Public Speaking as the Last Battlefield: A Cluster-Agon Analysis of Conceptual Conflicts in the Controversy Between Traditional And Online College Classes, SC Newbolt

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Content: PUBLIC SPEAKING AS THE LAST BATTLEFIELD: A CLUSTER-AGON ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTUAL CONFLICTS IN THE CONTROVERSY BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE COLLEGE CLASSES by Shaundi C. Newbolt A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of The Dorothy F. Schmidt College of Arts and Letters In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, Florida August 2012
Copyright by Shaundi C. Newbolt 2012 ii
ABSTRACT
Author:
Shaundi C. Newbolt
Title:
Public Speaking as the Last Battlefield: A Cluster-Agon Analysis of Conceptual Conflicts in the Controversy between Traditional and Online College Classes
Institution:
Florida Atlantic University
Thesis Advisor:
Dr. Becky Mulvaney
Degree:
Master of Arts
Year:
2012
Communication scholars are in disagreement over the presence of online public
speaking courses in higher education. Despite limited research on the Online Public
Speaking model, it is quickly replacing the traditional public speaking model in
American colleges and universities. This study used Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis to
uncover core concepts from four contemporary public speaking textbooks used in various
classroom models (traditional, online and hybrid). Concepts were then compared with
traditional core concepts of early speech communication to determine if technology has
influenced contemporary core concepts. Results determined that contemporary core
concepts from three of the four public speaking textbooks reflected traditional core
concepts of early speech communication. The fourth textbook revealed similar
contemporary core concepts with expanded definitions to include technologically
mediated speech situations.
iv
DEDICATION This manuscript is dedicated to my loving husband, Tyler, who supports me as I follow my dreams. I also dedicate this work to my family and friends who have encouraged me to pursue my love for public speaking and education.
PUBLIC SPEAKING AS THE LAST BATTLEFIELD: A CLUSTER-AGON ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTUAL CONFLICTS IN THE CONTROVERSY BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE COLLEGE CLASSES List of Tables .................................................................................................................... vii Chapter 1: Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1 Background and Justification .................................................................................... 1 Online Public Speaking Debate ....................................................................... 2 Research Question ..................................................................................................... 4 Review of Literature.................................................................................................. 5 History of Distance Learning and Evolution of Online Courses ..................... 6 Literature on Online College Courses ........................................................... 11 Literature on Online Public Speaking Courses.............................................. 17 Methodology ........................................................................................................... 24 Burke's Cluster Criticism .............................................................................. 24 Rhetorical Artifacts Selected for Analysis .................................................... 30 Conclusion............................................................................................................... 33 Chapter 2: History and Core Concepts of Speech Communication Courses in American Higher Education.................................................................................................... 35 Early History of Speech Communication in the United States ............................... 36 History of Online Public Speaking Courses in the United States ........................... 40 Evolving Core Concepts in Speech Communication Courses ................................ 42 Identification of Core Concepts in Early Speech Communication Courses.. 42 Identification of Core Concepts in Online Speech Communication Courses 45 Conclusion............................................................................................................... 48 Chapter 3: Cluster-Agon Analysis of Public Speaking Textbooks................................... 49 v
The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012) .................................................. 53 Public Speaking for College and Career 8th ed. (2008) ............................... 59 The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008)............................................................................................................. 67 The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012)............................................................................................................. 75 Comparative Analysis of the Four Textbooks......................................................... 89 Conclusion............................................................................................................... 94 Chapter 4: Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 95 Contributions of the Study ....................................................................................... 95 Limitations of the Study .......................................................................................... 99 Implications of the Study ...................................................................................... 100 Suggestions for Further Research.......................................................................... 102 Works Cited .................................................................................................................... 104
TABLES Table 1. Influence of Setting on Speaker Skill Sets As Taught in Speech Communication Courses in American Higher Education ............................................................. 103
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Some college professors who teach Public Speaking consider the fully online version an oxymoron while others advocate its flexibility. The traditional Public Speaking course is highly interactive; it thrives upon physical presence, nonverbal and verbal communication. Pedagogically, professors of the traditional course share clear concerns about the translation of speech delivery, feedback, immediacy, etc. to the online classroom. For centuries, Public Speaking courses in higher education have maintained their place in the traditional classroom. Students were required to complete the course inperson; now Public Speaking courses have found their place in a different type of classroom, the online classroom "where most, if not all, of the instruction is completed through online" (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 409). Moving the classroom from face-to-face (spontaneous discussions, real-time interactions, constant feedback, etc.) to computer mediated (primarily asynchronous communication, loss of nonverbal indicators, etc.) has been occurring for more than twenty years in colleges and universities around the nation and all scholars are not in agreement with its transition. BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION "Across the nation, colleges and universities are adopting the Internet as the new medium for instruction at a growing rate" (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 408). Advances in technology combined with the demand for more courses attributed to the increase in online learners (Corum). "Online courses accommodate students by allowing 1
them the flexibility to attend school at the time and location that is convenient to them" (Bejerano, "Face-to-Face or Online Instruction"). Large public universities are leaders in online learning, offering the most online courses and programs while steadily increasing online enrollment (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 409). Benefits to institutions include infinite room for expansion through the Internet, reduction in classroom costs (Bejerano, "Face-to-Face or Online Instruction"), mobility of the classroom and faculty members, and attraction for nontraditional students and distance learners (including international students). As institutions are seeking to become more appealing to prospective students, the online classroom is attractive to both students and administrators alike. As the number of online learners continues to increase (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 408-9), institutions are pressured to offer more courses for students. To address the need for more online classes, courses that were originally designed for the traditional classroom are being redesigned for the online classroom (Kampov-Polevoi, 2010), including Public Speaking. Meanwhile, there is little research on the Online Public Speaking debate about online public speaking courses becoming common in colleges and universities. Online Public Speaking Debate Arguments about the public speaking course among communication scholars are not new. National Speech Organizations and Speech Education (1954) by Frank Rarig and Halbert Greaves outlines the history of Public Speaking as a discipline in American Higher Education. They recall the early challenges among members of The National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking in the 1930s: 2
As teachers of college courses in speech, members of the association could agree that their goal was a sound education in speech--an education which offered the student both training in skills and technique and knowledge of the principles which provided the rationale of skill. But about the character and content of specific courses, they argued vigorously (503). Attitudes toward teaching the online course are also mixed. Some faculty members embrace the challenge of Online Public Speaking (Sowers) while others refuse (Shedletsky and Aitken). Current research describes the online public speaking courses and provides advice for instruction, but neglects to address the pressures to teach the course. There is little published discontent towards teaching online public speaking courses though there is ongoing resistance among numerous faculty members at various institutions (Morreale et al. 423). Understandably, faculty members are apprehensive to voice their dismay with the online course and may refuse to speak-up in fear of losing their job (Shedletsky and Aitken). "The Paradoxes of Online Academic Work" by Leonard Shedletsky and Joan Aitken (2001) directly addressed consequences of communication faculty refusing to teach Public Speaking online: Faculty may be required to teach online or watch their teaching responsibilities go to someone else. One colleague told us that when her department refused to teach the basic speech communication course [online], the university administrator moved the public speaking program to the School of Business, which was willing to teach speech online. Though there is not a consensus in support of or against Online Public Speaking in higher education curriculum (Morreale et al. 423), some faculty members are being pressured into teaching the course online at various institutions. Some new faculty members are not given a choice to teach the online course or not; administration requires it. Despite 3
the threats of job loss, some faculty members are determined to continue to hold their public speaking courses in the traditional classroom.1 Public Speaking is a technical and practical course (Leaderman 242). The uniqueness of Public Speaking is the interactivity and practicality of the course. The curriculum is created to encourage student understanding by evaluating their preparation, delivery, and participation (Leaderman 242). "The critical and analytic abilities fostered in this course can become the basis for the way in which students approach the vast array of human interactions involving speakers and listeners with which their lives abound" (Leaderman 242). Since oral communication is a general education requirement for most colleges and universities there has been pressure to move the course online for decades (Bennett). Of Big Ten (bigten.org) Universities, Indiana University-Bloomington currently does not offer C-121 Public Speaking online, though it has in the past (Indiana University). Perhaps it is only a matter of time until other universities do the same. The legendary University of Phoenix, known for offering online degrees, does not offer a public speaking course. Instead they require alternative communication courses, "G-200: Foundations for General Education and Professional Success" followed by "G-300: Skills for Professional Development" (University of Phoenix). RESEARCH QUESTION Throughout the years, concepts of communication (especially oral communication) have evolved to address new ways of communicating through technologies. Scholars have worked to redefine "communication" in efforts to explain 1 A recent survey of National Communication Association members found institutional opposition to the online basic course also exists (Morreale et al. 423). 4
new and old methods of communicating (Peters 5). Common terms related to online learning may be present in today's Public Speaking textbooks. Discovery of these terms may assist in further research to better explain the Online Public Speaking debate. If more of our college students are going to be taking Online Public Speaking instead of the traditional Public Speaking course (since Public Speaking is a general requirement at many colleges), understanding the arguments about the course made by scholars and institutions is important. Because online public speaking classes are becoming prevalent in higher education, it is increasingly important to conduct research to answer the following research question: Have concepts of speech communication in American higher education (especially the scene of public speaking) changed over time due to the introduction of internet technology and distanced (online) learning? If so, how? To answer these questions, a related question will also be addressed: What are some of the core concepts in speech education that may be at the center of disputes about Online Public Speaking? This question is integral to answering the main research question. To answer these two related questions, I will conduct a rhetorical analysis of discourse on the public speaking debate using Kenneth Burke's cluster-agon analysis. Because little in the way of overt arguments on this issue has been published, I will analyze key public speaking texts to discover if and how textbook discourse reveals sites of contention over the meaning of public speaking education in this era of online college courses. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The purpose of the literature review is to examine the current status of scholarly literature on online college courses in order to determine if and how online courses, 5
especially public speaking courses, have been examined thus far. There is a large body of research on the topic of online learning in higher education, but little research has focused on Online Public Speaking. present research, topics and key concepts will allow me to draw conclusions that will help answer my research questions. The review first examines literature about online learning, online college courses and then focuses on literature that specifically addresses the history of speech education and finally, the Online Public Speaking course. History of Distance Learning and Evolution of Online Courses Distance learning is defined as "education, through which a learner and institution are separated geographically," (Wade 12; Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 409; Mehrotra et al. 1). Distance education has been available in America since the late-1800s (Mehrotra et al. 1; Noble 8-9; Wade 12). "Distance education emerged in response to the need of providing access to those who would otherwise not be able to participate in faceto-face courses" to complete their education (Beldarrain 139). Institutions sent course materials (lessons and tests) to their students through correspondence (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 409; Mehrotra et al. 1; Noble 8-9; Wade 12). "The university based movement began in earnest in the 1890s; by the 1910s and 1920s, it had become a craze comparable to today's mania for online distance education" (Noble 9). Distance learning has "evolved" from its first appearance as correspondence courses more than one hundred years ago (Beldarrain 139). "In the 20th century, the gradually accelerating pace of technological invention led to new forms of distance education" (Mehrotra et al. 2). In the 1930s, courses were aired on radio and in the 1950s courses debuted on television (Mehrotra et al. 2). Television courses were popular, until 6
new technology emerged to take its place. The launch of the Video Home System (VHS) tape in the mid-1970s introduced audio/visual recordings to the public (Williams). VHS tapes (also known as video tapes or videos) offered students the opportunity to take courses at their leisure. VHS tapes could be played anytime one had access to a Video Cassette Recorder (VCR), television and power (Williams). Once computers made their way to academic institutions, they stayed. With advances to technology and widespread use, the capability of the computer remains unmatched. "In the 1960s large computers could be found at many universities" (Caladine 16). In the late-1960s, the Internet was invented by the U.S. Department of Defense in efforts "to create a nationwide computer network via telephone lines" (SheaSchultz and Fogarty 7). In the 1970s and 1980s computer technology changed rapidly; "the network evolved...it became the province of academic institutions, scientists, and government employees engaged in research and communication" (Shea-Schultz and Fogarty 7). By this time, users could exchange information via e-mail "rapidly and inexpensively" (Shea-Schultz and Fogarty 7). From the Internet ('Net), the World Wide Web was developed and added a new dimension to research in higher education (Shea-Schultz and Fogarty 7). "Since the World Wide Web's conceptualization in 1991 as a method of making Research findings and scientific materials available to researchers and teachers across the globe, it has become an indispensable tool for educators" (Khosrow-Pour iii). Though the format of web pages was fairly simple containing mostly text and hyperlinks (embedded links in a document or webpage which connect to another document, page, or webpage), the 7
content was readily accessible to users, available at any time of the day or week and within reach (CERN). Richard Caladine provided a description of computer development and education in his book Enhancing E-Learning with Media-Rich Content and Interactions (2008). Caladine stated: It was not until the advent of the personal computer in the 1980s that computers made an impact on teaching and learning in a majority of subject areas. In the late 1980's and early 1990's, the development of the Internet and its combination with personal computers (PCs) can be argued as producing the most significant change, especially in higher education and human resource development contexts, to the way technology is used in learning (16). A culmination of Web development and public access "marked the beginning of the Internet's explosive growth" (Shea-Schultz and Fogarty 9). "In 1992...programmers from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois developed the Mosaic browser, a software application that displayed not only the text of a Web document (or page) but any embedded graphic element as well" (SheaSchultz and Fogarty 8-9). "Once the Internet adopted World Wide Web standards in order to accommodate users, Internet traffic skyrocketed" (Shea-Schultz and Fogarty 10). "By the mid-1990s, the digital revolution had developed the personal computer, the Internet, the World Wide Web, and the CD-ROM to the point where it became feasible to deliver educational content directly to students' homes and offices" (Mehrotra et al. 3). As a result, there was a spike in distance learning courses (Mehrotra et al. 4; Wade 12). This trend continued in the mid-to-late 1990s as more institutions began offering distance-learning programs. From 1995-1998, the percentage of institutions that 8
offered distance courses jumped from 33% to 44% (National Center for Education Statistics). Today, traditional students have been granted academic mobility in the form of the online classroom (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 408). Traditional and nontraditional college students may now integrate online courses into their curriculum or they may get their degree without ever stepping foot on their degree granting campus. "Distance-learning courses, especially at multi-campus universities are becoming more popular not only as a way to manage exploding student populations, but to serve the needs of students pursuing degrees at multiple campuses" (Zdenek 33).2 With increases in fuel prices, tuition, lack of jobs and an increase in the cost of living, it is not surprising that the number of students taking online courses continues to increase. In 2008, "institutions of higher education report[ed] record numbers of students enrolled in online courses" (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 408). "In 2005, more than 3 million students were enrolled in at least one online course at a degree-granting institution" (Allen and Seaman, 2006). Bejerano discovered traditional students are drawn to online courses for a number of reasons. First, sometimes students take online courses to fill their course load or because they are unable to receive a cap override (411). Next, "students who perceive themselves doing poorly in the traditional class may choose instead to take the same course online because they believe it may be easier" (411). Finally, they value convenience of online courses; students can attend online classes at a time the course is not offered, fitting the course within their schedule (411). Assistant 2 "Administratively, there are practical benefits in making courses available online: ability to serve larger number of students at reduced cost" (Kampov-Polevoi, 2010). 9
Professor Christina Yoshimura (2011) of the University of Montana also found convenience as a common why reason students today are taking online courses. 3 Today, some schools even require students to take online courses. "The University System of Maryland now requires undergraduates to take 12 credits in alternative learning modes, including online" (Parry). Other institutions have similar requirements. Institutions such as Indiana University, for example, may not have a formal requirement that integrates online courses into traditional student schedules, but online courses are available to students. As technology advances so does the online classroom; technological capabilities have steadily advanced in online learning in recent years (Beldarrain 140-43). In the beginning, online courses were limited to text interactions (e-mail, posts, etc.). Today, the online course has changed the way students practice the speech event within an academic environment, moderating the speech event and feedback process online with online classroom software, digital cameras, and social networking sites. Students can access online courses in seconds, logging in and out of the classroom as their schedule and mobile computer or cellular devices permit. They can gather course materials and complete assignments through the Internet. They can also upload and download files (including assignments, mp3s and Podcasts), access hyperlinks to online resources (professors may post links relevant to the coursework), and chat online via webcams (linking participants with an audio/visual component) (Shih et al. 2; Siddiqui and Zubairi 326). 3 Assistant Professor Dr. Christina G. Yoshimura teaches online courses and conducts research in the areas of technology and communication in the Department of Communication Studies at University of Montana (Yoshimura). 10
Today's traditional student population is "a diverse population that is more mobile and technology-savvy than any previous generation" (Beldarrain 150). "Having grown up with technology, the Net Geners' familiarity with most forms of gadgetry...is second nature" (Berk 9). They regularly use the Internet, participate in social networking and own a mobile phone that does more than just make phone calls (Berk 8). This has created a challenge for colleges (Berk 1; Wilson 9). Many colleges must meet the interests and demands of the new student population; altering "the social climate and social medium of college campuses" to meet student needs and interests (Saculla and Derrberry 3). Today, most colleges and universities have online courses and online classroom software to aid traditional courses. Literature on Online College Courses Three major themes emerged from the current literature about online college courses: Course Descriptions, teaching tips, and promotion and criticism of the online classroom.4 These themes stem from both qualitative and quantitative methods used by scholars to study the online classroom. Often researchers compare and contrast the online course to the traditional classroom (Bejerano, 2008; Mandernach et al., 2009), 4 For a sampling of materials that provide information about the online classroom, see Davis, 1993; Hodgkinson, 1994; Wade, 1994; Barksdale, 1998; Lacoss and Chylack, 1998; Chute et al., 1999; Palloff and Pratt, 1999; Clark and Jones, 2001; Mehrotra, et al., 2001; Taylor, 2001; Ho, 2002; Laurillard, 2002; Rudestam and Schoenholtz-Read, 2002; Shea-Schultz and Fogarty, 2002; Cornford and Pollock, 2003; Easton, 2003; Hanson and Teven, 2004; Mabrito, 2004; Allen and Seaman, 2006; Beldarrain, 2006; Mupinga et al., 2006; Christie and Jurado, 2007; Meskill, 2007; Caladine, 2008; Bejerano, 2008; Parsad and Lewis, 2008; Vanhorn et al., 2008; Dick et al., 2009; Mandernach et al., 2009; PenaShaff, 2009; Wishart and Guy, 2009; Wuensch et al., 2009; Kampov-Polevoi, 2010; Linardopoulos, 2011; Yoshimura, 2011. 11
judging course descriptions and teaching tips, online course quality criticism and concerns, and evaluation of the online classroom.5 In "The Online Communication Course: The Challenges" (2008), Vanhorn, Pearson, and Child surveyed communication instructors about their challenges with the online classroom. First, instructors must reformat the course to meet the online classroom (31, 33). They must learn and be flexible with new (and sometimes malfunctioning) technologies while managing time efficiently (31). Additional challenges include the responsibility to engage their students in the course, foster critical thinking, establish community and support academic discussion (31, 34). Communication within the online classroom can be synchronous ("in real-time") or asynchronous ("not in real-time").6 However, researchers are divided on the success of asynchronous communication. Some researchers argue synchronous communication is no longer necessary for successful interactions (Barksdale, 1998; Mandernach et al., 2009; Pena-Shaff, 2009; Yoshimura, 2011). Others are not ready to relinquish real-time interactions and question those in favor of the asynchronous environment (Mabrito, 2004; Bejerano, 2008). Critics are concerned with the lack of face-to-face communication in the online classroom and its affect on student success in the classroom. Though verbal communication in the online classroom through text is prevalent, nonverbal 5 For examples of evaluations on the online classroom, see Chute et al., 1999; Clark and Jones, 2001; Rudestam and Schoenholtz-Read, 2002; Bejerano, 2008; Linardopoulos, 2011. 6 For a sampling of materials referencing asynchronous and synchronous online communication, see Hiltz, 1994; Barksdale, 1998; Chute et al., 1999; Hanna, 2001; SheaSchultz and Fogarty, 2002; Mabrito, 2004; Bejerano, 2008; Caladine, 2008; Hannan, 2009; Mandernach et al., 2009; Pena-Shaff, 2009; Yoshimura, 2011. 12
communication is absent which can negatively affect students' learning and overall classroom experience (Bejerano, 2008; Wuensch et al., 2009). In addition to a lack of physical proximity (Bejerano, 2008), often feedback in the online classroom is delayed; delayed feedback is less effective than immediate feedback (King et al., 2000). Communicating face-to-face in the online classroom is impossible without videoconferencing. "Three factors converge in shaping decisions about non-textual lecture presentation: (1) the technology and personnel provided by the institution, (2) instructor preference, and (3) recommendations by technical consultants" (KampovPolevoi, 2010). This commonly takes form as a Podcast or "narrated PowerPoint Presentation" (Kampov-Polevoi, 2010). A challenge in the online classroom is miscommunication. Lack of face-to-face communication may lead to misunderstanding online among users of text based computer mediated communication (Rheingold, 1998). Lack of clarity can be problematic in the online classroom (Rheingold, 1998). However, for those who prefer written communication, "it is often easier to discuss values and personal concerns" (Chickering and Ehrmann, 1996) and to convey emotion through the use of Emoticons (symbols that communicate facial expressions including sadness, happiness, and anger) (Goldsmith, 1998). For students who do not prefer written communication, communicating without nonverbal communication can be challenging and frustrating. Despite flexibility of access, login time, and location of participation, often the online classroom offers limited flexibility for students of different (or ineffective) learning styles (Mupinga et al., 2006; Bejerano, 2008). The online classroom is not for everyone; students must be motivated, organized, good at time management and 13
responsible (Allen and Seaman, 2006; Bejerano, 2008). To avoid failure, students should be cautious when enrolling in online courses, educating themselves about course expectations and demands prior to enrollment (Bejerano, 2008). Professors should survey their students' concerns and learning styles prior to beginning the course (Mupinga et al., 2006). A proper assessment will provide data needed to establish an effective learning environment, offering students multiple options for learning, additional resources, and instruction (Mupinga et al., 2006). The level of discussion in the online classroom is dictated by the professor and it is his or her responsibility to set clear expectations and guidelines for student participation (Beldarrain, 2006; Caladine, 2008). Educators are divided on whether discussion in the online classroom should be required (Ho, 2002; Wishart and Guy, 2009). Supporters argue because discussion is important to communication within the online course it should be required and part of the student's grade (Ho, 2002; Wishart and Guy, 2009), while others argue that requiring discussion would inhibit students from sharing at will (Davis, 1993; Lacoss and Chylack, 1998; Ho, 2002; Wishart and Guy, 2009). In current literature, students and instructors are commonly surveyed; theories from previous research applied, and/or narrative accounts are recorded to assess various aspects of the online classroom. Critics of the online classroom often take a qualitative approach to the matter, emphasizing lack of face-to-face communication and rushed course development as reasons for lack of course quality (Bejerano, 2008). Critics argue development of the online classroom happened too quickly and without adequate assessment (Noble, 2001; Bejerano, 2008). Their research includes observation, narratives, theory and evaluation of communication methods. Concerns include loss of 14
face-to-face interactions (physical proximity), which include verbal and nonverbal communication, and immediate feedback (Noble, 2001; Bejerano, 2008). In "Face-to-Face or Online Instruction? Face-to-Face is Better" (2008), Arleen Bejerano posed the question "Are important communication variables, such as peer and teacher interaction, meanings, and messages compromised when courses are offered online?" To answer the question, Bejerano compared physical distance, classroom interaction and communication in the traditional and online classroom. She found that "online instruction does not provide sufficient student support" due to the physical separation of the student from faculty, peers, campus resources, and the community environment which promote connectedness, interaction, communication, and student success. Further, a student's inability or lack of desire to learn independently and "actively seek help" can further isolate the student in the online classroom which is designed for a motivated and "self-disciplined" student. In addition to negative implication for student success in the online classroom, Bejerano pointed out the dissatisfaction faculty members may experience in the online classroom due to the demands of the online classroom which can be "time-consuming, impersonal and relationally unrewarding": Teachers may find that they lose out on the relational rewards associated with teaching a live audience, building relationships with students and mentoring because they are distanced by space and time. For example, teachers enjoy expressing their passion and excitement to students through their tone, gestures, and facial expressions as they lecture. To what extent can these nonverbal be conveyed online? Finally, Bejerano after questioning the lack of real-time dialogue and inquiry, "face-toface-presentations," and "hands-on and skills-based" experiences in the online classroom, 15
she concluded "online courses may not be suitable or appropriate for everyone and for all instructional objectives." In "Considerations for Supporting Faculty in Transitioning a Course to Online Format" (2010), Julia Kampov-Polevoi interviewed faculty members with "recent experience converting a face-to-face course to [the] online format." Kampov-Polevoi discovered often times faculty members do not have a say in the conversion process; "the choice of development technology is likely to be confined to what is available and supported by the institution unless the instructor is both very technically proficient and willing to experiment." As a result, faculty interviewees noted tension towards suggestions from instructional designers such as shortening lectures, text, adding graphics, structured discussions, "replacement of oral presentations with written reports," etc. "While the instructional designer-influenced decisions tend to be based on learning theory and guidelines for accommodations of different learning styles, the faculty decisions are much more idiosyncratic," forcing faculty members to reevaluate and rework their teaching methods to fit the technology and create a successful learning environment. Kampov-Polevoi (2010) suggests future research should "evaluate more carefully the real and perceived losses (e.g. reduction in synchronous discussion) and gains (e.g. ease of linking additional content) of the online course format and their overall impact on instruction, student retention and satisfaction." Further, "Case studies of effective ways to mitigate the losses while fully capitalizing on the gains would be of value to current and future online educators." Findings would provide additional insight into the online classroom. 16
Though the virtual classroom, such as Second Life, is emerging, I did not discover a Public Speaking course through this medium. In virtual classrooms on Second Life, students are replaced by their avatars in the classroom (Yee et al. 115; secondlife.com). However, communication is limited to text and programmed avatar movements; presently, Second Life avatars are unable to mimic the user's nonverbal communication (Antonijevic). For the time being, the virtual classroom is not being used for college Public Speaking instruction. Literature on Online Public Speaking Courses While there is a growing body of literature about online classes, little has been published focusing on the Public Speaking course. Clark and Jones (2001), Hanson and Teven (2004), Nicosia (2005), and Linardopoulos (2011) all conducted student surveys to evaluate the Online Public Speaking course. In addition to surveys, Clark and Jones as well as Hanson and Teven included expert evaluations of student speeches. Results described teacher and student perceptions of hybrid and online public speaking courses. Each article analyzed different aspects of course quality including learning outcomes and student satisfaction in the course. Each study included a survey completed by a student enrolled in a public speaking course. Questions were not all assessed by quantitative measurement; some questions were open-ended and provided qualitative data. In 2001, an article by Ruth Anne Clark and David Jones titled "A Comparison of Traditional and Online Formats in a Public Speaking Course" took both a quantitative and qualitative approach, analyzing students' attributes, reasons for enrolling in an online public speaking course, and teaching outcomes through assessment of student speeches. In the first part of the study, a quantitative approach was used to analyze student 17
attributes and reasons for enrolling in the online (hybrid model, students delivered their speeches on-campus) or traditional Public Speaking courses at a midwestern community college. Student questionnaires provided results that were used to conduct a statistical comparative analysis. The second study sought to understand "the outcomes of teaching via traditional versus online format" (119). This time, a separate group of students was administered a questionnaire and their speeches were evaluated by experts. According to the questionnaires from the first study (47 online students and 76 traditional students, five traditional and four online sections), there were shared results in the areas of speech anxiety in the classroom and in perceived speech and computer competence (113-15). However, more males enrolled in the online course and those taking the online course had previously taken more college courses than those enrolled in the traditional course (116). Online students commented favorably on the flexibility of the course, and more of the online students held jobs than those in the traditional course, even though the ages of those enrolled in either course were similar (115-16). Online students also viewed themselves as working well independently and having computer access (116). "Knowing classmates in their public speaking class was considered more important by students in traditional sections than those in online sections" (116). Only one student chose the online version believing it would be easier (116). Online students did not expect to learn more than those in the traditional course; however, "28.9% of traditional students expected to learn more in the traditional format" (118). The second part of the study looked at the following: "global evaluations by students of the format they had selected, students' Self Assessments of their own public speaking skills and their level of speech anxiety, and experts' assessments of the 18
students' public speaking skills based on evaluations of their final speaking performance" (119). This time the sample size was smaller; it consisted of 61 students, 21 online students and 40 traditional students drawing from three different sections of the online and traditional course (119). This time, in addition to a questionnaire, students were recorded as they delivered their final speech for the course (119). "These videotaped presentations were evaluated by two experienced instructors from another institution who had no information regarding where the speeches had been recorded and under what circumstanced" (119). Then using the same criteria used by the students to assess themselves, the instructors evaluated the speeches (119). The results proved students were content with their choice of the type of course they registered for (120). More traditional students agreed getting to know their classmates made them more comfortable with their presentations and interaction in the classroom was helpful to their learning experience (120). As in the first study, there were shared results in the areas of speech anxiety in the classroom and perceived speech competence (121). Finally, "in this study, there were no substantial differences in expert ratings of public speaking abilities due to format in which the students engaged the course" (121). Clark and Jones concluded, "Achievement is similar in online and traditional courses"; students pass and fail in both formats (122). Reasons why students enroll in the online or traditional course and student assessments can tell us a lot about the different audiences for the course and their values and objectives. Traditional students expect more from the traditional course. Though achievement was not statistically significant, the students in the traditional course found in-class interactions to be important to their learning experience. Assessments of speech 19
anxiety and speech competence are only two important variables in public speaking, and Clark and Jones' essay does not comprehensively describe or evaluate the online speech event in the online classroom. In both of Clark and Jones's studies, students delivered speeches in-class versus today's online synchronously or asynchronous speech submissions.7 Trudy Hanson and Jason Teven's (2004) study provided lessons about the academic performance, community and learning preferences among online and traditional students enrolled at West Texas A & M University. Similar to Clark and Jones' (2001) second study, Hanson and Tevern recorded speeches by students enrolled in their university's traditional and online (hybrid) public speaking courses (1). After coders reviewed the tapes, they discovered their online (hybrid) students scored as well as those enrolled in the traditional course (1). Then, they distributed a survey to the students (1). From the results, they highlighted differences between the two groups. Surveyed students provided researchers with new information about those enrolled in the online and traditional public speaking course. First, students in the traditional course "had recently completed high school, while the online section included several `returning' students," nontraditional students (1). Second, in the traditional course, "students desired to have more class discussion" while the online students "complained about the chat sessions that were required of them" (8). Third, the online students experienced "greater difficulty building a sense of community" than those enrolled in the traditional course (8). Fourth, online students performed 5% higher on 7 At the time of this research, Clark and Jones noted that recorded speech submissions in place of in-class speeches were just beginning to be `piloted' by other online instructors (111). 20
their final written exam, with an average score of 81.7% compared to the traditional class' average of 76.6% (8). Fifth, students in the online class reported higher levels of communication apprehension (1, 8). Despite differences, both sections of the course agreed they preferred "learning strategies that required doing tasks" (8). From these results, the instructors were able to improve their online public speaking courses, add new sections and generate excitement among colleagues about teaching the online course (8). This research highlighted some important challenges facing online public speaking instructors including creating a sense of community in the classroom and decreasing communication apprehension. Since both the traditional and online (hybrid) students delivered their speeches face-to-face, the speech assessments measured the same speech environment. In 2005, Gloria Nicosia published "Developing an online writing intensive course: will it work for public speaking?" Nicosia's research was an analysis of her own course and teaching methods, starting in fall 2001 (3). She chose to integrate the online element to her course by creating a hybrid course, putting portions of her course online (3). This enabled students (through Blackboard) to engage with classmates in discussion, to interview one another online and to post assignments online (including peer reviews) (4). Speeches were reserved for the traditional classroom (4). In spring 2003, she conducted a survey of 15 students to determine if the writing intensive part of the class contributed to their learning (4). Ten out of 15 students responded "yes," five responded "probably yes," not one student responded "no" (4). In summary, she found that faculty needed to focus on writing and technology for the benefit of the students (5). Like the Clark and Jones essay, Nicosia's work focuses on only one aspect of teaching public 21
speaking online. A recent study building from Clark, Jones, and Nicosia's works is "Teaching and Learning Public Speaking Online" by Nick Linardopoulos. This study was based upon a survey of 55 college students enrolled in online public speaking courses (four different sections of the course at the same college) (200). "The survey instrument included Likert-scale and true/false questions as well as an open-ended qualitative questions regarding the feelings of the students towards the online section of the course" (200). "The survey also attempted to assess the rationale behind the students' decisions to enroll in the online section for the specific course" (200). After compiling the (qualitative and quantitative) data from the surveys, Linardopoulos concluded: Overall, despite the challenges associated with taking the online version of the course three key findings from the survey highlight that a fully online version of a Public Speaking course can work effectively. First, an overwhelming majority of the students believe they learned the same or more than they would have in the face-to-face version. Second, a large percentage of the students would re-take the online version of the course if they had a second chance. Third, an overwhelming majority of the students would recommend the online version to a friend/colleague (207). Despite extra credit incentives, most of the students did not record their speeches in the presence of an audience (207). Of the students surveyed for their feedback on student satisfaction in the Online Public Speaking course, "less than 5% of [speech] submissions" included an audience (207). Each of these three studies relied on student responses to evaluate the hybrid and online course. Though these researchers evaluated speeches of students enrolled in the hybrid and online courses, they did not investigate the surrounding debate over putting the course online. Forthcoming research should add to existing studies on the Online Public Speaking classroom. 22
Worley, Kernisky, and McMahan's article "A Descriptive Analysis of BestSelling Basic course texts" (2000) addressed the "challenge for individual instructors, committees or basic course directors" to select a textbook for their hybrid Public Speaking courses (3). They gathered eight of the most popular Public Speaking textbooks published by National Communication Association conference attendees (4-5). These textbooks included: Alder and Rodman's Understanding Human Communication 7th ed. (1999); Berko, Wolvin and Wolvin's Communicating: A Social and Career Focus 7th ed. (1998); Devito's Essentials of Human Communication 3rd ed. (1997); O'Hair, Friedrich, Wiemann and Wiemann's Competent Communication 2nd ed. (1997); Pearson and Nelson's An Introduction to Human Communication: Understanding and Sharing 8th ed. (2000); Seiler and Beall's Communication: Making Connections (1999); Yoder, Hugenberg, and Wallace's Creating Competent Communication 2nd ed. (1996); and Verberder Communicate! 9th ed. (1999). Using basic content analysis, they examined each textbook, rating the following: organization of the text, focus, topics (including the number of pages dedicated to each topic), pedagogical features, and available ancillaries for each text (4, 6). They found the texts to be "highly similar...the similarities among texts far outweigh the differences," highlighting both the similarities and differences in detail (14). They recommended future research should "focus upon an in-depth analysis of the theories, concepts, philosophical assumptions and skills found in best selling textbooks" (14). Past research has focused on the hybrid public speaking course, which consists of online course work and in-person speeches; little research has addressed the fully Online Public Speaking Course. Research has also been limited to assessment and quality rather 23
than focusing on the reluctance of some professionals to put the course online or the arguments articulating concepts about the online course. Since increasingly online public speaking classes are being offered in colleges and universities, research examining the key terms and issues in this debate may clarify areas of disagreement and reveal how concepts of oral communication have been influenced by this advent of hybrid and online courses. A rhetorical analysis of key concepts in Public Speaking textbooks and how they have changed over time to accommodate new technologies can help us better understand the controversy over the Online Public Speaking course. METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study is to advance research on the topic of the Online Public Speaking classroom in particular to answer the following questions: (1) Have concepts of speech communication in American higher education (especially the scene of public speaking) changed over time due to the introduction of internet technology and distanced (online) learning? If so, how? and (2) What are some of the core concepts in speech education that may be at the center of disputes about Online Public Speaking? To answer the research questions, I will conduct a rhetorical analysis of selected public speaking textbooks using Kenneth Burke's cluster-agon analysis to examine any shifts in meaning of key terms and core concepts in speech communication today. Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis To analyze the rhetoric of these four texts, I will employ Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis. Cluster-agon analysis stemmed from Kenneth Burke's work on literary form. In Burke's The Philosophy of Literary Form, he introduced the idea of "associational 24
clusters" as a method by which an analyst could track key terms of a writer to discover the writer's underlying motive(s) (17). Burke began his explanation of this method with the focus of tracking a rhetor's key terms as a way to identify the terms' "symbolic" or "representative" meanings (17). Once the critic charts the key terms in a discourse, the terms form "clusters" or indicate "what goes with what" by grouping relative terms together (18, 20).8 Burke explained the relationship of key terms and clusters: If you tracked down all interrelations as revealed by the cluster in which a word has active membership, you would dissolve symbolism into an infinity of particulars. The "symbolic" attribute is like the title of a chapter; the particulars are like the details that fill out a chapter. The title is a kind of "first approximation"; the detailed filling-out a kind of "closer approximation" (31). By tracking the "associational clusters" of a writer through oral communication or written text, an analyst could identify "trends" (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 18). Identification of clusters in a discourse reveals interrelationships in the text: "what goes with what in these clusters--what kinds of acts and images and personalities and situations go with his [the writer's] notions of heroism, villainy, consolation, and despair, etc." (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 18). Identification of "cluster-agons" or conflicting terms within clusters (among key terms or multiple texts) "is possible only after the completion of the work"9 (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 18). Agons help the analyst determine inconsistencies in one or more works10 (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 16-22; Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 71-75). From the interrelationships discovered from the cluster-agons, the analyst could determine if "a common paradigm" 8 "Significance gained by noting what subjects cluster about other subjects (what images b, c, d the poet introduces whenever he talks with engrossment of subject a)" (Attitudes Toward History 232). 9 Emphasis from original text. 10 Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form, 17. 25
exists (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 17). If "a common paradigm" does exist, the analyzed work or works "become `symbolic' of something--they become `representative' of a social trend" (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 17), if not, the conflict(s) may be identified. By analyzing the interrelationships of cluster-agons, the analyst could derive the writer's motives from the text (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 18). Burke summarized the discovery of motives: The interrelationships themselves are his motives. For they are his situation; and situation is but another word for motives. The motivation out of which he writes is synonymous with the structural way in which he puts events and values together when he writes; and however consciously he may go about such work, there is a kind of generalization about these interrelations that he could not have been conscious of, since the generalization could be made by the kind of inspection that is possible only after the completion of the work" (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 18).11 Burke noted that writers use "associational clusters" unconsciously; though they were conscious when writing, they were unaware of the cluster-agons they were creating (Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 18). "We reveal, beneath an author's `official front,' the level at which a lie is impossible" (Burke, Attitudes Toward History 233). If conflicting terms12 or "agons" exist, they can be isolated to determine which key terms are at the core of the conflict.13 "Agons, like clusters may be formed indirectly by opposing each other through mutual relationship to third terms" (Berthold 304).14 Once the agons are discovered, the analyst may identify the affected clusters and key 11 Emphasis from original text. 12 Foss, "Women priests in the Episcopal Church" 3. 13 Berthold 303; Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 16-22; Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 71-75; Foss, "Women priests in the Episcopal Church" 3. 14 For an example, see Berthold's discovery and explanation of terms "freedom, security, and strength" from speeches by John F. Kennedy (305). 26
terms to determine the themes or conflicting worldviews in opposition to one another. 15 Works by Burke and Berthold illustrate the role of agons in cluster-agon analysis. In The Philosophy of Literary Form, Burke applies cluster-agon analysis to works by Samuel Coldridge (19-22) to "find ingredients in the figure of the Albatross slain in `The Ancient Mariner'" (20). Burke's discovery of agons reveals Coldridge's personal conflicts are reflected in his work (22). Another discussion of agons can be found in Carol Berthold's "Kenneth Burke's Cluster-Agon Method: Its Development and an Application." Using cluster-agon analysis to examine speeches by John F. Kennedy, Berthold focuses on Kennedy's use of the term "freedom" (305). Through identification of conflicting terms, agons identify "the conflict and the drama within the man himself" (306).16 To clarify, Sonja Foss describes a procedure for doing Burke's cluster-agon in her book Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice (2004).17 According to Foss, "Cluster analysis involves three basic steps: (1) identifying key terms in the artifacts; (2) charting the terms that cluster around the key terms; and (3) discovering an explanation for the artifact" (72). To begin, the critic should identify key terms in the discourse, "no more than five or six terms that appear to be the most significant for the rhetor" (73). Terms should be "determined on the basis of frequency or intensity" (73). To determine intensity of a term, the critic should ask if it "is central to the argument being made, 15 Berthold 304; Burke, Philosophy of Literary Form 16-22; Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 71-75; Foss, "Women priests in the Episcopal Church" 3. 16 Though Burke and Berthold analyze multiple works by the same author, Burke states, "You can give a perfectly accurate account of its structure on the basis of the one poem alone" (Philosophy of Literary Form 22). 17 "Burke only vaguely sketches the steps involved in cluster and agon analysis" (Berthold 302). 27
represents an ultimate commitment, or conveys great depth of feeling" or "a term whose removal would change the nature of the text significantly" (73).18 Once key terms are identified the critic should conduct "a close examination of the artifact to identify each occurrence of each key term and identification of the terms that cluster around each key term" (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 73). These clusters "may appear in close proximity to the term, or a conjunction such as and may connect a term to a key term. A rhetor also may develop a cause-and-effect relationship between the key term and another term, suggesting that one depends on the other or that one is the case of the other" (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 73). After clusters have been charted, the critic should search for "patterns in the associations or linkages discovered in the charting of the clusters as a way of making visible the worldview constructed by the rhetor" (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 74). An association may be directly related to a key term and "suggests that the key term's meaning for the rhetor is modified or influenced by that associated term" (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 74). "As a result of cluster analysis, the critic is able to locate the conflict or opposition in the principles and images of the discourse" (Foss, "Women priests in the Episcopal Church" 3). Several rhetorical scholars have employed cluster-agon analysis effectively. For example, John Lynch's essay "Race and Radical Renamings: Using Cluster Agon Method to Assess the Radical Potential of `European American' as a Substitute for `White'" was featured in the KB Journal and provides a guide for cluster-agon analyses of predetermined key terms. Lynch analyzed 15 transcribed group interviews which 18 "The term receiving stronger imagery than its opponent is likely to be of greater importance to the speaker" (Berthold 304). 28
"dealt with questions about health, race and genetics." Using QSR N6 software to quantify the words from the transcriptions, Lynch identified terms surrounding the predetermined key terms and charted their frequency. Terms which were used "in five different talk turns were included in the final analysis." Once frequent terms were extracted, contrasting terms were established by the charting of "positive" and "agonistic terms." A table of terms and written summary of findings were included in the analysis. "Women priests in the Episcopal Church: A Cluster Analysis of Establishment Rhetoric" by Sonja Foss is another example of cluster-agon analysis. Foss "looked at terms that clustered around four key terms, identified as such because of their intensity and frequency of appearance [in samples of discourse]: `Church,' `priest,' `male' and `female'" (3). Instead of using software to quantify and chart recurring terms, Foss conducted a qualitative analysis. Dealing which each key term separately, cluster-agon analysis of each key term was described and surrounding terms were named (3-6). Relationships between the key terms and surrounding terms were described by their similarities and differences (3-6). In the conclusion, summaries of terms were supported by a list of terms derived from the clusters (7). Texts eligible for cluster-agon analysis come in a variety of forms and cover an array of topics. Cluster-agon analysis (also known as cluster criticism, cluster analysis and cluster-agon method or theory) can be used to analyze key terms and core concepts in both discursive and visual (nondiscursive) artifacts (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 73). From "A Rhetorical Analysis of the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch" by Kathleen N. ReidNash (1984)19 to "A Cluster-agon Analysis of Enron's Code of Ethics" by Kimberly C. 19 Dissertation directed by Dr. Sonja Foss. 29
Elliott a variety of discursive and nondiscursive texts have been analyzed using this method (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 75-76).20 Texts for analysis will include America's top selling Public Speaking textbook, The Art of Public Speaking (2012) by Stephen E. Lucas; Public Speaking for College and Career 8th ed. (2008) by Hamilton Gregory; The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking Rev. 1st ed. (2008) (The Speaker's Handbook with customized content by Indiana University-Bloomington) by Sprague, Stuart, Sellnow, and Smith and The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) by Joseph Valenzano III and Stephen Braden. Each textbook represents one or more of the three different teaching methods (traditional, hybrid, and online classroom) in colleges and universities. Rhetorical Artifacts Selected for Analysis By first focusing on a set of public speaking textbooks designed for a variety of methods for delivering instruction (including online instruction), analysis of The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012) and Public Speaking for College and Career 8th ed. (2008), should illustrate similar approaches (and underlying worldviews) authors have taken to defining public speaking. Both texts are published by McGraw-Hill Companies and have had instructor supplements that adapt the text to the online classroom. On the contrary, analysis of the second set of textbooks from Indiana University-Bloomington's past and present public speaking courses, The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008) and The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public 20 Foss published "Women Priests in the Episcopal Church: A Cluster Analysis of Establishment" in 1984. 30
Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) should illustrate dissimilar worldviews and contrasting key terms. Both texts have different publishers and were either modified by the University or newly released. Further, The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking is strictly used in their traditional classroom. Results from the analyses of each text will be examined in relation to core concepts traditional to speech education in early American Speech courses to illuminate any changes in key terms or interpretation. The first textbook under examination in this study is The Art of Public Speaking (2012). The Art of Public Speaking continues to be a top selling public speaking textbook in America, published by McGraw Hill Companies (Worley et al.). The Art of Public Speaking was selected for this study based upon its use as a primary textbook for public speaking courses at colleges and universities across the nation (Morreale et al. 423). This textbook made its debut in 1983; it continues to be used in traditional classroom settings and has since been adapted to both hybrid and fully online public speaking classes. This textbook was also chosen for its supplemental text Teaching Public Speaking Online Using The Art of Public Speaking (2004; 2009) by Professor Jennifer Sue Cochrane of Indiana University Purdue University-Indianapolis (IUPUI). Though this textbook has been the center of many peer reviewed articles, much of the research has focused on pedagogy and content analyses.21 Research has not addressed the key terms of the text using Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis. Public Speaking for College and Career (2008) was primarily selected due to the title of its supplemental text, Teaching Public Speaking Online with Public Speaking for 21 For research including Lucas' The Art of Public Speaking, see Gullicks et al., 2005, Pearson et al., 2006; Pearson et al., 2007; Child et al., 2007. 31
College and Career Seventh Edition by Hamilton Gregory (2005) by Sam Zahran.22 This supplement, similar to that written for The Art of Public Speaking, specifically addresses adapting the book to the online classroom. Geared towards teaching Public Speaking online, "The guide is written for two audiences: instructors who are thinking about developing and teaching their first online course and those with experience teaching online courses" (Zahran 1). Public Speaking for College and Career was also selected based upon the longevity of the text (it debuted in 1987) and its use in public speaking hybrid and online classrooms. Analyses have focused primarily on curriculum and speech anxiety and have not included cluster-agon analysis. Two other textbooks for analysis will include Indiana University's (IUBloomington) past and present C121: Public Speaking textbooks. As more colleges and universities are moving their courses online, IU-Bloomington recently chose to keep their public speaking courses in the traditional classroom after piloting the online course. IUBloomington's recent decision to abandon the Online Public Speaking course also included a change in the primary textbook (Price). Instead of continuing use of The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008), the University recently chose a newer textbook, The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking by Valenzano III and Braden (Smith, "C121 Textbook"). Presently, this text is accompanied by supplemental materials produced by the University, a required text for all C121 students (Smith, "C121 Textbook"). Neither text has been the focus of rhetorical analysis. 22 Zahran addressed both hybrid and fully online adaptations of the textbook. 32
CONCLUSION In this thesis, I will conduct a rhetorical analysis of four different public speaking textbooks using Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis to determine if technology has influenced the central concepts about oral communication. Variation among historical and contemporary identification and interpretation of concepts central to oral communication may illuminate technological influences and help illustrate why there is disagreement in the discipline regarding online public speaking courses. In addition, present clusters in the contemporary texts may provide further insight into current rhetoric about online classes in higher education. Chapter Two of the thesis will provide an overview of speech communication in higher education in America, focusing on the identification of the concepts central to speech communication education. The chapter will also outline the history of online public speaking courses in higher education. Then, concepts key to traditional public speaking which may be at odds with the online course will be discussed. An analysis of four public speaking textbooks will be conducted in Chapter Three. Cluster-agon analysis of each textbook will include summaries of each book followed by a description of what the analysis will focus on. Core concepts in oral communication as identified in Chapter Two will be used to select the section(s) of each of the textbooks significant to the analysis. Each of the textbooks will be analyzed separately. Then I will analyze similarities and differences between the associational clusters highlighted in the four textbooks, thus revealing any existing agons. Differences and/or similarities in focus or meaning of key terms will be examined in relation to course delivery. 33
I will compare the results of my analysis to (the traditional) foundational concepts in oral communication. Analysis of these traditional core concepts in relation to contemporary texts may unearth new key concepts or evolving interpretations of foundational key terms. Conversely, the study may discover that differences do not extend beyond the creation of new terms to describe contemporary technology used in public speaking or online learning. In the conclusion, Chapter Four, I will describe the contributions and limitations of my study and provide suggestions for further research. 34
CHAPTER 2 HISTORY AND CORE CONCEPTS OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION COURSES OF SPEECH COURSES IN AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION More than a century ago, speech communication was formally introduced as a discipline in American higher education (Gray 422). Founded on classical rhetoric, (works by Plato, Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian) speech communication was established on core concepts dating back to ancient Greece (Edney 80; Hochmuth and Murphy 156). However, contrary to ancient times, speech education is no longer confined to a physically shared space and time. With the invention of the Internet and introduction of online learning, speech courses are no longer confined to an on-campus classrooM. Today, many colleges and universities are teaching public speaking courses online--but not without criticism. An historical overview of speech in American higher education and identification of its core concepts are necessary to understand the development of Online Public Speaking and the current debate about it. To begin, the development of speech communication in American higher education is introduced. Next, identification of early American higher education speech communication key terms using early public speaking textbooks reveals core concepts at the foundation of the discipline. Finally, discovery of conflicting terms at the heart of the Online Public Speaking debate reveal core concepts at the heart of the argument. Core concepts central to the debate will guide the selection of material from public speaking textbooks that are analyzed in Chapter Three. Results 35
reveal whether or not core concepts of speech communication have changed with the introduction and use of technology. EARLY HISTORY OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION IN THE UNITED STATES Speech communication in American higher education emerged from the history of rhetoric and ancient classical theories (Edney 80; Hochmuth and Murphy 156) coupled with scholars' realization that speech communication was academic (Gray 422). 23 In the United States, it took more than a century24 for speech communication to "finally became recognized as a dignified academic subject in itself" (Gray 422). Prior to achieving departmental status, speech education remained under the umbrella of English departments across the nation (Hochmuth and Murphy 168). Before speech curriculum was introduced to American higher education, students were trained in elocution. Elocution began in England in the 1700s before making its way to America (Haberman 105). It was developed as a response to England's growing popularity of and pride in the English language (Haberman 105-107). Those educated in English agreed that "power in oral presentation was an instrument of public persuasion" and wanted to garner such "power" (Haberman 106). Elocution training emerged to improve the language of British Speakers, making "the language an even more noble instrument by standardizing and improving it in all its aspects, both written and spoken" (Haberman 106). According to "English Sources of American Elocution" by Frederick Haberman, once elocutionists began to develop their teaching methods in the early 1800s, they grew 23 "By 1915 College Teachers of public speaking were inserting the word `academic' into the title of their new associations..." (Smith, "Origin and Development of Departments of Speech" 453). 24 In the 1900s speech education officially became its own subject (Gray 422). 36
in popularity; they began influencing American popular theatre and training school-aged children (107-108, 122-23). Teachers of elocution were more interested in the spoken word than speech invention, they "concentrated their pedagogical techniques more upon the practice of reading aloud, than on the delivery of original speeches" (109). This was reflected in their systematic approach to delivery which emphasized control of "bodily action," (110) "manipulation of English sounds," (110) "phonetics," (111) and overall "voice production" (111) of the speaker (109-11). Until the mid-1800s, elocution, the study of the spoken word with emphasis on delivery, was a required subject in most American colleges (Haberman 105, 110-11; Hochmuth and Murphy 168-69). However, since elocution focused closely on scripted delivery, "interests in Elocution diminished, but the persistent urge of students to find artistic oral expression sought an outlet, intercollegiate speaking contests" (Hochmuth and Murphy 168, 173). Student demand for public speaking education (including instruction in argumentation and debate) perpetuated the movement of colleges and universities away from elocution courses and toward Departments of Speech (Hochmuth and Murphy 173). With expanding curriculums and increasing enrollment in colleges and universities, administrators were pressured to place "more and more emphasis upon the importance of the college department" (Smith, "Origin and Development of Departments of Speech" 449). Faculty members were given liberty to add "their individual aspirations and their aspirations for their instructional area," taking part in the development of speech departments (Smith, "Origin and Development of Departments of Speech" 449). Among the faculty who were impacted positively by this opportunity were teachers of speech, 37
"men interested in the teaching of speech felt that the path of both hope and opportunity led from the establishment of an autonomous department" (Smith, "Origin and Development of Departments of Speech" 449). At this time, "speech instruction became the responsibility of departments of English Language and Literature," the umbrella under which elocution once fell (Smith, "Origin and Development of Departments of Speech" 449, 450-52; Hochmuth and Murphy 172). English departments were not the ideal location for speech courses. English and literature curriculum focused on reading and writing, leaving little room for delivery and invention of speeches (Smith "Origin and Development of Departments of Speech" 449; 450-52; Dues and Brown 38). English departments' limitations on speech faculty resulted in the development of speech centered regional and national associations. Among the associations were The National Associations of Elocutionists (1892-1916), Eastern Public Speaking Conference (est. 1910), and Speech Association of America (est. 1905) (Gray 423). "The second and third of these three organizations particularly were founded on the basis of a profound belief in the essential integrity of the field of speech as a dignified, academic discipline in its own right" (Gray 423). "While acknowledging some shared subject matter with other disciplines, communication scholars advanced the case for treating rhetoric as a discipline separated from English through a series of articles published during the 1920s" (Dues and Brown 38). Among the influential and discipline-changing authors and articles was "The Literary Criticism of Oratory" (1925) by Herbert A. Wichelns, a professor at Cornell 38
University (Bryant 5; Dues and Browns 38).25 In "The Literary Criticism of Oratory," Wichelns outlined the difference between criticism of literature and oratory. At this time, speech had been pushed aside in many colleges and universities; "both in England and in America, oratory is either an outcast or a poor relation" (5). In efforts to establish speech education, Wichelns argued English was not the department under which speech should fall; instead, speech needed its own department due to its distinct place in academia and its unique methods of instruction and analysis. Further, there was a professional need to expand speech education as new forms of media were emerging: ...oratory is no longer the chief means of communicating ideas to the masses. And the change is emphasized by the fact that the newer methods are now beginning to be investigated, sometimes from the point of view of the political student, sometimes from that of a "publicity expert." But, human nature being what it is, there is no likelihood that face to face persuasion will cease to be a principal mode of exerting influence, whether in the courts, in senate-houses, or on the platform. It follows that the critical study of oratorical method is the study, not of a mode outworn, but of a permanent and important human activity (7). It was clear that speech communication scholars "sought to understand how speakers adapt[ed] all the specific conditions and use [of] specific means of persuasion to achieve their purposes" (Dues and Brown 39). With a foundation of classical works of Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian, and new methodologies in speech communication, rhetorical scholars gained the necessary tools to apply "theoretical bases for analyzing and evaluating specific speeches and speakers" (Dues and Brown 38-39). It was on these pillars that "Speech as a field--the classical rhetorical tradition combined with the newer 25 The essay was first published in Studies in Rhetoric and Public Speaking in Honor of James Albert Winans (1925) (Bryant 5). 39
concerns of vocal and physical training--became established clearly if not firmly" Hochmuth and Murphy 173).26 HISTORY OF ONLINE PUBLIC SPEAKING COURSES IN THE UNITED STATES Distance education changed rapidly over the last century. Distance education made its debut in the late-1800s in the form of course correspondence from instructor to student (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 409; Mehrotra et al. 1). Development of broadcasting introduced courses by radio (1930s) and then television (1950s) (Mehrotra et al. 2). Shortly after the development of televised courses, technology for the computer and Internet was developed (Caladine 16). "By the mid-1990s, the digital revolution had developed the personal computer, the Internet, the World Wide Web, and the CD-ROM to the point where it became feasible to deliver educational content directly to students' homes and offices" (Mehrotra et al. 3). By the late 1990s, there was a tremendous increase in the number of distance learning courses (Mehrotra et al. 4). In 1998, 44% of colleges and universities offered distance learning courses (National Center for Education Statistics). Increase in distance learners was attributed to advances in technology and a struggling economy; people had to work more as the cost of living increased (Mehrotra et al. 7-8). Consequently, more education was necessary for career advancement (Mehrotra et al. 7-8). "The shift by educators from teacher-centered education to student-centered learning," increased accommodations for students with disabilities, and pressure to increase enrollment also aided in increasing enrollment in distance learning courses (Mehrotra et al. 8-9). 26 The National Communication Association's "Historical Publication Reading List" can be found online at www.natcom.org. 40
The online classroom continues to change, adding new ways for participants to communicate and information to be accessed. In the early 2000s, increased bandwidth allowed audio and visual to be streamed online (Caladine 17). Presently, there are many ways that an institution may facilitate online courses. "An online course usually consists of the following: computer-mediated communication (CMC), the learning space is independent of a location and it is time-flexible (with exceptions to online courses which have required meeting times for discussions)" (Bejerano, "Raising the Question #11" 409). "Time, place, and pace" are a few appeals of the online classroom (Caladine 18). Jennifer Cochrane of Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) was instrumental in the development of the first Web-based public speaking course (Cochrane iii). Preceding development of the Online Public Speaking course, "Ms. Cochrane was appointed basic course director in 1998 and led the redesign of the basic course in concert with a faculty task force" (Cochrane iii). The following year, "she was asked to convert the basic course to a Web-based format" (Cochrane iii).27 By the "spring 2001, the first Online Public Speaking course was successfully implemented" as COMM-R110: Fundamentals of Speech Communication (Cochrane iii). According to Teaching Public Speaking Online with The Art of Public Speaking Eighth Edition by Stephen E. Lucas (2004) by Jennifer Cochrane, the objective of the web-based public speaking course "was to create an online course that offered opportunities similar to the traditional course" (2).28 Expectations of Online Public 27 It is inferred that online public speaking courses emerged in efforts to provide general education requirements online. However, little literature exists on the history and expansion of the fully online public speaking course. 28 The Web version of COMM-R 110 continues to be offered through Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis ("Course Offerings"). 41
Speaking students mirrored expectations of those enrolled in the traditional classroom (2). "The same Course Objectives were used for the online class as the traditional classes, making the online class fully transferrable" (2). Course objectives included attendance, completion of assignments, participation, etc.; students were also assigned the same textbook that was used in the traditional course, The Art of Public Speaking 8th ed. (2004) by Stephen E. Lucas (2). All students in the online course were required to deliver three of five assigned speeches face-to-face in front of their classmates, on IUPUI's campus in front of their peers (2). Today, online public speaking courses are offered around the country and many do not require students to meet face-to-face. With increased bandwidth and improvements to technology, many courses have switched to a fully-online model (Caladine 17). Instead of a text-based platform, some courses are interactive and include images and video (Sowers; Bennett). EVOLVING CORE CONCEPTS IN SPEECH COMMUNICATION COURSES Now that we have a basic understanding of the historical development and evolution of the college public speaking class it is important to identify the discipline's core concepts and how they have changed overtime. Identification of Core Concepts in Early Speech Communication Courses Early speech textbooks, such as The Art of Public Speaking (1915) by Esenwein and Carnegie, Public Speaking (1917) by James Albert Winans and Basic Principles of Speech (1936) by Sarett and Foster, focused on both the speaker and audience. Core concepts were related to physicality (i.e. "voice" and "gestures"), "delivery," "audience" 42
and "persuasion." Emphasis on the speaker and audience in the texts varied; however, the context of the terms was consistent. The Art of Public Speaking (1915), by Joseph Berg Esenwein and Dale Carnegie, "described how to make effective use of one's voice and gestures, how to gain and convey confidence in front of a large audience, and which methods to use to convert the listeners to one's own cause" (Internet Archive). Esenwein and Carnegie reinforced the importance of "preparation" and "practice" (associated terms include "training," "thinking," and "thought"). They focused on how to deliver a successful (or "effective") speech resulting in "persuasion" ("influence") of the "audience." Additionally, emphasis was placed on the speaker's control and correct use of "voice," "gestures," "power," and "delivery." Public Speaking (1917) by James Albert Winans29 focused on the speaker's relationship to the "audience" and developing the speaker's ability to captivate the audience's "attention." "With a pressing need for professional speakers" (3), Winans focused on the speaker's "delivery" and "persuasion" (12). He described the role of the speaker stating, "Besides having something to say, a speaker must be able to think; not only to think, but to say what he thinks; not only to say it, but to make others listen to it, understand it and feel the force of it" (12). Winans' evaluation of a "successful speech" assessed "the topic, the subject-matter, its formulation and its delivery" (12). Basic Principles of Speech (1936) by Lew Sarett and William Trifant Foster emphasized the importance of the speaker's abilities (persuasion, articulation, poise, body language, etc.) and the speaker's relationship with the audience as a means to function in 29 "Winans' textbook, Public Speaking, first published in 1915, ran through many printings before being revised in 1938 as Speech-Making" (Gray 43). 43
society and garner respect, results and success. While the second half of the text was devoted to speech writing and language choice, "Part One: Delivery" included chapters on: "Speech in Everyday Life," "Developing Confidence and Poise," "Directness and the Conversational Spirit," "Bodily Action," "The Voice," "Melody," and "Time" (3). The most prevalent term was "Action," often associated with physical action, "Bodily Action" (3). The theme of "Action" was evident throughout the text and emphasis was placed on the student's/ speaker's abilities to be both physically and mentally present and controlled. By the 1950s, researchers became aware of the evolving language associated with speech. Everett L. Hunt described this shift in "Herbert A. Wichelns and the Cornell Tradition of Rhetoric as a Humane Study": Our friends the psychologist tell us that the study of communication is only beginning, and already the language of their treatises have become highly technical. Perhaps this is inevitable, and we shall have to learn to interpret the interpreters of the processes of communication. But a grounding in traditions of classical rhetoric will show something of the unity of the human spirit in all of this (4). Shared recognition of traditional terms strengthened the foundation of speech communication (4). "Until about the time of the Second World War, the dominant foci of research in speech communication are historical conceptions of speech and historic practices in speaking. The immediate necessity was to recover and explain what had already been thought about spoken communication" (Arnold 324). By the 1980s, the focus shifted away from speech to the broader term, communication under which related subdisciplines fall (including speech communication) (Arnold 328). Though now considered a 44
subdiscipline, speech communication textbooks continued to focus on basic public speaking skills. Despite the transition of speech to a subdiscipline, Raymond S. Ross authored popular textbooks, Speech Communication: Fundamentals and Practice 7th ed. (1986) and Speech Communication: The Speechmaking Process 9th ed. (1992). Hence the title, Speech Communication: Fundamentals and Practice 7th ed. (1986) was divided into two parts: "Fundamentals" and "Practice" (v, vii).30 Related key terms "persuasive" and "persuasion," the objective of speech communication, were the only recurring terms used in the textbook outline (viii). Ross' later textbook, Speech Communication: The Speechmaking Process 9th ed. (1992) though similar in overall content, differed in layout and introduced revised chapters and sections. In the 9th edition, Ross repeatedly used the term "speech" in the chapters and sections (i.e. "Preparing and Researching the Speech," "Organizing the Speech" and Outlining the Speech") (Speech Communication: The Speechmaking Process v-ix). Despite changes in terms, core concepts of early speech communication remained the same. Identification of Core Concepts in Online Speech Communication Courses Over the past decade, scholars have described and debated Online Public Speaking. From the debate, new information has emerged to provide resources for professors of Online Public Speaking including supplemental texts, peer-reviewed articles, and webinars. From these texts, a number of key terms are used to describe the "time," "space," tools, and communication within or related to the method of delivering 30 "Past editions of this text have been used in all fifty states and in seven foreign countries. The various editions have tried to reflect the changing social and academic times, only rarely succumbing to fads, and only occasionally missing some philosophical trend" (Ross, Speech Communication: Fundamentals and Practice xi). 45
the course. Among these terms are "asynchronous," "synchronous," "technology," "Web-based" "computer-mediated-communication," "feedback," and "audience." Key terms surrounding Online Public Speaking focus on the student's online experience; many of the terms are polar opposites. There is not a consensus among Communication scholars to label Online Public Speaking terms as "positive" or "negative," but it is clear which terms are at odds. With a lack of agreement on fundamental terms related to the online classroom, it is not surprising that there is so much debate about Online Public Speaking. Among the key terms related to the Online Public Speaking course are terms that describe "time." To some scholars, "asynchronous" or "not in real-time," is a positive term because it grants students flexibility to access and complete their coursework at their convenience.31 Opposing scholars view the term negatively, arguing the course must be in real-time to promote interaction and nonverbal feedback. They view "synchronous," which means "in real-time," as positive due to its emphasis on "real-time" student participation which emulates the traditional classroom (Mabrito, 2004; Bejerano, 2008). Key terms also describe the "place" or "setting" of the Online Public Speaking classroom. "Web-based" and "online" are two key terms used to contrast the "traditional" classroom setting. There is conflicting literature on whether the Online Public Speaking course should be an adaptation of the traditional course (Cochrane 3) or constructed differently due to its unique setting and technological capabilities. Some key terms describe the technology within the online classroom. Among these terms are "tech support," "network," "web cameras," "microphone," "volume," 31 For more information supporting asynchronous online courses, see Barksdale, 1998; Mandernach et al., 2009; Pena-Shaff, 2009; Yoshimura, 2011. 46
"podcast," and "recording." While some scholars view these terms as positive resources (Sowers), others relate them to the pitfalls of the online model. These terms are often used by scholars to highlight the challenges in the Online Public Speaking course, most of which are attributed to the Web-based platform (Sowers). Terms related to course delivery also impact several traditional speech communication key terms which are at the heart of the Online Public Speaking debate. "Computer-mediated-communication (CMC)," "feedback," and "audience" are three terms at the core of the discussions related to the Online Public Speaking course. "CMC" is the primary method of communication in the online classroom. A large body of work on the topic of CMC exists today. CMC is often present in the traditional course in the form of e-mail. However, when associated with the online course, CMC implies loss of face-to-face communication and unscripted "feedback." Though "feedback" can be textbased, the loss of both verbal and nonverbal communication and "real-time" responses in the classroom is controversial (Bejerano, 2008; Wuensch et al., 2009). Finally, the role of "audience" is often noted in literature about the Online Public Speaking course. There is little consensus concerning the role of "audience" in the online course. Some instructors require students to film their speeches with a set number of audience members listening to the speaker (Bennett) while others name the classmates as the "audience" and require their real-time presence during each classmate's live-streamed online speech (Sowers). Though "audience" is frequently mentioned concerning Online Public Speaking, there is little research analyzing the meaning or definition of "audience" in the Online Public Speaking course. 47
CONCLUSION This overview of the history of speech communication, its textbooks, and texts about online public speaking revealed that early speech communication core concepts are at the heart of the Online Public Speaking debate. Early speech education focused on the physicality of the speaker and the audience, making "audience," "delivery" and "feedback" core concepts of early speech communication education. In the traditional public speaking classroom, attendance and participation are results of students' physical presence. Meanwhile, online students are dependent upon computer-mediatedcommunication because there is absence of physical face-to-face and real-time interactions. To better understand the Online Public Speaking debate, rhetorical analysis of current textbooks is conducted next. Using Burke's Cluster-Agon Analysis, four different public speaking textbooks are analyzed to expose key terms and clusters used to describe public speaking. The analysis focuses on textbook chapters and sections related to the speech delivery; physicality of the speaker and audience, feedback, and technology. Textbook results are compared to core concepts of early Speech education in American higher education to determine if shifts in meanings of key terms and core concepts exist. Whether technology has or has not influenced core concepts of speech communication, from the analysis scholars may gain insight into fundamental disagreements surrounding Online Public Speaking (Chapter 4). 48
CHAPTER 3 CLUSTER-AGON ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING TEXTBOOKS Since the beginning of speech education in American colleges and universities, students have supplemented their professors' lectures with assigned textbooks. Traditionally hardback, early speech textbooks included hundreds of pages on speech communication concepts and practice. In the previous chapter, investigation of early speech textbooks revealed that core concepts in speech education included "audience," "delivery" and "feedback." These terms focused on physical presence and real-time communication between the speaker and audience, reflective of the traditional classroom. Today, despite relocation of public speaking courses in higher education from a traditional to a virtual model, students in the online classroom are still assigned textbooks. Surprisingly, recent research has not compared textbooks used in online and/or traditional public speaking classrooms. As discussed in Chapter 2, early speech communication core concepts are visible in the Online Public Speaking debate. Many communication scholars agree online students are dependent upon computer-mediated-communication because there is absence of physical face-to-face and real-time interactions. The reliance upon technology in the Online Public Speaking classroom may vary by instructor; still, the online platform remains. With the increasing number of online public speaking classes, analysis of course textbooks is important to better understand if and how course delivery has influenced today's core concepts of speech communication. 49
An analysis of today's speech textbooks should reveal whether or not the traditional core concepts have changed with the influence of technology and introduction of the online classroom. Further, a rhetorical analysis of key concepts in popular public speaking textbooks can help us better understand the controversy over the Online Public Speaking course. By using Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis, underlying themes related to core speech communication concepts are identified in four popular public speaking textbooks. Selected textbooks include The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012), Public Speaking for College and Career 7th ed. (2008), The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012), and The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008). In The Philosophy of Literary Form (1961), Burke introduced "associational clusters" as a method by which an analyst could track key terms of a writer to discover the writer's underlying motive(s) (17). Burke charted key terms as a way to identify their "symbolic" or "representative" meaning (17). Once the critic identifies the key terms in a discourse, those terms may form "clusters" or "what goes with what," grouping relative terms together (18, 20).32 Through the identification of clusters, critics can derive interrelationship of terms which lead to the discovery of the writer's motives in the text (18). Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis is applied to relevant sections of four Public Speaking textbooks using Foss' method of cluster-agon analysis outlined in Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice (2004). According to Foss, "Cluster analysis 32 According to Burke, "significance [is] gained by noting what subjects cluster about other subjects (what images b, c, d the poet introduces whenever he talks with engrossment of subject a)" (Attitudes Toward History 232). 50
involves three basic steps: (1) identifying key terms in the artifacts; (2) charting the terms that cluster around the key terms; and (3) discovering an explanation for the artifact" (72). Each textbook is analyzed separately for key terms referencing core concepts of early speech communication. To begin, core concepts outlined in Chapter 2 guide the selection of chapters and sections for analysis of each textbook. Using each textbook's Table of Contents, sections are screened for headings related to the following: physicality of the speaker and "audience," "delivery," "feedback," and sections related to the use of technology by the speaker and/or audience. Chapters or sections that are not analyzed include topics not mentioned in previous literature surrounding the Online Public Speaking debate; these topics are considered neutral or presently undisputed. Neutral topics omitted from the analysis include chapters or sections related to the general suggestions for speech preparation (speech outline, organization, types of speech, language, content, construction of a speech or speeches, and speech anxiety). From the combined chapters and selections, important terms are identified "on the basis of frequency or intensity" (73). "Intensity" is determined using Foss' definition: the key term(s) must be "central to the argument being made, represent an ultimate commitment, or convey great depth of feeling" or "a term whose removal would change the nature of the text significantly" (73). Description of the terms selected are included in the results portion of the analysis. Once key terms are identified, the critic conducts "a close examination of the artifact to identify each occurrence of each key term and identification of the terms that cluster around each key term" (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 73). These clusters "may 51
appear in close proximity to the term, or a conjunction such as and may connect a term to a key term. A rhetor also may develop a cause-and-effect relationship between the key term and another term, suggesting that one depends on the other or that one is the case of the other" (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 73). After key terms and clusters are recorded, "patterns in the associations or linkages" of clusters and key terms are analyzed (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 74). Results should yield relationships which will aid in finding the meaning(s) of the key terms (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 74). Often referred to as Cluster-Agon Analysis or Method, cluster-agon analysis includes analysis of "agons" (Berthold 302-309; Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 74). According to Foss, "as a result of cluster analysis, the critic is able to locate the conflict or opposition in the principles and images of the discourse" ("Women priests in the Episcopal Church" 3). Key terms and clustered terms are reviewed for "conflict or opposition" as outlined by Foss: Agon analysis is the examination of opposing terms and involves looking for terms that oppose or contradict other terms in the rhetoric. Note whether key terms emerge in opposition to other key terms because such a pattern may suggest a conflict or tension in the rhetor's worldview or may make explicit the allies and enemies or the god and devil terms in the rhetor's world.33 In the context surrounding the key terms, look for opposing terms that cluster around the key term--perhaps suggesting some confusion or ambiguity on the part of the rhetor about that term (Rhetorical Criticism 74). Discovery of relationships among the key terms should reveal the meaning behind key terms. A summary of the themes found each of the texts precedes a comparative analysis of all four textbooks. Finally, a comparative analysis of the textbooks is conducted to determine if key terms vary among the selected textbooks. Further, clusters 33 For more information about "god and devil terms," see "Clusters" in Burke's Attitudes Toward History, pp. 232-34. 52
surrounding key terms are analyzed to determine if similar key terms share the same meanings. Results aid in answering the research question: Have concepts of speech communication in American higher education (especially the scene of public speaking) changed over time due to the introduction of internet technology and distanced (online) learning? If so, how? The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012), Public Speaking for College and Career 7th ed. (2008), The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008) and The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) accompany (or accompanied) one or more public speaking course model (traditional, hybrid and online). The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012) and Public Speaking for College and Career 7th ed. (2008) represent each public speaking course model with supplemental texts designed for teaching Online Public Speaking. The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008) and The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) are the past and present textbooks for Big Ten University, Indiana University-Bloomington. The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook was recently discontinued with the elimination of the University's Online Public Speaking course and replaced with a new textbook, The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012). The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012) Analysis of contemporary key speech terms begins with the popular public speaking textbook The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. by Stephen E. Lucas (2012). Thirty years after its debut (xvi), The Art of Public Speaking continues to top the sales 53
charts of public speaking textbooks in colleges and universities across the country (Morreale et al. 423; Amazon.com). "Informed by classical and contemporary theories of rhetoric" it introduces students to "major aspects of speech preparation and presentation" (xvi). Relevant examples and supplemental resources (DVD and "Connect Public Speaking," the books online learning platform") provide students with textual, visual and virtual ways to interact with the course materials (xvi). The first chapter of the textbook, "Speaking in Public," introduces readers to basic speech communication principles (8). By the end of the chapter, readers should understand "The Speech Communication Process"; the process by which messages and feedback are transmitted and received (18-22, 25-26). Readers should also be able to identify key components to public speaking, including "language," "delivery," persuasion and the relationship of the speaker and audience (4-14). The chapter summary highlights bolded key terms from the text paired with chapter exercises to enhance reader comprehension. Bolded terms in this chapter are both pragmatic and experiential. Among these terms are "stage fright," "adrenaline," "positive nervousness," "visualization," "critical thinking," "speaker," "message," "channel," "listener," "frame of reference," "feedback," "interference," "situation," and "ethnocentrism" (26). These terms can help the reader describe the speaker's role, delivery and ability to overcome speech anxiety. Despite the spectrum of terms, many of the terms are used sparsely in the chapter and lack intensity. Though the prefaced bolded terms are titled "key terms" by the author, they are not representative of key terms as defined by Burke and Foss. According to Burkean 54
Cluster-Agon Analysis, key terms must be named by repetition and intensity (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 73). Since many of the bolded terms are seldom mentioned in the text and lack intensity, material for cluster-agon analysis of this textbook is derived from chapters and sections of the textbook that are relevant to core concepts of early speech communication (Chapter 2). Chapters and sections related to "delivery," "audience," "feedback," and "technology" are appropriate for this cluster-agon analysis. Second, selections are reviewed for key terms, and clusters are noted. Third, relationships within clusters are analyzed and core concepts revealed. The chapters and sections selected for cluster-agon analysis include: "Chapter 3: Listening" (47-61), "Delivering Your Speech" from "Chapter 4: Giving Your First Speech" (68-75), "Chapter 6: Analyzing the Audience" (97-117), "Chapter 13: Delivery" (239-57), and "Chapter 14: Using Visual Aids" (259-75). Chapters and sections not covered in the analysis included speech preparation (research, outlines, speech types, etc.), practice, speech content, personal reflection and evaluation. Five key terms were revealed in selections from The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012) using Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis. The first key term, "effective" was used frequently and often inferred importance and achievement; the key term was used in every chapter and section analyzed. Whether presenting a speech, analyzing an audience or using visual aids, the author noted each should all be done "effectively." Often trailing the key term would be instructions on how to insure effectiveness. For example, "Effective speakers seek to create a bond with their listeners by emphasizing common values and experiences" (98). "Effective" was also used to reference what could be 55
achieved if instructions were followed: "effective listeners hold higher positions" (48). Similarly, performance and assessment related terms: "efficient," "academic success," "strategically," and "measure" were used alongside "effective" to stress the importance of the information. Another key term used to set the foundation of the text was "skills." Often used in the earlier chapters and sections, it referenced all basic speech communication concepts while emphasizing "listening." The key term "skills" was often referred to as an audience member's natural ability in need of enhancement (49) or improvement (49, 53) through discipline and practice (53). Among the examples is, "One of the ways listening can serve you is by enhancing your skills as a critical thinker" (49). Moving away from the audience's abilities, the key term "control" emphasized the speaker's power over his or her abilities and surroundings. "Control" included the speaker's ability to change the physical aspects of speech delivery, use of body language and "physical setting of the audience" (106, 240-43). Some of the personal elements clustered around "control" were "gestures" and various elements of voice, "volume, pitch, rate, pauses, vocal variety, pronunciation, articulation, and dialect" (243). "Control" was often paired with or implied a desired level of "comfort" for the speaker and audience to improve the speech situation. For example: "Once you get these elements under control and begin to feel fairly comfortable in front of an audience, you can work on polishing your delivery to enhance the impact of your ideas" (240). When referencing physical setting, students were instructed to control whatever aspects of the room (i.e. "the thermostat," "seating arrangements," and "location of the lectern") they could to insure comfort for both themselves (speaker) and their classmates (audience) 56
(106). Additional associated terms included "influence" and "presentation," both of which impacted the speaker's "message." The next key term discovered in the textbook selections was "message," which frequently described the audience's interpretation of the main point of the speaker's presentation or delivery. For example, "Attentive listeners can pick up all kinds of clues to a speaker's real message" (55). Meanwhile, suggestions were made for speakers to insure the audience comprehends their "message" which focused on attention to preparation, intention, clarity, interaction with audience, and evaluation (55). Finally "attitude," another key term, often described an audience's "disposition toward the topic" chosen by a speaker (107). The author stressed the importance of the audience's "attitude" saying, "the attitude of your listeners towards your topic can be extremely important in determining how you handle the material" (107). Overall, the speaker's ability to handle the attitude of the audience could determine whether or not speakers "effectively" communicated their "message." The popular textbook The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012) is a thermometer of the attitudes towards and language about speech communication education today. Widely used in colleges and universities, it is among the most popular public speaking textbooks in America (Morreale et al. 423; Amazon.com). Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis revealed the following key terms: "effective," "skills," "control," "message," and "attitude." Notably, discoveries were made regarding traditional speech communication concepts. A common theme among the key terms "effective," "skills," "control," "message," and "attitude" is that they all refer to the basic orality of the speech 57
communication process (18-22). According to the Lucas text, The Speech Communication Process includes the "speaker," "listener," "message," "channel," "feedback," "interference," and "situation" (18-21). Together, key terms "skills" and "control" refer to the speaking abilities of the rhetor. The "message" delivered by the speaker is then received by the audience while simultaneously the speaker is attentive to the audience's "attitude." By assessing audience "feedback," the speaker can evaluate whether or not the message is properly received. This assessment can then inform speakers if their delivery was "effective." Though "interference" or distractions were seldom mentioned, "channel" or "means by which a message is communicated" (19) and "situation" or "time and place in which speech communication occur" (21) were addressed. Most often the speech situations referenced in the textbook were face-to-face situations in public or in a physical classroom. "The Art of Public Speaking has changed over the years in response to changes in technology, student demographics, and instructional needs," said Lucas (xvi). Despite the textbook's use in both traditional and online classroom, in the text classroom references were directed to the traditional classroom, not the online classroom. The audience (often consisting of classmates), speech teacher, and classroom were referenced with the implied assumptions that the class be conducted in real-time and in physical proximity to the speaker. Surprisingly, references to technology were few and were often confined to the podium (i.e. microphone or use of visual aids). The sections analyzed using cluster-agon analysis (including "Presenting the Speech"), were directed towards the student in the traditional speech classroom, "The next time you can get an opportunity, watch your teacher during a speech" (58). A 58
similar quote from the textbook also addressed the physical proximity of the students in the traditional classroom: "during the talk, look at your classmates as often as you can" (70) and "be sure to look to the left and right of the room, as well as the center, and avoid temptation to speak exclusively to one or two sympathetic individuals" (70). Other instructions such as "concentrate on projecting your voice to the back of the room..." addressed the physical space of a walled classroom (71). Finally, a section titled "Physical Setting" also referenced the traditional classroom, "speeches outside of the classroom can present unpleasant surprises unless you do your homework ahead of time" (106). Using cluster-agon analysis, five key terms were discovered in the text: "effective," "skills," "control," "message," and "attitude." Key terms were selected using Foss' method for cluster-agon analysis. As a result, cluster-agon analysis revealed interdependence among the key terms, which taken together reflect the traditional model of speech communication. Further, an evaluation of clusters provided underlying themes of physicality of the speaker and the audience. Cluster-agon analyses of other selected public speaking textbooks help determine if these themes are common among other popular textbooks. Public Speaking for College and Career 8th ed. (2008) Published by McGraw-Hill, Public Speaking for College and Career by Hamilton Gregory continues to be a top seller. Similar to The Art of Public Speaking, 8th (2004) and 11th ed. (2012), it was also accompanied by a supplemental text to adapt the textbook to the Online Public Speaking model. Sam Zahran's supplement titled Teaching Online Public Speaking with Public Speaking for College and Career 7th ed. by Hamilton 59
Gregory (2005) guides teachers through the online course and provides tips for online instruction. Since online supplemental resources accompany these textbooks, identification of key terms in the text is vital to this research to determine if core concepts of speech communication have changed or not. With the most recent supplement published in 2008, 34 an analysis of the textbook could yield evolving terms related to technology and core concepts of early speech communication (the real-time, face-to-face speech situation: "feedback," "audience," and "delivery"). "The primary goal of Public Speaking for College and Career is to show students how to achieve clarity and confidence during the speeches they must give in college classes, in career settings and in their communities" (xii). In the Preface, the author also stresses the following key elements of the text: "focusing on audience," "planning and organizing," "building confidence" of the speaker, examples for "speaking in real-world situations," developing ethical values," "incorporating technology" through visual aids and course supplements, "conducting and evaluating research," "building critical-thinking skills," "exploring diversity and teamwork," and "using visual imagery" (xii-xiii). To further aid students in achieving this goal, supplemental resources are available to both students and instructors. Supplemental texts for students include SpeechMate CD-ROM, an Online Learning Center specifically tailored to the textbook, and an Audio Abridged Compact Disc Set "designed to be a tool for review while commuting, working out, or just sitting down to study" (xiii, xvii-xviii). In the first chapter of the textbook, "Introduction to Public Speaking," the author introduces students to the basics of public speaking, describing the importance of 34 Preceded by Teaching Public Speaking Online with Public Speaking for College and Career 7th ed. by Hamilton Gregory (2005) by Sam Zahran. 60
learning public speaking skills (5), "The Speech Communication Process," while outlining expectations and responsibilities of public speakers (3). Geared toward a career-oriented and community-minded student, the chapter provides real-life examples of speech communication including talking to coworkers about charity (5), holding neighborhood meetings (5), defending oneself in court (5), and talking to a banker about a car loan (6). At the same time, students are encouraged that they can increase their confidence by speaking in public (6), "Being able to speak in public--offering a toast, sharing information, providing encouragement, attempting persuasion--can bring pleasure and joy to yourself and others" (7). Chapters and sections selected for cluster-agon analysis were chosen by evaluating the headings and determining their relevance to previously discussed core concepts of early speech communication and technology (Chapter 2). Chapter and sections selected for cluster-agon analysis included "Chapter 3: Listening," "Chapter 4: Reaching the Audience," "Chapter 9: Visual Aids," "Chapter 14: Delivering the Speech" with exclusion of the "Methods of Speaking" section, and relevant sections of "Chapter 17: Persuasive Strategies" which included "Knowing your Audience" and "Building Credibility" (v-xi). After analyzing the previously mentioned textbook selections using cluster-agon analysis, five key words emerged. Key terms uncovered in the textbook selections were "interest," "information," "audience," "presentations," and "enthusiasm." Selected based upon their recurrence, intensity, and significance to the text, these key terms were discovered throughout the sections. Further, surrounding terms associated 61
with the key terms were analyzed to reveal associational clusters (Philosophy of Literary Form 17). The first key term to emerge in the analysis was "interest(s)." Frequently used, the author stressed the significance of the speaker speaking directly to the audience's interests in efforts to improve the speech experience for both the speaker and the audience (53). Often associated with "needs," "desires," and "attitudes," audience interests must be discovered and appealed to by the speaker (61-62, 73). With the collection of information from the audience, the speaker could "tailor" the speech accordingly in efforts to sustain audience "attention" during the speech (61-62, 196). Due to the volatile nature of the audience's attention span, speakers were reminded not to "overwhelm" the audience in fear that they may "lose" their attention (73). Finally, "interest" was also used to reference the audience's level of engagement during the speech, communicated through the audience member's body language: Encourage the speaker as much as possible--by giving your full attention, taking notes, leaning slightly forward instead of slouching back in your seat, looking directly at the speaker instead of at the floor, and letting your face show interest and animation" (53). A combination of psychological, verbal and nonverbal appeal, "interest" is a multifaceted key term. "Information" was another key term found in the textbook selections. Relative to the speaker and audience, the collection (or "gathering" of), interpretation and dissemination of "information" was/is the responsibility of the speaker while the understanding and absorption rests on the audience. Often tied to ethical treatment of retrieval and dissemination, "information" should not be "distorted" or "outdated" (6263). "Information" should also be derived from the "best source" and based on "solid 62
research," which sometimes includes an "interview" or testimony from an expert (68, 76). Following these instructions will add to the speaker's "credibility" (371). Frequently clustered with the key term "information" were words which referenced the audience's inability to "absorb" "large amounts" of information (73). Simplification of "oral information" (179) was suggested through the use of "visual aids" (179) including "pictures" (180), "charts" (180), "tables" (181), "graphs" (181), "animation" (185), "audio visuals" (185), and "PowerPoint" (185). Similar terms, "knowledge," "reason" and "statement" were also included in the related readings, but did not appear as frequently. The key term "audience" can be broadly described as "listeners" of a speaker; those who the speaker is trying to persuade (366). When preceded by "your" (71), it was inferred the reader was the speaker and the public speaking classmates were the "audience." Sometimes, the author referred to the reader as an "audience" member-- which was their implied role when they were not the speaker. Each role was accompanied by different expectations. In "Chapter 3: Listening," the author stressed the importance of audience etiquette; clustered terms included "listens," "attentive," and "courteous" (53). Furthermore, the reader was warned about the characteristics--"rude" (51) and "restless" (77)--of an uninterested audience. As previously mentioned, the author stressed the speaker's responsibility to capture the attention of the "audience." In "Chapter 4: Reaching the Audience," the bolded term "audience-centered speaker" was defined as "one who tries to connect with listeners and offer them a meaningful experience" (61). Since a speaker may encounter a variety of audiences (73), speakers must understand their audience can be homogeneous, 63
"mixed" (73), or "segmented" (368). Next, "audience analysis" was described as a tool the speaker could use to "gather information," "clues" and "background" about their "audience" as a first step to appeal to their interests (71-72). From the results, speakers must "adapt" (61, 78) their speech to suit the audience's "knowledge level and to their needs and interests" (61, 72). By keeping the "topics interesting" and relevant, speakers can begin to gain their audience's attention (74). Further, the speaker should strive to make an "impact on their lives" by sharing meaningful information (74). "Presentation" (sometimes pluralized) was another key term discovered in the chapter and section selections. Often used as a substitute for "speech" delivery, "oral presentation" (45) referenced formal "delivery" by a speaker to a physically present "audience" in real-time. Among the goals of the presenter or speaker are to gain "comprehensive understanding by the audience" (64). Visual aids are suggested to help simplify, "clarify," and "illustrate" (191) "technical" and "professional" ideas (178). Aids can include "multimedia projectors," "chalkboards," "whiteboards" and other "visuals" (188-93). When using visual aids, it is important to be "prepared" to avoid technical problems during the speech (77, 179). In addition to "impressing" an audience with "creative art" and "beautiful drawings," speakers should be "lively" (76) and "enthusiastic" during the delivery to maintain audience attention (188). Finally, the key term "enthusiasm" involves the speaker's use of positive "nonverbal" self expression (307) to "communicate a message" (310). In "Chapter 14: Delivering the Speech," nonverbal characteristics of enthusiasm are described: To get your nonverbal signals synchronized with your words, you need to show enthusiasm (with your eyes, facial expression, posture, and tone of voice) as you speak to your audience. Let your body confirm that you 64
believe in what you are saying and that you want your audience to accept your ideas (307). By using the energy the speaker "feels inside" (307, 310), the speaker can make an impactful impression on the audience (309). Related words included "enthusiastic," "energy" and "animate," all of which emphasized the performance aspect of public speaking. Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis guided the discovery of key terms in chapters and sections in relation to core concepts of early speech communication in Gregory's public speaking textbook, Public Speaking for College and Career 8th ed. (2008). Using cluster- agon analysis, the key terms "interests," "enthusiasm," "presentation," "audience," and "information" were discovered. As discussed, cluster-agon analysis helped explain the relationships among the key terms and word clusters that formed around them. After analyzing the relationships among the key terms, core concepts revealed the underlying theme of "performance." The concept of performing is a theme at the center of the chapters and sections selected for cluster-agon analysis. In "Chapter 14: Delivering the Speech" the author instructs speakers on how to "act"35 or "perform" when they do not feel energetic or excited about public speaking. Similar to an entertainer, the author emphasized the speaker's responsibility to "force themselves to perform" (308). Sometimes you simply don't feel like standing up in front of a group...At times like these, what should you do? Pretend. Yes, pretend to be confident in yourself and in your ideas. Pretend to be glad to appear before your audience. Pretend to be enthusiastic. But, you may ask isn't this phony? Isn't this forcing your body to tell a lie? Yes, but we often must simulate cheerfulness and animation in life's myriad tasks: a crucial job interview, a conference with the boss, an important date with someone 35 Emphasis from original text. 65
we love. By acting as if we are confident, poised, and enthusiastic, we often find that after a few minutes, the pretense gives way to reality. We truly become confident, poised and enthusiastic (307-308).36 The discovery of key terms "enthusiasm," "interest," and "presentations" and their clusters and explanation of their relationships aided in identifying performance as a core concept in the textbook. As described above, performance stresses improvement of a speaker's "delivery" to a live "audience." The early core speech communication terms, "delivery," "audience," and "feedback" are all integral to the speech situation. As reflected in traditional texts, the role of the speaker includes delivering a message and engaging audience "interests" through "presentations." In the chapter and section selections analyzed, technology was limited to voice amplification (microphones) and the use of visual aids. Speakers were instructed to develop their physical presentation with little help from technology; improvements in nonverbal communication and voice control (volume, clarity, expressiveness, pitch, rate, pauses, etc.) were among the author's suggestions. In the chapter and section selections analyzed, limited references to the public speaking classroom were made; many of the illustrations depicted common speech scenarios outside of the classroom: In some circumstances, you may have to raise your voice to overcome unavoidable noises, such as the hum or air conditioners, the chatter of people in a hallway, the clatter of dishes and silverware during a banquet, or even the sound of a band blaring in the next room (301). Through examples of varying speech situations, real-time and face-to-face (between the speaker and audience) speeches were illustrated. No mentions of virtual or online speech situations were included in the analyzed selections. 36 Emphasis from original text. 66
References to technology were not significant; chapter and reading selections did not mention the online class. Analysis of another textbook designed for use in the Online Public Speaking classroom is necessary to broaden the spectrum of relevant data. Further, analyzing a textbook with a different publisher may add to the list of key terms and themes discovered through cluster-agon analysis. The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008) According to "Indiana University Department of Theatre and Drama records, 1925-2007," Indiana University's online archives, Indiana University established a formal Department of Speech separate from the English Department in 1945. As the University continued to expand, a formal theatre emphasis was added to the department in 1957, resulting in the renaming of the unit to the Department of Speech and Theatre. "In 1971, The Department of Speech and Theatre split into separate entities." Today, speech communication courses are taught in the Department of Communication and Culture ("Indiana University: "Department of Communication and Culture"). Areas of focus for communication majors, both undergraduate and graduate students, include Rhetoric and Public Culture ("Indiana University: Department of Communication and Culture"). Furthermore, the Department's reputable graduate program is among leading communication programs in the nation; preparing graduates to be "future teachers" of Communication Studies ("Indiana University: Graduate-Training Future Teachers"). The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008) by Sprague, Stuart, Sellnow, and Smith was the assigned textbook for the Indiana University's introductory speech courses from 2002-2009 (Smith, "C121 Textbook"). This textbook was adapted from Sprague and Stuart's original textbook, The Speaker's 67
Handbook (2002, 2008) with the assistance of Indiana University's Dr. Cynthia Duquette Smith. The customized editions (Smith, "C121 Textbook") were multi-purposed, used for both online and on-campus courses.37 The introductory readings in the textbook, "Assignment 1: Self-Introductory Speech" and "Introduction: The Value of Public Speaking Skills," include an introduction to citizenship and civic duty, the importance of public speaking skills, and affirmation that these skills can be learned (xix-17). "Assignment 1: Self-Introductory Speech" includes an assigned reading titled "An Introduction to Rhetoric: Public Speaking, Citizenship, and Action" by Cynthia Smith and David Worthington (7-14). This essay "suggests that at the heart of citizenship is public speech" (8).38 The essay outlines a number of main points including the role of citizens in a democracy (7), "the role of public speech" (8-9), "credibility, passion, and reasons for action" (9-11). Definitions of "rhetoric" (11), "rhetorical perspective" (11), "rhetorical situation" (12), and justification for "rhetorical action" (12-14) also explain the need for readers to develop their public speaking skills as part of their civic duty. Following this essay is "Introduction: The Value of Public Speaking Skills" which introduces readers to various circumstances under which they may need to speak publicly (i.e. interviews, meetings, class presentations) (15-16). Next, benefits of "mastering" public speaking skills are separated into two categories: social and societal, followed by personal and professional (16-17). Finally, readers are reminded of their natural ability to become a successful public speaker (17). 37 Supplements for the textbook include "The Confident Public Speaking CD-ROM and website" (Sprague et al. 193). 38 Emphasis from original text. 68
The roles of the speaker and audience members are addressed throughout the first chapter. Responsibilities include sending and receiving "feedback" as illustrated in "A Two-Way Communication Model" (24). Public speakers should "seek to create meaning with their audiences" through the speech process and feedback assessment (27). This can be accomplished through the speaker's performance, "the enactment of an event between speaker and listener that transcends the message or exchange of information" (29). Other skills the speaker should improve upon include "conversational" and "compositional" skills; "a speaker needs the adaptation of conversation, the preparation of writing, and the engagement of performance to earn the undivided attention of an audience" (30). Cluster-agon analysis is applied to selected chapters and sections to identify key terms, clusters, and themes. The same process used in the previous two analyses for selecting chapters and sections is applied to this textbook. Selections must reflect early core concepts of speech communication as discussed in Chapter 2. Chapters selected for analysis include "Chapter 2: Listening" (38-47), "Chapter 11: Vocal Delivery" (149-162), "Chapter 12: Physical Delivery" (163-68), "Chapter 23: Presentation Aids" (311-26), "Chapter 24: Adapting to the Speech Situation" (327-34), and "Chapter 25: Answering Questions" (337). Section 14i was considered due to its title, "Returning to Technology" (193). However, after reviewing the section, it clearly lacked instruction about the use of technology in a speech situation. Instead, it directed readers to supplemental content, "Confident Public Speaking CD-ROM" and Confident Public Speaking website for the "chapter's key terms and activities" (193). Cluster-agon analysis revealed the following key terms in this textbook: "speaker," "audience," "listener," "presentation," and "aids." The latter words, 69
"presentation" and "aids" were used both together and separately from one another. Clustered terms surrounding the key terms must be revealed to extract underlying themes and core concepts from the relationships between key terms and clusters. The first key term, "speaker," described the speaker's preparation, delivery, speech content, skills and speech outcome. Clusters emphasized the content of the speaker's "presentation" (38) as well as the "vocal delivery" (38, 149). Terms related to speech content included "subject" (312), "claim" (41), "highlight" (315), "statements" (46), "validity" (41), "argument" (41), and "new ideas" (40), reflecting a speech that is innovative, succinct and "engaging" (41) for the audience. In addition to "rich information" (38), the speaker must have a refined vocal presentation. Words such as "pronunciation" (155), "voice" (152), "talk" (322), "pause" (330), and "words" (314) to emphasize "clarity" (315) of the speaker's message revealed the importance of vocal projection.39 Mispronunciation and misunderstanding are among a list of distractions, which can distort or disrupt the speaker's message. Speakers can encounter an array of unpredictable and unfavorable circumstances during their speech delivery. By focusing on the solutions for unfavorable "distraction" (including "hecklers"), speakers can be equipped to sustain control or regain the audience's attention during their presentation (328-33).40 39 "Chapter 11: Vocal Delivery" focused on the importance of the speaker's delivery: "How loudly you speak, how clearly you speak, and how quickly you speak all have a major impact on your ability to be understood by your audience" (Sprague et al. 149). "Chapter 24: Adapting to the Speech Situation" focused on how speakers can overcome common disturbances that emerge during their presentation (Sprague et al. 328-33). 70
The second key term, "audience," was surrounded by word clusters that emphasized audience attentiveness and engagement. Specifically, terms centered on "listening" (41), "attention" (152), and "concentration" (333). Additional terms stressed the importance of audience interaction with the speaker. These terms included "feedback," "connection" (325), and "participation" (40). Supporting clusters revealed that the role of audience members was to be focused on the speaker and the message in the speech situation. Similar to the previous term, the third key term "listener" addressed an audience in tune with the speaker's presentation. Terms such as "attention" (157, 328) and "hear" (335) emphasized attentiveness while other terms stressed reflection, such as "think" (46), "thoughts," and "ideas" (335). Furthermore, words such as "empathy" (337) and "enthusiasm" (335) illustrated intentionality toward listening and providing meaningful feedback to speakers to "enhance" their presentation (38). This summary of clustered terms reflects the authors' definition of listening from "Chapter 2: Listening," "The act of listening, though it seems to flash by, is defined as a complex and active process of receiving, processing, and evaluating an oral message" (38).41 Last, key terms "presentation" and "aids" were discovered in the early stages of cluster-agon analysis. Together, the terms described audio and visual supplements used by the speaker to enhance the message (311, 311-26). Separately, the term "presentation" broadly addressed the speaker's speech while commonly both key terms "presentation" and "aids" served as shorthand for "presentation aids." "Chapter 23: Planning Presentation Aids" was the primary chapter referencing these key terms. 41 Emphasis from original text. 71
"Presentation" was a term used throughout the chapters and sections selected for analysis. Though the term referenced the "speaker's" (41) speech (or speech act), clustered terms revealed an emphasis on its relation to the purpose and characteristics of "presentation aids" (152). The goal for "presentation aids" is to "effectively" aid in communicating the speaker's intended message (311). "Presentation aids" can aid the speaker by simplifying or "explaining" (313) "complex ideas" (313) to the audience to insure they gain an understanding of a new or complex concept (41, 153, 312). Clustered terms stressed "visual" (312, 314) and "digital" (312) aids which required "technology" (312), "equipment" (323), and "electronics" (328); common examples included "PowerPoint" (312), "slides" (312, 313), "charts" (313, 323), "posters" (313) and "models" (323). Characterized as "structured" (41), the "content" of the aids requires strategic planning. Emphasis is placed on the speaker's ability to "effectively" (311, 312) integrate "presentation aids" in a speech. A successful integration of "presentation aids" requires "practice" (322) and produces a "seamless" (322) presentation. Meanwhile, an unsuccessful speech is "clumsy" (323), "distracting" (323), and disengages the audience from the speaker's intended message. Cluster-agon analysis revealed key terms and clusters in chapters related to core concepts of early speech communication in Indiana University's former public speaking textbook, The Indiana University Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking (2008). This customized textbook was used for the University's online and traditional public speaking courses. Using cluster-agon analysis, key terms "speaker," "audience," "listener," "presentation," and "aids" were discovered. 72
The cluster-agon analysis revealed distinctions between key terms "audience" and "listener." The key term "audience" referred to a group of people who were not always characterized as attentive to the speaker. Instead of sharing the same definition as "audience," the key term "listener" referred to a group of people who were engaged in the speaker's presentation. Unlike clusters surrounding "audience," clusters surrounding "listener" emphasized both mental and physical presence (i.e. "seating") (328). These differentiations aided in discovering the core concepts of the text. Clusters revealed a theme of information "retention" (41) by the audience; a shared responsibility between "listeners" and "speakers." Speaker clarity (vocal control, word choice, etc.), speech content, use of presentation aids, and preparation for disturbances during a speech were all noted as important skills for the speaker to have to deliver a clear message with minimal disturbances. If the speaker is not prepared, this can negatively impact the audience's ability to follow the presentation, receive the speaker's intended message, and retain the information. Equally as important, the audience must do their part to limit distractions; they must commit to concentration, active listening, and engagement with the speaker in efforts to clearly understand the speaker's message. At the heart of this textbook are clustered themes revealing early speech communication core concepts, "delivery," "audience," and "feedback." The dedication of both the speaker and audience members was central to the text and a reflection of the Two-way Communication Model (24). Clarity of "delivery," "audience" attentiveness, and "feedback" were referenced in the analyzed chapters and uncovered by key terms and clusters. Physical presence of the speaker and audience (an underlying theme of early 73
speech communication core concepts) was also referenced in the analyzed chapters, but more emphasis was placed on message clarity (pronunciation, volume, tone, etc.)42 than on the physical actions of the speaker (i.e. gestures and proximity to audience). References to the speech situation were not confined to a classroom; "class" (333) was seldom used in the analyzed chapters. References to a "room" (318, 323, 336) and "physical environment of the speaking venue" (313) were made. Other physical characteristics of a speech situation highlighted real-time face-to-face interaction between the speaker and audience: Be familiar with your material so that you can look at your listeners while explaining a visual aid. Often, a speaker will turn away from the audience and talk directly at the visual aid. This deprives the speaker of feedback and strains the listeners' hearing (322). Notably, the analyzed selections were void of references to the online class. References to technology were confined to supplemental resources (39, 149, 312), reviewing "video and audio recordings" of the speaker's speech (157) and "presentation aids," such as Microsoft PowerPoint slides which were frequently mentioned ("Chapter 23: Presentation Aids"). Since 2008, Indiana University-Bloomington discontinued online public speaking courses (Johnson). With the transition back to the traditional classroom, the University has since changed their public speaking textbook from The Indiana University's Speaker's Handbook (2008) to The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking (2011) (Smith, "C121 Textbook"). Analysis of the University's current textbook is necessary to gain further insight into evolving speech communication themes. 42 "Chapter 11: Vocal Delivery" is dedicated to teaching readers to "speak clearly, correctly and conversationally" (Sprague et al. 149). 74
The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) With the recent cancellation of Indiana University-Bloomington's online public speaking courses, the University adopted a new textbook (Smith, "C121 Textbook") for the on-campus courses. The University's newly chosen public speaking textbook, The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) by Joseph Valenzano III and Stephen Braden (Price; Smith, "C121 Textbook") is not only new to the University, but also new to higher education. Since its introduction in 2010, communication scholars have not analyzed the textbook. Indiana University's selection of a new public speaking textbook may be representative of a larger movement in American higher education. Perhaps a new trend is for public speaking courses to move back to the traditional classroom and away from the Online Public Speaking model. Or to the contrary, the new textbook could have been selected because it addresses the evolution of core speech communication concepts to include the online course. Investigation of the text using Burke's Cluster-Agon Analysis is necessary to better understand the present state of speech communication core concepts. Published by Fountainhead Press, The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) stresses the importance of educating students (readers) about the "origin" of public speaking; information that is excluded from many speech textbooks today (i). The authors preface the text stating, "In this book we bring that extensive tradition to the forefront of public speaking instruction while also maintaining the skills aspect of public speaking pedagogy" (i). This is accomplished though "tips and 75
practices to help students become better speakers" supported by "explanations grounded in theory and the long tradition of rhetorical instruction" (i). "Chapter 1: Public Speaking, A Long Tradition" of The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) focuses on "rhetoric and speech in classical education" and the contributions of this legacy to contemporary speech communication (1). Addressing public speaking students directly (3), readers are informed, "public speaking should be as important today as it was when the Greeks and Romans studied the craft" (4). Readers are introduced to major figures of classical rhetoric (Plato, Aristotle, the Sophists, Isocrates, Cicero and Quintilian) and their contributions to speech education (4-15). As Chapter 1 transitions from classical rhetoric to modern speech communication, readers are introduced to two contemporary models of communication43 and the significance of speech and civic engagement (16-23). Chapters 4-7 (74-158) are analyzed using Burke's Cluster-Agon Analysis as outlined by Burke and Foss to identify core concepts from the selections. The authors offer an overview of these chapters in the Preface: Chapter 4 focuses on your verbal and physical delivery as a speaker and Chapter 5 explores presentation aids and how they can help enhance your speech when used properly. Chapter 6 covers different speaking environments in which you might find yourself, while Chapter 7 takes an in-depth look at ways to analyze your audience before, during, and after your speech (ii). These chapters were chosen due to their references to early speech communication core concepts ("delivery," "audience," and "feedback") and technology. 43 "The Linear Model of Communication" (16-18) and "The Transactional Model of Communication" (Valenzano III and Braden 8-20). 76
Using cluster-agon analysis, six key terms were revealed in Chapters 4 through 7 of The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012). The key terms discovered in the text were "audience," "message," "delivery," "speech," "presentation" and "nonverbal." These terms were selected using Burke and Foss' methods for cluster-agon analysis. Once the key terms were discovered, clustered terms were named and analyzed. From analysis of the key and clustered terms, core themes were revealed. The first key term identified using cluster-agon analysis was "audience." In Chapters 4-7, "audience" clusters primarily focus on characteristics of audience "feedback" (86, 87, 120) and secondarily focus on "location" (130) of the listeners. From the clusters, audience members were described as those who "hear" (79, 109, 118) and "see" (108, 109, 93) a speech. Audience "feedback"(120) focused on the "immediate" (118-20) "reaction" (86, 86) of the audience to the speaker and the speaker's message and the responses (84) of the audience and their "connection" (87, 109, 153) or "identification" (87, 88) with the speaker or the message. Audience "feedback" (86, 87, 120) was primarily described as nonverbal (e.g. "clap," "vote," "feel," "eye contact," "interpret," "understand," "remember," "decipher," and "focus") (83-84, 87, 93-95, 103, 122, 155). These nonverbal cues from the audience to the speaker were described as important; audience members play an active role in the communication process and help speakers shape and reshape their message through assessment of audience feedback. Another theme that emerged from "audience" clusters was setting of the "audience." Terms such as "class" (100), "seating" (122), and "podium" (122) described a traditional speech classroom setting. Meanwhile, other terms did not describe real-time 77
face-to-face interactions between the speaker and the audience. Terms such as "distance" (86), "separated" (117), "location" (130), and "event" (88) described an audience "separated" from the speaker. Broader terms including "environment" (117, 129), "situation" (119), and "atmosphere" (117) were also used to describe speech settings. The key term "nonverbal" was found throughout the analyzed chapters. In "Chapter 4: Delivery," the authors described the important "functions of nonverbal communication in speech": As individuals we send more nonverbal messages than verbal ones, and when we deliver speeches these nonverbal messages are under even greater scrutiny by an audience than they are in everyday interactions. As such, it is important for speakers to understand the various purposes their gestures, posture, and eye contact can serve with regard to their presentation (82). Clustered terms surrounding the key term "nonverbal" revealed two important concepts, "action" (78, 83, 84, 86) and "communication" (82, 83, 86). "Expression" (79), "gestures" (80, 83), "eye contact" (80, 154), facial "expression" (79), "behavior" (81), and "activity" (154) describe examples of "actions" used in "nonverbal" communication. These nonverbal "actions" provide "cues" (83) for the speaker and the audience members; through ongoing interpretation and reinterpretation of feedback, each may gain understanding of the other's attitudes or feelings toward the message, aids, and "delivery" (77, 80). By "enhancing" (132) nonverbal communication through bodily movement, audience members can provide speakers with an opportunity to adjust their "message" (119). If nonverbal actions are used incorrectly, they can reduce clarity of the intended message or "feedback" (153). Overall, the use of nonverbal communication was viewed as important and "positive" (83, 86). 78
Clusters surrounding the key term "delivery" described both "effective" (153) and ineffective styles of "speech" delivery (80, 84, 86, 105). Integral to speech communication, "delivery" enables speakers to "disseminate" (115) their message to an audience through "speech." Noted as an important "tool" (115) for speech communication, "delivery" requires ample "preparation" (88, 115) and careful execution. Clustered terms "success" (117) and "important" (118) supported a "strong" (78), "fluid" (87), "dynamic" (117), "clear" (117), "comfortable" (85, 117, 128), and "natural" (87) "verbal" (73, 79) speech presentation. Unfavorable or ineffective types of delivery were described as "robotic" (87) and "rigid" (87). If a speaker is unprepared, they may become "flustered" (87), another term that described a characteristic of an unsatisfactory delivery style. The fourth key term, "presentation," was identified in the selected chapters. Clusters surrounding "presentation" emphasized "environment" (116, 118-20), presentation "aids"44 (93-110),s and "technology" (97, 98, 102, 120). "Presentation" clusters also focused on the presentation "setting" (115, 119) and technological "tools" (115). Clustered terms including "attend" (93), "place" (86), "physical" (115), "face-toface" (115), "scene" (128, 130), "outdoor" (118), and "lighting" (122) stressed the location of the presentation. Descriptions of presentations such as the "place" (86) and "distance" (119) provided an introduction to "mediated speaking situations" (118-21). "Conference calls" (119), "Skype" (115), "video conferencing" (122, 128), and "phone" (119) were some "situations" where the speaker and audience may be physically separated while communicating. Finally, technologically "mediated" (119, 128) 44 Notably, the term "aids" was diversified; it was used in conjunction with other words besides "presentation," including "traditional aids" (93) and "technological aids" (97). 79
communication highlighted the opportunity for speaker and audience mobility and the ability of the speech situation to move beyond the traditional physical face-to-face setting. The fifth key term, "message," was supported by clustered terms that stressed the role of the "speaker" (79, 107) including the use of persuasive devices. The speaker's role and actions were at the forefront of the clustered terms. "Sends" (106, 125), "performs" (83), "disseminates" (115), "tells" (125),"explains" (126), and "communicates" (104, 125) all described what a speaker does. Additionally, other clustered terms such as "verbal" (97) and "nonverbal" (83) communication described the speaker's methods of persuasion. In efforts to persuade their "audience" (84) to think and/or do something, speakers must use persuasive "appeals" (150). Terms that described these appeals included "crafts" (126) or "personalizes" (119) and "tailors" (143-44). Finally, clusters revealed the term "feedback"; an important term used to describe audience "feedback" (84) to the speaker's message. The communication process was revealed in the clustered term "refined" (139), which described the speaker's ability to alter a speech in response to audience "feedback" in efforts to effectively persuade the audience. Notably, clustered terms for key term "message" also revealed an emphasis on setting: "location" (24), "scene" (128), and "environment" (118). At face value, these terms used to describe the "message" imply a traditional speech location. However, when clusters are compared, these terms are similar to those used to describe the key terms "audience" and "presentation." Both "audience" and "presentation" clusters 80
revealed these terms can imply both a physical or technologically mediated speech situation. Lastly, through cluster-agon analysis "speech" was revealed as a key term. Clustered terms surrounding "speech" emphasized "delivery" (80, 84, 87, 105, 118), "content" (133, 151), and "environment" (119-20, 128-29). Among the clustered terms were the words "rate" (79), "tone" (79), and "gestures" (84), which described a "speaker's" (80, 87) nonverbal "actions" (127). Types of speeches including "extemporaneous" (130), "memorized" (84-86), and "impromptu" were also named. Terms also focused on speech "components" (125) or "content." These terms included "topic" (79, 83, 87, 96), "words" (79, 84, 145), "point" (81, 84, 93, 96, 124), "purpose" (83, 119, 124), "explanation" (94, 96-97), and "information" (145, 148, 150-53). Conflict surrounding location (physical face-to-face and technologically mediated) emerged from clusters. "Speech" clustered terms stressed a physical speech "environment" through terms such as "place" (107), "scene" (121, 128), "inside" (122), "background" (121), "outdoor" (118, 122), "light" (122), and "location" (108, 117). However, this describes a setting, which is at odds with other clusters previously described in the analysis. Since cluster-agon analysis revealed the use of technology as a means for a speaker to deliver a speech to a distanced audience in real-time, further review of these references and others in the text is needed, as well as discussion of the core concepts in this textbook and their relationship to early speech communication core concepts. Through cluster-agon analysis, the core concepts "audience," "message," "delivery," "speech," "presentation," and "nonverbal" were revealed in selected chapters 81
of Valenzano III and Braden's text. Unlike the other textbook analyses, this analysis revealed "agons" or clustered terms at odds with one another (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 74). The point of contention is the location (physical or distanced) of the speaker and the audience. According to the authors, the introduction of new technologies enables the speech situation to transcend the traditional setting for both the speaker and audience members (115, 118-21). This new interpretation of the speech situation is at odds with early core speech communication concepts which assume the speaker and audience are physically present. Comparison of the key terms and clusters revealed a diminished emphasis on physical immediacy between the speaker and audience members. Key terms "delivery," "message," "presentation," and "speech" were not supported by terms which required "immediate feedback" or connections between the speaker and audience members, including "eye contact." Instead, key terms "delivery" (80, 84, 87, 105, 118) and "speech" relied on the term "environment" (119, 120, 128-29) which described both a physical and distanced speech situation. Valenzano III and Braden introduced the mediated speech environment in "Chapter 6: The Speaking Environment": ...in the century since radio changed the scope and size of an audience technology has progressed exponentially and drastically impacted the situations in which speakers find themselves. For the purposes of speech and presentation, we will discuss two different forms of mediated speaking environments45 and how they combine elements of traditional situations with a more technologically advanced medium (119). Authors also used "immediate environment" to describe both a physical and distanced speech situation (120): 45 Italics not in original text. 82
Businesses use other similar programs that utilize the same technology to give presentations, just like you may use Skype to keep in touch with family and friends. There are obvious technological issues you may encounter when using video conference technology, such as losing the connection, poor image resolution, feedback from microphones, and, more problematic for presentations, lack of attention to the immediate environment46 in which the speech is being delivered (120). Further analysis of these terms revealed an increased emphasis on a distanced speech situation, which lacked physical proximity between the speaker and the audience. Similar to "delivery" and "speech," key terms "presentation" and "message" both lacked clustered terms that referenced immediacy. The clustered term "environment" describes a physical or distanced speaker-to-audience speech situation. Dissimilarly, the word "feedback" was included in clusters surrounding "presentation" and "message." The key term "presentation" was supported by technological references while "message" was not. Of the two key terms, "message" was supported by the clustered term "nonverbal." Key terms "audience" and "nonverbal" shared little in common with the previously mentioned key terms. Supported by clustered terms which referenced "immediacy," "eye contact," "feedback," and "face-to-face," these key terms described real-time interactions and physical presence. Notably, key term "nonverbal" stood apart from all of the other key terms because its cluster did not include "environment" or "technology" and instead was supported by clustered terms "action" (78, 83, 84, 86) and "communication" (82, 83, 86). Examples from the text include: "nonverbal actions can influence your message..." (82), "nonverbal actions substitute for verbal messages..." 46 Italics not in original text. 83
(83), and "...successfully incorporate effective and positive nonverbal communication into the presentation" (86). The themes discovered in the Valenzano III and Braden's text differ from those of early speech communication core concepts "delivery," "audience," and "feedback." Though physicality of the speaker and audience (an underlying theme of early speech communication core concepts) was referenced in the analyzed chapters, it was not the focus. Instead, technologically mediated speech lacking physical presence and immediate audience response was a common theme among five of the six key terms. Key term "nonverbal" was the only term which emphasized physical proximity of the speaker and audience, omitting technology as a method for speech transmission. For more than 2,000 years, speeches were delivered outdoors or in small and large rooms (118). Speakers and audience members exchanged face-to-face feedback in physical proximity with one another (118-19). According to Valenzano III and Braden this "traditional" format is no longer the only method for speech delivery. Today, speakers have the option to deliver speeches traditionally (97-98, 102) or "technologically" (115), mediated through "videotape presentations" (115), YouTube (www.YouTube.com) (115), in real-time47 through online applications48 such as Skype (www.skype.com) (115), etc. (115, 119-21). 47 The authors used the term "face-to-face" to describe "presentations through Skype" (115). 48 "Businesses use other similar programs that utilize the same technology to give presentations to clients, just like you may use Skype to keep in touch with family and friends" (120). 84
In "Chapter 6: The Speaking Environment," the authors outline two methods of "mediated speaking situations" (119): conference calls49 and video conferencing (11920). Both mediated situations allow physical distance between parties while integrating "elements of traditional situations with a more technologically advanced medium" (119). Conference calls and video conferencing allow speakers to utilize technology to connect in real-time with a distanced audience. "Conference calls occur when more than two parties are on the same phone call" (119). Through a telephone, the speaker can be heard in real-time by the audience (11920). Conference calls provide a number of challenges for the speaker and audience; there are norms by which a speaker must abide. First, unlike the traditional speech situation, a speaker must introduce themselves prior to their presentation (119). In most cases, the speaker must "be introduced to those in the audience on the other end of the call by asking each to say hello" (119). "Second, speakers must pay attention to the structure of their presentation because, without visual aids or even nonverbal aspects of a message (outside of tone and voice), audiences will closely follow the content of the message and the logic behind its organization" (119-20). Lastly, speakers must be mindful of disruption, which may occur during their presentation that include interruptions by audience members, interference, and dropped calls (120). Overall, it is important that the speaker maintains the audience's attention. The second form of mediated speech, video conferencing, is "an extension of conferencing calling" which adds a visual component to presentations (120). Through web cameras, the speaker and the audience stream real-time video of the other, which is 49 Also known as `teleconferencing.' 85
viewed on a computer monitor or television (120). Video conferencing requires computers, video conferencing software, web cameras, and consideration of the speaker's physical background (120). Video conferencing requires speakers to be comfortable with their speaking situation and the technologies used to mediate their presentation (120). Speakers must be able to navigate video conferencing software and correctly position their web camera and microphone (120). At the same time, the speaker must be conscientious about their visible appearance and setting insuring a professional background (120). Similar to conference calls, there are a number of interruptions specific to video conferencing that can derail a speaker's presentation. The authors note several problems a speaker may encounter during a video conference: There are obvious technological issues you may encounter when using video conference technology such as losing the connection, poor image resolution, feedback from microphones, and, most problematic for presentations, lack of attention to the immediate environment in which the speech is being delivered (120). Further, there are restrictions on the speaker's movement due to the frame size of the web camera (120). In addition to real-time mediated speech situations, the authors also mentioned technologies, which require speakers "to record and upload their presentations to the web" (120). "Taped" or "uploaded" speeches "combine elements of traditional speaking situations, conference calling" (120). YouTube (www.youtube.com) is one of many websites that allows students to upload their speeches to the Internet. The authors caution the reader about the permanentness of recorded speeches, "anytime your speech is taped understand that if it is uploaded to the web it may never disappear" (121). 86
Online classroom portals such as Pearson eCollege (www.ecollege.com) and Blackboard (www.blackboard.com) also have capabilities to store student speeches. Contrary to YouTube, online classroom portals limit access to those enrolled in the online course.50 Traditional speaking situations and their "constraints...still apply when taping a speech to upload to the web" (121). Speakers are also advised to be familiar with their recording equipment to insure a professional tape: There also may be interference issues with regard to the audio/visual equipment that can make it more difficult to hear what is being said. Attention to detail is also important, in that the frame of the picture being taped should be controlled as best as possible. It would appear unprofessional and not be as effective, for example, if a taped speech were to take place in a dorm room51 where papers, books, and clothing were strewn all around the background! (121). In addition to a professional speech setting and background, students are reminded to speak clearly. Though recording technology allows speakers to record their speech multiple times before choosing the final version (133), students must practice their speeches to insure a successful final presentation (121, 133). Most likely, the speaker cannot see the audience during a recorded presentation. The authors provide suggestions for the speaker in these situations: Even though you may not be able to see your audience, they can see you and so eye contact is just as important in a digital presentation as it is in a traditional speaking environment. This is managed by looking straight at the camera when delivering your message. Looking away makes it appear as though you are distracted or disinterested (132). Instead of (or in addition to) a live audience in physical proximity to the speaker, uploaded speeches are downloaded remotely by viewers or distanced audience members 50 YouTube offers options for profile holders to block specific users from viewing their posts. For details, go to www.youtube.com. 51 Examples can be found online at www.youtube.com. 87
(121). In an online situation, distanced audiences view the speech online at the time and location of their choosing. Unfortunately, audience anonymity prevents many speakers from identifying viewers (121).52 Further, viewers are not required to provide the speaker with feedback (which is limited to online posts, text comments and replies). The textbook does not state a live audience should be present during the speech/ recording. Valenzano III and Braden illustrated "how scene has risen in importance in the contemporary public speaking environment" (125). Today's culture is visually stimulated and fast-paced; maintaining people's attention for a speech of any length is becoming increasingly challenging for speakers (125, 127-28). The authors attribute this cultural phenomenon to technological developments in media: Society in general has become much more personalized thanks to the development in media technology. In fact, most events, from stock market movements to political elections to job searches for sports teams and major businesses, are treated as adventures and horse races. Such personal attention results in an individual's every action being scrutinized, thus increasing the importance of the relationship between action and speech...we send messages as quickly as we can, often through the use of well designed visuals that may not send a verbal message at all. Making the proper and best use of your surroundings now translates into a higher chance of success for speeches (127-28). Despite a cultural shift in media and information consumption, speakers are challenged to carefully navigate "speech and scene when crafting [and delivering] their messages" (128). Finally, in efforts to avoid miscommunication speakers are cautioned not to "reduce complete thoughts and logic to visual items" (128). Valenzano III and Braden's text revealed that due to advances in technology and cultural transformation, speeches are no longer confined to the traditional speech 52 YouTube videos have counters to track the number of "video views." For details, go to www.youtube.com. 88
situation. By outlining popular technologically mediated speech situations (conference calling, videoconferencing, and recorded /uploaded speeches), the authors described how speeches are delivered using telephones and the Internet. They also noted suggestions for speakers to insure transmission of successful speeches. Challenges for speakers and audience members in the mediated speech situation were also addressed. Finally, the importance of understanding how to navigate the traditional speech situation was emphasized. In efforts to better understand the overarching themes and to address if underlying differences exist among the four textbooks; a comparative analysis was also conducted. Analysis of shared core concepts and themes aided in understanding if shared meaning exists. Further, the results reveal if early core communication concepts are still at the center of speech communication education in America. Finally, the role of technology is assessed to determine if it has influenced the contemporary meaning of core speech communication concepts. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FOUR TEXTBOOKS Comparative analysis of the four public speaking textbooks: The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012) by Stephen E. Lucas, Public Speaking for College and Career 8th ed. (2008) by Hamilton Gregory, The Indiana University's Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking Rev. 1st ed. (2008) by Sprague et al., and The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) by Valenzano III and Braden is imperative to understand the relationship between traditional and contemporary core communication concepts of speech communication. After a brief review of the key terms identified in each of the four textbooks, an analysis of shared terms is conducted. Finally, 89
themes and agons uncovered from the cluster-agon analyses are discussed in relation to core concepts. As outlined by Foss, it is important to note similarities and differences in key terms and their meanings that are uncovered by using Burke's Cluster-Agon Analysis. An investigation of conflicting terms, or "agons" is an important part of cluster-agon analysis. Just as similarities can reveal homogeneity among clusters across textbook authors, "agons" or differences in the texts can reveal "opposition" and "conflict" (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 74). Through "agon analysis," an "examination of opposing terms," the critic can discover if "some confusion or ambiguity on the part of the rhetor about that term" exists (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 74). Cluster-agon analysis applied to four contemporary public speaking textbooks revealed a spectrum of key terms describing speech communication. Together, these key terms cover speech delivery ("speech," "presentation," and "delivery"), participants ("speaker," "listener," and "audience"), speaker and audience member moods ("attitude," "enthusiasm," and "interest"), message content ("ideas" and "information"), "skills" (i.e. "control"), and speech assessments ("effective"). Among these key terms only three were recurring: "message," "audience," and "presentation," were revealed as key terms in more than one analysis.53 Lucas' The Art of Public Speaking (2012) and Valenzano III and Braden's public speaking textbook The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) held speakers responsible for insuring their "message" was received by audience 53 "Audience" and "presentation" were uncovered in three of the four texts; they were not revealed in the Lucas text. Key term "message" was found in both Lucas' and Valenzano III and Braden's texts. 90
members. Cluster-agon analysis of Lucas' key term "message" revealed the need for audience members to understand the main point(s) of the speaker's presentation or delivery (55).54 Both textbooks emphasized the importance of "message" delivery and reception throughout the speech process, including the speaker's reception and assessment and reevaluation of audience feedback to insure audience members understand the "message." Both Gregory's Public Speaking for College and Career (2008) and Sprague et al.'s, The Indiana University's Speaker's Handbook (2008) contained clusters that supported "presentation" as an interchangeable term for "speech" in the traditional sense. Dissimilarly, in Valenzano III and Braden's text, clusters revealed more similarities between "delivery" and "speech"; their clusters revealed a more complex definition for the key term "presentation" than did Gregory and Sprague et al. Influenced by technology, Valenzano III and Braden's description of "presentation" included speech environments unrestricted by traditional speech situations (118-21). Speeches mediated by technology, such as "conference calls" and "video conferencing," were named by Valenzano III and Braden as possible speech situations speakers may encounter (118-21). Unrestricted by location (provided the technology exists), mediated speaking situations transcend traditional classroom space. Mediated speech formats such as videotaped "presentations" transcend traditional speech situations (e.g. classroom space); they are viewed remotely at the leisure of their audience members (121). Consequently, by moving speech beyond traditional speech situations (which 54 In the textbook, Lucas defines "message" as "whatever a speaker communicates to someone else" (18). 91
require physical presence of both speaker and audience), the role of and relationship between "audience" and "feedback" changes in mediated speech. The key term "audience" was described by the term "feedback" in clusters discovered in public speaking textbooks by Gregory, Sprague et al., and Valenzano III and Braden. Through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal communication, "feedback" was identified as an important part of the speech situation. Gregory's and Sprague et al.'s clusters revealed a traditional relationship between "audience" and "feedback." Both texts promoted active "listening," "engagement," and audience participation which were necessary to support ongoing communication or "feedback" between the speaker and audience members in traditional speech situations. Valenzano III and Braden's text revealed a nontraditional relationship between "audience" and "feedback." Though nonverbal cues were described as important, audience members were not restricted to traditional speech situations; audience members were described by clustered terms "distanced," "real-time," and "face-to-face" interactions. Textbooks with prior editions published earlier than 2009 shared themes that were consistent with early core speech communication concepts.55 Emphasizing the communication process (Lucas 18-22; Gregory 8; Sprague et al. 24.), "delivery," "audience," and "feedback" were supported by themes which also emphasized physical presence during the speech event. Interestingly, even though these texts were used in various classroom models (traditional, hybrid, and online), there was no mention of the online classroom in the texts. Lucas' textbook emphasized the traditional classroom, 55 The Art of Public Speaking 11th ed. (2012) by Stephen E. Lucas, Public Speaking for College and Career 8th ed. (2008) by Hamilton Gregory, and The Indiana University's Speaker's Handbook: C121 Public Speaking Rev. 1st ed. (2008) by Sprague et al. 92
"When it is your turn to speak, move to the front of the room and face the audience...This will help you establish rapport with your classmates from the start" (70). References to technology were prevalent in all four public speaking textbooks. Most frequently mentioned were stage and sound equipment (lights, microphones, etc.) and electronic visual aids. Microsoft PowerPoint was referenced in each chapter about presentation aids as a means to display main points, images, and web links for the audience. Beyond the use of technology for lighting, voice amplification and presentation aids, only Valenzano III and Braden mentioned "mediated speech situations" (115, 118-21). Comparison of overlapping key terms "message," "audience," and "presentation" revealed through cluster-agon analysis provided insight into areas of agreement and dissent among public speaking textbook authors Lucas, Gregory, Sprague et al., and Valenzano III and Braden. The Lucas, Gregory, and Sprague et al.'s public speaking textbooks assume the traditional speech situations despite the fact that their textbooks are used in hybrid and online public speaking classrooms. Early speech communication core concepts remain important to Lucas, Gregory, and Sprague et al.; cluster-agon analyses revealed their textbooks maintained traditional definitions of key terms ("delivery," "audience," and "feedback") and of the physical presence of both speaker and audience in public speaking situations. Meanwhile, introduction of "mediated speaking situations" (118) by Valenzano III and Braden argues speeches are no longer confined to traditional speech situations and can be technologically mediated in real-time or videotaped for later review by distanced audience members (115, 118-21). 93
Clusters discovered in Valenzano III and Braden's textbook reveal agons surrounding the terms "audience" and "feedback." Clusters described audience members as "distanced," "real-time," and "face-to-face." For "real-time" and "face-to-face" communication at a distance, mediated speech situations must be conducted through video conferencing. Both conference calls and uploaded speeches do not support "realtime" and "face-to-face" communication. Conference calls lack a visual of the speaker and audience, making nonverbal communication difficult to determine. In an uploaded video speech situation, speakers do not receive real-time feedback as their audience members view the speech at their leisure while maintaining their anonymity online. CONCLUSION Burkean Cluster-Agon Analysis of four public speaking textbooks yielded a variety of key terms. Through analysis of clustered terms, key terms were defined and discussed. From the analyses, themes emerged for each text. Comparative analysis of the cluster-agon analyses results revealed textbooks with earlier editions prior to 2009 (Lucas, Gregory, and Spargue et al.) supported early core speech communication concepts while Valenzano III and Braden's (earliest edition released December 2009) cluster-agon analysis revealed themes of traditional and technologically "mediated speaking situations" (118). 94
CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS Now that cluster-agon analyses of each of the four textbooks has been completed, and the results have been compared to one another to determine commonalities and differences, the study's contributions, in relation to its original research question and subquestion, and its limitations are discussed. Then, "mediated speaking situations" and foreseen implications for speech communication are addressed. Finally, suggestions for further research supports the need for continued investigation of the Online Public Speaking course. CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY The contributions of this research project can best be summarized in relation to the original research questions of the study. The central question the study was designed to address is as follows: Have concepts of speech communication in American higher education (especially the scene of public speaking) changed over time due to the introduction of internet technology and distanced (online) learning? If so, how? After preliminary research on early public speaking textbooks and analysis of four public speaking textbooks using Burke's Cluster-Agon Analysis, a comparison of core concepts was conducted. As a result, it is now clear that the meaning of "presentation aids" has changed over time due to the introduction of technology and distanced (online) learning. 95
The most frequently mentioned "technological aid" (Valenzano III and Braden 97), Microsoft PowerPoint or "presentation software" (Sprague et al. 324), was mentioned in each textbook (Gregory, "Chapter 23: Presentation Aids"; Lucas 265-75; Sprague et al. 324-35; Valenzano III and Braden 97-101). Today, presentation aids are no longer restricted to whiteboards, posters, chalkboards, photographs etc. Instead, the most common forms of presentation aids require the use of technology (computers, projectors, audio, video, etc.). "PowerPoint allows you to integrate a variety of visual aids--including charts, photographs, and video" (Lucas 265). A computer generated slideshow comprised of images, texts, audio and visual components (Lucas 265; Valenzano III and Braden 101), Microsoft PowerPoint presentations can be projected onto a blank wall or screen56 to enhance a speaker's message (Lucas 266; Sprague et al. 326; Valenzano III and Braden 101). Since the software is easy-to-use57 and cost effective, it frequently takes the place of traditional poster board or white board visual aids. Furthermore, PowerPoint files can be shared via e-mail (Valenzano III and Braden 97), web-based document sharing websites, and through online classroom portals.58 Notably, cluster-agon analysis of Valenzano III and Braden's The Speaker: The Tradition and Practice of Public Speaking 2nd ed. (2012) revealed a possible expansion to the definitions of core speech communication concepts to include "mediated speech situations." The textbook's core concepts included technologically "mediated" communication as an important theme. With the increasing use of technology to deliver 56 In many cases, the room must be dimmed or "darkened" to view the slideshow (Sprague et al. 325-26). 57 "Microsoft's PowerPoint has an easy-to-use help function that can be accessed by pressing F1 on your keyboard" (Valenzano III and Braden 101). 58 "Some professors email or upload lecture notes and distribute them for their students in advance of class" (Valenzano III and Braden 97). 96
presentations to distanced audiences, technologically mediated methods for communication are becoming more common in the workplace and the classroom: Video conferencing involves the transmission of video and audio of a presenter in one place to an audience in another place entirely. This is becoming more and more common, not just in business, but in our daily lives. A popular free program that allows for video conferencing is Skype, a way of making video conference calls through the web. Businesses use other similar programs that utilize the same technology to give presentations to clients, just like you may use Skype to keep in touch with family and friends (120). Popularity, affordability, and accessibility are components of "mediated speech situations" (Valenzano III and Braden 120). Interestingly, they are also reasons Online Public Speaking exists (discussed in Chapter 2). The study also addressed a related research question: What are some of the core concepts in speech education that may be at the center of disputes about Online Public Speaking? Core concepts at the center of disputes about Online Public Speaking address physical proximity, time, and the role of technology in the classroom. First, the definition of "face-to-face" has yet to be agreed upon by communication scholars. Some believe that "face-to-face" communication exists in mediated environments when chatting online through a web camera (Valenzano III and Braden 115), while others maintain a traditional perspective which is characterized by physical presence unmediated by technology.59 "Audience" is another related core concept in speech communication which is being debated. Physical separation or distance between the speaker and audience is in conflict with early core speech communication concepts which emphasized physical 59 For articles that mention "face-to-face" requiring physical presence, see Beldarrain 139; Bejerano; Linardopoulos; and Noble. 97
presence of both. Some scholars maintain the traditional model must be kept, assuming that audience members are be physically present with the speaker. Others argue that through mediated communication, audience members may be distanced from the speaker during the speech (Valenzano III and Braden 119-21). By omitting the need for a live audience, the traditional speech situation is compromised due to the absence of immediate audience feedback which hinders a speaker's ability to alter the message to maximize understanding or persuasion. Third, as previously mentioned, deviation from the traditional definition of "feedback" has also created contention (Bejerano, 2008; Wuensch et al. 2009). The term "feedback" in the traditional public speaking situation emphasized physical presence of both the speaker and the audience. Today, delayed or text-based "feedback" (including "nonverbal communication") in a mediated environment nulls instantaneous feedback between the speaker and audience member.60 In some "mediated speech situations" such as recorded and uploaded speeches, speakers do not receive nonverbal (and sometimes verbal) feedback from their viewers at all (Valenzano III and Braden 121). Many of the early core speech communication terms appeared to be unchanged; Public Speaking continues to use critical concepts to describe speech communication. However, the study revealed that setting over determinates the speaking situation. Setting appears to dictate both the method of delivery and skills of the speaker. Table 1 illustrates how this shift has occurred overtime with the speech situation and speech education in American higher education. As discussed in Chapter 1, speech education focused on the physicality of the speaker (gestures, voice, pronunciation, etc.). These 60 For articles referencing delayed feedback in the online classroom, see Bejerano; King et al.; Noble; Mabrito; Wuensch et al. 98
techniques were important to persuade audience members. Once speech education evolved, it became increasingly common for speakers to present in more formal settings, such as the lecture hall. Today, with the introduction of an online speech situation, the emphasis on physicality of the speaker and message have been replaced with that of computer-mediated-communication (CMC). In today's classrooms, professors are tasked with capturing the attention of students who are inundated with technology on a daily basis. Meanwhile, students are expected to pay attention to the podcasts, discussion boards, e-mail, etc. often text-based. Without constant stimulation, including visuals (and audio), students may quickly lose interest in the classroom. As a result, in-class presentations must include quality visuals, interaction, direct relevance or interest to maintain students' focus; much effort is placed on engaging students in the classroom. Instead of relying on the traditional methods for teaching public speaking, the Online Public Speaking course and textbooks should consider additional emphasis on theories and practices for CMC. Students must receive instruction on the use of and messages various technologies send (images, camera angles, audio, etc.) and how to actively pursue feedback in the online classroom. These skills are necessary for online speakers to capture and maintain the attention of their audience and may be unique to the online format. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Limitations of the study included the variables and method selected for analysis. The study analyzed selected chapters and sections in four public speaking textbooks. Other public speaking texts as well as potentially related literature other than public 99
speaking textbooks (and related textbook supplements for instructors of Online Public Speaking) were not included in the selection process. As a result of the criteria used to select the textbooks for analysis, many textbooks were omitted from the study. Investigations of ancillary texts by the same authors (including interviews, publications, etc.) were also excluded from the analyses. Next, each analysis reviewed chapters relative to early core speech communication concepts and technology. Chapters and sections addressing speech preparation beyond speech delivery were omitted; chapters related to outlining a speech, research, etc. were not included in the study. Visuals within analyzed chapters and selections were not included in the analyses, even though cluster-agon analysis may include both nondiscursive and discursive artifacts (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 73). Finally, Burke's Cluster-Agon Analysis was used to determine the textbook's key terms and to identify core concepts and themes in the texts. This method focused on the "frequency" and "intensity" of the key terms (Foss, Rhetorical Criticism 73). To insure a systematic method of analysis was conducted, "intensity" was considered equally important as "frequency." As a result, infrequent and unusual terms were not addressed in the analyses. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY The findings of the study suggest there are implications for speech communication due to "mediated speaking situations." It is clear more attention must be paid to asynchronous models of mediated speech and the role audience and feedback (including nonverbal communication) play in these speech situations. As communication scholars, we must ask ourselves a series of questions: What does public speaking 100
instruction look like without a physically present audience or immediate feedback? How can students receive proper training in audience analysis and feedback assessment without in-class application? Without a live audience present, speech students lose the real-time assessment through feedback from audience members and the professor. Feedback is delayed and reliant upon listeners' situation at the time the speech recording is accessed; distractions are unknown to the speaker. Further, persuasion becomes more complicated for the student speaker without the opportunity to alter a speech due to negative nonverbal feedback from the audience. For today's student, communicating through technologies is preferred (i.e. texting) (Irvine).61 As a result, their lack of interest in face-to face communication may hamper their future success; it has already begun to create a wedge between them and previous generations which prefer face-to-face communication (Irvine). It is becoming more important than ever that students are challenged to improve their face-to-face communication: Many experts say the most successful communicators will, of course, have the ability to do both, talk or text, and know the most appropriate times to use those skills. And they fear that more of us are losing our ability to have--or at least are avoiding--the traditional face-to-face conversations that are vital in the workplace and personal relationships (Irvine). As communication scholars, it is important to consider the implications of online public speaking courses in a time when face-to-face communication is vital for the education and professional development of students. 61 Research shows that young people today have an increasing dependence on technology and instantaneous communication (Lenhart). 101
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Additional research is integral to further understand the implications of the Online Public Speaking course. Descriptions of various online classrooms, examination of best practices and challenges are imperative to further understand and to begin to evaluate the Online Public Speaking classroom. The supplemental text The Art of Public Speaking Eighth Edition by Stephen E. Lucas (2004) by Jennifer Cochrane offers insight into the challenges of the Online Public Speaking classroom. According to Cochrane, "physical absence," reliance upon technology for course dissemination and communication, and shift in the professor's role from teacher to "facilitator" are characteristics of the online classroom that vary significantly from the traditional classroom model (7). Future research concerning the classroom dynamics and the professor's role in Online Public Speaking may provide additional insight into the reservations many faculty members have towards teaching online public speaking courses. Anticipating advancements in technology is important when considering how we will teach new mediated communications. Rather than being reactive to the trends in technology, communication scholars should strive to be on the cutting edge of innovation while protecting the traditional methods of speech communication until they are no longer relevant. Since public speaking in the traditional form is very much alive today, further understanding of the effect the online course may have on students' communicative success should be assessed. 102
Table 1 Influence of Setting on Speaker Skill Sets As Taught in Speech Communication Courses in American Higher Education
ERA Late 19th-Mid 20th Century Mid-Late 20th Century* 21st Century
SETTING Public Forum/ Town Hall
DELIVERY/ FOCUS Entertainment (Projection and Presentation)
Lecture Hall Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
Message Management (Understandability, Diversity, and Inclusivity) Overcoming "Distance" (Engagement)
SKILLS Physical (Elocution, Pronunciation, and Gestures) Mental Act (Organization, Invention, Clarity, and Credibility) Technical (Technological and Strategic)
*Introduction of Speech Communication as a discipline in American Higher Education.
103
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SC Newbolt

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