Single finds of Anglo-Saxon and Norman coins-3, MAS Blackburn, MJ Bonser

Tags: moneyer, Obv, Weight, Christopher Marshall, NORMAN COINS, metal-detector, Athelstan, East Anglian, Brian Fisher, M. A. S. BLACKBURN, Moneyer Fordred, Anglo-Saxon, M. J. BONSER NUMISMATISTS, metal detecting, Cambridge Antiquarian Society, London, metal detector, Alison Taylor, finds, monetary history, County Archaeologist, Ancient British coins, D. Weight, York, Christopher Blunt, Marion Archibald, Coenwulf of Mercia, Cuthred of Kent, M. Metcalf, north-east Lincolnshire, Thetford, C. E. Blunt, Martin Shore, Edward the Confessor, Mr Christopher Marshall, Westminster School, BLS, M. Blackburn, Anglo-Saxon coins, H. E. Pagan
Content: SINGLE FINDS OF ANGLO-SAXON AND NORMAN COINS - I M. A. S. BLACKBURN AND M. J. BONSER NUMISMATISTS have become increasingly aware of the value of single finds as a source of evidence for monetary history. They complement and extend information derived from hoards about the use and circulation of coinage, for generally they are representative of smaller transactions and they can provide a broader statistical base if there are enough finds that have been reliably recorded. Single finds are also useful to the archaeologist in identifying periods of activity on particular sites. The growth in popularity of metal detecting as a hobby in the past ten or fifteen years has brought a dramatic increase in the number of finds being made. Yet only a small proportion of these are currently being put on record - whether in publications or museum archives - and the remainder are likely to be lost permanently to scholarship. It is impossible to tell whether the present glut of finds will continue unabated or whether in future years it will recede as the fields in the most productive regions have been systematically searched. With this in mind, we have made some attempt to gather information about finds which would otherwise go unrecorded, concentrating our energies primarily on Anglo-Saxon and Norman coins (to 1180) though acknowledging the need to document those of other periods (details of Ancient British coins have been placed on the card index of finds kept at the Institute of Archaeology, Oxford). Since autumn 1983, one of us (M.J.B.) has published a number of articles in the popular metal-detecting press inviting people to send us details of their finds. We have also cultivated a number of personal contacts with local detector users and their clubs, mainly in the East Midlands and Lincolnshire. In a little more than a year we have had about seventy Anglo-Saxon and Norman single finds reported to us, giving some indication of the substantial scale on which coins are currently being found. Some of these we have published elsewhere, thirty-two are described here, and the remainder we hope to publish in a future issue of this Journal after obtaining further details or photographs. The quality and detail of the information obtained varies considerably, but most finders have been extremely co-operative. In many cases they have given us precise information about the findspot on the understanding that this is confidential and will not be published, at least for the foreseeable future. This is in the interests of the finder, the landowner and the archaeologist and historian, for otherwise people might be encouraged to detect on the site without authority and without declaring the finds which they make. The text is arranged alphabetically by site, and the coins illustrated on the accompanying plate are indicated by an asterisk before the number. A pellet beneath a letter in an inscription indicates that it is somewhat uncertain. Unless otherwise indicated, the coins remain with the finders or have been disposed of through the trade.1 BURY, Cambs. Several coins were shown to us by the County Archaeologist for Cambridgeshire, Mrs Alison Taylor, and are published here at her invitation. They were found by a metal-detector used over the last five years or more on a
1 The following abbreviations have been used in this article: BLS = C. E. Blunt. C. S. S. Lyon and B. H. I. H. Stewart, 'The coinage of southern England, 796-840', BNJ 32 (1963), 1-74; Hild. = B. E. Hildebrand, Anglosachsiska
Mynl, second edition (Stockholm, 1881); North = J. J. North, English Hammered Coinage, second edition, 2 vols. (London. 1980 and 1975).
field in the parish of Bury, near the edge of the Fens, some eight miles north-east of Huntingdon (the findspot is recorded on the County Sites and Monuments Record). *1. Stephen, Awbridge type, c. 1150-8 (BMC vii; North 881). Canterbury?, moneyer Ro. . . Obv. illegible Rev. + RO[ ]N: C/N: Weight: 1.40g (21.6gr.). Die-axis: 90° The mint signature is probably that of Canterbury, although it is not entirely clear. Rogier and Rodbert were moneyers there in this type, which makes the attribution more likely. Other mints at which a suitable moneyer is known to have struck coins - Rodbert at Bramber?, Castle Rising?, Hastings and London - would not match the mint name as it appears on this coin. No die-link has been found. The other coins from the site may be summarized as follows: a. Roman Republican denarius: Mark Antony, 32-31BC, Crawford no. 544/13-39 (ANT.AVG/IH.VIR.R.P.C. and LEG. . .) 3.60g. b. Tiberius, denarius of Lugdunum; BMC I 125.34; RIC 1,3 (C.AD 16-21). c. Henry II, short cross penny, class 7(b); North 979 (1217/18-1242), London, Terri. 1.39g. d. Edward I, penny class IXb; North 1037 (1299-1302), London. 1.31g broken. e. Edward I/II, penny class lOc-f, 3rd bust?; North 1042? (1302-10), London. 1.29g. f. Alexander II, penny, 2nd coinage, class C (1280-86+). 1.02g chipped.
CAISTOR-ON-THE-WOLDS, Lines. (S. Humberside) One coin is said to have been found recently near Caistor-on-the-Wolds by a local metal-detector user. It was studied from photographs made on our behalf by Mr Christopher Marshall of Louth. *2. Cnut, Short Cross type, c. 1030-35/6 (Hild.H; North 790). Lincoln, moneyer vEthelmasr. Obv. +CNVT/ RECX Rev. + /EGLM/ER ON L'lNCO: (NC ligatured). Weight and die-axis: not recorded. It is a die-duplicate of SCBI Copenhagen iiib 1512 (= Mossop- pi. 49, no. 23).
CAMBRIDGE Mr Allen Webb, a field walker with the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, had been keeping a watch on some construction trenches outside the Probation and Aftercare Department, just to the north of the main Shire Hall building, in the area of Cambridge known as Castle Hill. On 21 May 1984, he saw a silver coin on top of a spoil heap removed from one of the trenches. He reported the coin and it is now in the possession of Cambridgeshire County Council. A few days later, with the assistance of Mr David Haigh M.A., we investigated the spoil and trenches with a metal detector, but no further coins were found. No medieval stratification seems to have survived the nineteenth- and twentieth-century disturbances.
FIG. 1 Reverse of No. 3 showing arcs inscribed in die.
*3. Edgar, Crowned Bust type, East Anglian style, c.959-73 (BMC v; North 750). Norwich?, moneyer
Obv. + EADGAR RE +
Weight: 1.50g (23.1gr.). Die-axis: 0°.
Folchard struck coins without mint signatures for Eadwig (955-59) and Eadgar, and a moneyer of the
same name struck the First Hand to Crux types (c.979-97) of /Ethelred II at Norwich. The name is of
Continental Germanic origin and a rare one in England, so that it is probable that /Ethelred's moneyer is
the same individual - or possibly a homonymous relative continuing in the office - as that, who struck the
earlier coins. A Norwich attribution for the new coin is thus likely, but not certain. Mr Blunt has
informed us that he knows of three other specimens of Edgar by this moneyer, all of the same East
: H. R. Mossop, The Lincoln Mint, c. 896-1279 (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1970).
SINGLE FINDS OF ANGLO-SAXON AND NORMAN COINS - I Anglian style Crowned Bust type: two are in the British Museum and one (from the same obverse die as this specimen) was recently offered for sale by Spink (NCirc October 1983, no. 6655). A notable feature of the reverse is the presence of three faint arcs, marks left by guidelines inscribed on the die with compasses (Fig. 1). The lower arc is not visible. These were drawn from four punch marks outside the area of the die used to strike coins and were presumably to help the die-cutter lay out the design and position the letters.3 The East Anglian die-cutter seems to have been particularly heavy handed when drawing his guidelines, for similar arcs have been found on other coins of this type by Antony Gunstone (SCB1 Lincolnshire Collections 1662) and by Marion Archibald and Christopher Blunt (in their forthcoming British Museum Sylloge). CLAXBY-BY-ALFORD, near, Lines. Two coins were found c. 1977 in a field near Claxby-by-Alford at the southern end of the Lincolnshire Wolds (findspot recorded confidentially). They remain the possession of the finder and were studied from photographs supplied by Mr. Christopher Marshall. *4. 'Porcupine' sceat (Series E); Metcalf4 class D. Weight: reported as 1.15g (17.7gr.). Die-axis: not recorded. This coin was recently published by Metcalf on the basis of line drawings supplied to him.5 The photographs show that it is a classic example of class D, though Metcalf was unable to identify it as such from the drawings, which are now seen to be inaccurate. There is a striking similarity with the sceat from near Grimsby (No. 9), but this is probably coincidental as there are good parallels from Domburg, Thanet, Dorchester-on-Thames and Whitby.6 Like the coins of this class in the Aston Rowant hoard (dep. c. 710), it was probably struck during the first decade of the eighth century in southern Frisia. *5. Cnut, Short Cross type, c. 1030-35/6 (North 790). Stamford, moneyer Morulf. Obv. +CNV[ ] c x Rev. [ ]ORVL[ ] Cut-halfpenny. Weight: reported as 0.44g (6.8gr.). Die-axis: 270°. Probably from the same obverse die as SCBI Copenhagen iiic 3632. COLNEY, Norfolk. Found by a metal detector user in a field at Colney, near Norwich late in 1983. The finder kindly supplied us with photographs and subseqently brought us the coin to study.
\A v
,\ ,
1, V
FIG. 2 Obverse of No. 6 struck from a recut Cuthred die.
3 The Golden Age of Anglo-Saxon Art, edited by J. Backhouse, D. H. Turner and L. Webster (London. 1984), p. 190, no. 258 (note by M. M. Archibald on the St Peter die from the York excavations). 4 D. M. Metcalf, 'A stylistic analysis of the "porcupine" sceattas', NC 7th series, 6 (1966), 179-205.
5 D. M. Metcalf, 'Twenty-five notes on sceatta finds', in Sceattas in England and on the Continent, edited by D. Hill and D. M. Metcalf (BAR British series 128; Oxford. 1984), pp. 193-205, at 197-98, no. 13. 6 Mctcalf, 'The "porcupine" sceattas', pi. XVI, nos. 27-30.
*6. Coenwulf of Mercia, Cross and Wedges type, c. 805/7-c. 810 (North 344). Canterbury, moneyer Duda. Obv. + COENVVLF/REX M Rev. +DVDA MONETA Weight: 1.40g (21.6gr.). Die-axis: not recorded. Duda, a Canterbury moneyer, struck coins of the Tribrach type for Coenwulf and Cuthred of Kent in the period c. 798-805 and coins of the Cross-and-Wedges type for Cuthred c. 805-7, but he was not hitherto known to have struck coins of that type in the name of Coenwulf c. 805/7-810. Instead he appears to have had his own distinctive Cross-and-Quatrefoil design, the small flans indicating that they belong before c. 810.7 However, the new coin from Colney shows that he did briefly use the Cross-and-Wedges type under Coenwulf, before adopting the other design. A close examination of the obverse reveals that under the legend there was an earlier one which can be read +CVBRE[ ]I[ ] for +Cuthred rex / Canl (Fig. 2). The coin was probably struck from an altered die of Cuthred, rather than being overstruck on a Cross-and-Wedges coin of his, for there are no signs of overstriking on the bust or on the reverse, and there would be no reason to restrike coins which evidently belonged to the same issue. There is one other coin of this type, by the moneyer Eaba, which also appears to have been struck from an altered Cuthred die." It has been suggested that Coenwulf and Cuthred shared access to the Canterbury mint, but it seems more likely that between c. 800 or a little later and his death in 807 Cuthred operated the Canterbury mint to the exclusion of Coenwulf.'' On Cuthred's death Coenwulf resumed control of the mint, and the Duda and Eaba coins presumably belong to the period immediately following this.
CROUGHTON, near, Northants. This coin was illustrated in Treasure Hunting, December 1982, p. 10, as a recent find, and on enquiry the finder informed us that it was found in 1982 near Croughton, Brackley. He kindly supplied us with a photograph and obtained its weight. *7. Athelstan, Crowned Bust type, c. 933-8 (BMC viii; North 675). London, moneyer /Elfwald. Obv. + /EBELSTAN REX Rev. + /EL'FPALD MO LOND CIVI Weight: reported as 1.46g (22.5gr). Die-axis: not recorded. It is similar to SCBI Glasgow 611 (Blunt10 269), but from different dies.
EAST HARLING, Norfolk. Mr Brian Fisher of Thetford reported a coin which had been found by a friend in 1982 at East Harling, near the border of Norfolk and Suffolk. It was photographed by M. J. B. at Mr Fisher's house. *8. Viking imitation of Edward the Elder, Two-line type (BMC ii; North 649). Obv. +EYDVVEARD REX (First E as an i n v e r t e d F) Rev. .-./BEIOE/+++/+/EIOIVI/Y ( r e t r o g r a d e ) Weight: not recorded; chipped and broken. Die-axis: c. 280°. This coin belongs to a class of imitations well represented in the Morley St Peter hoard (dep. c 925) and which were probably struck by the Vikings of East Anglia. Coins with related reverse legends occurred in the Morley St Peter hoard (SCBI East Anglian Museums 174--5) and the Skye hoard (SCBI Edinburgh 109-112), the best of which read BEIAO/OEOID (the D retrograde). These may in turn be a degeneration from the somewhat larger group of imitations with variations of DIAIO/OEAID (the last D retrograde) (SCBI East Anglian Museums 190-4, 214, etc.), which appear eventually to be copying genuine coins of Edward reading BAD/DAMO by the moneyer Badda, although elements from other legends may also have influenced the die-cutter. A systematic study of this series has yet to be made, but it appears that the majority of coins derive from a small number of prototypes.
GRIMSBY, near, Lines. (S. Humberside) Two further coins from a known site near Grimsby (recorded confidentially) were found in September 1984 (No. 9) and December 1984 (No. 10). The first was studied from photographs taken for us by Mr. Christopher Marshall and the second was lent to us by the finder. Previous finds from this site include four sceattas (Series D, E, K and W); a styca; an uncertain penny or denier of the ninth or tenth century and a cut-halfpenny of Stephen." The styca, a mid-ninth-century imitation of a coin of /Ethelred I, moneyer Tidwulf, is illustrated here for the first time as No. 9a.
7 BLS p. 11-12. no. Cn.31. 8 H. E. Pagan and N. G. Rhodes, 'Anglo-Saxon coins in the Westminster School collection', BNJ 31 (1962), 11-26, at 21, no. 9. ' C. S. S. Lyon, 'Historical problems of Anglo-Saxon coinage (2)', BNJ 37 (1968), 216-38, at 217.
10 C. E. Blunt, 'The coinage of Athelstan, 924-39. A survey', BNJ 42 (special vol., 1974), 35-158. 11 M. Blackburn and M. Bonser, 'Sceattas, a styca, and other coin finds from a site in north-east Lincolnshire', in Sceallas in England and on the Continent, pp. 233-37.
SINGLE FINDS OF ANGLO-SAXON AND NORMAN COINS - I *9. 'Porcupine' sceat (Series E); Metcalf class D. Weight; reported as l.OOg (15.4gr.). Die-axis: not recorded. See comment to No. 4. *10. /Ethelred II, First Small Cross type, c. 978-9 (North 764). York, moneyer Wine. . . Obv. + /E( JANGLOR' Rev. +VINE[ JEFEP Weight: 0.56g (8.64gr.). Die-axis: 40°. The mint appears to be York, and its style is similar to SCBI Yorkshire Collections 57. There is no moneyer with the name Wine. . . recorded at York in this type, but it may be Wineman who is known from coins of First Hand type in the British Museum, Merseyside Museums (SCBI 526), and Oslo. GRIMSBY, near, Lines. (S. Humberside) Another coin was reported to us by a metal-detector user as having been found near Grimsby, without identifying the site, but there is no apparent connection with that of Nos. 9 and 10. The coin was studied from photographs supplied to us by Mr Christopher Marshall. *11. Northumbrian styca, ^thelred II (North 188). Moneyer Fordred. Obv. +EBF[ ]RED RE (the thorn, as usual in this series, with its bar through the curved front), around a small cross. Rev. + FORDRED, around a small cross. Weight and die-axis: not recorded. This is a coin traditionally assigned to ^Ethelred's first reign. HUNCOTE, Leics. Found 20 June 1984 by Mr Martin Shore in a ploughed field near Huncote, South West of Leicester. Mr Shore kindly supplied us with photographs of the coin and gave us its weight. The site has produced a number of Celtic, Roman and later medieval coins. *12. Baldred of Kent, Portrait type (BLS Ba. 2 var.; North 220). Canterbury, moneyer Diormod. Obv. + BALDRED REX CANT (NT ligatured) Rev. +DIORMOD MONET, with 5RVR CITS (for Dorovernia civitas) in field. Weight: reported as 1.27g (19.6gr.). Die-axis: 45°. Blunt, Lyon and Stewart12 knew of only seven portrait coins of Canterbury, three of them by this moneyer, though from different dies. One of these spells the king's name Baldred as on the new coin, one spells it Beldred, and the third is fragmentary. To judge from its style, this is probably the latest of the four Diormod coins. The form of the head, with a tight 'bonnet' of hair and a large eye, is similar to that on the specimens of Swefherd and Tidbearht and on the earliest coins of Egbert of Wessex (struck from c. 825). The unusual chevronned A on the obverse is also found on the reverse of the Tidbearht coin. The new coin differs from the other specimens in one minor respect, having the reverse legend beginning at six o'clock; on all the others it begins at nine o'clock, save for one, at twelve o'clock, by the moneyer Oba which is probably the work of a different die-cutter. The coin has been acquired by Mr C. E. Blunt. HUNTINGDON, Hunts. (Cambs.) Found in 1974 during excavations of the ramparts of Huntingdon Castle by the Huntingdonshire local history Society.13 The coin remains, with the other finds, in the possession of the Society. *13. Edmund, irregular Two-line type, 939-46 (BMC i; North 688). Obv. [ ]ADM[ ] (retrograde). Rev. see below. Weight: 0.32g (4.9gr.); fragment. Die-axis: not recorded. The irregular nature of this coin is indicated by its retrograde obverse legend of which only three letters survive, ADM (the A only partial) for EADMVND. On the reverse two letters and part of a third are similarly visible, although their interpretation is not clear. If the piece is from the lower right hand quarter of the design it might be read as EG or E-D (the thorn of Mercian style with its bar cutting the curved front rather than the straight back) or ER (the R inverted), preceded by a letter with a sloping stroke, a v or an inverted A or R. This would represent the final element of the moneyer's name, perhaps . . . ferth or . . . meter. But a better interpretation is probably as the top left hand quarter, with a retrograde reverse legend as well as obverse. It would represent the end of the first element of the moneyer's name, and read ER or ED preceded by A. R. or possibly F, for Efer. . . , Maer. . . , Waer. . . or similar.
12 BLS, pp. 14-15.
Couzcns in particular, for making the coin available to us for
13 Wc are grateful to the Socicty. and to Mr David study and for permission to publish it here.
Irregular coins are reasonably plentiful in Athelstan's reign,14 but they are much scarcer in Edmund's, and neither Mr Blunt (in correspondence) nor ourselves have been able to find any coin with similar legends to these. We are unable to say with confidence where the coin was struck, although a Danelaw origin is likely in view of the findspot and the substantial series of irregular coins which were produced in the Derby region during Athelstan's reign. It is worth noting that Huntingdon lies close to, but not within, the region of the Five Boroughs which the Norse kings of York held for a couple of years at the beginning of Edmund's reign. Fractional coins made from cut pennies are rare in the mid tenth century - Blunt knew of none of Athelstan'5- and cut-farthings particularly so. Although this piece is approximately a quarter of a coin, it was probably not intended to be a cut-farthing. The angle made by the straight sides is 105°. The side which is vertical to the reverse design shows signs of having been cut by a chisel, since for much of its length the section is square and the edge appears to have been bent down by the force of a blow. However, the other straight side is rougher and it looks as if the metal has been fractured or torn, which may account for the chip missing from the rim. It seems probable that we have part of a cut-halfpenny which has been broken.
LEWES, E. Sussex Found in spring 1984 on the outskirts of Lewes and studied from photographs supplied by the finder. *14. Edmund, Two-line type, 939-46 (BMC i; North 688-9 var.). Unspecified mint, moneyer Hunsige. Obv. +EADMVND REX, with v in field. Rev. .'./HVNSI/+ ++/GE M~0/· Weight: reported as 1.45g (22.3gr.). Die-axis: 90°. Mr C. E. Blunt has informed us that Hunsige is only known from Edmund's Two-line type, and previously in two varieties, one with trefoils above and below the moneyer's name (SCBI Glasgow 640 and Forum hoard) and the other with single pellets in those positions (BMC 78 and three in Forum hoard). This coin differs from those in having a trefoil above and a pellet below, a variety otherwise only known from a coin of the moneyer Eadred (SCBI Merseyside 458). Occasionally Edmund's coins have a letter, annulet or pellet in the obverse field, but the v on this coin is unprecedented, although its significance is unknown. The coin is now in Mr Blunt's collection.
LEWES, near, E. Sussex
In April 1984, Mr J. Hancocks of Brighton reported two recent coin finds he made near Lewes (site recorded confidentially). He kindly supplied us with photographs and obtained their weights. *15. Edward the Confessor, Hammer Cross type, c. 1059-62 (Hild. G; North 828). Nottingham, moneyer Wulfnoth.
Weight: reported as 1.26g (19.4gr.). Die-axis: not recorded.
Wulfnoth was previously unrecorded in this type at Nottingham, but he was known there in the Radiate
Small Cross and Expanding Cross types, and a moneyer of the same name, probably the same individual,
struck extensively at Leicester and Northampton in Edward the Confessor's reign.
*16. Henry I, Full Face/Cross Fleury type, c 1124-5? (BMC x; North 866). Chichester, moneyer Brand. Obv. + h E [ ]RICVS R[ ]AN Rev. +BRAND[ ]ON CICE Weight: reported as 1.28g (19.8gr.). Die-axis: not recorded. Brand was recorded at Chichester in a number of types of Henry I from BMC vi to BMC xiv, including BMC x. On this coin his name is probably to be completed as Brandus, the form which occurs in BMC type xiii. The coin was auctioned at the Vecchi sale, 8 October 1984, lot 597.
LINCOLNSHIRE, north-east. This coin was acquired in 1984 from a Cleethorpes coin dealer. It was reputed to be a metal-detector find from north-east Lincolnshire, although no more specific information was available. *17. Northumbrian styca, ^Ethelred II (North 188). Moneyer Monne. Obv. +EDLIRED RE, around small cross. Rev. +MONNE (retrograde, the first N and the E reversed), around a cross of five pellets. Weight: 1.20g (18.5gr.). Die-axis: 70°. It is struck from the same obverse die as SCBI Cambridge 322 (= MEC 1.1242).
14 Blunt, 'Athelstan', pp. 107-13.
15 Blunt, 'Athelstan', p. 115.
LOW BURNHAM, near, Lines. (S. Humberside)
Found in September 1984 near Low Burnham in the Isle of Axholme (site recorded confidentially) and studied
from photographs supplied by the finder. The site has also produced a short cross penny and a farthing of
Edward III.
*18. Stephen, Watford type, c. 1135-41 (BMC i; North 873).
Uncertain mint, moneyer Baldwine.
Obv. ST[
] Rev. + [ ]LDEPIN[ ].
Weight: reported as 1.30g (20.1gr.). Die-axis: not recorded.
The moneyer is presumably Baldwine, who is recorded at London and Thetford in this type, but we have
been unable to find a die-link by which to determine the mint.
MELBOURN, Cambs. Found in August 1984 in a ploughed field at Melbourn, four miles north-east of Royston (site recorded confidentially) and shown to us by the finder. The field has produced pottery dating from the tenth to fourteenth centuries. *19. Wulfred, archbishop of Canterbury, Transitional Monogram type, c.810 (BLS W.3; North 240). Canterbury, moneyer Sjeberht. Obv. +VVLFREDI ARCHIEPISCOPI ( c o m m e n c i n g at 1 o'clock) Rev. +SAEBERHT MOHETA, a r o u n d m o n o g r a m of DOROVERNIA CIV Weight: 1.37g (21.1gr.). Die-axis: 230°. It is a die-duplicate of Drabble (Glendining, 4 July 1939) lot 346.
MELTON MOWBRAY, Leics. Found in August 1984 in a field on the outskirts of Melton Mowbray (findspot recorded confidentially). The coin was lent to us for study by its finder, Mr Trevor Palmer, and he has generously placed it on permanent loan to Leicester Museum. *20. 'Porcupine' sceat (Series E); Metcalf class L ('plumed bird' variety). Weight: 0.50g (7.7gr.), but worn and flaking at edges. Die-axis: not recorded. There are only two sceattas previously recorded from Leicestershire, Series N from Saxby and Series T from Breedon-on-the-Hill.16 This coin is typical of class L, having an annulet before the bird on the obverse and five annulets separated by four groups of-three pellets in the standard on the reverse. Class L appears to be one of the later groups of the plumed bird variety, and it was probably struck during the second decade of the eighth century to judge from its absence from the Aston Rowant and Bais hoards (dep. c. 710) and its presence in the Hallum and Cimiez hoards (dep. c. 720)." Current thinking suggests that it was struck in southern Frisia. SHALFORD, near, Surrey Found in October 1982 near Shalford, three miles south of Guildford (site recorded confidentially). *21. Offa of Mercia (757-96), moneyer Eahlmund (Blunt18 42; North 318). Obv. ,-t-:OFF-A- R-. EX- + : Rev. -AL-H./WN:/a Weight: 1.18g (18.2gr.). Die-axis: not recorded. The reverse is characteristic of Ealhmund, having a double headed torque derived from the classical wreath on siliquae of the late fourth century. We have found no die-links with this coin. A similar coin, but with a different arrangement of pellets, was found at Luton c. 1973 (NCirc Sept. 1982, no. 6643).
THETFORD, Norfolk Over a period of some five years Mr Brian Fisher, a metal-detector user from Thetford, has investigated a number of sites in the town, some prior to construction work, and he has kindly provided us with details of six Saxon and Norman coins which he found. He has also passed on information about three finds made by other detector users, with their permission. We are very grateful to Mr Fisher and his friends for all the help they have given us. These new finds, when added to those previously discovered in excavations and elsewhere," put
16 S. E. Rigold and D. M. Metcalf, 'A revised checklist of English finds of sceattas', in Sceattas in England and on the Continent, pp. 245-68. 17 M. Blackburn, 'A chronology for the sceattas', in Sceattas in England and on the Continent, pp. 165-74. 18 C. E. Blunt, 'The coinage of Offa', in Anglo-Saxon Coins, edited by R. H. M. Dolley (London, 1961), pp.
39-62. " S. E. Rigold, 'Finds of St. Edmund Memorial and other Anglo-Saxon coins from excavations at Thetford', BNJ 29 (1958-59), 189-90; SCBI East Anglisn Collections 1006, 1101-2, 1104, 1106-7, 1176, 1227, and a chance find 1020. Rigold and Mctcalf, 'A revised checklist", p. 264 also records a find of an unidentified sccat.
Thetford among the more productive urban sites in terms of single finds of Saxon and Norman coins. The new finds come from five sites indicated on the accompanying map (Fig. 3). A. One coin came from mud dredged from the river Thet. It was found in about 1980 on the north bank of the river near the junction of the Diss (A1066) and Ipswich (A1088) roads at a spot where some years previously there had been dumped mud dredged from the immediately adjacent section of river using a drag-line from the bank. Mr Fisher believes that the coin is likely to have come from a spot in the river bed within a matter of yards of where it was found. The coin has since been disposed of, but it was shown at the British Museum and Miss Archibald has very kindly supplied us with a copy of the photograph which she took of it at the time. *22. Carolingian, Charles the Bald; Gratia D~i rex type, 864-77 or later (Morrison and Grunthal2" 716). Quentovic. Obv. + GRATIA D~I REX, around a 'Karolus' monogram. Rev. +QWENTOVVIC, with a pellet in the second and third quarters of the reverse. Weight and die-axis: not recorded. The Gratia D~i rex type was struck for Charles the Bald between 864 and 877 and probably continued after his death as an immobilized issue until the late ninth or early tenth century. This coin is similar to the more stylized (and later?) pieces in the Glizy hoard (deposited c. 880).21 Miss Archibald noted that the coin has a black patina and that it was pecked on the reverse (i.e. had test marks, made with the point of a knife, typical of Viking hoards). B. A number of coins, ranging from the eleventh to fourteenth centuries, have been found in a field which formerly lay immediately to the north of site A. It has now been covered by a housing estate.
211 K. F. Morrison and H. Grunthal, Carolingian Coinage (New York, 1967). 21 E. Gariel, Les monnaies royales de France sous la race
carolingienne, 2 vols. (Strasbourg, 1883-84), I, pi. XIII, nos. 109-15.
*23. Cnut, Short Cross, c. 1030-35/6 (Hild. H; North 790). Lincoln, moneyer uncertain. Obv. [ ]T/[ ] Rev. [ ]ON LTN[ ] Weight: not recorded; fragment. Die-axis: 0°. The moneyer must be one with a short name - /Elfnoth, Crina, Lifiac, Oslac, Swafa, Waldos - but neither die seems to be represented in Mossop's corpus.22
*24. Stephen, ProfilelCross-and-Piles type (BMC vi; North 879). Mint and moneyer uncertain.
Obv. +ST[
] Rev. + [
Cut-halfpenny. Weight: 0.64g (9.9gr.). Die-axis: 120°.
*25. Henry II, Tealby type, bust C (North 956-7). Winchester, moneyer Herbert.
Obv. +[
] Rev. + h E [
Weight: not recorded. Die-axis: c. 110°. Among the later coins that we have seen is a Polish billion ternarus of Wladislaus Jagiello (1386-1434) of the Crakow mint (Gumowski23 no. 414).
C. Near industrial Estate No. 2. One coin, found by a friend of Mr Fisher in 1983, has been studied from enlarged colour photographs. *26. Baldred of Kent, Portrait!Crooked Cross type (BLS-; North -). Rochester, moneyer Ealhstan. Obv. +BALDRED REX, diademed bust right breaking inner circle. Rev. EALHSTAH MONET (HS and HE ligatured, the final A as three disjointed wedges), around a cross with crooked arms and a pellet in each angle. Weight and die-axis: not recorded. This coin is of a new type and by a moneyer previously unknown for the reign. Ealhstan was a Rochester moneyer in the preceding coinages of Coenwulf (796-821) and Ceolwulf (821-3), and he may indeed have been the first moneyer to operate at the mint c. 810.24 This coin thus represents a short extension to his period of activity. The bust and epigraphy are of classic Rochester style - the form of the HS ligature, with a simple wedge to the right of an H, occurs on his coins for Coenwulf and Ceolwulf - and it has the usual Rochester spelling of the king's name, Baldred (cf. Beldred commonly used at Canterbury). The reverse type, a cross with crooked arms, is not otherwise used in this period, but one might well have expected Ealhstan to have adopted a new personal design for this coinage since the two other Rochester moneyers in this reign, Dunun and Ethelmod, also used novel designs. One consequence of the new find is to demonstrate that the complement of moneyers at Rochester at the end of Ceolwulf's coinage and the beginning of Baldred's was at least three, and this.accords with the position early in Ceolwulf's reign. Although we have only studied this coin from enlarged photographs, we have no reason to doubt its authenticity.
D. From the site of the 'Chase' PUBLIC HOUSE prior to its recent construction, at the junction of the Brandon (B1107) and London (All) roads. 27. Harold I, Jewel Cross type, c. 1036-8 (Hild. A; North 802). The coin has been disposed of and no further details are available. E. From a piece of waste ground, now part of a housing estate, to the west of Fulmerston Road. Three coins of William I were found in 1981. The first two have been disposed of and little information is available; the third was shown to us by Mr Fisher. 28. William I, Two Stars type, c. 1074-7 (BMC v; North 845). The coin is said to have been badly damaged and little could be made of the legends. 29. William I, Profile/Cross-and-Trefoils type, c. 1080-3 (BMC vii; North 847). *30. William I, Pacx type, c. 1083-6 (BMC viii; North 848, crown type 1). Thetford, moneyer /Elfwine. Obv. [ ]PILLELM[ ] Rev. +/ELFPIN[ ] Cut-halfpenny. Weight: not recorded. Die-axis: 0°.
It is a die-duplicate of Elmore-Jones (Glendining, 13 April 1983), lot 1069.
TIPTREE, near, Essex Found in 1983 in a field near Tiptree (site recorded confidentially) and kindly lent to us for study by the finder. The site has also produced a Gallo-Belgic D quarter stater (Mack 41), weight 1.44g, and a Scottish cut-halfpenny of short cross type too worn for identification. *31. /Ethelred II, Long Cross type, c. 997-1003 (Hild. D; North 774). York, moneyer Hundulf. Obv. +/E-BELRED REX ANGLO (NG ligatured). Rev. +HVN/DVLF/MOE/OFR Weight: 1.50g (23.1gr.). Die-axis: 270°.
22 Mossop. The Lincoln Mint. 2 3 M. Gumowski, Htindbuch der polinischen Numismatik
(Graz. 1960). 24 BLS. pp. 22-5.
UPMINSTER, near, Essex Found on 30 September 1984 by Mr George Smith of Northampton, in a field near Upminster (site recorded confidentially). The coin is fragmentary and broken, and has been mounted in a rigid clear plastic case. It was kindly lent to us for study by the finder. *32. Coenwulf of Mercia, Tribrach type, c. 798-800/5 (BLS Cn. 10; North 342). Canterbury, moneyer Ethelmod. Obv. +CO[ ]VLF REX around M Rev. [ ] EL MOD Weight: not recorded, fragment. Die-axis: 0°. No die-links have been found.
Acknowledgements. Our greatest debt is owed to the many finders who have generously come forward to inform us of their coin finds. We are also grateful to the following people for providing help and advice in a variety of ways: Miss M. M. Archibald, C. E. Blunt, D. Broomhall, S. Campbell, B. Fisher, Dr W. A. D. Freeman, G. Isted, K. Jonsson, C. S. S. Lyon. C. Marshall, C. Montagu, T. Palmer, R. Rushbrook and Mrs A. Taylor. David Haigh kindly drew Fig. 3.

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