
65
Questionnaire used for the adult education
survey in Canada
67
Extracts from questionnaire used for the adult
education survey in England and Wales
72
76
v
Acknowledgement This publication is the synthesis report of the research programme on "The diversification of the educational field" which has been implemented thanks to the generous support provided by the Division for global and interregional programmes of the UNDP. vi
Non-formal education. information and planning issues 7
Introduction There has been a rapid proliferation of `non-formal' education programmes over the past few decades, radically altering the contours of the educational field. While the school remains the dominant educational institution in general, it is now by no means the only place where individuals can gain knowledge or can pursue explicit training objectives. A whole range of other educational activities have developed outside the formal educational system and play a great variety of roles. Certain programmes, such as literacy campaigns, have emerged as a substitute for school education. Increasingly, though, non-formal education (henceforth NFE) has come to be regarded as important for its own sake, with the growing awareness that the school is no longer capable of satisfying a whole series of increasingly diversified educational needs. In all countries, therefore, there is a network which is more or less developed, consisting of a multitude of diverse educational acti- vities, playing different roles with de facto relations of substitution, competition, complementarity and even sometimes opposition among themselves. This poses new challenges to the organisation and planning of education; for the techniques originally designed to plan the relatively monolithic school system are unlikely to be appropriate to a diversified educational field. However, whilst there is a `growing awareness of NFE', very little is actually known about how much there is of different types and who participates whether as teachers or learners in the programmes. 1
Non-formal education. information and planning issues Based on these general concerns, during the second half of the 1980s, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) carried out a series of studies aiming at a better understanding of the diversified field of education in different national contexts and commissioned a review of other national and international attempts to describe the field1. The purpose of this report is to summarise what has been learnt and to draw out the lessons of these studies for planning and policy making. 1. The source material Four national case studies covering the whole range of the diversified educational field have been completed in Argentina, Canada, Hungary and the USSR. Detailed reports of the first three case studies have been published separately so far2 . The objectives of the case studies were: · to map out the different components of the diversified educational field and to analyze their relative importance; · to identify the main determinants of the diversification process and the effects that it produces; 1. In addition, the IIEP has also undertaken a limited number of studies relating to the diversification of basic education. This includes a bibliography and a research seminar on Koranic schools, a micro study on the articulation between different institutions of basic education (primary schools, literacy programmes, koranic schools) in Niger and three studies on the effects of literacy programmes in Crazily Kenya and Tanzania. The main conclusions of these studies are presented in separate reports. 2. Gallart, M.A. (1989), The diversification of the educational eld in Argentina Paris, International Institute for Educational Planning, Research Report No. 73, Recherche et redaction: Roch Bibeau (1989) L'йducation non-formelle au Quebec Paris International Institute for Educational Planning, Research Report No. 78; Inkei P. with Koncz, G. and Pocze, G. (1988) The diversification of the educational field in Hungary, Paris, International Institute for Educational Planning. 2
Introduction · to examine the role of planning in this process. In addition, the Institute has also completed a state-of-the-art paper which aims at drawing lessons from the several efforts made at national, regional and international levels in order to develop a data base on non-formal education. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to review the approaches and methodologies used; (2) to review and assess the main findings; (3) to review the relevance of such a data base for educational planning and management as well as the feasibility of doing further research in this field. This study, the findings of which have also been published3 focused on the situation in Developing countries -- although material from the developed countries was also used, when it was the only evidence available. Given the vast amount of empirical materials available, the study did not pretend to an exhaustive coverage, but set out to compare and contrast a few typical examples of the different kinds of materials available. 2. Organisation of the Report Chapters I - III of the report summarize what has been learnt about NFE from these studies. I. Forms and dynamics of the diversification process. The problems of categorising, classifying and defining the components of the diversified educational field. What does the diversified educational field look like? What are the main dynamics of the diversification process? 3. Carr-Hill, R.A. (1988) The information base for the planning of the diver sified educational field, Paris, International Institute for Educational Planning, Research Report No. 68. 3
Non-formal education. information and planning issues Non-formal education. information and planning issues II. The different forms of out-of-school education. What are the characteristics of the major components of the diversified educational field? What are their relations to the formal school system and to society at large? III. Who does what to whom? Who is organising different kinds of NFE? Who benefits from the different kinds of NFE? Is NFE redressing or reinforcing the inequities of the formal school system? Chapters IV and V examine the implications for planning in both quantitative and qualitative terms. IV. The information base on non-formal education. What is the present situation? What are the major problems in developing a good appropriate data base? What could be done in the future to improve the situation? V. Implications for planning. What are the specificities of planning non-formal education at different levels? What are the major challenges which the planning of the diversified field of education will have to face in the future? 4
Chapter I Forms and dynamics of the diversified educational field The definitional problem of NFE has been a source of running controversy over the last 30 years. The argument here is that these debates are, mostly, beside the point. In the first section of this chapter, the various theoretical classifications are reviewed and compared with those actually adopted in studies of NFE and, in the second section, the way in which the volume of NFE-type activities is related to the level of development is analysed. Finally, the development of the diversified field is reviewed in the four case studies, demonstrating that none of the predetermined sets of classifications are appropriate: it is only possible to understand NFE in relation to the education provided by the school and college system. l. A range of classifications Problems of definition and of drawing boundaries dominated the discussions about non-formal education during the late sixties and the seventies. It was suggested, and sometimes still is, that NFE could be categorised by the degree of formalisation of the learning process, or by the degrees of integration between education and its environment, or by the degree of flexibility in client participation, or again by all three. Coombs, Prosser and Ahmed (1973) distinguished between formal education (the institutionalised, chronologically graded and hierarchically structured educational system, running from lower 5
Non-formal education. information and planning issues Non-formal education: information and planning issues primary school to the upper reaches of the university, generally full time and sanctioned by the state); non-formal education (comprising an educational activities organised outside the formal system and designed to serve identifiable clientele and educational objectives) with an remaining educational activities being categorised as informal educa tion (the lifelong process by which every person acquires and accumulates knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights from daily experiences and exposure to the environment). La Belle (1982) suggested a new dimension to the Coombs taxonomy whereby each of the three forms of education may (or may not) possess some of the same cha racteristics as the other forms. For example, a specific type of secondary school includes non-formal characteristics (e.g. extra curicular activities) and informal ones (e.g. peer groups teaming). The most significant effort to prepare practical guidelines for data collection has been made by the UNESCO Office of Statistics which prepared a manual for collecting national statistical data on adult education4 to parallel the routine international collection of data on regular education. Their proposal was based on a refinement of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), a system developed by the UNESCO Office of Statistics (1976) for classifying courses, pro grammes and fields of education, in schools, colleges and universities according to their content level of matter. For this purpose a course is defined as a planned series of learning experiences in a particular range of subject matters or skills offered by a sponsoring agency and undertaken by one or more students. A programme is defined as a selection of one or more courses or a combination of courses usually chosen from syllabuses. A field is a grouping of programmes related to the same broad subject matter area. ISCED is essentially a dictionary of 518 educational programmes with a five digit code. The first digit identifies the level which distinguishes the broad steps of progression through the regular school and university system. Seven levels have been defined and provision has also been made for programmes which cannot be defined by level. The second and third digits identify the field. Twenty-one fields have been 4. UNESCO, Office of Statistics (1985) Manual for statistics on adult education, Paris, UNESCO (ST-8S/WS/14). 6
Forms and dynamics of the diversified educational field defined, the code for each field remaining the same at all levels, though of course, some fields do not work at every level. Finally, the fourth and fifth digits identify the programme. One of the characteristics of ISCED is that it is independent of the systems of education, categories of education, mode of instruction and the age of learners. (The above three paragraphs are adapted from UNESCO 1985, pp 24-25). The ISCED system has been adopted to include non-formal education by distinguishing between regular and adult education. (a) Regular education, as defined in ISCED means the system that provides a `ladder' by which children and young people may progress from primary schools through universities (although many drop out on the way). It is thus designed and intended for children and young people generally from age five to seven up to the early twenties. (b) Adult education, as defined in ISCED, means organised programmes of education provided for the benefit, and adapted to the needs, of persons not in the regular school and university systems and generally fifteen years of age and older. The term `Adult Education' is seen to be synonymous with `Out-of-School Education' and includes literacy education. "Adult education ... may be `formal' or `non-formal'. Formal education is that for which students are enrolled or registered (regardless of the mode of teaching used). By contrast, Non-formal education is that for which none of the learners are enrolled or registered". (from UNESCO, 1985, p. 15). This effort of UNESCO, however, has not so far produced the expected results of streamlining data collection about adult education. National statistical offices go on using their own ways of defining the scope of NFE and their own criteria of classification. The same holds for the four national case studies prepared as part of the IIEP research project. In the Soviet case study, the authors are concerned to relate the provision of NFE to the economic, political and social goals of the USSR. For them, the fundamental division is between basic and supplementary with sub-divisions in each between general and vocational. Basic education (which roughly corresponds to the traditional school system from pre-school to higher education) aims to integrate a person into the system of social relations, whilst 7
Non-formal education. information and planning issues supplementary education aims to make people, already engaged in active life, adaptable to constantly changing social and production conditions. The authors of the USSR report directly dispute the hierarchical approach of UNESCO because it does not adequately differentiate the purpose and functions of the different subsystems. The authors of the Hungarian case study go further. In their study, participants are classified according to a framework based on the specific history of the development of education in Hungary. The viewpoint taken in their study is that of the national planner. They distinguish between three areas of education which are the regular school system, supplementary education and non-regular education. The difference between the last two categories is that supplementary types of education have been originally created and are functioning with the expressed aim of supplementing the regular school system while non-regular types of education are not. Regular and supplementary education are the direct and less direct manifestations of the very same educational policy. Non-regular education covers all types of teaching learning activities developing outside the sphere of influence of central planning mechanisms that is to say activities created either by enterprises, by individual or collective spontaneous initiatives, or by market mechanisms. The relationship between their classification and others is illustrated in Figure 1. The Argentinean case study is based again on a typical three way split. On one extreme are the formal programmes taking place in the school system with a specific and sequential syllabus following a ladder from the lower levels (pre-primary and primary education) to the higher level (university education). These programmes are conducted, or at least supervised, by the educational authorities and take place in schools. At the other extreme, there are varied activities organized by many different institutions and groups taking different forms: short classroom courses, workshops or multimedia learning processes. They cover a range of subject matter, including, for example: basic literacy, theatre, cultural subjects, home economics, technical and vocational skills, computer skills, and foreign languages. The users are predominantly adults who accommodate their learning time to their normal activities. The syllabus and organisation of time are more varied than in formal education, ranging from night courses to intensive seminars during weekends and holiday periods. 8
Forms and dynamics of the diversified educational field Figure 1. Comparing Classifications 9
Non-formal education. information and planning issues These activities take place in very different premises: work places, union and communal buildings, and private dwellings. They can either be isolated affairs lasting only a short time or take the form of experiences spread over a number of years. This non-formal education is characterised by its being mainly for adults, essentially part time, and not following the educational ladder of the formal system. It is, therefore, clearly out-of-school education. Between these two extremes, there are activities sponsored by the educational authorities and parallel to the educational system. Such is the case of adult education, organized in order to retrieve adults who had abandoned the formal educational system when young and awarding them certificates qualifying them to continue their studies in the formal regular system. We also find in this grey area between formal and non-formal education forms of vocational and technical training linked to the educational system but more flexible than vocational schools themselves. Frequently, these courses are taught in school premises after normal class hours. The authors of the report on Quebec approach the problem of classification again differently. They emphasize the importance of the nature of the objectives pursued by the various institutions as the main criterion for classifying non-formal education activities. On this basis, they distinguish Personal Development activities; professional skill training, and popular education. Personal development activities regroup learning processes aiming at the satisfaction of individual interests and abilities and of various cultural needs. Such activities are being organised by cultural institutions (museums, libraries, historical monuments); clubs, circles, centres for scientific observation (astronomy, natural sciences); sport centres, language institutions, and mental and physical health clinics. Professional skills training, in the case of Quebec, is being offered on a part-time basis by the formal school network but also by the enterprises themselves. Under the category of popular education are regrouped all activities promoting the control of life styles and living conditions at both individual and community level. These activities have a political dimension in the sense that they often lead to a questioning of the existing social relations. Such activities are set up by a variety of organizers which, in Quebec, are the local school district councils (commissions scolaires), various voluntary organisations, co-operatives, trade unions, women groups, etc. 10
Forms and dynamics of the diversified educational field The above overview of the different classification systems used by different case study authors simply demonstrates the difficulties of applying a uniform framework when trying to give meaning to national realities which are always the complex result of specific historical processes. Another problem of the ISCED classification is that the list of possible fields of study is the same as the one which serves for identifying the specialisations that are available at the different levels of education in the formal system. It is doubtful whether categories and classifications of activities and programmes within that system can appropriately be transferred to out-of-school education, without substantial modification. In the Quebec case study, the authors discuss in an Appendix the problem of classification at length. In particular, they demonstrate the difficulty of relying solely upon respondents' answers to a precoded question (distinguishing between Coronation gйnйrale', `cours ayant trait au tra vail', `cours recrйatif on d'artisanat', `cours d'enrichissement on d'intйrкt personnel', `autre cours') because the intention and motivation of the respondent are compounded with the subject of the course. 2. Diversification of education and levels of development A major hypothesis for the IEP research programme was that there is a relationship between the level of development and the degree of expansion of non-formal education activities. One view is that NFE mainly plays a complementary role for the poor who have been deprived of formal school education so that one would expect NFE to become less important with development. An opposite view is that the range of NFE programmes provided, and the opportunity to participate in them, depends upon the resources available to providers and to the public respectively, so that there would be a wider range of NFE in developed countries. This latter seems to be established when comparing between countries. Thus, based on the data about education collected by UNESCO, apart from countries where there are extensive literacy campaigns, there is only a limited amount of NFE both in absolute and in relative terms in the poorest developing countries, which is mainly directed to the rural areas. In the developed countries, in contrast, NFE 11
Non-formal education. information and planning issues is flourishing and is playing a wide variety of roles. In the case of Canada, one out of five adults have taken part in some form of adult education during 1983. In Finland 37 per cent of the adult population had participated in adult education during the period from 1.9.1979 to 31.12.1980 and 72 per cent had participated in adult education at some time of their life (Carr-Hill, 1988, pp 15S152). Based on the same data, the relationship between total enrolment in adult education per thousand population, the average Growth rate in GDP per capita over the seventies, and gross enrolment ratio in primary school can be examined. The analysis presented in Table I for the 23 countries for which data were available shows a significant positive correlation between the rate of growth in GDP and the enrolment in adult education. But the correlation is particularly high between the rates of enrolment in primary schools and those in adult education. The message is simple: countries which are `developing' faster and especially countries with high rates of participation in primary school also have high rates of enrolment in adult education. The traditional belief that NF education is mainly playing a compensatory role for the poor who have been deprived from school education does not seem to be confirmed by empirical data at country level. As will be analyzed later, the detailed national reports confirm this picture: inside the four countries that have been studied (Hungary, Canada, Argentina and USSR) those with more formal education, or white collar workers, are more likely to participate in adult education than those with minimal schooling, or blue collar jobs. More important, perhaps, is that the analysis of trends in enrolments within countries shows that with some exceptions there has been a general tendency for adult education enrolment to peak around 1979 and to fall thereafter (see Table 2). The exceptions are countries with high average per capita income, particularly those of Northern Europe, and a few developing countries with centrally planned economies and frequently with recent revolutionary upheavals. The overall conclusion would therefore appear to be that whilst high levels of formal education generate demand for NFE as well as for formal education, NFE is vulnerable in countries with low levels of socioeconomic development. 12
Forms and dynamics of the diversified educational field Table 1. Ranking of enrolments in adult and primary formal education and in the average growth rate of GDP
Central African Rep. Liberia Libya Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Swaziland Zambia Bahrain Indonesia Philippines Sri Lanka Thailand Argentina Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Ecuador Honduras Panama Santa Lucia Venezuela
Total AE
enrolment
per 1000
pop. Rank
1
23
14 14
75
3
6
22
9
19
<10 18
>10 17
7
21
17 12
18
11
237 1
<11 16
>7 20
26
8
60
4
80
2
49
6
53
5
24
9
>11 15
16 13
21
10
43
7
Averag
growth
GDP
Rank
1.6 19
13 20
-
-
1.9 175
3A 15
6.6 5
4.5 11
OA 21
7A 3
7.8 2
6.2 7
4.3 14
7.2 4
19 175
2.1 16
5.7 8
5.2 9
6.3 6
8.6 1
4A 13
45 11
4.5 11
Enrolment rate in primary 70 66 110 30 51 95 102 112 110 100 83 116 119 128 107 102 108 89 113 104
Rank 17 18 65 20 19 14 11.5 5 6.5 13 16 3 2 1 9 11.5 8 15 4 10
Source: Carr-Hill and Lintott (1985), pp. 6-9.
Note: The Spearman rank correlations are as follows: between total enrolment per capita in adult education and the average growth rate in GDP over the seventies 0.375 and between total enrolment per capita in adult education and the gross enrolment ratio in primary school = 0.792. Both figures are significant at the 10 per cent level.
13
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
Table 2. Number of countries in which the trend in enrolments in adult education is decreasing or increasing after 1979 broken down by world region
Down Level Up
To t a l
Africa Developing Asia Latin America Developed countries
5
2
0
7
5
0
7
12
6
2
3
11
3
1
11
15
To t a l
19
5
21
45
Source: Carr-Hill and Lintott (1985), pp. 17-20.
3. Understanding the dynamics of diversification
Whilst historical data usually available within one country is very limited -- almost always focused on the growth of one particular kind of NFE -- the case studies provide a systematic more depth. As already emphasised, their categories for classifying the different components have been developed on an ad hoc basis and in the process of the investigation itself. But the reason for these varying categories becomes clear when the origin and evolution of the various components making up the diversified educational field is explained. The analysis of diversification in the Hungarian educational sector is particularly instructive in this respect. The authors distinguish two great waves of diversification after the Second World War where a whole range of `temporary' arrangements were launched with the socialist revolution. This first wave, from 1945 to around 1975, involved the rapid development of supplementary education understood as "out-of-school and adult education, which have been created to supplement regular formal education within the sphere of the prevalent strategy and planning of education" (p.3). In particular, the system of workers' schools was created which, at their peak, in the mid-sixties,
14
Forms and dynamics of the diversified educational field
enrolled over 100,000 adults representing 7 per cent of those (both adults and childrens) enrolled in basic education (Table 3). However, as basic education for children spread during the 1960s, enrolment of adults at higher levels increased; in turn during the 1970s, with the rapidly shifting structure of the economy, many of the courses offered at secondary levels became irrelevant, and adult enrolment at the secondary levels peaked whilst adult enrolment increased as a proportion of all enrolments at the tertiary level.
Table 3. Hungary: the development of a substitute or parallel system of education
Adult Enrolment (`000) in
Workers' schools Vocational
(8 year general secondary
schools)
schools
General secondary schools
Higher education
1950 30.0 1960 99.3 1970 21.2 1980 21.9 1984 12.3
9.6
2.6
5.9
54.2
31A
15.2
68.6
45.2
26.7
95.1
35.2
37.1
64.7
22.2
36.7
Percentage of total number of students(a)
1950 2.4 1960 6.5 1970 1.8 1980 1.8 1984 0.9
17.1
5.0
18.2
53.4
22.5
34.1
38.3
26.8
33.1
45.5
28.3
36.7
33.7
21.2
58.0
(a) Percentage of adult students within all students of the respective level.
Source: Inkei P.,1988, Table 9, p.29.
15
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
The second wave of diversification from 1975 `has been characterised by a weakening of the formal (i.e. school like) characteristics of the supplementary educational system' (p.6.) together with an expansion of non-regular education that is, the rest of out-of-school education organised outside the control of central planning by enterprises, individual or collective private initiatives, etc. Thus in the 1960s, enrolment in vocational courses of the non-regular education sector at 138,000 was about two thirds the level of enrolment in supplementary education. However, at the beginning of the eighties, their relative importance was reversed. Enrolment in vocational courses continued to increase to reach 340,000, more than double the total enrolled in supplementary education in 1984. Within this expansion, it was also noticeable that the pattern of training changed: the six-fold increase in enrolment for non-manual occupations from 21,100 in 1960 to 136,700 in 1980 was particularly remarkable (Inkei, 1988, p. 38). Overall, there has been a substantial shift in the roles of NFE away from playing a parallel/substitute role towards that of an essential complement to the rigidly organised programmes of the regular education system and enrolment figures reflect this (Table 4).
Table 4. Enrolments in the three major kinds of organised education (2nd and 3rd levels),1960-1980 (`000)
Regular education
Adult schooling (supplementary)
Courses (non-regular)
1960
310.0
1980
429.8
Ratio 1980 to 1960 1.39
100.8 167.4 1.66
138.7 420.7 3.03
Source: Inkei, 1988 op. cit. table 15, p.41.
16
Forms and dynamics of the diversified educational field NFE therefore complements existing education programmes. When, at a given stage of development, existing education programmes appear to be inadequate, programmes develop outside the formal school sector. Similar patterns of growth of NF education can be found in the three other countries. There are dear similarities in the ways non-formal education is developing in different countries. However, because the initial raison metre of specific programmes, the social forces promoting or opposing them and the historical conditions determining them are different in each country, a more in-depth understanding of the present composition of the educational field requires in each case the development of appropriate analytical categories. 4. Is there a `right' classification? The growth of non-formal education being organic -- indeed one of its supposed advantages is that it is flexible, responsive etc. -- attempts to superimpose a classification which is derived from the experience of a limited number of countries at one point in time are bound to run into problems. The distinctions have to take into account the origin and purpose of the different activities. Indeed, it is striking that, in each of the country case studies, the authors found it necessary to introduce other distinctions in order to make sense of their data. Moreover, these case studies illustrate that the boundaries of this `non-formal education'sector cannot be clearly fixed and that differences between various types of programmes are often greater than the commonalities. Both the Hungarian and Soviet studies present a diagram like Figure 2 which illustrates the difficulties of fixing clear boundaries. The authors of the Quebec report argued that further work will be required to improve the present guidelines and to develop an appropriate classification system for out-of-school educational activities. 17
Non-formal education. information and planning issues Figure 2. Boundaries between NFE and other sectors 18
Forms and dynamics of the diversified educational field But the can for a `gold standard' is not necessarily appropriate: for comparison of the four case studies also illustrates the general point that, in analysing empirical data in a new field, preconceived distinctions are not helpful. It is, or may be, sensible, at least heuristi cally, to group together out-of-school educational activities under one rubric. Even in that case there are some problems. Equally, it makes heuristic sense to exclude from this rubric casual learning which accompanies some other activity such as the educative value of participating in a cultural event (whether that be a football match, initiation rites or an opera). But the many attempts that deploy universal a priori categories for structuring the wide diversity of educational activities are bound to be inadequate: for as the national case studies show, various components have arisen in different contexts for different reasons and have different social referents. 19
Chapter II Types of non-formal education The point is that none of the predetermined sets of distinctions based on content, mode of delivery, enrolment, are appropriate. What one finds is a wide variety of activities which at one extreme differ very little from what is going on in the traditional school system and which, at the other extreme, are very close to informal learning practices. Moreover different kinds of courses provided by different kinds of institution respond to different needs and serve different kinds of clientele. Each of these axes of variation (types of course, providing agency, kind of clientele) can be (and has been) taken as the principal defining dimension. But, as we have indicated above, the similarities in the way the educational field has evolved and is currently structured are also striking: in particular the way in which NFE activities are described by reference to what is (not) being provided in the school system. In essence, the appellation `non-formal' is simply a device for labelling those activities outside the control or regulation of the bureaucratic school system. Thus, at the early stages of development of a school system, supplementary activities providing basic, paranormal, education are widespread; once basic education is guaranteed by the school system, the focus of NFE switches to complementary activities such as vocational and, cul tural education. At the same time, cutting across this `stage theory' of the development of NFE, there is the participative approach, wherein the ideology and motivation of the providers is very different. Here NFE is seen as a positive alternative to the school system; whilst it typically 20
Types of non-formal education concentrates on the provision of basic learning experiences, it is not necessarily restricted to that. Indeed, in the rare cases when the popular educator provides professional/vocational courses (e.g. leadership training for trades unionists) the outcome for the student, whether intended or not, is almost invariably advancement/mobility. On this basis, four forms of NFE can be distinguished by reference to their relationship with the formal school and college system. These are: paranormal education, popular education, education for personal development and professional training. They constitute four relatively autonomous segments within the educational field which differ from each other because they: · respond to different educational needs; · serve different clienteles; · are being organized by different educational agencies; and, above all, · have different relationships with the formal educational sys- tem. It should be emphasized that this is not a classification of activities, an alternative to other classifications. Here, non-formal education is simply any organised educational activity outside the school and college mainstream: whether or not the school and college system is graded and hierarchically structured is not the issue; activities in the formal and non-formal sectors may well share the same characteristics; and so on. The point is that the activities are supplementary or, in some cases, alternative to that mainstream. 1. Paranormal education The first important area is composed of all kinds of educational programmes which provide a substitute for regular full-time schooling. The main objective of these programmes is to offer a second chance to those who, for various reasons, could not benefit from the regular school system at the ordained moment. The area includes various types of evening classes, official literacy programmes, distance education programmes, etc. Some of these programmes are only a condensed form of full-time day schooling, while others are more flexible and more 21
Non-formal education. information and planning issues innovative in design and implementation. A central issue for this segment of the educational field is to guarantee equivalences with the degrees awarded in the corresponding levels of the formal school system. In the three countries which have been studied in detail these types of programmes have played and are still playing an important role. In the case of Hungary, whilst Workers' Schools (as substitutes for the eight years primary education cycle) have declined in importance, correspondence courses or evening classes equivalents for general secondary schools constituted over 28 per cent of an enrolment in general secondary schools in 1980. The corresponding figures were as high as 45.5 per cent for vocational secondary schools and 36.7 per cent for higher education (Inkei, 1988, p. 89). In Quebec, although there is not much demand for courses to substitute for either primary or secondary education, in 1979, 51 per cent of the university students were enrolled in the part-time adult education system (Roch Bibeau, 1989, p. 7). In Argentina, programmes for paranormal adult education cover all levels of education. Since the early days of the system, primary schools -- and more recently secondary and higher education institutions -- have set up special programmes for adults. As a matter of fact, in Argentina, most higher education institutions have no limits on age and are explicitly functioning on schedules adapted to working students (GaHart, 1989, pp. 26-31). The case studies also demonstrate that there has been a progressive tendency for the formal educational system to absorb `innovations' from the NFE sector as part of Me standard curriculum. This makes it very difficult to draw the boundary/borderline between formal and non-formal education (see Figure 2 above); it also suggests that, despite the rhetoric about the relative flexibility of NFE as against formal education, formal school systems have demonstrated more flexibility in adapting their organisational modes of delivery and teaching methods to the changing needs of their clientele, at least in the medium term, than is generally recognised. In addition to these second chance `para-formal' education programmes another form of `school-like' education has been expanding rapidly in the three countries, which is the private tutoring of regular, formal school students. Private tutoring has a long tradition in many countries but has been booming in recent years. It has grown with the 22
Types of non-formal education massification of formal education, as elite- and middle-class parents, who perceive their previous privileged position to be disappearing, have sought ways of retaining the competitive edge for their children. At the same times for the formal school teachers in many developing countries where civil service salaries have been seriously eroded over the last decades, the private tutoring system has been a welcome opportunity to increase their income. Demand and supply factors have therefore been reinforcing each other so as to create a real market of individual student coaching. The phenomenon is widespread in developing as well as in developed countries and, at least at the primary level, constitutes a major drain on the resources potentially available to attain universal primary education. Indeed, it is interesting to note that even in a socialist country such as Hungary the offspring of a typical `intellectuals and leaders' family in Budapest spends about one third of their total learning time in private tutoring. In Hungary, like in many other countries, the schools themselves lend their support in facilitating such extra-curricular learning opportunities (Inkei, 1988, p. 50). The educational and social consequences of this phenomenon have not yet been analyzed. 2. Popular education At the other extreme of the educational field, one finds a whole set of activities that explicitly try to stand aloof from the formal school system if not to oppose the basic principles of its functioning. The central part of this segment of the educational field are She education initiatives which are explicitly directed towards the marginal groups of the population and include (alternative) adult literacy projects, co-operative training, political mobilisation and community development activities. In most cases, these activities are run by voluntary organisations and stress collective development as opposed to individual competition. They are the least institutionalised sector of the diversified educational field. They take the form of informal groups, often related to churches, political parties and socio-cultural associations. In a few Are cases they are supported by national or local governments. The main characteristics of These type of activities are the following: concentration on the poor, a learning-by-doing approach; high levels of structural flexibility; and a constant preoccupation to 23
Non-formal education. information and planning issues adapt the learning activities to the changing needs of the users. In stressing these characteristics, the popular education programmes come closest to the original ideas of the enthusiastic promoters of the non-formal education in the late 60s and 70s. Because of the fluidity of this segment of the educational field, its relative importance is difficult to measure. The vitality of popular education activities seems to depend very much on the type of society and on the historical moment of its evolution. Neither the Hungarian nor Soviet studies report on popular education activities at all. The Argentina study underlines the old traditions of popular education in the country, while showing at the same time how the relative strength of this type of education has varied over time as a function of the dramatic political evolution of the country. During the early 1920s, the Anarchist Workers Federation organised a wide range of courses which were later repressed; during the Peronist period, courses organised by the trade unions on leadership flourished. By the time of the military putsch in 1955, there were 140 such schools, all of which were then suppressed (Gallart, 1989, pp. 8-17). Whilst in many developed countries popular educational associations are flourising, in numerical terms this sub-sector appears marginal. Thus even in Quebec where, in 198S, 850 such associations were registered by the Ministry of Education (and at least 400 others had applied to be registered), this segment is probably small as compared to the other components of the educational field. It is, however, difficult to assess the true size of this sector as many participants are not registered. On the other hand, the impact of the sector both upon pedagogy and upon policy, has often been out of all proportion to its size (Roch Bibeau, 1989, pp. 43-59) Roch Bibeau (1989) also points to a significant recent change in the orientation of the popular education sector in Quebec. Traditionally, this sector has greatly contributed to bringing to the forefront of awareness important new social problems (unemployment of youth, environmental destruction, violence against women, arms race, etc.) and to developing new community services Alternative mental clinics, hostels for women in distress, production co-operatives, etc.). 24
Types of non-formal education "However, during the eighties, the impact of those popular education/activities has become less visible. One can see a trend of declining militancy in the popular organisations aiming at political and social changes, even if the number of organisations goes on increasing." [Roch Bibeau 1989, pp. 64-6S] The model of collective promotion seems to be weakening in favour of a spectacular emergence of personal development activities. Those are based on: "... a more individualistic concept of the role of the individual in the social development process, a concept which is reinforced by recent change in the functioning of the labour market and by the questioning of the role of the State in social development." [Roch Bibeau, 1989, p.83]. It is difficult to know to what extent this relative weakening of the political dimension to the popular education sector in Quebec is also a reality in other countries. Indeed, the Argentinian study would suggest that it all depends on the political context. 3. Personal development activities The rapid expansion of personal development activities is one of the most significant common trends in the diversification of the educational field in the four countries which have been studied. Learning for personal development purposes regroups a wide variety of activities which may differ from one country to another. In the case of Quebec, this heading covers a whole range of learning practices organized by cultural institutions (museums, libraries, cultural centres), by clubs, circles, associations promoting leisure time activities such as astronomy, observation of the natural environment, playing music and/or listening to it, etc., by sports centres, by language institutions or even by centres of physical and mental health. If the learning of languages (which may in part be professional learning) is included, the sector of personal development activities in Quebec is as important as the sector 25
Non-formal education. information and planning issues of professional learning, with each of the two sectors accounting for approximately 40 per cent of the participants in adult education activities of which 9 per cent are involved in language courses (Roch Bibeau, 1989, p. 30P. In Argentina, 17 per cent of the enrolments in non-formal education programmes registered by the Ministry of Education are involved in artistic activities, 4.7 per cent in courses in gymnastics, sports, hair-dressing, cosmetology, etc., and 27.7 per cent in foreign language courses. (Gallart, 1989, p. 53). No precise figures are available in the case of Hungary but the author of the case study stresses that learning for cultural and recreational aims developed rapidly and became very significant in recent years (Inkei, 1988, pp. 49-50). For Gallart (1989), the increasing popularity of learning activities for personal development purposes in Argentina is an indication of a profound move in the approach towards non-formal education. At the origin, the development of non-formal education was largely inspired by a `welfare approach'aiming to satisfy the demands of groups who, for many reasons, could not fully benefit from the formal school system. Although this approach has not disappeared, it is being largely overshadowed by a `market approach' whereby different courses are being sold "either for direct consumption as in the case of artistic-expressive courses or as human capital investment as in the case of vocational courses" (p. 63). The growing popularity of the business of private tutoring of students regularly enrolled in the school system, which was mentioned earlier, is part of the same trend. Roch Bibeau (1989) rightly observes that the market approach relates to a fundamental change in the society involving a redistribution of roles between the state and the civilian society and concerning a redefinition of the relationship between the individual and the collectivity. In Quebec, as in many other developed countries, renewed emphasis is being put on individual autonomy and competition which goes together with growing criticism of collective support systems. 5. In Finland, the corresponding figures are 47 pet cent for professional training and 41 per cent for hobby oriented and community adult education. See Haven H. and Syvanpera: Participation in Adult Education, 1980, Helsinki Central Statistical Office, 1984 (Studies No.92). 26
Types of non-formal education There are dangers however. First, "One witnesses in this sector the emergence of a real private market of learning which follows the most traditional commercial practices without any orgariized control of the quality of the training being provided" [Roch Bibeau, 19&9, A- 30]. Second, individual demand is the regulating factor of the expansion of this educational sector. Those who have access to this educational market are mainly the elites and active urban middle classes (see below, Chapter III 2.3). Even though the unemployed have much more time, they are not able to convert this into educational time and do not have the means to pay for the services being offered. This depends, of course, on the polices of providers. Gallart (1989) shows how participation in activities, expressive and cultural courses is strongly positively related to the level of formal education but negatively to the level of earnings. The data in Table S are drawn from the household survey in Buenos Aires, where the municipality has organised a wide ranging cultural programme since 1984 (Gallart, 1989, pp.l09-111). The contrast in gradients according to level of for mal education and level of earnings is striking. This new trend in the diversification of the educational field is important because it shows that education is increasingly becoming a personal consumer good both for itself and to improve the quality of other consumption (e.g. learning languages for travel, etc.). In sharp contrast to what is happening in the popular education where collective development is the central concern, this private market of learning is aiming at satisfying individual needs. The extent to which the parameters of this `market' are shaped by the suppliers is unknown. 4. Professional training The various non-formal programmes of professional and vocational training organized by firms, trade unions, private agencies and also formal schools constitute the fourth important segment of the diversified educational field. 27
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
Table 5. Argentinian participation in non-formal courses by type of course and by extremes of levels of formal education and of earnings (Buenos Aires, Metropolitan Areas)
All respondents extent of formal education
Economically active only average earnings
Just
Completed
Two times More than
completed higher
min. wage five times
primary education Total or less mug wage Total
Trades
%
%
%
%
%
%
Administrator,
commercial and
computer skill
25
34
28
31
47
39
University and
teacher training
course
1
35
7
8
15
10
Womens professions 38
2
20
17
4
10
Trades
13
3
11
17
11
15
Other technical
8
5
7
9
7
8
Artistic/cultural
6
lo
9
1l
4
8
Others
8
12
9
7
11
10
N (000s)
445
156
1 438 211
164
761
Source: Gallant 1989, p. 86 and p. 90.
28
Types of non-formal education In Quebec, 38 per cent of the persons participating in adult education activities, in 1983, were taking courses of the professional type (Roc Babe, 1989, p. 30). The same figures are available for Hungary, but the importance of non-formal vocational training courses can be illustrated by the fact that in 1980, 4,384,000 were enrolled in this type of courses at secondary level as compared to 3,658,000 enrolled in all types of formal secondary schools (including 4 years general secondary schools, and 4 and 3 years vocational schools) (Nike, 1988, pp. 19 and 38). In the USSR, statistics show that every third worker was involved in some form of vocational training in 1987 (Kouptsov, 1990, mimeo). In Argentina, the statistics indicate that at least 31 per cent of the enrolments in non-formal education programmes, registered by the Ministry of Education, relate to vocational courses (Gallart, 1989, p. 53). It is important to add that, in the case of Argentina, there is a general trend towards large enrolments in vocational courses relating to the tertiary sector of the economy (see Table 6). The enrolments in the courses relating to agriculture are particularly low (0.8 per cent of the total enrolments) which at first sight may seem surprising in a country where agricultural production remains important. The fact that NFE vocational programmes seem to serve more the upper layers of the economic system has to do with the finding mentioned earlier, that the higher the level of formal education, the higher the propensity to ask for more training. It is also related to, at least, two other factors. First of all, technology is changing more rapidly in the tertiary sector than in the other sectors and, secondly, the organisation of courses in the tertiary sector is generally cheaper than in the secondary sector. This last factor may be playing an important role in the case of Argentina because, in 1985, 64.5 per cent of the participants in non-formal education programmes were enrolled in private institutions (Gallart, 1989, p. 38). As for the relationships between non-formal vocational courses and formal schooling the studies show a similar evolution in the different countries. During a first phase, formal school systems have systematically tried to recuperate the non-formal initiatives. 29
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
Table 6. Enrolment in non-formal education programmes by fields in Argentina, 1985
Fields
Enrolment
%
Artisiic
71 902
17.8
Agriculture
3 068
0.8
Crafts
5 187
1.3
Health Assistants
1 839
0.5
Commercial and administrative
70 996
17.6
Communications
1 241
0.3
Building arts
12 223
3.0
Academic support
7 247
1.8
Home economics
48 529
12.0
Gymnastics and aesthetics
18 661
4.6
Foreign language
112 109
27.7
Preschool
506
0.1
Technical
31 660
7.8
Human relations
Psychology and sociology
3 713
0.9
Others
15 213
3.7
Total
404 094
100.0
Source: Gallart, 1989, p. 53.
`"Many initiatives Hat began as non-formal or para-formal education, particularly in vocational training, tended to become formal and melted into the dominant educational system." [Gallart 1989, p.153. But, gradually, the intrinsic value of non-formal education programmes has been recognized. School planners have realized that they can no longer answer the wide variety of educational needs and that
30
Types of non-formal education given their highly bureaucratic organisation, schools have a limited capacity to react quickly to technological changes and new demands. Consequently, the necessity of having a multiplicity of training mechanisms and the potential of various non-formal education practices is now generally accepted. This has raised the unresolved issue of redefining the role of formal schooling vis-аvis The other components of the educational field. 5. The impact upon informal learning In addition to the four major segments of the non-formal educational field one also witnesses a rehabilitation of different modes of informal learning. As Inkei et al (1988) point out: "Knowledge and skill acquisition by direct imitation is now recognized among the opportunities of individual, group, organized and spontaneous learning and is no longer reserved to the area of primary socialization. There are attempts to make it more institutionalized e.g. in the eases of amateur artistic creative activity or of the situational approach to language learning. This process goes together with the rediscovery of certain modes of learning which had not previously been recognised as part of the dominant European cultures (e.g. intuitive learning, role acquisition based on empathy, etc.). In the case of the most rapidly growing technologies, there is practically no better way than learning by direct inter-personal imitation (and learning by trial and error). The dramatic rise in the popularity of learning how to use personal computers is a breath-taking example of this. Still concerning learning in the social-cultural life sphere, quite frequently the process of learning itself is more important than the result; learning as an activity becomes more important than the knowledge acquired. Taking part in some collective learning-teaching experience is one way of searching for a sense of community. In the case of education of the elderly, emphasis is laid on the mental hygiene effect of the learning activity itself." [p. 52]. 31
Non-formal education. information and planning issues A similar trend can be observed in most developed countries. Computer clubs have sprung up where software and tips are exchanged providing autonomous learning networks. There are many examples of participative self-generated learning in other developed countries where the learning activity itself dominates over the content. Indeed, there is a growing tendency for process to dominate over product even in some professional training. For example, the attendance of, especially office-based employees at conferences, seminars and workshops allegedly to improve their performance is breathtaking. This rapid expansion and the apparent enthusiasm of the participants in these learning experiences, raises a serious question as to the extent to which these participative styles of learning will be absorbed not only into the way non-formal education activities are organised but also into the school and college mainstream. 32
Chapter III Who does what to whom? The diversification of the educational activities has been accompanied by a process of diversification of the organizing agencies and a proliferation of clienteles. 1. Who is organising what? The first distinction to be made is between the public and the private sector. It is often presumed that out-of-school education is synonymous of private initiative. But the available statistical data demonstrate that the State is an important actor in the educational diversification process. In both the Hungarian and Soviet studies, only the state sector was discussed. In Quebec, in 1983, 38 per cent of the adults taking part in all kinds of part-time adult education activities were registered in State controlled institutions (47 per cent of those taking part in professional training courses) (Roch Bibeau, 1989, pp. 2S22). In Argentina, the percentage is similar: 35.5 per cent of the adults taking part in various non-formal education programmes in 1986 were enrolled in State owned institutions and this percentage has been gradually growing over the last decades (Gallart, 1989, p. 56). The international statistical data concerning the developing countries suggest the same conclusion (Table 7): the Government generally remains an important organiser of educational activities when one moves from school to out-of-school education. 33
Non-formal education. information and planning issues Table 7. Enrolment in adult education in the private and public sectors in a few countries
Year
Argentina Costa Rica Ecuador Hong Kong Liberia Peru Venezuela
1977 1980 1977 1980 1981 1977 1977
Source: Carr-Hill and Lintott (1985) p. 3.
Division of all students
Private
Public
70.9
29.1
34.2
65.8
14.2
85.8
53.1
46.9
12.5
87.5
14.2
85.8
7.7
92.3
1.1 The Public Sector Percentages like these reflect The involvement not only of the Ministry of Education, but of all branches of Government in organising adult education activities. There has been a diversification of organisers within He public sector bow horizontally and vertically. A variety of ministries and public services are involved in running non-formal education programmes such as The ministries of culture, labour, industries, agriculture, etc. More interestingly, the Free case studies demonstrate that local authorities are also taking an increasing share of the organization of various learning activities, mainly, but not exclusively, in the non-professional areas. For example, municipal authorities in Argentina are running cultural programmes linked to the objectives of promoting social and political participation (Gallart, 1989, pp. 109-ill). I n Hungary, one of the major foci for cultural activities are the houses of culture and Me lending libraries which are mostly run
34
Who does what to whom? by the local residential councils. Since the 1970s, these houses have become more and more the institutions of the communities themselves and the forum of the local social life (Inkei, 1988, pp. 32-34). 1.2 The non-governmental sector As for the non-governmental sector, three main types of providers of non-formal education activities can be identified which are: the enterprises, the non profit-making organisations, and the profit-making institutions. Not all enterprises are in a position to organize their own training programmes. This is mainly the privilege of big firms which can mobilize the required resources for this purpose. In many cases, the enterprises of the same branch or even of different branches pull together in order to create special institutions which provide them with the required training services. The non-profit sector covers a wide variety of organising agencies. There are large organizations such as trade unions and churches which have broad social or religious aims and use NFE as one of their multiple activities to promote those broader aims. There are also other large organizations with a national coverage but which pursue explicit cultural and educational aims. There are finally a multitude of small socio-cultural associations which are the result of local level initiatives. The Quebec study details the diversity of activities under this heading and enumerated 1,250 associations either registered or in the process of being registered (Roch Bibeau 1989, p. 43). Whilst this multiplicity is, in part, associated with the over-developed North, the Argentinian study documents the story of the Institute of Popular Culture (INCUPO) which started in 1969 now broadcasts daily from 20 local stations in the Northern provinces and animates the work of 343 stable local groups (Gallart 1989, pp. 107-9). The profit-making sector also shows a great deal of diversity. In this sector, the range varies from big multi-national training companies (e.g. for language courses) at one extreme to the individual tutoring at the other extreme. 35
Non-formal education. information and planning issues On the basis of the case studies and the comparison of international statistical data, one can draw up the following scheme showing the major foci of non-formal educational activity of the different categories of organisers. Figure 3 shows that each agency has its main areas of activity. The Government is the most important organizer of paranormal education. It is also very much present in professional training and, to a lesser extent, in training for personal development. It is only marginally taking part in popular education (mainly through local level government initiatives). The enterprises are clearly concentrating on professional training although they might also get involved in some training activities aimed at the personal development of their employees. The non profit-making organizations are mainly involved in popular education activities. But in certain cases (e.g. in Argentina) the trade unions may also run important professional training programmes while various large- and small-scale voluntary organizations may also be involved in personal development activities. Finally, the profit-making institutions are mainly active in the area of professional and personal development training. 1.3 Competition and complementarity It is important to emphasise that where different agencies are active in the same training field, this does not necessarily mean that there is overlapping or competition between them. In fact, different organizers are often serving different client groups. Because the Government generally follows a welfare approach, its various training programmes are mainly directed towards the lower strata of the society who cannot pay fees and have relatively low standards of education. The churches and several militant voluntary organisations provide popular education activities to the marginal groups of the society in shanty towns and in backward rural areas, while the trade unions offer the same type of activities and some others to the members of their organisations who already have employment and are therefore relatively better off. In the personal development sector, similar distinctions can be made between the popular clientele that takes part in State controlled activities, the clients of better means who can afford private courses and the members of social organisations -- such as trade unions -- who can take part in cheap courses offered by their respective organisations. In the 36
Who does what to whom? professional training sector, the main distinction is between the public sector and the others. The public sector is the only organizer responding to the needs of the uneducated and unemployed. As has been indicated earlier, the enterprises concentrate on those who are already employed and have a fair level of basic education. The private institutions are focusing on those who can pay, that is to say on the non-manual workers and especially on those employed in the tertiary sector of the economy. Figure 3. Main areas of activity of different organisers of NFE
Private
Areas of education
Public sector
Profit Trade Voluntary making Enterprises Churches unions organic Organ.
Para-formal xxx
x
x
x
Popular
x
xxx
xxx xxx
Personal dev. xx
x
x
xx
xxx
Professional xxx
xxx
xx
xxx
xxx: Important area of activity xx: Secondary area of activity x: Marginal area of activity
37
Non-formal education. information and planning issues The above presentation makes clear that there is no such thing as a typical NFE institution. What we find is a complex network of organizers who differ from each other by the main areas of training on which they concentrate and by the main client groups which they address. Whilst there is a fair degree of specialisation, linkages are developed between the various agencies. "There are programmes where teaching activities take place at some institution -- schools for example -- but use laboratory and shop facilities of other institutions, perhaps in enterprises. Some are promoted by one kind of institution (co-operative, trade union) and funded by another, while teaching materials and programmes may be provided by a third." [Gallart 1989, p. 104]. There is also an important process of subcontracting between the public and the private sector, and also between the institutions within the same sector. For example, an enterprise may call upon government training institutions to carry out a specialized training programme for their employees, or a given ministry may ask a private institution to take care of one aspect of a particular programme, such as the training of trainers, etc. Because of the main interlinkages and subcontracting procedures which exist between different institutions, it is sometimes difficult to make clear distinctions between the enrolments in different institutions and more generally to evaluate Wee funding and costs of NFE. 2. Who benefits from what? 2.1 Age The international statistical data show that in the developing countries the majority of participants in adult education are young (Table 8). The modes of most of the national distributions are in the 15-24 age group. The more detailed surveys carried out in Canada, England and Wales and Finland led to the same conclusions. However, because in these three developed countries basic formal education 38
Who does what to whom?
(including the first cycle of secondary education) has already become universal, the modal age of the participants is higher, between 25 and 34 years. That the majority of beneficiaries of NFE are rather young should be no surprise for at least two reasons. First of all, for many youngsters NFE offers a second chance for obtaining certificates corresponding to the various levels of formal schooling. Secondly, many people tend to complete their knowledge and skills by taking NFE courses immediately after the completion of a given level of formal education. This is how the author of the Argentinian report interpreted the Age Distribution she observed (Gallart 1989, p.74).
Table 8. Proportions of those enrolled in adult education who are young adults (under 25 or under 30)
Country
Year
Age band
Proportion of those enrolled
Botswana
1978
Under 30
71.5
Swaziland
1978
Under 30
82.6
Jordan
1981-2
Under 25
35.4
Chile
1979
Under 25
50.6
Colombia
1978
Under 25
57.9
Ecuador
1977-8
Under 25
72.9
Nicaragua
1981
Under 25
58.3
Source: Carr-Hill and Lintott (1985), p. 40.
It may well be, however, that, in future, the average age of the NFE learners will be increasing because of the proliferation of personal development activities. The Quebec data indicates that the propensity to take this kind of course (mainly sports and leisure activities) is highest amongst the older age groups (Roch Bibeau 1989, p. 23).
39
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
2.2 Gender
The percentage of women participating in FE varies according to the economic and socio-cultural characteristics of the countries. In many developing countries, the male participants outnumber the female ones. The international data suggest that the countries in Developing Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean have higher proportions of women enrolled in adult education than the African countries (Table 9). As far as one thirds of adult education as providing second chance opportunities to those who have missed out, and women predominate in that category, the low female participation rates in many developing countries is a rather disturbing finding.
Table 9. Female participation in NFE programmes (proportion of females to total)
<25% 25-50% 50-75% >75% Total
Africa
3
4
3
-
10
Developing Asia
1
6
3
-
10
Latin America
-
5
6
3
14
Developed Countries
2
5
7
-
14
Total
6
20
19
3
48
Source: Carr-Hill and Lintott (1985), Table 3.
In the three developed countries for which detailed survey data were available, the proportion of female participants in adult education tends to be slightly superior to that of the male participants. The respective figures are 55 per cent women in Canada (Devereaux 1985), 53 per cent in Finland (Haven and Syvanpera 1980) and 51 per cent in England and
40
Who does what to whom? Wales (ACACE 1982). In Argentina, a middle level income country with a historical emphasis on women's programmes, the corresponding percentage is as high as 60 per cent (Gallart 1989, pp. 61-66). However, even when women seem to have an equal share, important inequalities remain in relation to the type of courses attended. The national case studies on Argentina and Quebec consistently show a strong relationship between gender and the field of study (see Roch Bibeau, 1989, Table 4; Gallart 1989, Tables 19 and 28). Men tend to participate much more in professional training courses than women. In the case of Quebec 52 per cent of the men taking part in adult education are enrolled in professional courses as compared to only 28 per cent of the women. The proportions are the opposite for leisure and sports activities which account for 40 per cent of the women involved in adult education and for only 16 per cent of the men (Roch Bibeau 1989, pp. 23-25). In Argentina (see Table 10 below), the situation is the same: "... there is a male clientele for trade and technical courses, and a female clientele for female professions and home economic courses. The more evenly distributed courses are related to the tertiary sector of the economy, but with a clear distinction: men tend to have a higher participation in courses related to jobs further up in the hierarchy, such as administration and economy courses, while women predominate in those related to the less prestigious jobs like secretarial and computer operating skills." [Gallart 1989, p.69]. The conclusion is that NF education does not seem to be able to correct the main gender disparities which are being reproduced by the formal school system. As will be demonstrated below a similar conclusion is to be drawn when one analyzes the differences in access to NF education by socio-professional categories and levels of formal education. 41
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
2.3 Socio-professional categories and levels of formal education
A common finding of three of the national case studies and of the international statistical analysis is that people who have benefited more from formal education also benefit more from non-formal education.
Table 10. Percentage of total adult population having taken courses by field of NFE and sex (Buenos Aires metropolitan area)
Percentage of population Percentage
having taken courses
female
Secretarial and typing
16.7
75.9
Sewing, needlework, knitting
and weaving
11.6
96.8
Artistic - expression
8.0
65.5
Hairdressing, chiropody and
cosmetology
7.2
84.1
Administration and economics 5.6
39.5
English language
5.2
78.4
Source: Gallart, l989, Table 24, p.70
In Quebec the participation rate in adult education of adults with a university degree is 39 per cent as against 36 per cent in the case of college degree holders, 17 per cent in the case of secondary education degree holders and 5.5 per cent in the case of those who have completed
42
Who does what to whom? Primary school or less (Roch Bibeau, 1989p. 27). In Argentina 44 per cent of the higher education graduates of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires are taking NFE courses as compared with 35 per cent of the secondary school graduates, 18 per cent of the primary school graduates and 1 per cent of those who did not complete primary education (Gallart, 1989p. 76). The Hungarian case study points out that according to a survey carried out in 1981, an average of 5 per cent of the active wage earners studies in addition to holding a job, while the corresponding percentages are 11 per cent for the university graduates and 9 per cent for the secondary school graduates. "As for the manual labour force, 3.2 per cent of the skilled workers, and 2 per cent of the semi-skilled workers continue their studies while working, while unskilled and agricultural workers almost never undertake organized studies in addition to their jobs." [Inkei 1988, p.39]. The household surveys in Canada, England and Wales, and in Finland, which were mentioned earlier, confirm that those with better education or in non-manual occupations are more likely to participate in adult education programmes than those with less education or in manual occupations. The national case studies and the same household surveys also show that the different social groups enrol in different kinds of courses. These distortions in the NFE participation rates of different educational and socio-professional categories are certainly due to differences in the demand for education. People with higher levels of formal education also show a higher propensity to take part in NFE. However, supply factors may also be playing an important role. Non-formal education programmes are concentrated in the urban areas. Enterprises offer courses to those who are already employed, while various social organisations such as trade unions, co-operative associations, etc. reserve their training programmes for their respective members. Commercial institutions select their clients on the basis of their capacity to pay fees. 43
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
2.4 Region
There are substantial variations in the participation in NFE by region. For example, in the USSR, the percentage of adults taking part in various types of vocational training courses in 1987 ranges from 16,8 per cent in Georgia to 45.8 per cent in Estonia. Between 1970 and 1987 the percentages have considerably increased in all the regions (for the whole of the USSR the participation rate increased from 12 per cent to 37 per cent). But, as can be seen from Table 11, the relative rank order of the different republics did not fundamentally change.
Table 11. Numbers (`000) and percentages of adults taking part in vocational training programmes in the USSR by region and by selected years
Republics
1970 Number %
1987
Number
%
Ukrainian SSR Estonian SSR RussianSSR Latvian SSR Moldavian SSR Byelorussian SSR Kirghiz SSR Lithuanian SSR Kazakh SSR Tajik SSR Uzbek SSR Armenian SSR Turkmen SSR Azerbaijan SSR Georgian SSR
2 129 13.1 74 12.0 6257 12.0 123 11.9 111 11.8 335 10.9 80 10.3 117 10.0 432 9.2 53 9.0 237 8.8 73 8.7 37 7.7 94 7.4 71 4.8
8 138 39.3 328 45.8 25 116 37.1 524 42.3 576 36.2 1 563 36.1 387 30.7 470 29A 2 245 34.1 269 23.4 920 18.2 449 32.5 197 23.3 550 25.9 375 16.8
Source: Diversification of Education in the USSR, unpublished document
44
Who does what to whom? In Argentina, the enrolments in non-formal education tend to be concentrated in the Buenos Aires region but this concentration has diminished during the last decades. Generally the distribution of enrolments between regions is found to be more even in 1986 than in 1971. Here, the available data do not reveal a clear relationship between the level of development of the region and the level of participation in NFE (Gallart 1989, pp.39-44). 3. Factors behind the diversification of the educational field As indicated earlier, there are clearly two major tracks within the out-of-school education world. The first corresponds to the classical ethos of non-formal education which is to offer second chance educational opportunities and possibilities for social promotion to the poor. Programmes which come close to this ideal are the mass literacy programmes in developing countries. However, a recent study carried out in Kenya shows that whilst the participants in these do indeed tend to be poor rural women, it is the slightly better off among them who succeed (see Carron, Mwiria and Righa 1989). The second provides opportunities for further professional and personal development to those who have already a minimum level of formal education and a decent position in the society. Manifestly, the recent rapid expansion of the out-of-school educational activities has been of more benefit to those who follow the second track. In other words, the main driving force behind the diversification process has not been an irresistible movement towards more equality but rather the objective world-wide necessity to adapt educational practice to the requirements of the rapid technological, economic and social changes. Moreover, there might well be a danger that any `extra' resources, both of institutions and of personnel will tend to be mopped up by courses for non-vocational personal development for the same middle classes. The exceptions are where courses are especially supported by the local or national state -- as in Buenos Aires -- and where there is a concerted attempt between government and NGO's to develop a systematic programme of popular education, as is the case of Quebec. Because of unprecedented technological innovations, the knowledge generated in an individuals lifetime surpasses in quantity the knowledge to be learned from preceding ages. This has resulted in an increased 45
Non-formal education. information and planning issues social pressure for learning not only in the professional sphere but also in the daily life sphere. At the same time, the reduction of working hours has led to an increase in leisure time which, in turn, is at the origin of the impressive development of the whole sector of learning for personal development purposes. Furthermore, the revolutionary expansion of learning possibilities brought about by new techniques of communication and the increase in spending power of at least the better off strata of the population are additional factors tending to promote the process of educational diversification in a particular direction. In this historical move towards broadening and diversifying educational opportunities, equity considerations have only played a minimal role precisely because this move has been taking place in an unplanned fashion. Even in a country like Hungary the diversification process has largely occurred outside the sphere of influence of the central planning authorities. In most countries, the State has been an important organiser of various out-of-school educational activities. In many countries, it has also created laws and regulations to introduce order to the rapid expansion of educational activities, mainly in the professional area (which is most closely related to formal education). Only in a few exceptional cases, however, (e.g. in Quebec) has there been a conscious effort to take a global prospective look at the diversification process, to analyze its social effects and to examine the possible orientations for its future development. In the last two chapters of this report some of the major issues relating to planning will be examined in greater detail. 46
Chapter IV The information base on non-formal education Two issues need to be considered in building up a regular information system: first, what kinds of mechanisms can be used for collecting information on non-formal education at what levels; and second the difficulties of devising data collection along parallel lines to the data collection on the formal system. Given the difficulties encountered, a third sub-section considers the advantages of household surveys over other possible mechanisms both in terms of coverage etc. and in terms of furnishing data on participants. 1. Types of data collection Four kinds of reports about NFE were identified in the review (Figure 4). The directories are usually provided under the authority or in co-operation with the Ministry of education. Their general objective is to provide an overview of what is on offer and, perhaps, what is prepared, with a view to guiding and orienting demand. The material is diverse but essentially user-oriented. 47 47
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
Figure 4. Kinds of Information about NFE
Information collected from
Regular routine monitoring
Special survey or data collection
Institutions
Directories, etc.
Sector assessments
Statistical reports
Research (e.g. costs, dropout)
Potential participants Household surveys
Research (e.g. tracer studies or assessments)
Some directories have been developed to the point of elaborating statistical reports on the non-formal education sector in a nation. As indicated earlier, the UNESCO Office of Statistics has systematically encouraged the compilation of comparative statistics of adult education through promoting a uniform scheme of classification caned ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education). These statistical reports are essentially provider-oriented. Sector assessments are mostly carried out by outside agencies or consultants. Their general aim is to classify and assess all types of non-formal education activities in a given sector or geographical area with a view to identifying `needs'for NFE programmes and the corresponding opportunities for new or modified programmes. The material is diverse but, again, essentially provider-oriented and very often directly related to planning intervention and outside investment. The household surveys concentrate on potential clienteles of non-formal education programmes, enquiring about their attendance of and attitudes towards NFE. A few examples of this approach have been conducted mainly in developed countries such as Canada (1985), Finland (1983) and England and Wales (1982). Under the present circumstances these surveys although for obvious reasons carried out on a sample basis, offer the most complete overview of the state of development of non-formal education in a given country (see below).
48
The information base on non-formal education Finally, because of their very nature, research studies whether on institutions or participants are nearly always specific to a particular programme or set of programmes. Whilst examples of each kind were located, in most countries, the information-base on non-formal education programmes, available at central level, is generally very weak. Only a very limited range of data are collected, which for various reasons are fragmentary in coverage (for example, they only cover the educational programmes which have some form of relationship with different ministries), limited in scope (for example, they only provide information on a limited number of aspects of the programmes such as type of programmes, number of courses, learners and teachers) and poor in quality (the reliability of the data is often very weak). It is particularly important to note that such data that does exist may still exclude the most innovative and well-published NFE projects because there are no formal enrolments. The point is that encouragement and exhortation to collect such information whether emanating from an international or national body is unlikely to be effective unless the obstacles to building up such an information system are understood. The country case studies provide an illustration of these points. In terms of coverage, both the Hungarian and Soviet studies were based exclusively on material from the relevant Ministries concerning state provision of NFE. In contrast, both the Quebec and Argentinian studies depended at least in part on household surveys, thereby providing a reasonably comprehensive picture of the `participant' according to what the participant sees as NFE. None of the four studies provides much detail about either the mode of delivery or pedagogy; and the information on the teachers is fragmentary. In terms of quality, there is no way of knowing, in any of the countries, whether those who enrolled in NFE courses actually completed them and so on. 2. Institution-based data collection For those concerned mainly with building up a regular information system there are two complementary approaches which relate to two different sources of information. The compilation of directories and statistical reports depends upon data collected from the institutions or 49
Non-formal education. information and planning issues organising agencies as is normally being done in the sector of formal education; and household surveys collect information directly from the clients. The institution-based data collection procedure faces two main problems; the identification of institutions; and the specification of the data to be collected. These issues are considered in turn below. 2.1 Identification of institutions In contrast to regular schools, non-formal education activities are often difficult to identify. The first question is conceptual: what is to be included in and excluded from the directories and national reports? Presently there is no agreement on a set of guidelines for the systematic collection of information about non-formal education. The main problem, as discussed above in Chapter I, is that there are several competing classifications in the literature (Coombs, Ahmed, and Prosser, 1973, UNESCO, 1985; Chapter 2 passim), and that, in any concrete situation (as in the three country case studies) none of them seems adequate. However, even if a national agreement could be reached on the scope of NFE and an appropriate classification could be developed, there is an important practical question of how a central agency should go about identifying all relevant programmes. The major problem with the institution-based data collection procedure is that its coverage is limited to the kind of programmes which are likely to come to the attention of the central authorities. Loosely structured and small-scale programmes will generally be overlooked. The New Zealand Directory of Continuing Education, for example, lists 450 organisations, but notes that "the names of thousands of local religious organisations, sports bodies and cultural clubs have not been included". They refer potential students to local libraries or to the Citizens Advice Bureau ( Carr-Hill, 1988, p. 30). Local level inventories of non-formal education activities show that the domain of educational activities can be extremely large and that the listings produced are generally very different from those which would have been obtained starting from the central level. For example, an attempt was made to identify all out-of-school educational activities in two medium-sized British towns. Besides the research assistants' own knowledge of educational activities in the towns, many of their personal 50
The information base on non-formal education visits led to several other contacts. At the end of the allotted `search' period of six weeks, this `snowball' process was still yielding new addresses, although over one hundred separate organisations had been identified in each town (Carr-Hill, 1988, p. 29). In practice, no central data collection exercise can realistically be exhaustive and there is a particular problem in including `popular education' activities. The real issue therefore becomes to clearly define and recognise the boundaries of what is being included and to make sure that within these boundaries all activities are being captured. 2.2 Specifying the data to be collected Following the model of data collection in the formal sector, one would look to institutional reports to provide the basic data. But, as the case studies clearly show, the data available on NFE programmes are in most cases limited to enrolments with only sparse information on the duration and intensity of the courses. Very little is known about the teachers, the teaching/learning conditions, the teaching context and methods, the internal efficiency of programmes, costs, etc. In order to improve the situation and to broaden the scope of the data collected, it is important to be clear about the purposes of collecting the data and the uses to which the data will be put. The information needs vary according to the profile of users and to their levels of responsibility. The information needs of the potential participant are different from those of the organiser or researcher, and those of local level organiser of a NFE programme are different from those of the central level planner. Any effort to develop a relevant information base on NFE should therefore start with an identification of user needs, and there is little evidence that this reflection has been done. Moreover, whilst it may be useful to maintain, at the central level, an up-to-date registry of providing institutions with some basic information (with all the caveats about coverage) this only has limited uses -- for example, monitoring the scale of NFE and providing a sampling framework for research purposes. Just as with the formal education system, detailed information on characteristics of the programmes (such as the teaching methods employed, the specific resources available, and the student outcomes) can only be properly assessed and is only useful at the local level. 51
Non-formal education. information and planning issues Furthermore, given the great variety and specificities of NFE programmes it is not clear that it is possible to create a single coherent data base on NFE. This relates to the issue of whether or not there is a single NFE sector. Should we not rather think in terms of specific sub-sectors than group together educational practices that have sometimes very little in common? Consequently is it meaningful to look for a uniform data base? 2.3 The limitations of institution-based data The consistent overwhelming conclusion from this review is that, however sophisticated the theoretical preambles of criteria for defining NFE in practice, surveys of the field have simply included as NFE any educational programme which is organised outside the formal system. (Non-regular, in UNESCO terminology). At the same time, the distinction drawn by the UNESCO Office of Statistics between formal and non-formal adult education (Chapter I, above) where the dividing criteria is not the degree of formality (or any other theoretically based divisions) but the presence or absence of registration is a valuable one. Indeed, the point can be generalised: different types of programmes collect, record and transmit different sets of data, and for the purposes of compiling an inventory, types of programmes need to be differentiated by their relationship to organized data collection instruments as much as by any educational or even management criteria. But, on this basis, an inventory of NFE programmes would be dominated by the division into programmes for which data are systematically reported, programmes whose existence is recognized, and others. In consequence, however theoretically interesting, any subsequent classification is unlikely to provide reliable information because this original division is arbitrary in educational and policy terms. For example, the next most coherent division would probably be by type of sponsor because they are the reporting agencies (at least for data on programmes). Yet whilst on the whole -- although not universally -those programmes organized by branches of the Ministries of Education or by parastatals will collect and record relatively detailed registration data, and programmes organized by voluntary agencies are likely to transmit only summary registration data to a central agency, there will be 52
The information base on non-formal education overlaps as well as many omissions. A breakdown by `type of sponsor', will, therefore, be restricted to the summary level of information and even then with incomplete coverage. This Chapter has demonstrated the difficulties of devising a unified approach to, or a unified system of, planning for NFE. This should not be surprising for one of the presumed characteristics of the range of NFE programmes is their flexibility and independence from centralized control. 3. Household surveys The alternative is to develop client based data collection exercises of the sample household survey type. These avoid, to a large extent, the problems discussed above. They respond to a precise but important information need of the central policy-maker about the pattern of expressed demand for the various components of the diversified educational field. They are clearly not a substitute for institution based information gathering but should be seen as complementary. The essential preliminary for such a survey is a reasonably reliable sampling frame. Such frames are already available and used in most developed countries, but there are obvious difficulties in many developing countries. An alternative is to follow the scheme used by WHO to estimate vaccination coverage. This involves a multi-stage cluster sampling approach. Villages are chosen by area sampling from a grid referenced map; then individuals (or households) are selected within each village by moving North, South, East or West, half way from the centre point to the edge of the village. Even assuming an adequate sampling frame exists or could be devised, a dedicated survey to estimate adult education rates would obviously be expensive. There is much to recommend the Canadian approach of `adding on' a one-page schedule to a national household survey (see Appendix 1). Apart from being a relatively cheap option, the analyst is also able to draw on the material from the main survey to characterise the participants and non-participants in non-formal education. Whilst the dedicated surveys in England and Wales and in Finland produced considerably more detailed findings, what is crucial is that they all seemed to suggest roughly the same pattern of involvement 53
Non-formal education. information and planning issues in NFE (see Carr-Hill, 1988, pp. 15S155). For the purposes of assembling an initial knowledge-base for planning, the information supplied by the one-page supplementary schedule should be sufficient. There is also the question of the extent to which sample household surveys can also be used for obtaining information about learning needs. The surveys in Canada and Finland concentrated mainly on current or recent participation in adult education as such; only the study in England and Wales has attempted to ask any questions about needs. Their survey restricted the notion of need to `desire for Reaming' (see sample questions in Appendix II); but there is good reason to believe that answers to such questions are, at least in part, determined by provision. The proper assessment of learning needs requires a more theoretically based analysis of learning needs and more sophisticated research tools. Whether a standard questionnaire is the most appropriate instrument is not clear. 4. Practical conclusions Institution- or programme-based data collection at the central level should be limited to rudimentary base line surveys. These could then be used as a sampling frame for more detailed investigations about specific questions such as costs, efficiency, effects, etc. The answer to these types of questions will almost certainly depend upon the cultural, economic or social context within which NFE activities are being carried out. A general answer is therefore inappropriate and detailed empirical evidence is required. From the point of view of the planner of supply, there is little point in collecting detailed information about NFE activities at the central level. In a field as dynamic as that of NFE, a high degree of flexibility is required to respond to changing needs, the `new' responsive planner can only be responsive to the conditions and circumstances at a local level. Equally, or more important, the potential user, who also needs very detailed information about different types of programmes, is only interested in the range and scale of provision in his own locality. Therefore the only sensible detailed inventories of NFE are to be compiled locally for a local audience of organisers and potential participants. 54
The information base on non-forma] education Sample household surveys are the best means available to get a complete picture of participation in NFE activities. Until now this procedure has been used only in a limited number of developed countries. It has proven its usefulness and rich potential for the development of an appropriate information base (as illustrated in the case studies of Canada and to a certain extent of Argentina). As mentioned earlier, this type of data collection exercise should be seen as complementary to the previous one and could again be the starting point for defining more precise research questions including the area of exploring NFE needs. 55
Chapter V Implications for planning The essential difference between formal and non-formal education is probably that formal education programmes impose predetermined objectives upon the learners while non-formal programmes try to respond directly to the needs of the different client groups. Seen from this angle, formal education is largely supply driven while non-formal education is largely demand driven. This has, at least, two important consequences for the planning of non-formal education which are the following: · any form of planning in this area will always be much more concerned with need assessment than formal school planning; and · the essential planning function is to be kept close to the programme level because of the continuous flexibility which is required to respond to the changing pattern of demand. 1. The role of central planning This being said, what is the role of central planning in relation to the rapid proliferation of non-formal education activities? Manifestly, the question is not to discuss (as has often been the case) if the State should intervene or not in NFE. The international comparative study shows how the State is already intervening as an important organizer of specific activities and programmes. Furthermore, the country case studies show how the State has a regulatory role more or less throughout the sub-sector: in the USSR, and to a lesser extent in Hungary, the central 56
Implications for planning State has provided the institutional base for all of the activities if not determined the content of actual programmes; in Argentina, the local State in Buenos Aires and in the Northern regions has provided the resources for involving the mass in cultural educational activities; and even the activities of popular education movement in Quebec are regulated, to a certain extent, by the provincial government. The real question therefore is not whether the State should have a role but rather to know if and how its present role can be improved. So far, the diversification process has developed in a more or less `spontaneous' fashion. Non-formal education programmes were established in response to precise needs, their organizers being largely unconcerned to work out functional or organizational relations with other, formal and non-formal, programmes. This does not imply an absence of de facto relations between different programmes: indeed, a non-formal education programme may have been generated by and with the support of the formal institution because of capacity overload (as with Hungary). Inter-relations may develop more haphazardly, where after some years of operation a para-formal education programme may be incorporated wholesale into the formal system (as happened with professional/vocational schools in Argentina); or where a non-formal education programme may seek to have its courses accredited by a more `prestigious', formal institution (as presumably happens in Canada); or again, where advisors in a formal institution may help individuals to choose non formal courses. The `organic' nature of this growth implies that: first of all no overall prospective thinking has been taking place about the future orientation of the diversification process and; secondly the existing co-ordination has been kept at a minimum ad hoc level. It is typically the responsibility of the central authorities to take up those two challenges. 2. Formulating policy Policy formulation and planning is required in order to make the diversified educational field more transparent, to raise the issue of equality, to guarantee minimum standards of quality, to facilitate an efficient use of public resources and to match future demand and provision. 57
Non-formal education. information and planning issues 2.1 To make the diversified educational field transparent In many countries, this is an internal problem: many educational planners simply do not recognise non-formal education as `real' education, other than as playing a para-formal, subsidiary role. Yet, the case studies have demonstrated the permanence and relevance of the NFE structures. It is, therefore, important for the planners to be informed about the range and variety of NFE programmes and projects that are provided. This involves the development of a multilevel data base as has been explained in Chapter IV. Only in this way can an overall assessment of the possibilities and problems of the diversified educational field be made and appropriate policy formulation take place. But, the NF education world has also to be made more transparent for the users. Presently, it is difficult, if not impossible, for the potential learner to know in most cases what are the kind of programmes that are available to him. There is, therefore, an urgent need to prepare directories which contain practical information about NF programmes (name, address telephone, details about type of programmes, conditions of access, etc.). In order to be manageable such directories have probably to be sector-specific and deal, for example, with personal development activities, or with vocational training, etc. Furthermore, although some directories are being prepared at national or even at international levels, the most useful ones for the potential learner are obviously those which are elaborated locally (see Carr-Hill 1988, pp. 25-30). 2.2 Equality At the World Conference on Education for All (held at Jomtien, Thailand, 1990), great emphasis was placed on the importance of providing formal basic education for all. But many would argue that providing Universal Primary Education (UPE) is not feasible and that NF catch up programmes for young people and adults are not only essential but can sometimes be cheaper and more effective. Moreover, every household survey of participation in adult education -- admittedly above the basic literacy level in general -- has made it abundantly dear that the major beneficiaries of NFE are those who have already reached a reasonable level of formal education. As the Argentinian report says: 58
Implications for planning "... one of the objectives of the State should be to avert the social reproduction effect of NFE [... although ...] the complex interlinkage between institutions makes it hard to deal with the costs and results of the different kinds of NFE." [Gallart 1989 p. 132]. Serious reflection is needed about different ways by which the State could correct existing imbalances. One proposal which has been made is to establish an universal right to lifelong education with any state subsidies being controlled by the potential participant (see Section 2.5 below). 2.3 To guarantee minimum standards of quality One classic means of guaranteeing quality is by accreditation. But accreditation involves an external agency and a formal presentation of the programme. This, in turn, may lead to increasing bureacratization where there was none before. Moreover, We formalised presentation of the programme for the purposes of accreditation will tend to lead to an emphasis on product, whilst many of the NFE programmes emphasize process. The way out of this contradiction is not clear. An alternative approach, which would probably be more in keeping with the responsiveness of NFE to demand, would be to focus on consumer satisfaction with the courses. This would be a natural extension of the household survey approach to collecting participant data about NFE and would provide material for pro-active planning. 2.4 To facilitate an efficient use of public resources There have only been very few cases where attempts have been made to relate costs and resources across the diversified educational field, basically because there is very little cost data on NFE programmes. It is generally assumed that NFE is cheaper than formal education. But, there is little empirical evidence and manifestly much will depend on the type of NF programmes being considered. Furthermore, as long as there is no comparative data on outcomes, it will remain difficult to draw any meaningful conclusions from comparative cost analysis. In the short run therefore, the most urgent need is probably to collect systematic information about the cost of specific programmes, the 59
Non-formal education. information and planning issues relative importance of different sources of financing and the way public funds are being distributed and spent. Such information would help in clarifying policy discussions. 2.5 To match future demand and provision There was a brief discussion in Chapter IV about the difficulties of assessing `needs' in order to forecast potential demand, and then to design appropriate provision. Whilst it is clearly important that planners should develop need assessment tools along the lines of the survey discussed in Chapter IV.3 above, it seems unlikely that planners could ever anticipate the diversity and range of learning needs from every population group. At the same time, there are dangers in allowing providers to shape the educational market. One possible solution, which is being explored in some European countries, is to design a voucher scheme, enticing each adult to a certain number of units of further education. Whilst devising the details of such schemes -- in order to adjust for types of courses, historical differences in endowment between providers, etc. -- is complex, it is not insurmountable (Robinson and Carr-Hill 1991). 3. Improving co-ordination While the need for better co-ordination between various programmes is obvious, there is probably no uniform view as to tile content or degree of this co-ordination. Should it be confined to improving the existing de facto relations between different programmes or, is there on the contrary a need for a thorough overhaul of She educational field? Any kind of central co-ordination, however limited, necessarily entails some loss of autonomy on the part of the organisations to be co-ordinated. The essential question is therefore how far the co-ordination can go without jeopardising the great organisational flexibility of NFE activities, which is precisely what enables them to provide relevant and effective answers to specific, changing, training needs. Obviously, different views on the content and the necessary degree of co-ordination will depend on one's vision of social organization, She function of education within that organization, and She appropriate roles of the State and of private initiative. 60
Implications for planning But, whatever the different positions taken in this respect, the case studies completed as part of this research project clearly bring out three questions of co-ordination which have to be considered. 3.1 Relationship between the school system and NFE The first concerns the relationship between the dominant school system and the other educational segments. In view of the recent diversification of the educational activities, the functions of formal schooling, the content of what is being taught and the teaching methods have to be re-examined. This need is obvious when one considers the distribution of roles between school education and the area of out-of-school professional training where not only the potential participant but often the organisers are far from clear who should be organising what. This particular problem is far from being settled in most countries, but a similar issue arises in other sub-sectors. What are the implications for the school system of the rapid expansion of informal learning patterns though modem communication media, of the increasing popularity of self development activities? What lessons can be drawn from the experience in the para-formal education area for improving the organisation of formal teaming? These questions are not new but they are bound to become (or remain) a central policy concern in most countries. 3.2 The necessity to facilitate a cumulative learning process The second issue relates to the necessity to facilitate a cumulative learning process for the users of different school and out-of-school training programmes. This raises the challenge of creating mechanisms for the recognition of different training and life experiences. One of the factors which complicates a smooth construction of individually-tailored training itineraries is the fact that training acquired in one place, within the formal, non-formal or informal education sectors is frequently not recognized in the other sectors. Several countries have begun to introduce some form of a system of accreditation and equivalency of qualifications and certificates. This is the case not only in developed countries (Canada, England and Wales, France and the USA) but also in developing countries in Asia (the Philippines) and in Latin America 61
Non-formal education. information and planning issues where an international network has been established (CINTERFOR). However, in general, progress in this crucial area has been slow so far: consider, for example, the lack of agreement about equivalency across Europe which will become increasingly essential post-1992. The problem is that such systems raise a series of technical, political and organisational questions: whilst some of them have been studied in specific areas, the general picture is still of a basic lack of information. 3.3 Improving co-ordination between organising agencies The third challenge is that of improving co-ordination between organising agencies. As has been indicated before, many exchanges and subcontracting procedures already exist in practice mainly between agencies organizing training activities within the same area of education, e.g., professional training or training for personal development. However, it is far from sure that the existing co-ordination is the most efficient and the most beneficial for the users. The sophisticated planning system which has been gradually developed in Quebec in order to regulate the professional training activities in the province is ample proof of the necessity and the usefulness of increased co-ordination. The yearly plans are being prepared and carried out in a participatory way by regional commissions which are composed of all partners interested in the professional training area. Given the specificities of the various non-formal educational programmes, it should be clear that co-ordination between agencies cannot embrace the whole educational field but can best be realized through incremental networking within the same area of activity. 4. The nature of planning Finally, the nature of some of the non-formal education programmes raises questions about the nature of the planning itself. First, whilst the organisation forms which the central planning mechanisms should take will depend upon the political and socioeconomic conditions of each country, it is clear that a `technical' approach to the planning of NFE (designing and matching the supply of educational services to potential demand for them within the limit of available resources) only makes sense at all on a local level. Furthermore, in view of the intrinsic 62
Implications for planning characteristics of the wide variations observed in the forms of out-of-school education, it is essential that the wide range of organisers and users of NFE be closely involved in such an exercise. The second novel problem for planners is the identification of learning needs. Assessing future demands for any form of education outside the formal school system raises serious difficulties. The traditional approaches towards planning have proven inadequate for this purpose. Even in the well known sector of professional training it has become extremely difficult, because of the swiftness of the technical changes, to forecast the numbers of the people to be trained and the content of the qualification required. The problem of need assessment in the other areas relating to socio-cultural promotion and personal development education has hardly been considered. What is required here is a serious creative effort on behalf of the educational planning community to develop the necessary instruments (or to adapt and transfer them from other sectors) for assessing and forecasting needs. Manifestly, some need assessment is presently taking place at programme level, but we know very little about the way this is being done. On the other hand, need assessment at the central level does not require the same degree of precision, where the focus should be on trends and general orientations, which may well involve different Assessment Methods all together. 63
Appendices
Appendix I
Questionnaire used for the adult education survey in Canada
THIS SURVEY CONCERNS ANY COURSES, CLASSES OR INSTRUCTION WAS TAKEN DURING THE PAST YEAR, THESE WOULD INCLUDE INSTRUCTION TO IMPROVE JOB SKILL, UPGRADE ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OR FOR RECREATION AND LEISURE
10. WAS ... A FULL-TIM STUDENT ATA SCHOOL COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY DURING I983?
1
2
Yes
Yes
Read
3 GO TOT 11
IN THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS DO NOTINCLUDE CLASSES OR COURSES THAT WERE PART OF FULL-TIME COURSE OF STUDIES
11. DURING 1983, DID ... ENROL IN ANY COURSES TO UPGRADE ACADEMINC QUALIFICATIONS?
1
2
3
Yes
Yes
Don't know
12. DURING 1983, DID ... RECEIVE ANY INSTRUCTION OR TRAINING TO UPGRADE JOB SKILLS INCLUDING COURSES TAKEN AT WORK?
1
2
3
Yes
Yes
Don't know
13. MD, ... ENROL IN ANY CLASS OR COURSE FOR PERSONAL INTEREST OR TO DEVELOP PRATICAL KNOWLEGE SUCH AS AN ART OR CRAFT CLASS DURING 1983?
1
2
3
Yes
Yes
Don't know
67
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
14. DURING 1983, DID ... ENROL IN ANY OTHER KIND OF COURSE CLASS OR PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION?
1
2
3
Yes
Yes
Don't know
15. OTHER THAN FULL-TIME COURSES DURING 1983, DID ... TAKE A COURSE TO LEARN A SECOND LANGUAGE?
1
2
Yes
Yes
3 Don't know
Go to 17
16. WHAT LANGUAGE WAS THAT (Mark all that apply)
1 English
2 French
3 other
17. INTERVIEWER CHECK ITEM
· if `Yes'in question 11. 12. 13. 14.15. · Otherwise
1 ..... Go to 18
2 .....
Go to 26
18. IN TOTAL HOW MANY COURSES DID ..... TAKE DURING 1983?
(Excluding full-time enrolment)
1
2 Number
Don't know
19. THE NEXT FEW QUESTIONS CONCERN THE LASTCOURSE ... TOOK IN 1983. WHATWAS THE TITLE OR NAME OF THE LASTCOURSE ... TOOK? (specify)
68
Appendix I
20. WAS THAT COURSE (Mark only one)
An academic course?
1
An job-related course?
2
A hobby cral or recreation corse?
3
A personal development general interest course? 4
Other
5
Don't know
6
21. WHO ORGANIZED THE LASTCOURSE .... TOOK, THATIS WHO OFFERED THE COURSE? Code
22. WHICH WAS THE MORE IMPORTANT REASON FOR TAKINGTHIS COURSE TO
Improve job opportunities?
1
Or for personal interest and development? 2
Don't know
3
23. HOWMANYHOURS OF INSTRUCTION WERE THERE EACHWEEK?
Hours
Don't know
69
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
24. HOW MANY WEEKS DID THE COURSE LAST?
Weeks
Don't know
25. WHO PAID THE FEE OR TUITION FOR THE COURSE?
Self or family
1
Employer
2
Other: Specily innotes
3
No fee
4
Don't know
5
THE LAST FEW QUESTIONS CONCERN ... BACKGROUND
26. WHAT IS THE LANGUAGE MOST OFTEN SPEAKS AT HOME (Mark only one)
1 English
2 French
3 Other
27. WHATIS THE LANGUAGE FIRST LEARNED IN CHILDHOOD AND STILL UNDERSTANDS? (Mark only one)
1 English
2 French
3 Other
70
Appendix I
28. WHERE WAS ---BORN?
1
In Canada
Go to30
2 OutsideCanada
29.IN WHAT YEAR DID .... FIRST EMMIGRATE TO CANADA ?
19
Don't know
30.WHAT IS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION ACHIEVED BY PARENTS?
1 Mother
2 Father
71
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
Appendix II Extracts from questionnaire used for the adult education survey in England and Wales Question 10. (a) If you wanted to study a subject for any reason how would you find out if there is a course available? DO NOT PROMPT
(b) Would you go to any of these? (SHOW CARD)
Spontaneous
Public libraries
V
Colleges of further education X
Adults education centres
0
Town Halls/Council Offices I
Citizens advice bureaux
2
Workmates/trade
union officials
3
Personnel/training officers 4
Job Centres/labour
exchanges
5
Advertisements/
newpapers
6
Local schools
7
Universities
8
Friends
9
Others (SPECIFY)
Prompted V X 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Question 11. (a) Do you know who arranges classes for adults in this area? DO NOTPROMPT (b) Do any of these arrange classes in this area? (SHOW CARD)
Spontaneous
Prompted
Public libraries
V
V
Colleges of further education X
X
Adults education centres
0
0
Town Halls/Council Offices I
I
Citizens advice bureaux
2
2
Workmates/trade
union officials
3
3
Personnel/training officers 4
4
Job Centres/labour
72
Appendix I
exchanges Advertisements/ newpapers Local schools Universities Friends Others (SPECIFY)
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
Question 12. How long would it take you to reach the place closest to you which arrangeS classes? PROMPT: How long would it take by your most usual form of transport?
Up to 30 minutes
V
30 minutes to I hour
X
Over I and up to 2 hours
0
Longer than 2 hours
I
Don't know
2
Question 18. Are there any subjects or personal interests that you would like to learn about, but have never previously done?
No, can't think of any GO TO QUESTION 22
V
Foreign languages
X
Domestic science/cooking/dressmaking/
child care etc
0
Science/engineering/machanics
I
Mathematics
2
Music/learn an instrument/singing
3
Art/painting/sculpture/pottery
4
Professional subjects/work-related subjects
5
Physical sports
6
Secretarial/commercial} subjects
7
Carpenty/woodwork/do-it-yourself
8
Social studies eg. economics, politics, sociology
9
Arts subjects eg. literature, history, philosophy
V
Other (WRITE IN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Question 19. Which of these things would be the most important factor in your attending
following ... (TYPE OF COURSE MENTIONED ATQUESTION 18) (SHOW CARD)
Working for a degree
V
Working for other further qualifications
X
To acquire a new shill for a job
0
73
Non-formal education. information and planning issues
To acquire a new skill for personal interest
I
To further an interest
2
To meet people
3
To make me a better person
4
Other (WRITE IN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Don't blow
9
Question 20. What sort of-courses would they be? (READ OUT)
(a) Daytime
V
or
Evening
X
(b) Short courses
0
or
Long courses
I
Question 21. Would you need any type of assistance - financial or looking after children etc?
Yes
2
No. GO TO QUESTION 22 (a)
3
IF YES SPECIFY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASK ALL
Question 22. (a) Were there times in your life when you would have liked to have followed a course(s)? Who about you were young?
Yes
V
No
X
IF `YES'GIVE DETAILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IF WORKING ASK (b), IF NOT GO TO (d) (b) what about in your present job now? Would you like to follow a course now?
Yes
V
No
X
IF YES GIVE DETAILS
(c) Was there a time when you were thinking of changing your type of work? Would you have taken any course then?
Yes
V
No
X
74
Appendix 11
IF YES GIVE DETAILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (d) What about after retirement, would you like to take a course then?
Yes
V
No
X
Don't know
0
IF YES GIVE DETAILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(e) What sort of course would you like to do for interest rather than your job?
Question 26. Have you ever tried to go on a course where you found that you did not have the right qualifications or abilitites?
Yes
I
No
2
Question 27. Are you aware that adults can take degrees or Professional qualifications without having formal qualifications?
Yes
3
No
4
Question 28. Did you know that a person with relevant qualifications may be alowed to enter a course at an advanced stage of that course, eg. et the beginning of the scond year?
Yes
5
No
6
Question 29 . (a) It has been argued that every adult should be entitled to some educa-
tion as adults, to further the 11 years they receive as a child. What do you personally feel
about this idea?
It's a very good idea
V
It's a good idea
X
It's not a very good idea
0
Not a good idea at all
I
Don't know
2
(b) How likely would you personally be able to take up such education if it was a available?
Very likely
3
Probable
4
Unlikely
5
Definitely not
6
75
Non-formal education. information and planning issues References Advisory Council for Adult and Continuing Education (1982) Adults: their educational experience and needs, Leicester, ACACE. Bibeau, R. (1989) L'йducation non-formelle au Quebec, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO (IIEP Research Report No. 78). Carr-Hill, R.A. (1982) Participatory planning in education: testing some concepts, Paris, UNESCO, Division of Education Policy and Planning (S15). Carr-Hill, R.A. and Lintott, J. (1985) Comparative adult education sta tistics for eighty-four countries, Paris, UNESCO, (ST-85/S/6). Carr-Hill, R.A. (1988) The information base for the planning of the diversified education field, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO (IIEP Research Report No.68). Carr-Hill, R.A.; R. Chengelele; A. Kweka; M. Rusimsbi (1991) The func tioning and effects of the Tanzanian literacy programme, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO. Carron, G.; K. Mwiria and G. Righa (1988) The functioning and effects of the Kenyan literacy programme, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO (IIEP Research Report No 76). Coombs P.H.; R.C. Prosser and H. Ahmed (1973) New paths to learning for rural children and youth, New York, ICED, pp.9-13. 76
References Devereaux, M.S. (1985) One in every five: A survey of adult educa tion in Canada, Ottawa, Statistics Canada and Education Support Sector. Gallart, M.A. (1989) The diversification of the educational field in Argentina, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO (IIEP Research Report No. 73). Haven, H. and Syvanpera (1984) Participation in adult education 1980, Helsinki, Finland, Central Statistical Office (Studies No. 92). Inkei, P. with G. Koncz and G. Pocze (1988) The diversification of the educational field in Hungary, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO. International Institute for Educational Planning (199la) The Kenyan literacy programme: A view from below, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO. International Institute for Educational Planning (199lb) Adult literacy in a changing world: the Tanzanian literacy programme, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO. Kouptsov O.V. (1990) Diversification of education in the USSR, mimeo, Paris, IIEP/UNESCO. La Belle, T.J. (1982) "Formal, non-formal and informal education: holistic perspectives on lifelong teaming". In: International Review of Education, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 159-175. Lewin, K. (1986) "Educational Planning in Russia: Recovering the Initiative". In: Prospects, Paris, UNESCO. Robinson, D. and R. Carr-Hill (1991) Vouchers: A note on the oddly-neglected exile of higher education, London, Institute of Economic Affairs. UNESCO, Office of Statistics (1976) International standard classifi cation of education, Paris, UNESCO, (COM/ST.ISCED). UNESCO, Office of Statistics (1985) Manual for statistics on adult education, Paris, UNESCO, (ST-85/WS/14). 77
IIEP publications and documents More than 650 titles on all aspects of educational planning have been published by the International Institute for Educational Planning. A comprehensive catalogue, giving details of their availability, includes research reports, case studies, seminar documents, training materials, occasional papers and Reference Books in the following subject categories: Economics of education, costs and financing. Manpower and employment. Demographic studies. The location of schools and sub-national planning. Administration and management. curriculum development and evaluation. Educational technology. Primary, secondary and higher education. Vocational and technical education. Non-formal, out-of-school, adult and rural education. Copies of the catalogue may be obtained from the IIEP on request.

G Carron, RA Carr

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Title: Non-formal education: information and planning issues; IIEP Research Report; Vol.:90; 1990
Author: G Carron, RA Carr
Author: Carron, Gabriel; Carr-Hill, Roy A.; UNESCO. IIEP
Keywords: nonformal education; educational planning; educational information systems
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