Report of the Kew Committee for the Year ending, A Unifilar

Tags: instruments, Kew, Kew Committee, Thermometers, Observatory, Lisbon Observatory, Mr. Whipple, Kew record, Meteorological Committee, meteorological instruments, Magnetic Observatory, experiments, pendulum experiments, thorough examination, continuous action, Meteorological Office, India Office, Government-Grant Fund, the Observatory, waxed paper, Kew Observatory, pendulums
Content: Report o f the Kew Committee.
81
A ccount o f G rants from th e D on ation Fund in 1873--74.
Mr. H . Willett, in aid of the Sub-Wealden Exploration
F u n d ............................................................................................50
Dr. Carpenter, for apparatus to demonstrate his Theory of
Oceanic C ircu lation ............................
25
Dr. Ferrier, for continuation of his Investigations into
the Functions of the Brain.............................................. 50
Dr. Dohrn, for the use of the Stazione Zoologica at Naples 100
00 00 00 00
Ј225 0 0
Report o f the Kew Committee fo r the Year ending October 81, 1874.
Magnetic WorTc.-- The Magnetograph instruments were dismounted in
January 1874 for the purpose of thorough examination and readjust
ment, as was announced in last Report. · The necessity for this measure
is obvious, when it is remembered that the instruments had been in unin
termitted action for the period of fifteen years.
The scale-values were accordingly redetermined, and the instruments
handed over to Mr. Adie for examination and repair. They were returned
and remounted in May, but have not been set in continuous action as
yet, inasmuch as it is intended that the automatic records should be sus
pended for the entire year, so as to commence a new series of observa
tions with the year 1875. The cost of these operations has been
Ј77 10s.
The monthly observations with the absolute instruments have been
continued, as usual, by Mr. G. M. Whipple, who also takes charge of the
general magnetic work, in which he has had the assistance, for the first
part of the year of Mr. Cullum, and latterly of Mr. Power.
As regards the Magnetic Reductions, the Tabulations of Declination
have been completed up to the end of 1873; and copies of the results
to 1872 have been intrusted, for discussion, to the two Sergeants of the
Royal Artillery, formerly in Sir E. Sabine's office at Woolwich, who have
been in constant attendance at Kew since Nov. 1871. The Tabulations
of Inclination and Horizontal Force have not been effected.
Magnetic data have been supplied to Dr. Wijkander, of Stockholm, in
connexion with the Swedish Expedition to Spitzbergen, M. Diamilla
Muller, of Florence, and Gapt. Creak, R .N .
A Unifilar and Dip-circle have been repaired for use at the Observa
tory, and another pair of similar instruments have been lent to the Rev.
S. J. Perry, F.R.S., for use at Kerguelen Island, on the Transit of Venus
Expedition, as mentioned in last Report.
VOL. x x iii.
o
82
Report of the Kew Committee.
Meteorological Work.-- The several automatic arrangements for record
ing respectively the Barometer, the Dry- and Wet-Bulb Thermometers,
the Anemometer, and the Bain-gauge, have been maintained in constant
action under the superintendence of Mr. T. W . Baker, assisted by Mr.
Foster and Mr. Figg ; and the daily standard eye-observations for control
of the photographic records have been made regularly.
The instrumental traces with hourly tabulated values are sent monthly
to the Meteorological Office as in former years. The Barograms and
Thermograms are obtained in duplicate, and one copy is preserved at Few.
As regards the Anemograms and Hyetograms, the copy is obtained by
the method of tracing.
In addition to the regular work of Kew as one of the self-recordinJ|
Observatories in connexion with the Meteorological Office, the duty of
examining and checking the work of all the seven Observatories of the
same character has been carried on, in accordance with the method de
scribed in the Beport of the BRITISH ASSOCIATION for 1869. This portion
of the work has been performed by Messrs. Cullum, Hawkesworth, and
Deane.
A series of investigations have been conducted with the view of testing
the degree of accuracy attainable in the tabulation of the Thermograms
by the process described ,in the British-Association Beport just referred
to. I t has been found to be an improvement to set the glass tabulating-
scale by means of fiducial lines traced on the Thermograms by photo
graphic means, in preference to setting it, as heretofore, by standard
readings. The great advantage derived from the new method is the dis
covery of " bagging " whenever it exists in the curves.
Electrometer.-- The Self-recording Electrometer, which had been taken
to Glasgow, for alteration, as described in last Beport, was returned by
Mr. M'hite in February,, and was adjusted for action on March 10. It
has since continued in satisfactory working order.
{.
Photoheliograph.-- A necessity for reexamining the measurements of the
series of Kew sun-pictures having arisen, they have been retransferred to
Kew by Mr. De La Bue, and their reexamination has been undertaken,
at his expense, by Mr. Whipple, assisted by Mr. M`Laughlin, who has
been temporarily engaged for this purpose.
The eye-observations of the sun, after the method of Hofrath Schwabe,
have been made daily by Mr. Foster, when possible, as described in the
Beport for 1872, in order, for the present, to maintain the continuity of
the Kew record of sun-spots. Extra Observations.--The Committee, at the request of Prof. Boscoe,!
F.B.S., undertook to test for a year an instrument which he had devised
for measuring the chemical intensity of daylight, as described in the ` Pro
ceedings of the Boyal Society,' vol. xxii. p. 158. The apparatus was
completed for trial in September, but a few preliminary experiments
showed that it required further adjustment; so that operations in this
Report o f the K tw Committee.
sa
direction are suspended for the present, to be resumed as soon as the nstrument is in a satisfactory condition. The daily record of temperature from Thermometers at different elevaions on the Pagoda in the royal gardens, Kew, at the expense of the Meteorological Committee, was continued up to August, when it was nterrupted, to be resumed during the winter months. Verifications.-- This department of the Observatory has exhibited ncreased activity, especially as regards the verification of Thermometers ind the construction of Standard Thermometers. The following magnetic instruments have been verified:--
Constants have been determined for
A Unifilar for Prof. J. Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S.
,,
,, Prof. Balfour Stewart, F.R.S.
,,
,, Bov. S. J. Perry, F.B.S.
,,
,, Mr. P. Adie.
A Magnet ,, Lisbon Observatory.
.,
,, Prof. Buys Ballot, Utrecht.
,,
,, Prof. Smimow, Kasan.
3 Magnets ,, Kew-Observatory stock.
The following instruments have been verified:--
2 Dip-circles for Mr. Casella.
1 Dip-circle ,, Prof. Wild, St. Petersburg.
1
,,
,, The Imperial Admiralty, Berlin.
2 Fox's Circles ,,
,,
»»
»
2 Needles 2,,
,, Prof. Smirnow. ,, Dr. E. van Rijckevorsel.
1,,
H .M .S .«Challenger.'
3 Azimuth Compasses for the Royal Geographical Society.
The complete set of Magnetographs for the Bov. A. M. Colombel, S. J. for Zi-ka-wei, near Shanghai, have been verified and forwarded to their destination. A set of similar instruments has been ordered by Capt. Pujazon for the Marine Observatory of San Fernando, near Cadiz, The part of this work which relates to Meteorology is entrusted to Mr. Baker. The meteorological instruments which have been verified are as follows :--
Barometers, Standards..............................................
,,
Marine and Station............. .. ........... 40
Aneroids
150 10 a2
84
Report of the
Committee.
Thermometers, ordinary Meteorological................ 1471
,,
Boiling-point Standards................ 22
,,
Mountain.................. ................ 32
,,
Clinical............................... .........
1255
2780
In addition, thirty-six Thermometers have been tested at the freezingpoint of mercury, and one metallic Thermometer has been tested. Eighteen Kew Standard Thermometers have been calibrated and di vided at Kew. The following miscellaneous instruments have also been verified:-- |
Rain-gauges.....................................
13
Robinson's Dial Anemometers ........... 14
Telescope. . , . .................
1
Sextant .......................................
1
Theodolite ........................
1
Hydrometers ...................
66
A Barograph and Thermograph have been verified for Mr. Kingston for the Observatory at Toronto, and the values of the Scales have been determined as far as practicable. Experiments have been maDe With a view to the construction of an apparatus devised by Mr. E. G-alton, E.R.S., for facilitating the verifica tion of thermometers, and also for rendering it possible to extend the range to which the Kew verifications at present apply. A large stock of filled Thermometer-tubes for the construction of Standards has been laid in, and the tubes have been annealed. In the last Report mention was made of certain experiments in pro- * gress with respect to the testing of Anemometers, a piece of ground having been rented in the Park for erecting the instruments. The experience of a few months was sufficient to show that the ex posure in the Park was not nearly sufficiently open to afford facilities for testing the instruments at any but very low velocities, and not very : satisfactorily even in such cases. Application was therefore made to the Secretary of the Crystal Palace Company for permission to employ a rotary machine driven by steam-power, so as to be able to vary the velo- . cities at pleasure. Consent having been most freely given, the experiments were com menced, and the instruments tested at various velocities up to about i 30 miles an hour, the highest attainable by the apparatus. The investi- j gations were interrupted during the summer, and will be resumed on a future occasion. It is hoped that by this method of artificial rotation, which . was that employed by Smeaton in his experiments on windmill sails, | more satisfactory results will be attained than it is otherwise possible to j
Report o f the K ew
.8
5
get. The expense of these experiments has been defrayed by a vote of the Government-Grant Fund. The experiments on the vibration of pendulums, which were conducted by Capt. Heaviside, R.E., in connexion with the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, as mentioned in the last Report, were completed at the end of May. The apparatus employed in the experiments, with the ex ception of the Russian pendulums and their accessories, was, at the re quest of Prof. G. G. Stokes, F.R.S., received at Kew for storage. The apparatus for testing Sextants, which had been temporarily re moved in 1873 to afford space for swinging the Russian pendulums, has now been restored. The entire cost of this restoration and all other expenses connected with these pendulum experiments have been defrayed by the India Office. The collimators of the Sextant Testing-apparatus have been arranged so as to be illuminated by gas-jets. Waxed paper for photographic purposes has been supplied to the Meteorological Office (3 reams), the India Office (1 ream), the Magnetic Observatory, Toronto (4 reams), the Central Observatory, St. Peters burg (1 ream), the Hohe Warte, Vienna ( | ream), the Observatory of Don Luiz, Lisbon (§ ream). I t has been found necessary to make a change in the arrangements for obtaining waxed paper. For many years, through the kindness of a firm, the paper waxed at Kew has been hot-pressed at a nominal charge, but it was not found possible to continue this arrangement for an inde finite period. Waxed paper has now to be purchased, ready-made, at a considerable increase of cost, and the rate at which it is supplied to observatories has been consequently proportionately increased. Mr. M `Clatchie and Mr. Beazeley, gentlemen holding appointments in the Chinese Customs Departments, and Mr. Steventon, appointed Assistant to the Observatory at Mauritius, have received instruction in the manipulation and methods of testing both Meteorological and Magnetical instruments, and the management of the photography of the selfrecording apparatus. In the month of September the Superintendent was informed by the President of the Royal Society that that body was prepared to remove the instruments belonging to it, which had been deposited at Kew for storage in Sept. 1851. Accordingly, on the 25th of September, they were handed over to Mr. Ladd, Optician, who had been commissioned by the Council to receive them. The several pieces of Mechanical Apparatus, such as the Whitworth Lathe and Planing Machine, procured by Grants from either the Govern ment-Grant Fund or the Donation-Fund, for the use of the Kew Observatory, have been kept in thorough order; and many of them are in constant and the others in occasional use at the Observatory. Library.--In addition to the usual Donations of English and Foreign
86
Report of the Kew Committee.
Scientific Books, a most valuable present, consisting of twenty-four volumes, chiefly astronomical, has been received from the Athenaeum Club. Staff.--The Staff employed at Kew are as follows;-- Mr. Samuel Jeffrey, Superintendent; G-. M. Whipple, B.Sc., First A ssistant; T.W . Baker, Second A ssistant; J. E. Cullum, J. W . Hawkesworth, J. Foster, F. Figg, A. B. Deane, C. Power, and E. Constable. Note.--In May Mr. Rigby, whose name appeared in the Report for 1873, resigned, and Mr. Power was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the promotion of some of the Junior Assistants. Mr. Robert H . Scott, F.R.S., continues to act as Honorary Secretary to the Committee. Visitors.--The Observatory has been honoured during the year by the presence of several scientific men of distinction. Among these may be mentioned :--
M. A. d'Abbadie. Mr. J. Allan Broun, F.R.S. Mr. H . F. Blanford. M. Marie Davy. Prof. Buys Ballot. M. W . de Fonvielle. M. W . H . v. Freeden. Capt. Hoffmeyer. M. Le Verrier. Dr. R. J. Mann, F.R.A.S. M. H. Mohn.
Prof. A. Moritz. Dr. H . A. Meyer. M. Robert Muller. Senor Jose Montojo. Capt. Montojo. Dr. Neumayer. Capt. Pujazon. Capt. Rikatcheff. M. J. v. Rysselberghe. Capt. Stempel. Prof. Wiedemann.
Ttr fW iSUSS?il< W ,Tg,^gy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . '.'.V..§ ......m . . . . i ' r* Ј 8. a .
To Balance from 1872-73..................................... ....... ........................................... 522 3 1
Royal Society (G-assiot Trust) ...........................................*'·-- ^248 jp 8
"
"
...........................7 .......................................... 498 18 4
Meteorological Committee Allowances ............ U.......
162 10 0
"
"
......1 1 7 7 7 7 7 7 1 i < i 10 0
;;
,,
,,
.................... 16210 0
--------------- 650 0 0
Meteorological Committee, for Postages &c........................... 16 5 6
,,
,,
Pagoda Observations........ .. 21 0 0
Royal Society Government G-rant for Anemometer Experi ments per Mr. S c o tt................................................................... 2 15 0 -------------- 40 0 6
Payment for Instruments by Commission....................................................... 260 7 5
Sale of Waxed P a p er ........................................................................................... 35 12 4
Verification Pees, Magnetic Instruments ............ s................. 24 5 6
M
,, Meteorological Committee ....................... 41 3. 0
,,
,, A dm iralty....................................................... 11 0 0
,,
,, Opticians &c. .......................*........................ 177 2 3
F
--------------- 253 10 9
Sale of Standard Thermometers ................................. ,, Surplus Blank F o rm s...:.,,.............................................
8 90 0 11 3
Instruction Fees &c......................................................................... 1 6 0 -------------- 10 6 3
Mr. D e La Rue for Sun-work ........................................................................... 34 17 1 Payment for Copying Registers ............ .................... <·>................................. 6 9 7 Captain Heaviside for Pendulum Experiments ........................................... 30 8 8
Safe o f Photographic Residues. *....................................................................... 8 19 7
Ј2401 13
: *_ 1
M ffflM B!!--:: I
" T 0 o'
By Salaries and extra work................................................................................. 1005 10 9
Rent of Land.........................................................................................Ј11 0 0
Fuel and Gas....................................................................................... 69 15 4
Furniture and Fittings ...............
37 3 2
Chandlery &c................................................................ - .................. 25 0 6 ----------- 142 19 0
Printing and Stationery..................................................
28 3 5
P ostages.............. .............................................................................. ^9 10 7
Messenger and Housekeeper ...................................................... 53 0 0
N ight Observations......................................................................... 9 5 6
Porterage and Contingencies ...................................................... 28 19 2 .... 128 18 8
^Instruments purchased on Commission......................................................... 168 7 6
Postages and Payments on behalf of Meteorological Com
mittee ..........................
20 17 9
Pagoda Observations....................................................................... 15 19 0 - Anemometer Experiments on behalf of Mr. Scott................... 18 14 9
©
y
-
----------- 55 11 6
'Chemicals .......................*.........
23 7 4
Thermometers ............... i . ..........................
22 6 0
Ice ................................. .................................................................... o n Anemograph Sheets ...i...................................*............................ 2 10 0
Repair of Instruments
............................?........... ............... 86 15 6
Carpenters ^ o r k and Sundries ................... ...............- ........... 31 1 7
^
Sun-work expenses......1..................... . * ......................... · .............................. ^7 ®
Roscoe's Photometer Experiment Expenses .,........ ................................... J ; ~
Pendulum Expe^ment
........ ............... v............ ................ q q ** ** 0
Cash in hand......a........ f ................................................................. 69 13 9
(Balance............................................................ 548 17 6
ЈЈ
Ј2401 13 7
he Kev
November 24, 1874.
Examined, compared with the vouchers, and found correct.
(Signed) R. STRACHEY, Auditor.
ASSETS. Ј s.
LIABILITIES. Ј 8.
By Balance as per Statem ent.................................................................................. 548 17
To Gas and F u e l......................................................................................................... on in
Instruction Fees due .................... ............................................. ......................
Verification Fees d u e ..........................................................................
Standard Thermometers sold ...........................................................................
Waxed Paper sold ..............................................................................................
,,
,, instock ................ . .....................................................................
23 15 15
020
9 10
47 10
Tubes for Standard Thermometers..................................................................
Chemicals ............................................................................................................. * in Instruments and Apparatus .................................................. ........................... lfm n
Purchase of S. Fernando Magnetographs...................................................... Ayy y
Balance ............................................................................ .
·
00
Meteorological Committee Su ndries............................................................... 6 7
Government-Grant Fund for Anemometer Experiments........................... 15 19
Standard Thermometers in stock (valued a t ) ...........................
118 10
Ј799 17 3
Ј799 17 3

A Unifilar

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Title: Report of the Kew Committee for the Year ending October 81, 1874
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