Hawaii, Biological Control, Oahu, Maui, giant African snail, Kauai, Nobuo Miyahira, Hawaiian Entomological Society, Maui, Hawaii, Achatina fulica Bowdich, insect pests, De Bach, biological control program, Bubulcus ibis, Introductions, N. L. H. Krauss, PEST CONTROL Lymnaea ollula, Fasciola gigantica Cobbold, C. J. Davis, G. D., Jr., Insectary Supervisor James Kim, beneficial organisms, Molokai, Philippines, Kauai George D. Butler, Jr., puncture vine, Manila, Philippines Tucson, Arizona Manila, Philippines Coccus viridis, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, Hymenoptera, Riverside, California Dacus dorsalis Hendel, Barbers Point, Microlarinus lareynii Duval, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, Philippines Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal, BIBLIOGRAPHY DAVIS, southern green stink bug, West Kauai, Microlarinus, Octotoma scabripennis Guerin, BUTLER
Vol. XIX, No. 1, June, 1965
Recent Introductions for biological control
in Hawaii--X C. J. Davis
and N. L. H. Krauss STATE Department of Agriculture
, Honolulu, Hawaii
(Submitted for publication December, 1964) INTRODUCTION This paper includes a list of new introductions and additional releases of beneficial organisms for biological control in Hawaii made since the last pub lished listing (Davis and Krauss, 1964) and gives a few notes on the status of organisms recently introduced for the control of snail, weed, and insect pests
. SNAIL PEST CONTROL Lymnaea ollula (Gould) (liverfluke snail). The incidence of liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica Cobbold, an important parasite in Hawaii dairy and beef cattle, remained high (80 to 100 percent)1 in areas inhabited by the intermediate host, L. ollula. Infested livers result in a loss of over $36,000 annually to the local cattle industry. Although five sciomyzid predators of the liverfluke snail were introduced and widely liberated, only Sepedon macropus Walker has been recovered and is firmly established on Kauai, Oahu, and Maui. Achatina fulica Bowdich (giant African snail). Incipient infestations of the giant African snail were being successfully eradi cated on Kauai and Hawaii, and biological control efforts in older snail popula tions on Oahu and Maui continued to make progress. Foremost of the introduced carnivorous snails is Gonaxis quadrilateralis (Preston) which continues to in crease and spread in many snail-infested localities. WEED PEST CONTROL Lantana camara var. aculeata (L.) Moldenke (lantana). Catabena esula Druce, Hypena strigata F. These introduced noctuids from California and east Africa respectively "exploded" on Maui in November and denuded approximately 10,000 acres of lantana between Kanaio and Alena. This was the most extensive outbreak observed on Maui since 1959, and the second in which C. esula has been of major importance in defoliating acres of lantana. 1 Based on records of infested livers maintained by the Division of Animal Industry, State Department of Agriculture.
Table 1. New Introductions and Additional Releases for Biological Control in Hawaii 1964
Pest Needing Control
Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (black coffee
New species near Dendrosoter sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Los Banos and Lipa, Philippines
Chaetospila frater (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
Los Banos and Lipa, Philippines
Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Cuban laurel thrips or Banyan rhrips) Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Red wax scale)
Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) *Orius tristholor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Anysis alcocki (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
Manila, Philippines Tucson, Arizona Manila, Philippines
Coccus viridis (Green) (Green scale and other soft scales)
**Metaphycus luteolus (Timberlake) (HymenopteraEncyrtidae)
Dacus dorsalis Hendel (Oriental fruit fly)
*Opius inchi Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, Malaysia
Rubus lucidus Rydberg and other species of Rubus (Blackberry)
Opius sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Aptoforma sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, Malaysia Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
Date Released (1964)
N.L.H. Krauss July 28 June 15
Holualoa, Kona, Hawaii
N.L.H. Krauss Aug 28 Aug 25
Bingham Tract, Oahu
Kailua, Kona, Hawaii
N.L.H. Krauss June 2 July
Port Allen, Kauai
George D. Butler, Jr.
June 16 July 29
Port Allen, Kauai
N.L.H. Krauss Aug 28
Oct 28 Oct 28
Tantalus, Oahu Makiki Nursery, Oahu
N.L.H. Krauss Nov
N.L.H. Krauss Nov N.L.H. Krauss Aug 26
Olinda forest reserve
* Previously introduced **Applies to initial release on each island only ***Introduced by Dr. Blair Bartlett, care of Department of Entomology
, University of Hawaii
Vol. XIX, No. 1, June, 1965
Octotoma scabripennis Guerin. Since the recovery of this blotch leaf mining chrysomelid in Kona on June 13, 1963, it has been found in many localities of this district. It was recovered on Makiki Round Top Drive, Oahu for the first time in October, 1964. Tribulus terrestris L; T. cistoides L. (puncture vine). On June 4, and 10, 1964, colonies of the introduced puncture-vine weevils, Microlarinus lareynii Duval and M. lypriformis (Wollaston) were released at Barbers Point, Oahu and at Kihei, Maui, respectively. The weevils were reared from infested stems and seeds collected at West Kauai. By September 1964, all T. cistoides observed at Barbers Point had been killed by Microlarinus and the weevils had spread one-half mile from the release point. On Maui, fresh emer gence holes were noted 38 days after release. During the course of weevil population pressure on Kauai and Oahu which resulted in heavy puncture-vine mortality, it was observed that feeding scars2 occurred on the stems of the following weeds: spiny amaranth, Amaranthus spinosus, lambs quarter, Chenopodium album, and cheese weed, Malva parviflora. These weeds were in close proximity to the puncture vine plants and there was absolutely no evidence of breeding. Parasites reared from Microlarinus were Eupelmus cushmani (Crawford) (Eupelmidae) and Euchalcidia sp. (Chalcididae). Rubus spp. (blackberry). Schreckensteinia festaliella Hiibner. This leaf-skeletonizing heliodinid was found established at Kokee, Kauai on February 19, 1964, and at Olinda, Maui on July 17, 1964. Aptoforma sp. This Mexican leaf-feeding moth was released at Olinda, Maui in August 1964 but to date has not been recovered.
INSECT PEST CONTROL Nezara viridula
smaragdula (Fabricius) (southern green stink bug). Introduced parasites of the southern green stink bug are well established and, in order of importance, are: Asolcus (=Telenomus)basalis (Wollaston) (Australia), Trichopoda pennipes var. pilipes Fabricius (West Indies) and T. pennipes (Fabricius) (Florida). Propagation of these parasites was discon tinued on Oahu and Kauai as the stink bug populations were below economic levels. However, considerable damage to macadamia nuts occurred in Kona, Hawaii during the middle of the year, and propagation of A. basalis at the State Department of Agriculture facility in Hilo and the U.S.D.A. Plant Pest Control facility in Kona continued. Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Cuban laurel thrips). The Cuban laurel thrips was discovered at Honolulu International Airport in January 1964 by Federal Plant Quarantine personnel and, within nine months,
2 Although actual feeding was not observed, the stem scarring was typical of damage described by other workers.
Proceedings, Hawaiian Entomological Society
had spread to the neighboring islands of Kauai, Maui, Hawaii, and Molokai. Only two breeding hosts have been recorded: Malayan or Chinese banyan, Ficus retusa and Benjamin tree, F. benjamina. Because of their astronomical populations and their biting and swarming habits, the thrips became a public nuisance and natural enemies were sought for the control of this pest. Foremost of the introduced enemies was Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton), a predacious anthocorid from Manila, Philippines. This bug feeds on the eggs and nymphs of the thrips and was released for the first time at Pauoa Valley, Honolulu on June 2, 1964. It has since become well established on Oahu and is becoming established on Kauai since its initial release there on July 29, 1964.
Bubulcus ibis L.
The introduced cattle egret, B. ibis, continued to increase in numbers, and by
the end of the year, the population was estimated at 800 birds. The majority
of the population preferred to remain in the Ewa District and nest in the man
grove thickets in the West Loch of Pearl Harbor
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The exploratory phase of the biological control program was carried on by the junior author; the propagation and testing of all organisms considered for liberation were conducted by the senior author, assisted by Entomologists Harry Nakao, Mabel Chong and Nobuo Miyahira; mass production and liberations were handled by Insectary Supervisor James Kim and staff; neighbor island propagation and liberation were handled by Entomologists Stephen Au, Ernest Yoshioka, and Nobuo Miyahira. The assistance of collaborators, determinations by the Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Section, United States Department of Agriculture
, Commonwealth Institute of Entomology and others are gratefully acknowledged.
BIBLIOGRAPHY DAVIS, C. J. and BUTLER, G. D., Jr. 1964. Introduced enemies of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica Bowdich, in Hawaii (Pulmonata: Achatinidae). PROC. HAWAIIAN Ent. Soc. 18 (3): 377-389. DAVIS, C. J. and KRAUSS, N. L. H. 1964. Recent introduction for biological control in Hawaii--IX. Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 18 (3): 391-397. De Bach, Paul (Editor). 1964. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, pp. i-xxiv, 1-844. KRAUSS, N. L. H. 1964. Investigations on biological control of giant African (Achatina fulica) and other land snails. NAUTILUS 78(1): 21-27.
CJ Davis, NLH Krauss