One territory-two toponymies: Patterns of geographical naming in the Falkland Islands, P WOODMAN

Tags: Falkland Islands, British settlement, territory, Argentina, France, South Atlantic Ocean, principal islands, Spanish languages, South America, United Provinces, Paul WOODMAN, successor state, population, Spain, Eddies Channel of Eddies Bourbon Bay Rivadavia Mountains Brothers Islands San, Oeste Puerto Pacheco Isla Vig, Wonder Port Groussac Second Camp Port Xim, Grantham Sound Green Island, Kidney Island King George Bay Limpet, Islas Sebaldes Isla Rasa, Islas Malvinas Estrecho de San Carlos Isla San Juli, Dos Hermanas Yellow Point, Bleaker Island Bluff Cove, Fuego Puerto Soledad Puerto Ruise, Adventure Sound Albemarle Harbour Arch Islands Barrow Harbour, Sal Isla Bougainville Ensenada, Stanley Swan Inlet Swan, Bourbon Island Port Calder, Punta Amarilla, San Francisco de Paula Rinc, English languages, Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, South American continent, English-language, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, ISLANDS SCENE Islands, THE FALKLAND ISLANDS, Puerto Moreno Bah, Nueve de Julio, del Rosario Puerto Tamar Canal, Bay St Euphemia Harbour French Islands Hill Harbour St Raphael Island Annunciation, Mount Adam Mount Philomel Mount Usborne Mount Wickham New Island North West, Penguin Point Penn Island, St Charles Sound St Julian Island Ruiz Puente Bay Nightingale Rock, Puerto Castelli Monte Independencia Monte Ruise, la Maravilla Puerto Groussac Corral, Dos Bocas Punta Oeste Isla Soledad Isla Pan de Az, Caneja Creek Cape Bougainville Cape Carysfort Cape Dolphin Cape Frehel Cape Meredith Cape Pembroke Carcass Island Chatham Harbour Coast, Port Louis, successor states, Cochon Island Concordia Bay Danson Harbour Devil, SPANISH NAME, Port Albemarle Port Egmont Port Howard Port King Port Louis Harbour Port Philomel Port Richards Port Salvador Port William Puntafrio Quaker Harbour Queen Charlotte Bay Ruggles Bay, Isla del Rosario, Beaver Island Berkeley, East Falkland, la Soledad, American War of Independence, West Falkland, Britain, territorial claim, Port Egmont, Louis Vernet, present-day Argentina, Camp Central Creek High Cape Cape Currents Cape Loyal Hut Point, Rincon Pebble Island Pebble Island Settlement, Santa Eufemia Puerto de la Cruzada, Louis de Bougainville, St Julian Bay Liberty Bay Trinity Island Snake Island Rosary Bay Port Tamar Columbus Channel, King George, Cape Belgrano Cape St Philip Rosary Island St Joseph Harbour Grove Birds Island Bay, Puerto Argentino Corral Grande Punta Vuelta Isla San, Isla Rasa Punta Navidad Isla Baja Cabo Hermoso Paso Ruise, Flat Island Christmas Point, Sugarloaf Island Malvinas Islands, Mount Independence Nightingale Mountain Mount Alberdi Mount Rivadavia Goicoechea Island Federal Point, Cerro Isla San Rafael Bah, Puerto Agradable Pyramid Point, Horseshoe Bay Island Harbour Jason Islands Jason West Cay, Keppel Island Keppel Sound, Island West Pacheco Harbour Lookout, Morro Norte Port Pleasant, Point Weddell Island West Falkland Westpoint Island Westpoint Pass, Camp of Fire Port Solitude Port Nightingale Port Moreno Bay
Content: One territory ­ two toponymies: Patterns of geographical naming in the Falkland Islands Paul WOODMAN* This paper briefly sets the scene by looking at the qualities of islands in general, before examining the Falkland Islands in some detail. The Falkland Islands form a remote and uncompromisingly bleak territory in the South Atlantic Ocean, comprising two principal islands and several hundred smaller islands, islets and offshore rocks. The Islands were uninhabited when Europeans first sighted them in the sixteenth century, and the subsequent naming patterns reflect a chequered history involving the French, Spanish and English languages. About 10 per cent of the places and features in the Falkland Islands have names which differ as between English and Spanish. While dual toponymies are not uncommon across the globe, what is exceptional in the Falkland Islands is that only one of the two available toponymic inventories ­ the English-language inventory ­ is used in situ, for the entire population is English-speaking. The Spanish-language names are instead used outside the Islands, in the geographically most proximate independent country ­ Argentina ­ located more than 600 kilometres distant on the South American continent. As this paper will demonstrate, this extraordinary and perhaps unique toponymic circumstance is the result of particular historical, social and cultural phenomena, examination of which also reveals distinct national patterns of toponymic practice. SETTING THE ISLANDS SCENE Islands are different; islands are special ­ even though, as the Danish onomastician Peder Gammeltoft has pointed out, ultimately we all live on one, of one size or another (GAMMELTOFT 2016: 125). In reality and in our imagination, literally and figuratively, islands contain something inherent that sets them apart, giving them a quality which we might (for want of a better word) call `islandness'. Their individuality and separation contribute to this, of course, but the real key to the uniqueness of islands is their complete self-containment. No other landform provides this characteristic, this ability to be completely distinct. We can think here of the unique fauna of Madagascar, or the unique geology of Iceland. We can think of the uniqueness of Jeju, too, that makes this island so distinct in many respects from the mainland of the nearby Korean peninsula. It is renowned as an island of absences (thieves; beggars; gates), but it is also an island * Former Secretary, Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, United Kingdom. Paul WOODMAN 1
of notable presences (stones; winds; even honeymooning couples). Such generalisations can be made for a limited and self-contained landform, in a way that would not make sense if speaking of a larger landmass or continent. So it is no real surprise to learn that islands have aroused fascination and invited study at least since the era of Greek mythology, when Homer's Odyssey (circa 800BC) identified Ithaca as the island home of the hero Odysseus. Literary themes throughout the ages have often been based around the self-contained nature inherent to an island, a notable example being Prospero's isle in Shakespeare's The Tempest. In more recent decades film scripts have followed suit. Islands provide the cinema backdrop where the good, the bad and the eccentric can get up to their activities undisturbed, as we see in James Bond movies, Thunderbirds cartoons, and the Jurassic Park film series. The study of islands has even generated its own terminology, which speaks of `nissology' and `islandscapes'. But of course not all islands are identical, nor do we each necessarily see a given island in quite the same way. In fact, islands possess a wide spectrum of attributes, or inherent qualities, making them: A utopia: a perfect society, existing only in literature and the imagination; An arcadia: a place of total contentment, again existing only in literature and the imagination; An escape: a place of idyllic natural beauty (eg Seychelles); A bridge: a cultural and/or social stepping stone (eg Е land); A backwater: a place of cultural and/or social marginalisation (eg Chiloй); A bastion: a fortress against the outside (eg Singapore); A prison: a place of banishment or confinement (eg Alcatraz and Robben Island). And islands evoke within us a wide spectrum of responses, such as a sense of: Distinctiveness of culture and/or language and/or dialect:: eg Jeju society is considered individual compared to the more collective society of mainland Korea, perhaps because of the absence of a `rice culture' on the island (owing to a lack of surface water); Togetherness: eg Kiribati shows a harmony of purpose in the face of a lethal sea level rise; Peacefulness: a tranquillity as found on eg Tahiti; Solitude: a neutral or ambivalent response, eg to St Helena; Remoteness / Isolation: a sense of discomfort, eg on the outermost of the Outer Hebrides; Displacement / Dislocation: a sense of anguished separation, eg the Chagos Islanders; Exclusion / Exile: a removal from society that can be both literal and metaphorical, as seen eg in the use of an `islands' theme in the term Gulag Archipelago [ ], coined by the dissident author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn for the myriad of scattered labour camps within the Soviet penal system. 2 SESSION I
Some islands feature in more than one category. St Helena evokes solitude for everyone, but was in addition a place of exile for the French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. And there is a wide range of mix-and-match correspondences between the two spectrums: Singapore may be a bastion, but this engenders a sense of cultural togetherness rather than a sense of displacement. Even the continental portion of the Republic of Korea might in some ways be considered an `island', for thanks to the secretive seclusion of its northern neighbour ­ the Democratic People's Republic of Korea ­ the only means of access and egress are by sea or air. THE FALKLAND ISLANDS Geographical background With regard to the above spectrums, the Falkland Islands might be said to hover between backwater and bastion, and between solitude and isolation. They form an uncompromisingly bleak territory in the South Atlantic Ocean, situated more than 600 kilometres east of Rнo Gallegos, the southernmost town in continental Argentina. The territory comprises two principal islands and several hundred smaller islands, islets and offshore rocks, totalling about 12,000 square kilometres and forming the living space for a population currently just shy of 3000. The density of population (circa 0.25/kmІ) is about 2000 times lower than that for the Republic of Korea (circa 500/kmІ). The two principal islands are named (in English) as East Falkland and West Falkland. Both are barren and windswept, and their landscape is largely hilly and devoid of trees. Sheep farming has long been one of the few viable occupations on the land, though there are also potentially rewarding extractive opportunities offshore. About two-thirds of the population live in the sole settlement of note ­ Stanley ­ with the remainder scattered thinly elsewhere across the islands, on land that is collectively and colloquially known as `the Camp'. Apart from Stanley, no settlement on the Islands has a population of more than about 30 inhabitants. Historical background The first sighting of the Falkland Islands by Europeans probably took place at some point in the sixteenth century. The precise facts are unclear and are unlikely ever to be definitively resolved, though it seems that the first unequivocal sighting was made by the Dutch sailor Sebald de Weert in 1600. What is certain is that, at this period in history, the Islands were uninhabited. The first landing was probably made in 1690 by an English naval captain who gave the name `Falkland' to the strait between the two principal islands, in honour of Viscount Falkland, a leading English naval figure at that time. From this event, England (and then Britain from the early 1700s) laid claim to the territory as a whole, adopting for it the name `His Majesty's Falkland Islands'. The first settlement was not established until 1764, when the French admiral and explorer Louis de Bougainville arrived on East Falkland and created a dwelling-place which came to be known as Port Louis. These first settlers were principally sailors and fishermen from the French port of Saint-Malo, a town whose inhabitants are known as `Malouines' in French, and accordingly they adopted the name `Оles Malouines' for the Paul WOODMAN 3
Islands. Two years later, in 1766, a separate British settlement named Port Egmont was also established, this time on West Falkland. It is possible that for some time afterwards the two settlements of Port Louis and Port Egmont were unaware of each other. Also in 1766, and as part of a much wider pact, the French and Spanish branches of the ruling House of Bourbon came to an agreement whereby France withdrew from the Islands and passed her interests there over to Spain, who appropriated the name `Оles Malouines' and adapted it into Spanish as `Islas Malvinas'. Spain also at this time bestowed the name `Isla Nuestra Seсora de la Soledad' (Island of Our Lady of Solitude) on the island otherwise known as East Falkland; this was later simplified in Spanish to `Isla Soledad'. For the following decade, tension ensued and occasional hostilities flared between Britain and Spain concerning the Islands, but Britain then became preoccupied with the American War of Independence and withdrew from the Islands in 1776, without however relinquishing her territorial claim. This left Spain in administrative charge of the Islands, a role which she exercised from mainland Montevideo until 1811, when (as with Britain in the 1770s) pressures elsewhere forced her to abandon the Islands ­ though also without relinquishing her territorial claim. Among the pressures facing Spain at this time were the demands for independence emanating from South America. By about 1815, much of present-day Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay had united in opposition to colonial Spain, and had formed the United Provinces of the Rнo de La Plata. From 1816 the United Provinces claimed to be the regional successor state to Spain, and as such entitled to the Islands, but its administration of the Islands was hapless and the territory descended into lawlessness. In 1828 the United Provinces appointed Louis Vernet as governor of the Islands; he arrested a number of American vessels which had landed there and in retaliation the United States navy burned down Port Louis, which by this time had been renamed Puerto Soledad. Amidst this chaos, the population of the Islands appealed to Britain to return and restore order, which she duly did in 1833. There has now been continuous exclusively British settlement on the Falkland Islands for almost two centuries, since the 1833 restoration, punctuated only by the 75-day Argentine military occupation of the Islands in the period from April 2nd to June 15th, 1982. Sovereignty interpretations The Falkland Islands are administered as an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, a political situation that is challenged by the Argentine Republic, which claims the Islands as its own. The United Kingdom and Argentina both cite the historical events outlined above to justify their respective claims. It is not within the scope of this paper to pass judgement on those claims, but it might be of interest to outline briefly the factors involved in any interpretation of the history of the Islands, notably the following: First sighting and discovery. Both of these remain uncertain. First landfall. This was probably made by Britain. First settlement. This was established by France, with Britain following shortly afterwards. History of relevant laws and treaties. All parties acceded to or violated laws and treaties as they saw fit, and the Islands were merely pawns in a larger 4 SESSION I
context of British, French and Spanish imperial ambition. Nevertheless, treaties matter, and of particular note here are: (a) The 1494 papal Treaty of Tordesillas, which sought to adjudicate respective areas of Spanish and Portuguese sovereignty over newlydiscovered South America by drawing a north-south demarcation line (later seen to correspond to the 46°W meridian); (b) The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which sought inter alia to establish the overseas areas over which France, Spain and Britain enjoyed legitimacy. Legal position of successor states. Questions here include: (a) The relevance of the Papacy to civil law-making; (b) Whether it was within France's legal competence to hand over responsibility for the Islands to Spain; (c) Whether the United Provinces legally inherited Spain's colonies in southern South America; (d) Whether Argentina can properly be considered the successor state to the United Provinces. Legality of popular will. Whether Britain's repossession of the Islands in 1833, in response to local popular demand, can be considered legitimate. Colonialism. Whether colonisation (the territorial settlement of uninhabited islands) equates to colonialism. Propinquity. Whether Argentina's relative geographical proximity to the Islands is of relevance. History of continuous settlement. The continuous British settlement and administration since 1833, in accordance with the wishes of the Islanders. This reality assumes an ever-increasing significance as the years go by. Toponymy As might be anticipated in light of the preceding paragraphs, the toponymy of the Falkland Islands is a testament to and a legacy of its chequered history, and involves geographical names belonging to the French, Spanish and English languages. Each national participant in the unfolding drama has applied its own toponyms to those places and features which have concerned it. Although France absented herself from the story of the Islands at a relatively early stage, her toponymy has lingered on, some of it still in use today in both English-language and Spanish-language toponyms. But the really interesting toponymic story that the Falkland Islands have to tell us concerns the parallel development of English-language and Spanish-language inventories (WOODMAN 2006). There are approximately 2000 named places and features in the Falkland Islands, a total arrived at by counting the names found on the official 1:50,000-scale map series of the Islands. Of this total, about 220 (just over 10%) have names which differ as between the English and Spanish languages. About half of these differences simply involve features which actually have the same name in both languages, but in translated form in each, or carry essentially the same meaning in the two languages. A few examples of this phenomenon are provided here in the format : Black Rock / Roca Negra East Island / Isla del Este Paul WOODMAN 5
New Year Cove / Caleta Aсo Nuevo North Bluff / Morro Norte Port Pleasant / Puerto Agradable Pyramid Point / Punta Pirбmide Two Sisters / Dos Hermanas Yellow Point / Punta Amarilla Of greater interest however are the remaining 100 or so features, approaching 5% of the total named inventory of the Falkland Islands, whose names fall into one of two categories. Either these features are named completely differently as between the English and Spanish languages (see Table 1 below); or else in a few instances they possess a name in Spanish but not in English (see Table 2 below).
Table 1. Features named differently in English and Spanish
ENGLISH NAME Adventure Sound Albemarle Harbour Arch Islands Barrow Harbour Beaver Island Berkeley Sound Bleaker Island Bluff Cove Byron Sound Camilla Creek Caneja Creek Cape Bougainville Cape Carysfort Cape Dolphin Cape Frehel Cape Meredith Cape Pembroke Carcass Island Chatham Harbour Coast Camp Cochon Island Concordia Bay Danson Harbour Devil's Point East Falkland Elephant Jason Falkland Islands Falkland Sound First Island Grantham Sound green island
SPANISH NAME Bahнa del Laberinto Puerto Santa Eufemia Islotes Franceses Puerto del Cerro Isla San Rafael Bahнa de la Anunciaciуn Isla Marнa Hoya Fitzroy Bahнa San Francisco de Paula Rincуn del Desierto Caleta dEl Centro Cabo Alto Cabo Corrientes Cabo Leal Punta Choza Cabo Belgrano Cabo San Felipe Isla del Rosario Puerto San Josй Arbolй Isla Pбjaros Ensenada del Norte Rincуn de las Dos Bocas Punta Oeste Isla Soledad Isla Pan de Azъcar Islas Malvinas Estrecho de San Carlos Isla San Juliбn Bahнa de Ruiz Puente Roca Ruiseсor
TRANSLATION OF SPANISH NAME Labyrinth Bay St Euphemia Harbour French Islands Hill Harbour St Raphael Island Annunciation Bay Mary Island Fitzroy Cove (= captain of Darwin's `Beagle') St Francis of Paola Bay Desert Camp Central Creek High Cape Cape Currents Cape Loyal Hut Point Cape Belgrano Cape St Philip Rosary Island St Joseph Harbour Grove Birds Island Bay of the North Two Mouths Camp West Point Solitude Island Sugarloaf Island Malvinas Islands St Charles Sound St Julian Island Ruiz Puente Bay Nightingale Rock
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ENGLISH NAME Horseshoe Bay Island Harbour Jason Islands Jason West Cay Kelp Lagoon Keppel Island Keppel Sound Kidney Island King George Bay Limpet Creek Lively Island Lively Sound Mengeary Point Moffit Harbour Mount Adam Mount Philomel Mount Usborne Mount Wickham New Island North West Rincon Pebble Island Pebble IsLand Settlement Pebble Islet Penguin Point Penn Island Phillips Point Philomel Road Plaza Creek Port Albemarle Port Egmont Port Howard Port King Port Louis Harbour Port Philomel Port Richards Port Salvador Port William Puntafrio Quaker Harbour Queen Charlotte Bay Ruggles Bay Saunders Island Sedge Island Ship Harbour Ship Harbour Smylie Channel
SPANISH NAME Ensenada de Vuelta Perruca Rincуn del Sudeste Islas Sebaldes Isla Rasa del Oeste Puerto Pacheco Isla Vigнa Bahнa de la Cruzada Isla Celebroсa Bahнa Nueve de Julio Laguna de la Sal Isla Bougainville Ensenada (de) Luisa Punta Celebroсa Puerto Castelli Monte Independencia Monte Ruiseсor Cerro Alberdi Monte Rivadavia Isla de Goicoechea Punta Federal Isla de Borbуn Puerto Calderуn Isla Rasa Punta Navidad Isla Baja Cabo Hermoso Paso Ruiseсor Caleta Fangoso Bahнa Santa Eufemia Puerto de la Cruzada Puerto Mitre Rincуn del Fuego Puerto Soledad Puerto Ruiseсor Puerto Moreno Bahнa de la Maravilla Puerto Groussac Corral Segundo Puerto de Ximйnez Bahнa San Juliбn Bahнa Libertad Isla Trinidad Isla Culebra Bahнa del Rosario Puerto Tamar Canal Colуn
TRANSLATION OF SPANISH NAME Vuelta Perruca Bay South-East Camp Sebald Islands Flat Island West Pacheco Harbour Lookout Island Crusade Bay Celebration Island Ninth of July Bay (Argentine Independence Day) Salt Lagoon Bougainville Island Louise Sound Celebration Point Castelli Harbour Mount Independence Nightingale Mountain Mount Alberdi Mount Rivadavia Goicoechea Island Federal Point Bourbon Island Port Calderуn Flat Island Christmas Point Low Island Beautiful Cape Nightingale Channel Muddy Creek St Euphemia Bay Crusade Harbour Port Mitre Camp of Fire Port Solitude Port Nightingale Port Moreno Bay of Wonder Port Groussac Second Camp Port Ximйnez St Julian Bay Liberty Bay Trinity Island Snake Island Rosary Bay Port Tamar Columbus Channel (Colуn = Ch. Columbus)
Paul WOODMAN 7
ENGLISH NAME Speedwell Island Stanley Swan Inlet Swan Point Weddell Island West Falkland Westpoint Island Westpoint Pass Whale Bay Wickham Heights Wreck Islands Yeguada Key to Colours
SPANISH NAME Isla Бguila Puerto Argentino Corral Grande Punta Vuelta Isla San Josй Isla Gran Malvina Isla Remolinos Paso Remolinos Seno de Borbуn Alturas Rivadavia Islas los Hermanos Rincуn de San Martнn
TRANSLATION OF SPANISH NAME Eagle Island Port Argentine Big Corral Return Point St Joseph Island Great Malvina Island Island of Eddies Channel of Eddies Bourbon Bay Rivadavia Mountains Brothers Islands San Martнn Camp
National name Neutral name of French/Dutch/ German/American origin Name of unknown origin
Religious name Name used in one language but derived from the other Descriptive name
The table above reveals the widespread willingness of both Britain and Spain to bestow descriptive names, and also their occasional willingness to bestow neutral names originating from third languages (most often French, where for example both English and Spanish commemorate the role played by Louis de Bougainville). But the most striking distinction between the naming patterns adopted by the English and Spanish languages concerns the roles played by nationalism and religion. Half of the Englishlanguage names in the table can be considered `nationalist' in origin, these being names of British establishment figures (Berkeley; Byron; Falkland; King George; Stanley; etc) and British ships (Adventure; Dolphin; Jason; Lively; Philomel; etc). These names were bestowed for the most part in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, a period in which the Spanish authorities were by contrast bestowing names of religious significance. The religious names in the Spanish-language column date from this same period and commemorate Roman Catholicism; names such as Isla Soledad (from Our Lady of Solitude) and Bahнa de la Anunciaciуn (from the Feast of the Annunciation). It is interesting to note in passing here that this bestowal of religious names took place despite the total absence of an indigenous population on the Islands (in contrast to the South American Continent), and must therefore have come about for reasons of familiarity and reassurance for the settlers, rather than with any thoughts of evangelism. Nationalist names were not used by Spain. Instead, the nationalist names in the Spanishlanguage column date principally from a slightly later historical juncture; the nineteenthcentury post-colonial period. These nationalist names mainly celebrate prominent figures relevant to Argentine history, such as the celebrated Latin American liberator Josй de San Martнn, the military leader Manuel Belgrano and the first president Bernardino Rivadavia; and also events connected to Argentine independence (names such as Monte Independencia; Bahнa Nueve de Julio; Bahнa Libertad).
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The significance of Argentine independence in Spanish-language naming practices on the Falkland Islands is very clearly illustrated in the case of the name Monte Independencia. The two highest peaks of the Islands occur in close proximity to each other on West Falkland, and are named in English as Mount Adam and Mount Robinson. Early surveys suggested that Mount Robinson was marginally the higher of these two peaks, and accordingly it was to that peak that Argentina initially attached the name Monte Independencia. But a recent and more accurate survey has revealed the summit of Mount Adam to be five metres higher above sea level than the summit of Mount Robinson, and immediately following this survey Argentina re-designated its toponymy so that the name Monte Independencia was transferred from Mount Robinson to Mount Adam. Also of particular interest is the Spanish-language name for Stanley, the principal settlement of the Falkland Islands. Although Puerto Argentino is the current Argentine name for Stanley, this has not always been the case. Before the short-lived invasion which began on April 2nd 1982, Argentina customarily referred to Stanley as Puerto Stanley. Then for the first few days following the invasion the Argentine government and media used the name Puerto Rivero, in honour of a legendary but controversial nineteenth-century gaucho named Antonio Rivero. As early as April 5th, though, Argentine sources changed their preference to Puerto de la Isla Soledad, a name which however lasted only for 24 hours. For the following fortnight, from April 6th until April 20th, the Argentine government and media used the name Puerto de las Islas Malvinas. Finally, on April 21st 1982, Decree No 757 of the Argentine military junta declared that the name would be Puerto Argentino, and that name has been used by Argentina ever since. In all, therefore, five different names for Stanley were used by the Argentine authorities in the space of just three weeks in that fateful spring of 1982. Finally, it is worthwhile noting the five features listed in Table 2 below, which are named only in the Spanish language. Their names date from the Spanish colonial era. Three of the names are religious in origin, one commemorates the French navigator Louis de Freycinet, and there is one descriptive name reflecting the seal oil and penguin oil of that locality. This discrepancy between the toponymic inventories reflects differences in feature observation patterns as between Spanish and British navigators and settlers, though it is nevertheless perhaps surprising that those using the English language have never found a need to name at least some of these particular features.
Table 2. Features named in Spanish but not in English
ENGLISH NAME [none] [none] [none] [none] [none]
SPANISH NAME Bahнa del Aceite Bahнa San Felipe Penнnsula de Freycinet Penнnsula de San Luis Punta San Juliбn
TRANSLATION OF SPANISH NAME Oil Bay St Philip Bay Freycinet Peninsula St Louis Peninsula St Julian Point
Key to Colours
Religious name
Neutral name of French origin
Descriptive name
Paul WOODMAN 9
Concluding remarks The territory of the Falkland Islands provides us with a fascinating case of dual toponymies. While this phenomenon can also be seen elsewhere across the globe, what is exceptional in these Islands is that only one of the two available toponymic inventories ­ the English-language inventory ­ is used in situ, for the entire population is Englishspeaking. The Spanish-language names are instead used only outside the islands and indeed only outside the country altogether. This extraordinary linguistic and geographical separation of toponymies is the result of particular historical and cultural factors. Of especial note is the propensity of different powers to adopt different themes for their naming policies. Of the two countries which initially developed the Islands, Britain favoured the application of nationalist names, whereas Spain showed a distinct preference for religious names. But independent Argentina has broken with Spanish tradition and has favoured nationalist names that reflect its own relatively youthful heritage. It is difficult to see any coming together of the two toponymic inventories in the near future, partly because of the obvious political gulf between the United Kingdom and Argentina regarding the sovereignty of the Islands, but also for the simple reason that the Islands have no patronymic heritage of indigenous names that could act as a single toponymic reservoir which both parties might agree to accept. REFERENCES Calvert, P. (1983). Sovereignty and the Falklands crisis. International Affairs, 59(3), pp. 405-413. Gammeltoft, P. (2016). Island names. in HOUGH, C. (ed). The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming. (pp. 125-134). Oxford: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS. Goebel, J. (1927). The struggle for the Falkland Islands: A study in legal and diplomatic history. New Haven: YALE UNIVERSITY Press. Gough, B. (1990). The British reoccupation and colonization of the Falkland Islands, or Malvinas, 1832-1843. Albion, 22(2), pp. 261-287. Metford, J.C.J. (1968). Falklands or Malvinas? The background to the dispute. International Affairs, 44(3), pp. 463-481. Munro, R. (1998). place names of the Falkland Islands. Huntingdon: Bluntisham Books. Reisman, M. (1983). The struggle for the Falklands. Yale Law Journal, 93(2), pp. 287-317. Royle, S.A. (1985). The Falkland Islands 1833-1876: The establishment of a colony. Geographical Journal, 151(2), pp. 204-214. Rydjord, J. (1961). Falkland Islands: Nationalism and names. Names, 9(4), pp. 234-247. Shackleton, Lord (1983). The Falkland Islands and their history. Geographical Journal, 149(1), pp. 1-4. Wikipedia. The Spanish-language version of this online encyclopaedia was consulted for certain Spanish-language toponyms in this paper: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Portada. Accessed 2016-09-07. Woodman, P. (2006): The toponymy of the Falkland Islands as recorded on maps and in gazetteers. UK Permanent Committee on Geographical Names. Available online at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140402150947/http://www.pcgn.org.uk/Falkl and%20Islands-July2006.pdf. 10 SESSION I

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