Spiritual emergence and spiritual emergency: the complementary relationship between doing and being in the transformative journey from crisis to renewal, MW Collins

Tags: spiritual emergencies, spiritual emergency, human potential, Ken Wilber, mental health, New York, State University of New York Press, London, transpersonal development, S. Kelly, Michael Washburn, consciousness development, development, spiritual experiences, mental health issues, crises, mental health problems, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Carl Jung, pre/trans fallacy, transpersonal levels, states of consciousness, mental health services, Spiritual Emergence, Christina Grof, Paulist Press, A critical dictionary of Jungian analysis, Stanislav Grof, Jung on synchronicity and the paranormal, human relationship, John Perry, transformational crises, the experience, human beings, religious experience, Occupational Therapy Journal, mental health service, mental health recovery, Oxford University Press, The thesis, numinous experience, Transformation Poem, Michael William Collins Submission, thesis, Carl Gustav Jung, global ecological crisis, transformational journey, spiritual renewal, transpersonal psychology, transpersonal experience, Occupational Therapy, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, Routledge & Kegan Paul, Routledge, mystical experience, occupational science
Content: Spiritual Emergence and Spiritual Emergency: The Complementary Relationship between Doing and Being in the Transformative Journey from Crisis to Renewal Michael William Collins Submission for award of PhD by publication School of Education University of East Anglia 2012 This copy of the thesis has been supplied on the condition that anyone who consults it is understood to recognise that its copyright rests with the author and that use of any information derived there from must be in accordance with current UK copyright law. In addition, any quotation or extract must include full attribution. 1
Gratitude and Homage To Carl Gustav Jung This thesis could not have been written without the courage of pioneers such as Carl Gustav Jung, who showed by example that the transformation of consciousness is both perilous and possible. The following poem, "Symbols of Transformation" by Desmond Tarrant (1988, p.52), reflects the view that Jung was a man who thought ahead of his time, and lived in response to the spirit. Symbols of Transformation Poem removed 2
Abstract The phenomenon of spiritual emergence has regained prominence in mainstream societies since the mid 1980s, inclusive of spiritual emergency. Humanistic and transpersonal schools of psychology have contributed greatly to the emergence of theories focusing on spirituality and human potential, with much of the development and emphasis placed on the experiences surrounding states of being. This thesis broadens the dialogue on spiritual emergence (characterised as psycho-spiritual development that coexists with ego functioning) and spiritual emergency (characterised as transformational crisis affecting ego functioning). The proposition is that doing plays a pivotal role and function within the process of renewal during a transformational crisis. The thesis considers two aspects of transformational crises: first from an individual perspective, and second, from a collective viewpoint based on the impact of ecological problems and ever growing global ecological crisis linked to desertification, food shortages, access to drinking water, etc. At the outset, the introduction to the thesis presents a brief overview of two key problems associated with spiritual emergencies: 1) the complexities involved when viewing transformational crises as simply individually located phenomena, and 2) the collective implications between the global state of emergency and people's experiences of spiritual emergencies. The thesis is then divided into four chapters which provide critical appraisal of the submitted articles to this important field of inquiry. The prominent focus on being within psychological understandings of spiritual emergencies has eclipsed the function of doing when engaging the transformational journey from crisis to renewal. The thesis explores four themes 3
related to the complementary functions of doing and being in relation to spiritual emergence and spiritual emergency. Chapter one focuses on spiritual emergence from humanistic and transpersonal perspectives, exploring the links between doing and being. The chapter concludes by focusing on the complexities of spiritual emergence through the connections to transformative crises (spiritual emergencies). Chapter two explores the interactions between spiritual emergencies and mental health issues. The chapter considers fluid (postmodern) representations of self-renewal, where connections between doing and being inform occupational and transpersonal dimensions of identity. Chapter three considers the numinous, evolutionary and archetypal dimensions of spiritual emergencies. The global crisis is identified as a spiritual crisis requiring humanity to develop its reflexive capacities to engage transpersonal consciousness and collective transformation. Chapter four is a synthesis of the preceding chapters, focusing on the collective value of transformation from crisis to renewal for both individuals and societies. The chapter emphasises participation and new ways of doing and being. The conclusion summarises the case for valuing spiritual emergencies as a force for productive transformation in the world. The propositions discussed in the thesis make a contribution to contemporary knowledge on transformational crisis. The thesis concludes by emphasising the synergistic relationship between doing and being, which identifies the relevance of transitions and transformations in consciousness for both self and societal renewal. 4
List of contents
Title
Page number
Abstract
3
List of contents
5
List of publications contributing to submission
8
Acknowledgements
10
Dedication
12
Foreword to the thesis
13
Introduction to the thesis. Crisis, renewal and the relevance of human
potential
14
Introduction
15
Structure of the thesis
16
Chapter one. Spiritual emergence: The humanistic and transpersonal links to doing
and being
20
1:1 Introduction
21
1:2 Spiritual emergence: Human potential and human occupation
23
1:3 The emergence of occupational science
26
1:4 The transpersonal dimension of human occupation
30
1:5 Doing, being and beyond
34
1:6 Transpersonal consciousness and mental health
36
1:7 Summary
41
Chapter Two. Spiritual emergency and self-renewal: The integral links between
occupational identity and transpersonal identity
42
2:1 Introduction
43
2:2 Transformational crises and mental health
44
2:3 From spiritual emergence to spiritual emergency
48
2:4 Spiritual emergency and occupational identity
52
2:5 The `doing self' and the process of renewal
56
2:6 The link between occupational identity and transpersonal identity
58
2:7 The farther reaches of spiritual crises
61
2:8 Summary
63
Chapter Three. The archetype of collective transformation and the global crisis: The
numinous dimension of spiritual emergencies
64
5
3:1 Introduction
65
3:2 The numinous as a catalyst for engaging spiritual potential
67
3:3 The numinous and the archetype of spiritual renewal
72
3:4 Transforming selves for a sustainable world
75
3:5 From numinous reflections to transformative action
78
3:6 Archetypal occupations and the transformation of consciousness
82
3:7 Summary
85
Chapter Four. From crisis to renewal: Transforming self and society through new
ways of doing and being
86
4:1 Introduction
87
4:2 The dynamics of transformation
89
4:3 The politics of doing
94
4:4 Towards renewed ways of doing and being
97
4:5 Occupation, integration and transformation
100
Conclusion. Crisis or opportunity? The case for spiritual emergency as a
force for productive transformation in the world
103
Reflective summary of the thesis: The interface between the human and the
Sacred
105
5:1 Introduction
106
5:2 The pre/trans fallacy and conflicting maps of transpersonal
consciousness development
107
5:3 Mysticism and the meaning of the numinous for engaging collective
transformative potential
111
5:4 Transpersonal potential and the importance of cross-cultural
awareness
114
5:5 The EPIC model of doing and being
118
List of references
119
Appendices
161
Appendix1. Glossary
162
Appendix 2. An autobiographical account of a spiritual emergency: A transformative
narrative of crisis and renewal
166
2a Spiritual emergence and crisis
167
2b Autobiography of a spiritual emergency: Background life history
168
2c Encountering the numinous
172
6
2d The process of renewal
175
2e The path of individuation
177
2f The collective meaning and value of spiritual emergencies
180
Appendix 3. An examination of key concepts
183
3a Authentic human experiences and the advent of third force psychology 184
3b The farther reaches of occupation and doing
189
3c Human potential and the integration of doing and being
193
3d Identity, ego and self-expansion
198
3e Encounters with the numinous
203
3f Archetypes and transformation
207
3g Jung's theory of the collective unconscious
215
3h Spirituality, the future and transpersonal consciousness
219
Appendix 4. Collected publications
224
Article 1
225
Article 2
231
Article 3
240
Article 4
244
Article 5
255
Article 6
260
Article 7
269
Article 8
284
Article 9
289
Article 10
300
Article 11
316
Article 12
321
Appendix 5. Letter of agreement from co-authors
349
Appendix 6. Citation list for the submitted articles
351
Appendix 7. Correspondence in support of the authors published work
356
Appendix 8. Permissions to use correspondence with the author
364
Appendix 9. Concluding quotation
371
7
List of publications contributing to submission 1) Collins, M. (1998). Occupational therapy and spirituality: Reflecting on quality of experience in therapeutic interventions. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(6), 280-4. 2) Collins, M. (2001). Who is occupied? Consciousness, self-awareness and the process of human adaptation. Journal of Occupational Science, 8(1), 25-32. 3) Collins, M. (2004). Dreaming and occupation. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(2), 96-8. 4) Collins, M. (2006a). Unfolding spirituality: Working with and beyond definitions. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 13(6), 254-8. 5) Collins, M. (2007a). Spiritual emergency and occupational identity: A transpersonal perspective. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(12), 504-12. 6) Collins, M. (2007b). Engaging self-actualisation through occupational intelligence. Journal of Occupational Science, 14(2), 92-9. 7) Collins, M. (2008a). Politics and the numinous: Evolution, spiritual emergency, and the re-emergence of transpersonal consciousness. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 6(3), 198-211. 8) Collins, M. (2008b). Transpersonal identity and human occupation. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(12), 549-52. 9) Collins, M. (2010a). Engaging transcendent actualisation through occupational intelligence. Journal of Occupational Science 17(3),177-86 10) Collins, M., Hughes, W., & Samuels, A. (2010). The politics of transformation in the global crisis: How spiritual emergencies may be reflecting an enantiodromia in modern consciousness. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 8(2), 162-176. 11) Collins, M. (2010b). Global Crisis and Transformation: From spiritual emergency to spiritual intelligence. Network Review. Journal of the Scientific and Medical Network, 103, 17-20 * 12) Collins, M. (2011a). The Akashic Field and Archetypal Occupations: Transforming Human Potential through Doing and Being. World Futures,67(7), 453-79. 8
* Denotes this was an invited paper (editorial review). The Scientific and Medical Network has a transpersonal section, and this marks its suitability for inclusion in the thesis. All twelve of the articles submitted (excluding the above) are published in peer reviewed journals. All of the submitted papers have an international audience. A note on presentation: The Harvard referencing system will be used throughout the thesis; the exception being when submitted papers are cited. For ease of differentiation the submitted papers will appear in superscript (for example1,2) and will be referred to in the main text as they appear numerically in the list of publications contributing to submission, as listed above. A note on classifications of spiritual emergencies: The work of Stanislav and Christina Grof (1986, 1989, 1991, 1993) has outlined various antecedents for spiritual emergencies. Whilst acknowledging the importance of these different triggers for transformational crises, the thesis will not focus on these triggers, but rather will discuss how the complementary functions of doing and being are pivotal for integrating processes of transformation from crisis to renewal within self and society. A note on terminology: At the outset it is important to make a distinction between occupational therapy and occupational science. The former is a health profession, whilst the latter is a social science (Larson, Wood, and Clark, 2003). A note on definition: No set definition for the word spiritual will be used, however the following quotation provided by Main (2007, p. 27) has resonances with the transpersonal position taken in this thesis: "Spirit is one of the major differentiable and experienceable aspects of an overall continuum of consciousness and reality, together with, but of greater subtlety than, the physical and psychic." As such this continuum of "consciousness and reality" includes the physical, psychic and spiritual, which is indicative of the transpersonal in that it is considered "an aspect both of every individual person and of the world as it exists independently of any individual person" (Main, 2007. p.27). 9
Acknowledgements A very special and heartfelt thanks to Arvind Patel, for without his wisdom, skill and compassion I would not have been able to understand that I was in the midst of a deep spiritual crisis. My experience of a spiritual emergency in 1986 was a major shock to my whole being and way of life, which took me to the limits of my ability to cope and manage the process. I only met with Arvind three times during a two and a half year period. Yet, his deep, kind and accepting attitude gave me the courage to trust the transformational process by learning to develop choiceless awareness. I am indebted to him. Sincere thanks to Doctors Arny and Amy Mindell and colleagues in the Process Oriented Psychology community, who helped me begin to integrate the aftermath of my spiritual emergency as a process of individuation. Special thanks to Dr Fiona Poland, for her encouragement and guidance on the gradual evolution of the thesis and her advice to contact faculty at the Centre for Counselling Studies UEA to find suitable supervisors. Deep gratitude and appreciation for the excellent support and critical supervision provided by Dr Campbell Purton and Dr Judy Moore. Also, sincere thanks to Dr Rod Lambert for helpful discussions on key themes within the thesis. Thanks to Dr Martin Watson and Dr Alex Haxeltine for their positive encouragement. I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my partner Hannah Morris, who has always valued my work and offered loving support. The sixteen years taken to write the articles and (eventually) this thesis, have had various levels of impact on our lives at different times. Also, thanks go to my dear friends Russell Thornton and Dr 10
William Hughes, who in their different ways have provided deep friendship and encouragement. Special acknowledgement goes to my daughter, Rosie. 11
Dedication The thesis is dedicated to the memory of Saint Francis of Assisi (the patron saint of the thesis) who himself experienced a profound spiritual crisis. Saint Francis emerged through his transformative experience with a deep sense of humility and connection to the sacred. The thesis is also dedicated to all of the people who have experienced transformational crises, and all of the people who are yet to encounter the profound effects of spiritual emergencies. The following poem "Primal Tasks" by Taggart Dieke (1988, p.135-6) captures the essence of the transformative journey catalysed by spiritual emergencies: Primal Tasks Poem removed 12
Foreword to the Thesis In 1986 after living in a Buddhist monastery for almost three years I had a profound spiritual experience that awakened a new connection to life. However, this short period of illumination also catalysed a more problematic encounter, which has had a monumental impact on my life. At the time I had no idea that the experience mentioned above was what Stanislav and Christina Grof termed spiritual emergency. The experience was overwhelming and corresponded with Kundalini like symptoms, (see appendix 1, p. 162). I encountered unusual bodily reactions, powerful emotions, extreme states of consciousness and unusual psychic phenomena that I could not work for two and a half years. I desperately tried to make sense of all that was happening to me; however, it was an enormous challenge to establish a secure base from which to re-construct my life. I have included a more complete account of this experience in my autobiography in appendix 2 (p. 166). This thesis reflects a longitudinal process of integration between personal, transpersonal and professional understandings of spiritual emergence and spiritual emergency. Two central developments within my professional journey of integration have included trainings in occupational therapy and process oriented psychology, which have both informed the development of my work. The central position taken within the thesis is that spiritual renewal, following a transformational crisis, requires equal focus on ways of doing and ways of being. This thesis draws on key aspects of the peer reviewed published articles submitted in appendix 4, which are then discussed in relation to the central themes outlined in each chapter. 13
Introduction to the Thesis: Crisis, renewal and the relevance of human potential Metzner, R. (1999, p.171) Quote removed 14
Introduction The conceptual methodology employed within this thesis explores the phenomena of spiritual emergence. The thesis will focus on human beings' abilities to actualise their full human potential, recognising that such endeavours also carry the risk of precipitating transformational crises (spiritual emergencies). The schools of humanistic and transpersonal psychology have valued the transformative potential of spiritual emergence and spiritual emergencies; however, the dominant focus has been on exploring states of being. The following critical analysis of the collected papers explores the importance of doing and its interface with being, both individually and collectively, in the process of renewal through spiritual emergencies. This thesis will consider how doing and being are addressed in relation to the following two problems: 1) Spiritual emergencies can contribute towards people's psycho-spiritual potential (Grof & Grof, 1989). However, discussions have also explored the relationship between transformational crises and mental health issues (Clarke, 2001/2010; Lukoff, 2010a, 2010b) where the meaning of such crises is framed from individual perspectives. Yet, spiritual emergencies (Collins, 2008c) could also be viewed from an evolutionary perspective, which could have important implications for re-appraising the collective meaning of spiritual emergencies and transpersonal states of consciousness. 2) The current global state of emergency (Glenn, Gordon & Florescu, 2008), which includes ecological destruction and the depletion of natural resources, has been described as a spiritual emergency (Baring, 2007). Some ecological problems are already becoming "worst case" realities, and the latest State of 15
the Future Report calls for a change in "human values" and a "sustainable shift in consciousness necessary to finding a new path for humanity" (Glenn, Gordon & Florescu, 2011, p.9). The transformative potential of spiritual emergencies could be vital for understanding not only individual, but also collective dimensions of crisis and renewal. The dilemma of the global crisis is summed up by Von Uexkull (2011, p.23) as either urgent "voluntary transformation" or "unpleasant transformation" which will eventually be "forced upon us by the consequences of accelerating climate chaos and resource restraints". The structure of the thesis The thesis identifies the contribution of the twelve papers to support and promote a deeper understanding of the roles and functions of doing and being through transformative crises. It considers the need for a deeper exchange and understanding between the psychological and psychotherapeutic literature, linked to developments in the fields of occupational therapy and occupational science. The proposition being put forward concerns the full inclusion of doing as complementary to a renewed sense of being following an encounter with a spiritual emergency. The thesis focuses on four main themes, and each theme is represented as a discrete chapter. Chapter one identifies how psycho-spiritual developments between self-actualisation and self-transcendence have resonances with complex and non-linear patterns of change. Spiritual emergence as discussed in the humanistic and transpersonal psychology literature reveals levels of complexities within patterns of psycho-spiritual growth and development, through the phenomenon known as spiritual emergency. 16
The papers presented in this chapter1, 2, 6, 9 explore the complementary roles of doing and being in relation to engaging authentic human potential. The key themes addressed are: The influence of humanistic and transpersonal psychology within the fields of occupational therapy and occupational science. Spiritual emergence and the impact of transpersonal consciousness on knowledge about human potential. The complexity between transformational crises (spiritual emergency) and mental health issues, linked to processes of self-renewal. Chapter two considers transformational crises as having resonances with postmodern representations of self-identity, particularly in relation to spiritual emergencies and processes of self-renewal. The papers presented in this chapter3, 4, 5, 8 explore the interface between spiritual renewal and mental health, revealing that crises can be interpreted as pathological or in relation to human potential. The key themes addressed are: How mental health systems consider spiritual emergence as part of a recovery philosophy, highlighting the complexities of transformational crises. The value of meaningful occupations and occupational identity within the recovery process of spiritual emergencies. The value of occupational identity and transpersonal identity in relation to recovery from spiritual crises. Chapter three highlights the need for human beings to develop and use their reflexive faculties in relation to phenomena such as spiritual emergencies. 17
Transformational crises are viewed from a deeper perspective (beyond individual transformation) revealing potentialities for collective renewal. The key papers presented in this chapter7, 10, 11, 12 consider how humanity's spiritual heritage has evolved through encountering numinous (mystical) experiences, with archetypal significance. The key themes addressed are: How the numinous dimension of spiritual emergencies are connected to archetypes and spiritual renewal. The possibilities for self-transformation reveal potentials for collective patterns of transformation. Archetypal occupations connect the numinous to ways of doing and being that support deep transformations in consciousness. Chapter four has resonances with a participatory perspective, which focuses on the importance of transpersonal developments for the co-creation of an improved future, based on an understanding that all forms of life are connected. The scale of the current ecological crisis is unprecedented by any previously known (human) standards, which is threatening the stability of the world. Chapter four presents a synthesis of the theoretical positions outlined in the preceding chapters, noting how individual transformations have relevance for collective change. The key themes addressed are: The politics of transformation and the need for collective action to address the global crisis. The renewal of ways of doing and being that reflect possibilities for collective transformation. The integration of transpersonal participation within everyday life through new ways of doing and being. 18
The conclusion reflects on spiritual emergencies and the importance of engaging new ways of doing and being, which could be productive in the transformation of consciousness (individually and collectively) and how humans co-create an improved future. 19
Chapter One Spiritual Emergence: The Humanistic and Transpersonal Links to Doing and Being Thorne, B. (2011, p.xvii) Quote removed 20
1:1 Introduction The theoretical position taken in chapter one has resonances with understanding human beings from a complex perspective. The chapter explores the phenomena of spiritual emergence from humanistic and transpersonal perspectives, and outlines how these complex theoretical positions are considered in relation to people's ways of doing and being to engage human potential. The lived potential of humans from an open systems perspective as originally conceptualised by Bertalanffy (1975) includes complex processes of change that are characterised by stability and instability (Bьtz, 1997; Prigogine & Stengers, 1985). The hallmark of open systems is they contain various components that interact unpredictably in response to internal and external feedback, which can lead to the emergence of new actions or behaviours (Cilliers, 1998; Steinberg, 2005). The importance of complexity to human functioning is the recognition that lived experiences are mediated by various factors, including biological, psychological, social, cultural, environmental and spiritual dimensions. Such variables can inform ways that humans engage their sense of being and doing (Capra, 1996) as open living systems, which have been noted in both the psychological literature (being) and occupational therapy literature (doing) (Bьtz, 1997; Lambert, 2009). The key role of non-linearity within complex systems reveals how small "perturbations" (bifurcation points) can emerge into new structures (dissipative structures) (Toffler, 1984, p. xv). It shows how any system, even when it is far from equilibrium (Capra, 1982, 2002), not only survives, but can also adapt and thrive to meet new environmental demands (Bьtz, 1997). 21
The inclusion of spirituality within understandings of human complexity (Steinberg, 2005) has also occurred within discussions about non-linearity and occupational engagement (Champagne et al, 2007) for the expression of human potential. However, in the occupational therapy and science literature, very little consideration has been given to the complex issues involved when encountering transformational crises or spiritual emergencies (bifurcation), as noted in the transpersonal literature (Grof & Grof, 1989). The importance of a transpersonal perspective ­ originally emerging from humanistic psychology (Taylor, 2009) ­ has led to a deeper appreciation of the scale of human potential (Maslow, 1971) within modern societies (Boucovalas, 1999). Moreover, the recognition of transpersonal potential is beginning to emerge within occupational therapy and occupational science (do Rozario, 1997). It thereby presents a more complex and challenging view of how to consider occupational potential, when linked to spiritual emergencies. Key issue addressed: Spiritual emergence can reveal deep levels of complexity, which have important implications for how human potential is understood and integrated through ways of being and ways of doing. However, the complexities of spiritual emergence are amplified when the transformative process becomes a crisis (spiritual emergency), which requires further consideration in terms of how human potential is engaged, including the relationship to mental health. Chapter one is divided into the following sub-sections: 1:2 Spiritual emergence: Human potential and human occupation 22
1:3 The emergence of occupational science 1:4 The transpersonal dimension of human occupation 1:5 Doing, being and beyond 1:6 Transpersonal consciousness and mental health 1:7 Summary 1:2 Spiritual emergence: Human potential and human occupation The advent of humanistic psychology in the 1950s had a significant impact on modern societies, in that this new paradigm explored and researched developments into health and human potential (appendix 3a, p.184), which were linked to the concept of selfactualisation, as formulated by Abraham Maslow (1954). Embedded within the humanistic paradigm of human growth and development was the recognition that people have spiritual needs (Graham, 1986) linked to peak experiences and egotranscendence (Maslow, 1971). Humanistic psychology, as informed by the theories of Abraham Maslow, explored the psychological correlations between spiritual experiences and the boundaries of human potential (Maslow, 1970, 1968/1999). Indeed, Maslow's (1970) influence was far reaching and the concept of selfactualisation (inclusive of transcendence and spiritual experiences) began to gain influence within other professions outside of psychology, such as occupational therapy (Fidler & Fidler, 1978). By the mid 1970s the concept of self-actualisation was discussed in the literature on human occupation in relation to doing and purposeful action, positing that doing is integral to becoming a social being (Fidler & Fidler, 1978, p.306): 23
The ability to adapt, to cope with the problems of everyday living [...] Doing is a process of investigating, trying out, and gaining evidence of one's capacities for experiencing, responding, managing, creating, and controlling. The doing­being interface became integral to the understanding and expression of human potential within the occupational literature (Wilcock, 1998, 1998/2006). Moreover, the parameters for exploring the human potential between doing and being within this literature were firmly connected to humanistic influences. For example, in the mid 1990's spirituality became highly topical in the occupational therapy literature (do Rozario, 1994; Egan & DeLaat, 1994). Early theoretical influences for the inclusion of spirituality in the occupational therapy and science literature included references to Csikszentmihalyi's (1988, 1990, 1996) concept of flow (do Rozario, 1994, 1997), whose theories were influenced by Maslow's (1968/1999) research into self-actualisation. These theories supported the expression of human potential and spirituality from an occupational perspective (do Rozario, 1994, 1997; Kang, 2003),1,2 which also laid early foundations for establishing transpersonal developments within the profession. Throughout the mid 1990s the literature on human occupation began a more focused exploration of the interactions between doing, being and spirituality.1 For example, Egan & DeLaat (1994, p.96) asserted that spirituality could be considered as "our truest selves that we attempt to express in all our actions." And they emphasised that the unfolding nature of spirituality found in human beings' personal stories often conveys a sense of mystery (Egan & DeLaat, 1997). The question of human occupation linked to spiritual activity (Howard and Howard, 1997) also led researchers to consider the value of spirituality inclusive of life experiences, meaning 24
and health (Christiansen, 1997; Unruh, 1997; Vargo and Urbanowski, 1994), as well as transcendence (do Rozario 1994; McColl, 2000). In 1998 the author of this thesis published a paper (article one) on spirituality and human occupation, which was informed by Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) humanistic concept of flow. This paper1 developed the links between spirituality and quality of experience, in relation to doing and being, emphasising the potential for engaging processes of self and spiritual renewal.1 Article one was novel in that it presented an occupational model that was focused on spirituality, conveying the important links between doing and being. Moreover, the model focused on non-linear engagements of human potential and the unique ways that people's intentions, expressions and daily activities could impact on meaning, being and spirituality. The model was conceptually driven; however, it was grounded in the experience of single case presentation, which highlighted the impact of doing, being and spiritual emergence in the recovery of a client who was receiving treatment for a major depressive episode and suicidal impulses. The case study was an exemplar for how occupation can be linked to spirituality in the everyday lives of people, illustrating how the complementary relationship between doing and being within the journey of recovery resulted in a process of self and spiritual renewal for this client. Article one represented a dynamic view of the link between spiritual emergence and self-renewal. However, the interactions between doing and being highlighted complex questions for the author concerning the relationship between transpersonal states of consciousness and the science of human occupations. 25
1:3 The emergence of occupational science From a theoretical perspective the doing-being interface began to have more scope for development with the arrival of a new academic discipline in the late 1980s known as occupational science (Yerxa, 2000), which was theoretically informed by humanistic values (Wilcock, 1998/2006). Occupational science enabled a more expansive exploration of the connections between doing, being and human potential inclusive of spiritual considerations. Occupational science created a dynamic agenda for the exploration of human occupation outside the interests of doing as a purely therapeutic modality. For example, occupational scientists investigated how occupations have potential for personal and social transformation (Townsend, 1997). Indeed, the humanistic legacy embedded within the philosophical underpinnings of occupational science led researchers to investigate the notion of doing as a means to fulfilling people's occupational potential (Asaba & Wicks, 2010; Wicks, 2001, 2005). The concept of occupational potential has resonances with Maslow's (1968/1999, p.xiiii) original concept of self-actualisation and understanding the nature of "fullhumanness". The concept of occupational potential (Wicks, 2001, 2005) has been described as a capacity that: [E]volves from a contextually situated process of bringing into actuality (doing) something that lingers and exists within people of their interactions (being and becoming), such as skill, knowledge, or self, which honours the power of the doing self (Asaba & Wicks, 2010, p.123). The above quote does not consider the complexities involved when encountering transpersonal states of consciousness, and indeed what impact such experiences 26
would have on the "doing self" (Asaba & Wicks, 2010, p.123). Running parallel to the work of Wicks (2001, 2005), the author of this thesis explored the synergies between doing and being in article two, which investigated how changes in identity could be affected by transpersonal consciousness, and engaged through selfawareness and adaptation. This article 2 drew upon complexity theory, which laid foundations for considering how occupational potential is viewed beyond humanistic parameters and it included a transpersonal frame of reference. The article highlighted the need for a more expansive and dynamic view of occupational potential as expressed through doing and the fluid development of identity when encountering transpersonal states of consciousness.2 Initial explorations of humanistic and transpersonal theories, allied to developments within the studies into human occupation, were made in a groundbreaking article published by Loretta do Rozario (1997) in the Journal of Occupational Science. The article focused on a paradigm shift within the occupational science literature that was to have far reaching implications for how occupational engagement could be understood. The proposition made by do Rozario (1997) formulated explicit links between the humanistic principles underpinning occupational science (Wilcock, 1998/2006) that included a transpersonal dimension of ecology and occupation. The paper by do Rozario (1997, p.114) initiated a much deeper dialogue concerning the interface between doing and being that placed a much greater accent on the role of consciousness, which can "move beyond ego-centric positions of power and control, to embrace those transcendent experiences of wisdom, virtue, joy, and harmony with life." These transcendent qualities are significant in the context of lived transpersonal experiences in relation to others, nature and the cosmos. 27
The integration of a transpersonal perspective within occupational science (do Rozario, 1997, p.116) linked new possibilities for exploring the interface between doing and being that encouraged a "deepening and widening of identity", thereby expanding the focus of occupation beyond the boundaries of humanistic influences. The themes of consciousness (and to a much lesser extent transpersonal considerations) were also reflected in the work of Wilcock (1998/2006) at this time. Inspired by these early transpersonal developments in the occupational science literature, the author posed a reflexive question in article two, titled: "Who is occupied?" This reflexive question was designed to stimulate discussion about the complementary relationship between doing and being, with consideration given to the impact of transpersonal consciousness upon identity and occupations. This article2 drew on the insights of humanistic and transpersonal scholars who had commented on the fluid and spiritual nature of the self (Walsh & Shapiro, 1983a), noting that people who engage in self-actualisation need to be adaptable (Taylor, 1997). Article two presented an argument for a fluid and more expansive (transpersonal) view of occupational potential in terms of people's inner and outer experiences of doing, emphasising the importance of self-awareness and adaptation in terms of engaging occupational potential.2 Article two articulated a theoretical framework for considering the deep and fluid processes within identity development and self-awareness, based on the occupational science axiom, that "occupations require self-awareness" (Clark et al., 1991, p.301). However, at this time there was no precedent set for how awareness from an occupational perspective could be considered from a transpersonal perspective. The 28
science of human occupation is based on a complex representation of human beings as open systems, taking account of biological, information processing, socio-cultural, symbolic-evaluative and transcendental factors, which all play their part in a multidimensional representation of human beings' ability to participate in daily life (Clark et al., 1991). However, transpersonal developments ­ linked to the transcendent domain ­ have only just begun to be explored in any depth and detail within occupational science.2,9 The author of this thesis has contributed to this area of development, through exploring the complexities involved in multidimensional representations and interactions within human potential, via doing and being. 1,2,6,9 A key premise within article two is that the fluid nature of human identity and engagement in life is informed by multi-channelled modes of perception and expression, including visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, and feeling/affect (Mindell, 1988, 1990a). This article 2 pointed out how these multiple modes of perception and expression inform people's orientation and engagement in life, which creates links to a wider experience of consciousness and identity development as conveyed in the transpersonal literature (Mindell, 1988, 1990a). It was noted how multi-channelled expressions of doing, and their link to being, are consistent with more fluid representations within identity (Walsh & Shapiro, 1983a), thereby providing greater (multi-channelled) scope for the engagement of occupational potential. The underlying purpose for posing the reflexive question in article two: "Who is occupied?" was to reflect a deeper "shift towards synthesising inner reflection and human adaptation in the service of fulfilling the occupational potential of human beings" (p, 30). 2 Article two expanded the humanistic foundations of occupational potential (Wicks, 2001, 2005) through emphasising the multi-channelled 29
representations of human perceptions and expressions, inclusive of transpersonal experiences (Mindell, 1988, 1990a). The article highlighted the important relationship between occupation and identity that was in accord with Maslow's (1971) conceptualisation for exploring and understanding the farther reaches of human nature, particularly self-transcendence from an occupational perspective. 1:4 The transpersonal dimension of human occupation It is instructive to note that Maslow had a major influence on the development of both humanistic and transpersonal psychologies. This point is evident when considering the evaluation of Maslow's theoretical position by Walsh and Vaughan (1983), who noted that self-actualisation also included self-transcendence as part of the process of exploring human potential. The importance of transcendent states of consciousness had long been recognised by the pioneers of humanistic and transpersonal psychology (Armor, 1969; Maslow, 1969a, 1969b). Moreover, people's capacity for experiencing transcendent states, such as mystical encounters (Moustakas, 1985), was endorsed by transpersonal psychology's more comprehensive consideration of the spectrum of human consciousness (Vaughan, 1995; Wilber, 1977). Transpersonal psychology continued to extend the boundaries of human potential by going beyond the concept of self-actualisation (Sutich, 1976), thereby exploring new meanings and possibilities associated with transcendent states of consciousness (Wilber, 1977). These transpersonal investigations recognised that human beings have a "pull towards self-transcendence" (Walsh & Vaughan, 1983, p.412), which focused on exploring the frontiers of human potential as discussed by Walsh and Shapiro (1983b, p.3), who asked the question: "Are we all that we can be? Or are there greater 30
heights and depths of psychological capacity within us." The transpersonal implications of this question remain relatively unexplored from an occupational perspective, which reflects a considerable theoretical gap in knowledge. Humanity needs to consider the merits of occupational potential from a transpersonal perspective, as people may be underestimating their opportunities for growth and development (Walsh & Shapiro, 1983a) and ignoring experiences that go beyond a more limited worldview (McDermott, 1993). Studies in human occupation, exploring the theoretical and philosophical issues linked between self-actualisation and selftranscendence, cohere (albeit belatedly) with similar developments that have occurred within the fields of humanistic and transpersonal psychology.2 The interactions between self-actualisation and self-transcendence inspired the author to write two papers that explored in depth the role and function of occupation in relation to selfactualisation 6 and self-transcendence. 9 These two papers were conceptualised on the basis that intelligent engagement of human potential ­ as originally noted by Maslow (1971) ­ also requires an occupational focus, which is fundamental for the engagement of self-actualisation 6 (Fidler & Fidler, 1978; Wilcock, 1998). Furthermore, these two articles explicated the connections between human occupation and intelligence for the engagement of transpersonal potential and selftranscendence.6,9 Articles six and nine demonstrated connections between human occupation, selfactualisation and self-transcendence in relation to Maslow's (1971) recognition that there is a risk of developing pathologies associated with boredom and lack of inspiration (if human beings do not actually engage their unmet potential). Therefore, 31
articles six and nine highlighted the importance of doing, in relation to being, in order to fully engage human potential, with both humanistic6 and transpersonal9 significance. The two articles6,9 sought to address Maslow's (1971, p.40) emphasis on the "operational meaning" of self-actualisation and self-transcendence from an occupational perspective. Here, the author developed the concept of occupational intelligence6, 9, based on Maslow's (1971) premise that intelligence is a significant variable in the process of engaging human potential. These articles6, 9 are original contributions to the literature, incorporating human beings' multi-channelled modes of doing and their impact upon being,2 as well as extending humanistic understandings of occupational potential (Asaba & Wicks, 2010; Wicks, 2001, 2005). Combined, articles six and nine explicated theoretical and functional considerations for the links between humanistic and transpersonal perspectives of occupational potential. The connection between self-actualisation6 and transcendent actualisation9 through occupational intelligence6,9 are new theoretical developments within the field of occupational science. They offer novel ways of understanding occupational potential with explicit links to the fields of humanistic and transpersonal psychology. The two articles6,9 have explicated how occupations and self-awareness (Clark et al., 1991, p.301) are inextricably linked to developing a more complex and fluid representation of lived potential, and how intelligent engagement of multi-channelled capacities, such as visual, kinaesthetic and auditory functions, etc, can inform connections to transpersonal experiences through doing and the links to being. For example, in article nine a case summary provides details of how a transpersonal encounter impacted upon a person and their (multi-channelled) sensory engagement in the world. The case 32
example coheres with the work of Arnold Mindell (1990a, p.23-4), who has stated that without fully developing the capacity for awareness, only certain channels of perception and communication are used through familiarity and habit: "The ones we frequently use are `occupied' by our awareness. If we do not use them with intent, they are `unoccupied' by our conscious awareness." The articles6,9 argued that intelligent use of multi-channelled modes of perception and expression enables a greater range of engagement with regard to the expression of occupational potential in life. 6,9 Occupational intelligence exemplifies the important interface between doing and being, as alluded to by Clocksin (1998, p.118): Intelligence ­ as we understand it ­ cannot be considered in isolation from an embodied existence that is committed to an ontogenetic engagement with the environment. One of the complex issues tackled in these articles6,9 was to show how an intelligent (multi-channelled) engagement of human potential cannot avoid issues concerning the fluid nature of the self, 2 which involve complex reflections and interactions between personal and transpersonal experiences (Amlani, 1998). These articles6,9 highlighted the tensions between cultivating human potential, self-development and actualisation, whilst managing and integrating experiences of self-transcendence (Maslow, 1971; Csikszentmihalyi, 1994) in relation to meaningful occupational engagement. The author noted that there is an important occupational continuity between selfactualisation6 and experiences of transcendence6,9 where occupational engagement provides opportunities for exploring and containing new ways of doing that can have a profound impact on being (as noted in the case exemplar in article nine). The inspiration for writing article nine was based on the premise that engaging in 33
occupations (doing) can facilitate and mediate transitions in identity and consciousness that provide a greater range of opportunities for expressing transpersonal potential, as distinct from relying purely on states of being (Maslow, 1970, 1968/1999). Because transpersonal psychology evolved out of humanistic psychology in the late 1960s (as stated above), it was recognised that: "There is more to the human condition than we have experienced in our humanistic orientation" (Fadiman, 2005, p.35) and it was inevitable that this development needed to be reflected theoretically in the predominantly humanistic orientation of occupational science.2,6,9 1:5 Doing, being and beyond This thesis proposes that the integration of transpersonal experiences within the context of everyday life requires an occupational focus, and this development is still in its infancy, with meaningful contributions being made in the occupational literature by the author1,2,3,5,6,8,9and others (do Rozario, 1997; Kang, 2003). Additionally, the importance of developing transpersonal considerations, linked to doing, could help to redress the over-emphasis on being within the transpersonal literature. For example, a thematic analysis of the transpersonal literature carried out by Lajoie and Shapiro (1992, p.90-1) defined the focus of transpersonal studies as "the study of human beings' highest potential, in relation to unitive, spiritual and transcendent states of consciousness." The overriding emphasis in the analysis by Lajoie and Shapiro (1992) gives primacy to a focus on being; however, as noted above, human potential raises deeper questions about life as a whole (Redfield et al., 2002), which require a more coherent and fuller representation of human potential inclusive of doing and its relationship to being.1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9 34
If questions about engaging human potential are only organised around a sense of being, there is an unbalanced relationship in the way that human development is considered, and this point is evident in the following quote by Ken Wilber (2000, p.265), which exemplifies the expansive nature of transpersonal states of being ­ "the more one goes within, the more one goes beyond, and the more one can thus embrace a deeper identity with a wider perspective." Yet, there is a need to ground and integrate such experiences in daily life; for example, when human beings engage their psycho-spiritual potential it is important that the focus on the relationship between doing and being is productive and not dichotomous (Almaas, 2004). That is, there is a potential dichotomy between doing and being when transpersonal experiences are only expressed in terms of people's sense of being (as noted by Wilber above). These experiences also need to be grounded and expressed within people's everyday actions and ways of doing (Almaas, 2004) for them to fulfil their human potential (appendix 3b, p.189).1,2,6,9 Jungian analyst Marion Woodman (1985, p.78) has noted a lack of understanding about the deep and sacred value of human actions in the modern world, where "Doing has become an escape from Being." The preceding statement coheres with the view of transpersonal psychologist John Welwood (1992, p.69), who has noted that, whilst doing and being appear mutually exclusive: "To find the spiritual path in our daily life, we need to bring doing and being together." As noted above, the field of transpersonal psychology has not developed theoretical links concerning human potential from an occupational perspective.2,9 Yet Peter Russell (1982, p.156) has suggested that: "We all have potentials beyond those we are now using, and perhaps 35
beyond those we even dreamed of". The key point in the preceding quote is how human potential is actually used in daily life, which further underscores the importance of integrating `doing' for the full expression of human potential.1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9 It is instructive to note that the transpersonal literature has emphasised the need to take an integrated approach towards human potential, inclusive of people's experiences of transcendent states of consciousness, and the engagement of transformative potential within everyday life (Hartelius et al., 2007). Indeed, transpersonal events or encounters are recognised for the profound impact they can have on people (Rowan, 2001)9 and their everyday lives (Caplan, 2001; Cortright, 1997; Ferrer, 2002, 2003; Grof, 1993; Grof & Grof, 1993).1,2,9 The transpersonal dimension of human occupations (do Rozario, 1997)2,3,5,6,8,9 is an important development for an evolving transpersonal vision, based on two important observations made by the author of this thesis: first, transpersonal experiences can be initiated through engaging in everyday occupations.2,9 And second, transpersonal experiences can have a profound impact on people's occupational identity and vice versa.5,9 This last point is particularly important, as it is evident that engaging human potential as a process of psycho-spiritual emergence is fraught with complexity. It underscores the important role and function of human occupations for grounding and integrating transcendent experiences2,6,9 (appendix 3c, p.193). 1:6 Transpersonal consciousness and mental health One of the complexities surrounding spiritual awakening and developing human potential is that it can involve deep shifts within identity, with the possibility that people can become overwhelmed (as explicated in appendix two) and enter into a 36
transformational crisis (Assagioli, 1965), which is otherwise known as a spiritual emergency (Grof & Grof, 1986, 1989). Spiritual emergencies reflect those overwhelming spiritual experiences or insights that result in transformational crises, which can profoundly affect the day-to-day orientation and functioning of human beings. It may appear as if people are having mental health problems due to the disorientating nature of such transformational crises, however, in the last three decades there have been key theoretical developments that are starting to address spiritual emergencies in terms of differentiating psycho-religious and psycho-spiritual problems within the field of mental health (Lukoff et al., 1992; Lukoff et al., 1998; Lukoff, 2006). Stanislav Grof, a psychiatrist and co-founder of transpersonal psychology who conceptualised the phenomena of spiritual emergency, has stated in conversation with Ervin Laszlo and Peter Russell (Laszlo et al., 2003) that many people being treated in psychiatric hospitals are actually experiencing transformational crises. Paradoxically, article one illustrated how working with people's spiritual needs (via occupational therapy) within a mental health acute admissions unit led to positive developments in the ways in which psycho-spiritual potential (and transformation) can be addressed within mainstream mental health settings. There is no reason why mental health services could not be developed to specifically help people integrate the complex psycho-spiritual processes associated with spiritual emergencies (as non-pathological phenomena). This is an issue that the author highlighted at an International Transpersonal conference (Collins, 2009). 37
People who experience a profound shift in consciousness ­ from spiritual emergence to spiritual emergency ­ may well receive treatment from mental health services. However, the issue of how to help people manage the transitional and transformational trajectories of spiritual emergencies is not yet part of mental health professional training. Western society's response to profound psycho-spiritual crises is mainly through contact with the mental health services, as noted by Laszlo et al (2003). However, there have been important developments in mental health practice that are focused on the integration of spirituality, such as Inspiring hope (National Institute for Mental Health in England, 2003) and the Somerset Spirituality Project (The Mental Health Foundation, 2002). These much welcomed publications reflect positive humanistic and existential developments that have been neglected by mainstream psychiatry for many years (Laing, 1961, 1969, 1982) and are now starting to gain recognition (Fenwick, 2009). For example, the UK National Health Service identifies spirituality within Standards for Better Health (Department of Health, 2004), as well as embracing a philosophy of recovery which emphasises the need for social action, inclusion, and human rights (Department of Health, 2011). Within the field of mental health there is an opportunity to reappraise and develop the interface between spirituality and people's experience of crisis. For example, recent theoretical developments have considered the links between spiritual experience and "healthy psychoticism" (Claridge, 2010, p.75) or "benign psychosis" (Jackson, 2010, p.139), all of which have resonances with C.G. Jung's personal experience of a crisis, which he called his creative illness (Dunne, 2000; West, 2004). It is instructive to note that research (Brett, 2010; Warwick & Waldram, 2010) coheres with earlier models of transformative crises (Grof & Grof, 1986, 1989; Perry, 1974). It notes that 38
whilst transformational crises can be distressing and/or debilitating, the experience can also provide opportunities for recovery in relation to learning and change (Brett, 2010; Warwick & Waldram, 2010). Spirituality is recognised as an important contributor to mental health recovery (Watkins, 2007), which acknowledges the complexities of people's lived realities (Barker & Buchanan-Barker, 2004). There is a legacy of pioneering approaches that have included spirituality to help people's recovery through crises over a forty year period. They include Ronald Laing at Kingsley Hall (UK) in the 1960s (Tantam, 1999); John Perry at the Diabasis Centre (USA) in the 1970s (Perry, 1974, 1999); Stanislav Grof and Christina Grof at the Spiritual Emergence Network (USA) in the1980s (Grof & Grof, 1989); and Edward Podvoll at the Windhorse Project (USA) in the 1990s (Podvoll, 1990). The more recent perspective of clinical psychologist Isabel Clarke (2001/2010) has suggested that advances in understanding spirituality and psychosis are consolidating a "new paradigm". Clarke's (2001/2010, 2005, 2008) explication of transliminal experiences helps to make sense of the potential overlap between spiritual experiences and psychotic symptoms when people encounter a reality beyond (trans) human constructs, where individual boundaries can start to dissolve. Importantly, Clarke (2001/2010, p.11) concurs with other commentators in the field, acknowledging that personal factors, such as existing ego-strength, will have some influence on whether the experience is "a temporary, life-enhancing spiritual event, or a damaging psychotic breakdown." It is unclear whether ongoing developments within transpersonal psychiatry and psychology (Scotton, Chinen & Battista, 1996) are contributing to a new paradigm; however, developments certainly appear to be 39
evolving a "new language" that reveal "more nuanced views both of the human relationship to the cosmos and of its own psychic life" (Douglas-Klotz, 2010, p.52). Transpersonal psychiatrist Nelson (1994, p.277) has provided a narrative from a person, following a process of recovery and renewal after they had experienced a spiritual emergency, which included a period of psychiatric hospitalisation: Now, more than eight years later I can look back and say, "I had this incredible mystical experience". [...] It was a birth into a state of consciousness I did not even know existed, but which is now a permanent part of my life. Quotation shortened The complexities involved when addressing such expanded experiences within consciousness can impact on the boundaries of the self, between personal ego and transpersonal consciousness, which underscores the intricacies for engaging a fluid sense of self.2,9 Transformational crises open up people's connection to a much wider experience of life within a "universal field of consciousness" (Nelson, 1994, p.228), where the boundaries between self, others, nature and the cosmos can initially be blurred and confused. Such expanded states of consciousness underscore the complex processes of self-adaptation and adjustment that are needed due to the impact transpersonal encounters can have upon identity (Collins, 2008c).2 It is here that the complementary roles and functions of doing and being are pivotal for grounding and facilitating transformations in consciousness,2,9 which will be discussed in chapter two. 1:7 Summary 40
The key articles presented in chapter one1,2,6,9 have contributed to the literature in terms of representing the complexity involved when evaluating human potential, transpersonal states of consciousness, and their impact on being and doing. The articles1,2,6,9 identified that spiritual emergence (within the bounds of normal ego functioning) can also lead to deeper transpersonal encounters. However, the realisation that such experiences can also precipitate a transformational crisis (spiritual emergency) calls for greater understanding to negotiate the parameters of human potential and development. The interface between the experience of transformational crisis and mental health issues reveals deeper levels of complexity, in terms of how such states of consciousness are perceived and treated. 41
Chapter Two Spiritual Emergency and Self-Renewal: The Integral Links Between Occupational Identity and Transpersonal Identity Maturana, H. and Poerkson, B. (2004, p.22) Quote removed 42
2:1 Introduction The interface between complexity and postmodern representations in life are summed up by Cilliers (1998, p. 112) as a departure from established norms, where: "The traditional (or modern) way of managing complexity was to find a secure point of reference that could serve as a foundation". However, the established norms of modernity are challenged or deconstructed by postmodern developments (Woodhouse, 1996), such as those found within existentialism, psychoanalysis, feminist theory, hermeneutics and a post-empiricist philosophy of science, which has led to the emergence of a more fluid representation of reality (Tarnas, 1991/2010), inclusive of spirituality (West, 2004, 2011). The emergence of a postmodern perspective could have resonances with the ways human beings are resourceful in meeting the demands of the future. That is, the realisation of a more adequate worldview will depend upon how humanity responds both individually and collectively (Wilber, 1996a) to the evolution of new ways of living that are not tethered to modernist foundations (Tarnas, 1991/2010). This predicament is demonstrated neatly by a postmodern view of the self as a prism, reflecting "multiple selves" (Stevens-Long, 2000, p.166), where people's orientations, motivations and ways of acting are not (always) easily understood (Tarnas, 1991/2010). Like complexity, the postmodern human is considered "unstable and open", which provides numerous contexts for the development of personal meaning (Howard, 2005, p.52). Indeed, the postmodern imperative provides opportunities for humanity to embrace its capacities for creativity, innovation and transformation, for example, as a 43
"spiritual response to life" (Tarnas, 1991/2010, p.404). From this postmodern perspective the phenomena of spiritual emergencies take on a critically important position, where the chaotic aspects implicit within transformational crises can be viewed as signs and symptoms of pathology, or can be viewed as emergent human potential connected to a transforming self. Chapter two focuses on the relationship between spiritual crisis and mental health problems and locates the important roles of occupation and transpersonal considerations in the management of spiritual crises, through the renewal of identity via doing and its relationship to being. Key issue addressed: The interface between spiritual emergencies and mental health issues has a direct influence on how states of being are considered. However, engaging in routine meaningful occupations identifies the pivotal and complementary role of doing in the renewal of identity and spiritual transformation. Chapter two is divided into the following sub-sections: 2:2 Transpersonal crises and mental health 2:3 From spiritual emergence to spiritual emergency 2:4 Spiritual emergency and occupational identity 2:5 The `doing self' and the process of renewal 2:6 The link between occupational identity and transpersonal identity 2:7 The farther reaches of spiritual crises 2:8 Summary 2:2 Transformational crises and mental health Chapter two builds on the theoretical developments linking human occupation (doing) to spiritual developments within the fields of humanistic and transpersonal 44
psychology (being) discussed in chapter one. The author's previous roles, working as a UK National Health Service occupational therapist and psychological therapist, have provided opportunities to understand and facilitate deep engagement with people's psycho-spiritual potential connected to doing and being within the context of mental health services (Collins & Wells, 2006).3,4 The author's therapeutic work highlighted the importance of an occupational focus (doing) connected to spiritual considerations for peoples recovery in the midst of mental health crises,3,4 linked to the transformative journey of self-renewal.1 Two case illustrations of the author's work in mental health services are provided in article three which reveal the deep processes involved in psycho-spiritual change. In article three the author worked with two mental health service users and focused on their recovery needs, inclusive of their psycho-spiritual potential through the incorporation of dream work, which is recognised by Mindell (1990a) as a method for engaging a client's transpersonal potential (Hastings, 1999). Exploring the connections between doing and being, the author found that the integration of spirituality in his work with people experiencing severe and enduring mental health problems led to unexpected and positive outcomes in terms of recovery.1,3,4 The author wrote article four to illustrate the unfolding nature of spiritual engagement, which identified how spirituality can be considered in relation to a client's 1) specific spiritual needs, 2) relevant spiritual experiences, and 3) understanding spirituality as an ongoing journey throughout life. Article four considered how transformative experiences that unfold naturally (Metzner, 1986) are more likely to occur if the they are given time and space to emerge (de Waard, 2010). Article four illustrated the process of psycho-spiritual emergence via a case vignette 45
of a client in the mental health services, revealing how the therapeutic process not only became a catalyst for recovery, but also played a role in the client eventually discovering an interest in spirituality, and deciding to train as a spiritual healer. This transformative journey was facilitated through using a combined focus on doing and being4 (appendix 3c, p.193). The author's work in the field of mental health provided an appreciation of the transformative power of spiritual emergence linked to a sense of renewal and shifts in people's recoveries.1,3,4 The emphasis on spirituality within mental health recovery is made by Peter Gilbert (2007, p.26), who alludes to postmodern representations of identity within people's experiences as follows: As identity becomes more mobile, fluid, liquid; as we move into an era of what I call `travelling identity', where we engage in constructing ourselves and being re-formed, identity is the issue of the age (appendix 3d, p.198). Articles one, three, and four have identified how working with people diagnosed with severe and enduring mental health problems ­ where spirituality was not important to them at the outset of therapeutic engagement ­ resulted in the clients discovering new dimensions to their recovery, linked to psycho-spiritual potential (Collins & Wells, 2006).1,3,4 Therapeutic practice informed by humanistic and transpersonal theories (Rowan, 2002) ­ such as being client-centred and receptive to spiritual issues ­ can engender trust when exploring client's authentic experiences. It is here that John Swinton (2001, p. 8) has identified the interface between "interpersonal" and "intrapersonal" approaches, which can also link to the "transpersonal" and reach "beyond self and 46
others into the transcendent realms of experience that move beyond that which is available at a mundane level."2,9 Yet, it is interesting to note that whilst Swinton (2001) identified links between the transpersonal domain and mental health, he did not fully explicate the relevance of spiritual emergencies in his analysis (only making a brief reference to the work of David Lukoff). This gives some indication of how marginalised spiritual emergencies are in relation to mainstream reflections on spirituality and mental health. Transpersonal psychiatrist John Nelson (1994, p.418) has discussed spirituality within the context of mental health practice, emphasising the importance of spiritual emergencies as transformative phenomena: People in spiritual emergencies teach us that spontaneous ASCs [Altered States of Consciousness] are not always harmful, may lead to uncommon growth, and may even be cultivated as a strategy for enriching our lives. The relationship between spiritual emergence and spiritual emergency situates the value of transformational crises as part of spiritual development (Grof and Grof, 1986, 1989), which is more widely accepted in cross-cultural studies in the use of ASCs (Jilek, 1989; Krippner, 1989; Valla & Prince, 1989). The political imperative that accompanies such knowledge is that practitioners within western orientated mental health systems need more confidence (and training) to engage with transpersonal phenomena, and especially the transformative potential of spiritual emergencies. The recent publication Spirituality in Psychiatry published by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, UK (Cook, Powell & Sims, 2009) includes a small section on spiritual emergency, which is a progressive step towards enabling such a shift. 47
2:3 From spiritual emergence to spiritual emergency Transpersonal experiences are recognised as being capable of transcending people's temporal and spatial boundaries (Grof, 2000; Howard, 2005).2,9 The term transpersonal literally means going beyond (as in transcending) or through different states (as in transforming), thereby highlighting the need for developing awareness9 and cultivating a more fluid sense of self 2 beyond established ego boundaries (Heron, 1998; Rothberg, 2003; Rowan, 1993; Wilber, 1980, 1985). Transpersonal phenomena are naturally occurring experiences, and it would be wrong to judge them as being anomalous (Grof, 2006). Indeed, professor of transpersonal psychology David Lukoff (2010a) notes that there has been a marked increase in people reporting intense mystical and spiritual experiences over the last 30 years. However, Lukoff (2010a) does not cite the source for this data. The acknowledgement of human beings' transpersonal potential for enabling psychospiritual growth and development (Grof, 1996) is providing a renewed theoretical perspective for considering the nature of human growth and self-development (Sollod et al., 2009). This development is based on the recognition that more sophisticated theories of the self are continually evolving, and established theories are often subjected "to periods of uncertainty" (Montouri et al., 2004, p.203).2 A transpersonal perspective considers how spiritual emergence links to the engagement and development of self-awareness and possibilities for transforming experiences of consciousness, inclusive of altered and non-ordinary states of consciousness (Cortright, 1997; Grof & Grof, 1989; Rowan, 1993, 2001; Wilber, 1977, 1996).5 Yet, such psycho-spiritual developments recognise that the possibilities for experiencing transformational crises exist (Grof & Grof, 1989). 48
Article five explored how transpersonal encounters, such as spiritual emergencies, can have a profound impact on people's sense of self and everyday functioning, causing a de-adaptation (Perry, 1999), resulting in people not functioning in daily life, becoming overwhelmed, disorganised, immensely confused and anxious (Collins, 2008c). In addition, people could also experience transitory psychotic episodes (Sperry, 2003).5 Article five detailed how spiritual crises reflect a radical deconstruction of established ways of being (Nelson, 2000), which underscores the need to focus on factors that contribute to a fluid reconstruction of the self.2,5 Indeed, Lucas (2011, p.70) has reflected on the contributions of transpersonal authors, stating that "non-ordinary states, including psychosis, offer the potential for healing and growth if supported the right way". This statement is borne out by patterns of clients' recovery within the context of mental health practice, as noted by Collins and Wells (2006), where clients' experiences of engaging their human potential were considered important. The key issue here is not about an either/or perspective for determining psychopathology or human potential, but that recovery can include both (Clarke, 2001/2010; Lucas, 2006).5 The significance of transpersonal crisis within the unfolding trajectory of spiritual emergence is considered (from a transpersonal perspective) to be a "phase in further development" (de Waard, 2010, p.185). According to Grof and Grof (1991) the difference between spiritual emergence and spiritual emergency is that the latter includes feeling overwhelmed and threatened by new spiritual insights that may be personally or philosophically challenging to a person's everyday consensus views of reality, which can be confusing and frightening (Collins, 2008c; de Waard, 2010).5 49
Spiritual emergencies are more likely to occur during times of great physical and emotional stress or crisis. Possible triggers (among others) for a spiritual emergency include childbirth, near-death experiences, transitional stages of life and engaging in spiritual practices, all of which can "temporarily disrupt a person's ability to carry on a normal life" (Guiley, 1991, p.567). For example, participants in research carried out by Ankrah (2002) described having had at least one of the non-ordinary experiences that are characteristic experiences within spiritual emergencies, as classified by Grof and Grof (1989). These include strong inner knowing, visions, feeling an energy presence, hearing voices, feeling connections to plants/trees/animals, losing contact with the material world, feeling at one with the universe and having out-of-body experiences. Interestingly, the research carried out by Ankrah (2002) found that several participants felt unable to explore such extraordinary experiences with their therapists, because they received unhelpful or unsympathetic responses, whilst others feared being labelled mentally ill. Davis et al (1991) also identified that people do not find it easy talking about transcendent experiences, which is reflected in recent research into spiritual crises published by de Waard (2010, p.5) where people would avoid clinicians and therapists: [...] And of those who were driven to the consulting room by sheer desperation, most kept their mouths firmly shut on certain topics. Quotation shortened The fear of being misinterpreted is particularly difficult, as it does not allow people to be open and share the depth of their transformative experiences (Collins, 2008c), which means that the process remains internalised, thereby potentially prolonging the 50
period of integration (de Waard, 2010). Moreover, the sense of isolation for people experiencing spiritual emergencies can be exacerbated by other people's attitudes, whereby the individual experiencing the crisis has to contend with "everyone else's state of neurotic emergency too!" (Sorrell, 2009, p.148). Article five explicated how non ordinary-states of consciousness associated with spiritual emergencies can be disorientating. Article five detailed the work of Grof (2000), who noted that a good prognostic indicator is when a person is able to describe their experiences coherently, despite the content of what they are saying being extraordinary or strange. Article five drew on the extant literature to discuss the complexities of differentiating between people's spiritual emergencies and psychotic features, which can be a complex process (Lukoff, 1985, 1996; Lukoff, et al., 1992, 1996, 1997). A recent paper has noted how it is essential to establish coherences between people's "inner capacity, outer function, and support systems" which can become potential markers that determine if people can work with the transformational experience, or not (Viggiano & Krippner, 2009, p.116). These are critical observations and support the premise outlined in article five, which emphasised people's abilities to function through occupational engagement. It reinforced the view that spiritual emergencies can lead to further spiritual growth, enhanced creativity, compassion, and a desire to be of service to others if the experiences are integrated (Bragdon, 1990; Collins, 2008c; Guiley, 1991).5 Spiritual crises may eventually lead to a more fulfilling and renewed way of life (Collins, 2008; Grof & Grof, 1991; Perry, 1999). However, it has also been recognised that failure to integrate the experience can lead to a deterioration of mental 51
health (Guiley, 1991). Emma Bragdon (1990, p.8) has said that: "I have known of people who have killed themselves as a result of being isolated and overwhelmed with spiritual experiences." It is instructive to note that Kane's (2006) research into transformational phenomena found that the only distinguishing feature separating spiritual emergence from spiritual emergency is the sudden shift in transformation that leads to a crisis. Kane's (2006) findings indicate how transitional states of consciousness underscore the important function of adaptation in terms of cultivating self-awareness and renewal of identity.1,2 It is here that the role of occupational engagement could be pivotal, indeed, Sheena Blair (2000) has discussed the "centrality of occupation during life transitions." The proposal in this thesis underscores how doing complements the relationship to being when adapting to shifts in identity and consciousness, from experiences of spiritual emergence1,3,4 through to spiritual emergency5. 2:4 Spiritual emergency and occupational identity Article five considered the important links between doing, being, spirituality and consciousness in order to raise awareness of the needs of people who are in the midst of a transformative crisis, rather than always assuming a pathological perspective of mental ill health (Wain, 2005). Indeed, article five noted that a more expansive approach is needed within mental health practice, one that includes engaging human potential and the integration of transpersonal phenomena (Collins, 1999a, 1999b, 1999c). Spiritual emergencies pose serious questions for how societies consider transformational crises linked to developing transpersonal potential (Collins, 2009), and in turn, human occupations are pivotal for engaging the process of self-renewal1 through occupational identity during such transformational crises.5 52
The evolution of transpersonal psychiatry (Scotton et al., 1996) has contributed towards a deeper understanding of the interactions and dichotomies that can occur in relation to spiritual experiences that help to locate appropriate psychiatric treatment for those people who are at risk and need additional support (Lukoff, 1996; Lukoff et al., 1996; Scotton et al., 1996). These developments are highly important, as the American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, 4th edition) includes a non-pathological category for religious and/or spiritual problems in response to developments associated with spiritual emergency (Lukoff, 1985; Lukoff et al., 1992; Lu et al., 1997; Lukoff et al., 1998; Lukoff, 2006). It is important that spiritual considerations are included in the evaluation of people's mental health needs (Waldfogel & Wolpe, 1993),1,3,4 which should not be dominated by pathological interpretations of symptomology (Marzanowski & Bratton, 2002).5 These points underscore the importance for continuing to develop sophisticated ways of understanding the differences and complexities that exist between spiritual crisis and mental health needs (Jackson & Fulford, 1997),5 which continue to be discussed in the professional literature (Brett, 2003; Clarke, 2001/2010; Collins, 2008c; Littlewood, 1997; Lu et al., 1997; Marzanowski & Bratton, 2002; Johnson & Friedman, 2008).5 A helpful analogy for understanding the context of spiritual crises has been provided by Lukoff (2006) who compared spiritual emergency to normal reactions, such as those encountered in a bereavement process, where a person's experience of loss may meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive illness, but this diagnosis is not 53
given because the symptoms result from a normal and expected grief reaction. Lukoff (2006) is emphasising that a person in the midst of a spiritual emergency could be experiencing a normal process of development resulting from a transformational crisis; in short, spiritual crises need to be treated as normal trajectories of development. Indeed, transformational crises have been recognised cross-culturally as rites of passage, which can include a "complete disintegration of the personality" (Eliade, 1958, p.89) before renewal of the self is able to take place (Perry, 1999). However, a key issue of concern is the collective lack of awareness about the transformative potential of spiritual emergencies in societies today. If Grof and Grof's (1989) non-pathological model was more widely acknowledged in mainstream mental health contexts, it could begin to deepen society's relationship to profound transformational encounters. The observation by Richard House (2010a, p.141) that people's "incapacity to contain or `stay with' their exceptional subjective experiences might itself be a significant function of our culture's socially constructed notion of `normality'". This poignant statement reflects how societies can become "static" in terms of the collective context for understanding people's growth and development (Assagioli, 1969), which creates a societal-bind where people's abilities to experiment and integrate such experiences (Grof, 1987) through "spiritual opening" and "self-discovery" (Grof & Grof, 2010, p.160) are curtailed by the prevailing cultural attitudes. Article five recognised these socio-political impediments and outlined the healing trajectory from spiritual crisis to self-renewal5 through engaging `doing' in relation to occupational identity. This approach grounds transformative experiences within activities of daily life (Collins, 2009),1,3,4,9 thereby identifying a structured and normative approach to identity transitions.2,5 54
Article five expanded the role and function of occupational identity and its relationship to spirituality (Unruh et al., 2004), and was the first article written about human occupation and its role and function in managing transpersonal encounters that can trigger spiritual crises.5 Yet, within the occupational literature it had already been noted that transpersonal experiences can shift people's perceptions of self, where such transcendent experiences exist "as our shared human potential and can be actualised in our daily lives and occupations through a journey of transpersonal growth and development" (Kang, 2003, p.98). Article five explicated further the pivotal role of human occupations in the renewal of identity1,2 and how self-coherence (Christiansen, 1999, 2000; Hocking, 2000) could be considered in relation to transformational crises.5 The centrality of human occupations to the development of a fluid sense of self 2 concerns how people participate in meaningful endeavours, orchestrate new possibilities, and engage their interests in relation to an evolving sense of self (Bateson, 1989, p.2). 2:5 The `doing self' and the process of renewal The impact of transpersonal experiences on occupational identity 5,8,9 could broaden the fluid interactions between "I (as doer) and me (as the imagined self)" as originally conceptualised by Christiansen (2000, p.104). The inclusion of a transpersonal perspective linked to human occupation emphasised how transformations within consciousness (going beyond personal identity) can be considered.2,5,9 Indeed, the author's publications have built on the work of do Rozario (1997, 1994), who noted how engaging spirituality and the transpersonal dimension encourages transformation and a widening and deepening of identity.2,5,9 However, do Rozario (1997) did not 55
focus on the dynamic interface between spiritual emergence and spiritual emergency,5 which is essential for understanding fully the transpersonal dimension in relation to human occupations, the fluid engagement of identity transitions (Collins, 2006b) 2,9 and processes of transformation (Townsend, 1997).2,5,9 In relation to these developments Nelson (1994, p.264-5) has stated that: "Although spiritual emergencies are accompanied by a temporary suspension of ego-identity, they do not dissolve the ego." Thus, human occupations are not only pivotal for identity building (Christiansen, 1999, 2000),2 but in the case of spiritual emergencies renewed ways of doing are central for stabilising emergent states of being.5 Transpersonal links to human occupations2,9 reveal further possibilities that are waiting to be developed between occupational identity and transpersonal identity.5,8 For example, article eight outlined a case vignette revealing how the process of selfrenewal for a teenager (Molly), paralysed following a spinal cord injury, led to a spiritual crisis. The vignette revealed shifts between occupational identity and transpersonal identity that linked the complementary functions of doing and being within the transformative process. Molly was engaged in occupations that provided a transitory function in the economy of renewing her identity, as well as providing structure for the integration of transpersonal experiences into daily life.5,8 A further example of the value of occupational engagement as a key part of the renewal process1,5 is underscored by a research participant in a recent study into people's journeys of transformational crises carried out by Brett (2010, p.171): I set myself the task of cooking one good meal a day, and doing the washing up, whatever else happened. [...] The structure was really helpful. Quotation shortened 56
The above quote supports the key message in this thesis, which underscores the need for an occupational focus within spiritual transformation. Occupational therapists have been advised to consider people's levels of vulnerability during times of transition or transformation and to consider the spiritual wellbeing of people (Urbanowski, 2003). However, when spiritual emergencies are the cause of transformational crises, the key focus for managing such vulnerable transitions are directly linked to occupational engagement,1,3,4 identity5,9 and the ability to adapt to changing circumstances fluidly.2 The importance of being able to adapt to non-ordinary states of consciousness, such as spiritual emergencies, is put into context by Stanislav Grof (2000, p.172) who stated that when the experience of a spiritual emergency is very intense there is a need to "surrender" to the process. However, the ability to surrender is a considerable adaptation for some people to make in the midst of a crisis due to the levels of confusion experienced (Collins, 2008c).5 Indeed, it has been noted in the psychological literature that people often resist personal transformation after spiritual experiences, clinging tightly to their existing identity, which (unsurprisingly) stifles the transformative potential that is trying to emerge (Leary, 2004). Articles two and five have provided key theoretical developments that support the role and function of adaptation within states of consciousness and fluctuations in identity, emphasising how engagement in meaningful occupations supports the transitional process towards self-renewal that is trying to occur.1,8 2:6 The link between occupational identity and transpersonal identity 57
Article five provided theoretical underpinning for an occupational imperative within transformational crises based on the advice that people cease any psycho-spiritual development, in favour of engaging in low-key activities (Grof & Grof, 1989). This has been further emphasised by Lukoff (2010b, p.214), who has recommended that people engage in grounding and calming activities, such as "gardening" or "house cleaning". It is here that the importance of doing holds the key for participation through graded activities 5, however, the author of this thesis has asserted that occupations not only mediate inner and outer experiences of adaptation2, they also provide a valuable framework for the development of self-awareness and renewing a sense of identity.1,2,3,4,5,8,9 Article five outlined the pivotal role of doing as a means of managing spiritual emergencies, where occupational engagement directly addresses the de-adaptation that occurs (Perry, 1999) through the links to occupational identity.5 Article five contributed towards a deepening understanding of the meaning between occupation and identity as originally discussed by Christiansen (1999, p.553), where people can "explore possible selves", which highlighted the productive links between transformational crises and processes of self-renewal through occupational engagement.1,5,8,9 The inclusion of an occupational approach to transformation enables fluid transitions in identity2,5,8,9, where new insights are grounded and directed through occupations1,3,4 towards holistic experiences of health and wellbeing (Collins, 2011b ; Maslow, 1999). 9 Articles five and eight revealed the dynamic potential of human beings to adapt, reorganise, regenerate and renew the self (Perry, 1999) through occupational engagement.5,8 Interestingly, Hamel et al., (2003, p.14) have described the process of 58
human beings actualising their transcendent potential, stating that "growth will become transpersonal when all the individual's efforts, attitudes, and intentions converge toward a transcendent goal experienced daily." This goal-orientated approach to transpersonal development clearly situates transpersonal potential within the context of everyday occupational engagement1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, which avoids the imbalances (and futility) of attempting to transcend daily life altogether, or contemplating that activities of daily living are considered less important (Braud, 2001). Rather, it must be stressed that transpersonal encounters and experiences are applicable to everyday life, and therefore to occupational engagement, which holds new possibilities for peoples creative and meaningful participation (Ferrer, 2001; Tarnas, 2003).2,5,8,9 Articles five and eight exemplify the transpersonal-occupational imperative, which involves managing the tensions between the lived potential of the self-reflective and self-transcending human being (Tarnas, 2006a)2 who lives in an "ever unfolding cosmos" (Tarnas, 2002a, p.xv).5,9 Human occupations are identified for the pivotal role they play in facilitating transformational processes, inclusive of spirituality 1,3,4,6, 9, towards experiences of self-renewal.1,5,8 The life-changing potential of such deep transpersonal encounters can affect people's goals, values and occupational priorities, which may change radically through the exploration of new ways of doing and being.5,8,9 This was an issue addressed in article eight, which illustrated, via a case vignette, how transformational potential is integrated through the relationship between knowing, being and doing2,5,8,9, as further noted by Puhakka (2000, p.13): 59
I had come to see that knowing is not a "state" at all but rather an "activity." This activity provides connectedness across states and affects transformations more substantial and lasting than fluctuations in states of consciousness. The challenge for modern societies is to consider the value and importance of integrating spiritual emergencies within everyday life5. These transformative shifts in consciousness and identity reflect the possibilities for human beings to engage in new ways of knowing, doing and being8,9. However, if the transformative value of spiritual emergencies is only considered on an individual basis, its value to collective consciousness will be underestimated or lost altogether. The paradox within this socio-political status quo is that people may be impeded in the integration of their transformative journeys (through spiritual emergencies), for example, because of fear of speaking about their experiences, or being referred to and treated by the mental health services (as noted above). With such a collective denial or avoidance of transformational crises within mainstream societies, people are disincentivised to question the potential value and relevance of such crisis encounters (Collins, 2009). 2:7 The farther reaches of spiritual crises Recent developments within the transpersonal and ecological literature have identified that the current global crisis may be edging humanity closer to a global state of emergency, which will require a collective adaptation of consciousness in order to create a sustainable future (Collins, 2010c). The escalating global state of emergency (Collins, 2010d) will have far reaching implications that may well challenge the existing foundations of human consciousness. Indeed the current global state of emergency has been described as a collective spiritual emergency (Laszlo et al., 60
2003). The synergy between the global state of emergency and individuals' experiences of spiritual emergencies presents societies with a key challenge for the future, and requires a more enlightened approach to phenomena such as transformational crises. It is through engaging human potential, as outlined within the fields of depth and transpersonal psychology, that transformational crises may be considered for their value to collective change. However, psychiatrist R,D. Laing (1987, p.79) noted that as part of the transformative process, modern humans will first need to confront their psychophobia: As long as we remain in this state of apartness from ourselves, from one another, from the cosmos, we can only yearn for the healing of the mind/body, subject/object, self/other, self/cosmos splits and cut-offs which characterize our schizoid experience. [...] Quotation shortened In terms of how spiritual emergencies are viewed in society there is a need to add another dimension to the pathway of renewal, other than through the mental health services. As stated above, Ervin Laszlo, Stanislav Grof and Peter Russell (2003, p.59) noted that a substantial number of people being treated for psychosis within mental health systems are actually experiencing a crisis of transformation, or spiritual emergencies.5 In their conversation Grof spoke about his work as a transpersonal psychiatrist and recounted that people's orientation shifted when they discovered the numinous dimension of their psyches. This revelation enabled people in the midst of transformational crises to consider "a whole new orientation toward themselves, toward other people, nature and life in general" (Laszlo, Grof & Russell, 2003, p.989). The importance of the numinous as a catalyst for activating spiritual transformation was also recognised by Carl Jung (2000). 61
Carl Jung (among others) has made an important contribution to the evolution of transpersonal theory (Freeman, 2006; Scotton, 1996a), and his transpersonal perspective could be helpful in terms of shifting the focus away from individual consciousness towards a more collective development in relation to the current ecological crisis. Jung's approach to consciousness highlighted a need to develop a greater relationship between "the inner reaches of our psyche and the outer realms of nature" (Yunt, 2001, p.117). Such transpersonal encounters with nature can also lead to deep contact with the numinous dimension (Schoen, 1998) and impact upon egotranscendence (Washburn, 1994, 1995; Yunt, 2001). Yet, from the perspective of engaging psycho-spiritual potential, the numinous was of central importance to Jung (2000, p.134) and he stated that: [T]he main interest of my work is not concerned with the treatment of neurosis but rather with the approach to the numinous. But the fact is that the approach to the numinous is the real therapy and inasmuch as you attain to the numinous experiences you are released from the curse of pathology. Jung's emphasis here is on the approach to the numinous for enabling human beings to become aware of their potential for wholeness. Indeed, Frey-Rohn (1991, p. 267) has noted that: "Whatever consciousness the individual struggles for and is able to transmit benefits the collective." The themes presented in the articles found in this chapter,3,4,5,8 have identified that the presence of a crisis can deepen people's spiritual engagement in life, raising questions about the nature of spiritual crises and collective consciousness. This issue will be explored in chapter three. 2:8 Summary 62
The key articles presented in chapter two3,4,5,8 have contributed to the literature in terms of representing the complexities highlighted by postmodern developments when evaluating the relationships between mental health issues, spirituality and transformational crises, and their impact on identity. The articles3,4,5,8 have demonstrated the importance of engaging spirituality (inclusive of doing and being), which involves a dynamic exchange between occupational identity (doing) and transpersonal identity (being), making original contributions to the literature. The main emphasis within chapter two was predominantly located on individual responses to spiritual emergencies. However, there are collective resonances within humanity's spiritual heritage that require further consideration, particularly how human reflexive consciousness can be engaged in relation to numinous (transpersonal) experiences. 63
Chapter Three The Archetype of Collective Transformation and the Global Crisis: The Numinous Dimension of Spiritual Emergencies Jung, C.G. (1945, p.236) Quote removed 64
3:1 Introduction The postmodern worldview has called into question established ideas of individual and social "norms" (Eagleton, 2003, p.17), which Kawai (2006, p.192) has linked to the dawning of a "postmodern consciousness". The reality of engaging life from the viewpoints of complexity and postmodernism will require greater levels of reflexive engagement in terms of navigating human potential. Reflexivity is based upon human abilities in relation to "thinking about thinking and representing our representations" (Dennett, 2006, p.378); however, reflexive capabilities require development as suggested by O'Brien (2003, p.381): While my perceptual faculties are clearly required to give me knowledge of things I might do, they are not required to give me knowledge of which, out of the things I might do, I am doing. Human beings' reflexive capabilities are honed by their use, and Gillie Bolton (2010) has suggested that reflexivity enables human beings to question attitudes and assumptions, including values, actions and prejudices that provide opportunities "to consider changing deeply held ways of being" (Bolton, 2010, p.14). It is through reflexivity that the boundaries between self and other, as well as subject and object can be loosened, revealing how "reflexive action changes the form of the self" (Sandywell, 1996, p.xiv). It is the permeability of the self-boundaries where Hunt (1995) has highlighted the links between transpersonal experiences and the reflexivity of human existence, which is highly important when considering deeper representations of self within a wider (transpersonal) context of lived experience. 65
The implications for considering the uses of the "reflexive imagination" is not only an individual task but a collective one, and Sandywell (1996, p.426) has stated that "we urgently need maps and orientations for journeys in an intrinsically reflexive landscape". The current state of the world and the plight of humanity (and other species) are inextricably linked, which requires reflexive responses to mediate transitions between personal and collective levels of transformation. Chapter three views the phenomena of spiritual emergencies in relation to ancient spiritual lineages (such as shamanism), which have revealed insights into evolutionary developments in consciousness (Winkelman, 2002, 2004) that are linked to numinous experiences. From this perspective spiritual emergencies are highly relevant to collective consciousness, in terms of healing, transformation and engaging "evolutionary potential" (Grof & Grof, 2010, p.180). Key issue addressed: Localising spiritual emergencies as individual phenomena negates the collective function of humanity's spiritual heritage. Spiritual emergencies could be considered as encounters with the numinous; thereby encouraging human beings to engage their reflexive capabilities towards a wider collective engagement of transpersonal consciousness. Chapter three is divided into the following sub-sections : 3:2 The numinous as a catalyst for engaging spiritual potential 3:3 The numinous and the archetype of spiritual renewal 3:4 Transforming selves for a sustainable world 3:5 From numinous reflections to transformative action 3:6 Archetypal occupations and the transformation of consciousness 3:7 Summary 66
3:2 The numinous as a catalyst for engaging spiritual potential Human beings' encounters with spiritual emergencies have been recognised by Grof (2000) and Collins (2008c) as experiences of the numinous. The groundbreaking work of theologian Rudolph Otto (1923/1958) noted that people's contact with the numinous ­mysterium tremundum (awesome and overpowering mystery) and mysterium fascinans (fascinating and captivating mystery) ­ are active processes which carry an import of energy, that is, they have a dynamic effect on the consciousness of people who experience them. Otto (1923/1958) believed that the numinous had to be posited as a datum of consciousness and asserted that "to each numen is assigned a seer and there is none without one" (Otto, 1923/1958, p.122). It is the immediate impact of an encounter with the numinous that takes it into direct, lived experience (Hollis, 2003). The experiential axiom that underpinned Otto's (1923/1958) research into the numinous was not concerned with making claims for the numinous as a metaphysical truth; rather, his thesis was based on psycho-spiritual qualities which are allied to phenomenal experience (Merkur, 1999). This is an important distinction as it emphasises the primacy of human experience in relation to a transcendent dimension of consciousness. Otto (1923/1958) believed that in the journey of spiritual awakening human beings re-trace a process akin to evolution. This evolutionary link to the numinous is an issue that has recently been considered from a Jungian perspective by John Haule (2011a), yet he offered no discussion of spiritual emergencies within his analysis. Article seven considers how modern encounters with spiritual emergencies carry the potential for a re-awakening of the numinous dimensions of transpersonal consciousness as an evolutionary trajectory. Article seven highlighted important 67
implications for how humanity considers its spiritual heritage, particularly the occurrences of spiritual emergencies.7 Article seven contextualised the value of Otto's (1923/1958) research into encounters with the numinous, which highlighted the evolutionary importance for engaging human spirituality. It is here that the role and function of consciousness ­ as connected to human beings' spiritual development ­ links possibilities for awakening psycho-spiritual potential through increased levels of awareness (Wilber, 1996a, 1996b). Such numinous encounters bring the transpersonal dimension into direct contact with ego consciousness. Article seven illustrated how these experiences can be both life-enhancing or existentially challenging, either leading to gradual development of experiences connected to spiritual emergence and/or encounters with spiritual emergencies (Collins, 2008c).5,7 Two qualitatively different experiences of the numinous have been illustrated by Otto (1923/1958, p.12-3), explicating how such encounters impact on human consciousness. The first quote suggests a quality of experience that coheres with spiritual emergence, whereas, the second quote provides some indication of the types of overwhelming encounters that are more indicative of spiritual emergencies: The feeling of it may at times come sweeping like a gentle tide, pervading the mind with a tranquil mood of deepest worship. It may pass over into a more set and lasting attitude of the soul. [Quotation shortened] It may burst in sudden eruption up from the depths of the soul with spasms and convulsions, or lead to the strangest excitements, to intoxicated frenzy, to transport, and to ecstasy. [Quotation shortened] 68
Otto's (1923/1958) research into the numinous provides a deep connection to a primeval heritage which relates back to ancient history and early human experiences of the sacred and transcendent dimension (appendix 3e, p. 203). Encounters with the numinous were believed to have developed through rituals that led early humans to cultivate an understanding of transcendent awareness (Oubrй, 1997; Von Essen, 2007). Today the "feeling quality that characterises the sacred" (Lancaster, 2010, p.22) reveals numinous links to consciousness. Yet, the relevance of such sacred encounters requires further understanding of subjective claims about spiritual experiences, knowledge and "ways of transformation", through neuro-scientific and psychological research (Lancaster, 2010, p.34) inclusive of transpersonal perspectives (House, 2010b). Article seven explored how evolutionary encounters with the numinous potentially aligned ancient people to an emergent, developmental trajectory within human consciousness. This article7 discussed the evolutionary significance for engaging transcendent awareness and how such developments may have correlated with humanity's capacity to develop psycho-cultural levels of meaning-making. For example, one theory has considered the evolutionary significance of the numinous and its connection to ritualised behaviours, which (it is hypothesised) led to the development of more sophisticated brains that guided the modification of consciousness (Oubrй, 1997). This evolutionary (ritualised) trajectory is believed to have led to: "Alterations in the connections between different parts of the hominid brain [which] furnished new and more sophisticated biological substrates for a human 69
like consciousness" (Oubrй, 1997, p.119). The question is, if ritual numinous encounters played a part in the development of early human consciousness (Oubrй, 1997) through learnt "pre-religious" behaviours (Burkert, 1996), the hypothesis lends support to the argument that the human brain may be "hard-wired" (Nelson, 2011, p.225) to experience the sacred (Beauregard & O'Leary, 2007; d' Aquili & Newberg, 1999; Foster, 1989). Article seven considers the possibilities that early human ritualised behaviours not only provided access to transpersonal states of consciousness (Walsh, 2001), but also present a plausible explanation for the presence of transformational crises in cross-cultural observations from ancient spiritual traditions, such as shamanism (Eliade, 1964/1989; Walsh, 2007). The evolutionary development of neuro-anatomical areas believed to be involved in religious experiences have been discussed by Joseph (2001, p.106) who has revealed that early humans possessed "a well-developed inferior temporal lobe and limbic system" which is implicated in modern human's capacities for having mystical experiences. Moreover, Joseph (2001, p. 107) has correlated these sacred encounters from a (Jungian) archetypal perspective, suggesting that humans' have the capacity for deep (numinous) experiences, such as those expressed in terms of "God" or the "Great Spirit." However, Lancaster (2004, p.47) has wisely pointed out that "any suggestion of presumed cerebral basis of spiritual experience critically depends on our analysis of what constitutes the primary features of the experience" and Newberg (2008, p.351) concurs that the subjective nature of such encounters are complex. Yet it cannot be ignored that homo sapiens sapiens are evolutionary survivors, who are also referred to as homo religiousus (Burkert, 1996; Holmes, 1996). 70
The evolutionary potential of numinous encounters, as proposed in article seven, coheres with important discussions taking place within the specialised field of neurotheology, which researches the significance of mystical experiences in the brain to further the scientific understanding of meaning into spiritual phenomena (Ashbrook, 1997; Claxton, 1999; Newberg, 2001). It is here that the neural substrates involved in human being's abilities to construct meaning are significant (Austin, 1998), for example through the evolution and development of narrative structuring (language) and cultural myths, which are connected to emotional shaping and the development of higher cognitive functions (Teske, 2006). Article seven linked evolutionary perspectives concerning cultural myths to the numinous dimension (Campbell, 1991a) and considered how neurotheological and cultural developments have provided possible connections for understanding the relationship between numinous encounters at a collective level (established through shared, meaningful rituals).7 This perspective is supported by anthropological theories that link the cross-cultural prevalence of ancient shamanic practices to the evolution of consciousness (Winkelman, 1993, 2002, 2004). A key observation here is that spiritual crises are part of shamanic initiations, and the point made in article seven is that the potential value of spiritual emergencies for understanding transpersonal potential has not yet been considered within neurotheological investigations.7,10 The recent Jungian perspective put forward by Haule (2011b), exploring the evolutionary influences between consciousness, archetypes, and the numinous is an encouraging development. However, there needs to be more discussion about the role and function of spiritual emergencies in such evolutionary developments. 71
3:3 The numinous and the archetype of spiritual renewal Rudolph Otto (1923/1958) pointed out how humanity's mythical lineages have (historically) provided a way of objectifying the mysterious (and often) irrational encounters with the numinous. The function of myth in the spiritual experiences of modern people is put into context by mythologist Joseph Campbell (1991b, p.4), who illustrated the connection between myths and the numinous in the following passage: "The first function of a mythology is to reconcile waking consciousness to the mysterium tremundum et fascinans of this universe, as it is." Indeed, numinous encounters bring the sacred alive, where myths and symbols provide important functions that enable connections and understandings of transcendent processes (Campbell, 2001). However, modern societies have few guiding myths that reconcile waking consciousness to the numinous, and Campbell (1972/1992, p.74) has referred to the modern separation between matter and spirit as a "mythic dissociation." This view is supported by Edinger's (1984, p.17) assertion that western materialistic societies have been heading towards a state of "mythlessness", suggesting that a "new myth", connected to the purpose of life, "is the creation of consciousness." Yet, a current "mythic narrative for our global culture" does not exist (Le Grice, 2010, p.38). It is here that the challenge of finding a "unifying mythic vision" has to include individuals, families, communities, nations and the world (Feinstein & Krippner, 1997, p.272). In this way, myths can reflect an archetypal view of reality as explained by Jung (1998, p.95): "[A]rchetypes create myths, religions, and philosophical ideas that influence and set their stamp on whole nations and epochs." 72
There have been criticisms levied against Jung's theory of the archetypes in that they are deemed to have no validity or proof (Tacey, 2006) (appendix 3f, p.207). However, the meaning of the archetypes when viewed from an integral perspective (Corbett, 1996) considers the interface between psychological, spiritual and ecological dimensions of human beings' relationships to the transpersonal (numinous) level of consciousness (Freeman, 2006). From this perspective human beings are placed in a holistic context connected to all life and nature, with archetypal significance.7 Corbett (1996, p.106) has stated that: Jung's model of the psyche, because of its stress on the numinosum, allows a sacramental understanding of the psyche as coextensive with nature, in which the divine is felt to be immanent by virtue of experiences of the Self. [Quotation shortened] The above transpersonal quote is important as it connects human experience to a wider and deeper view of consciousness (Laszlo, 2007), which has archetypal relevance; based on the realisation that ego-identity is a relatively recent phenomenon in human history (Sannella, 1992). One of the key problems of ego-consciousness in relation to modern life is that it has become increasingly one-dimensional (Marcuse, 1964/1991). That is, modern humans have cultivated a consciousness that is divorced from the psyche as a whole, which in reality is connected to a wider ecology of life (Yunt, 2001). Article ten explored how the archetypes (as carriers of the numinous) could provide access to a deep seam of human potential and development, thereby enabling a more expansive relationship to life as a whole. 73
Because the archetypes carry the potential for numinous experiences, Progoff (1987, p.83) has suggested that such encounters provide human beings with "a sense of transcendent validity." Thus, encounters with the numinous can confront human consciousness with feelings of awe, terror and fascination, and these transcendent experiences can lead to a new attitude and relationship to life (Collins, 2008c).7,10 This highlights the potential for engaging in those processes of psycho-spiritual change, which Jung (1940, p.89) referred to as "archetypes of transformation", or those typical situations that symbolise deep patterns of change. 10 Jung (1954) proposed that archetypal situations only manifest when they are specifically called for, and article ten considered this assertion by Jung in the context of a growing global crisis, which discussed how the global state of emergency could be indicative of an archetypal level of change.10 Indeed, unsustainable ways of living are gradually confronting modern humans with the challenge to make significant changes in lifestyles and behaviours to mediate a much needed transition in consciousness (Glenn, Gordon & Florescu, 2008, 2011). Thus, the reality of establishing a sustainable future will, no doubt, have to include human beings actualising their transformational potential (Collins, 2010a),7,10 which could include encountering the deeper numinous meanings (Samuels, 1993)7,10 found within transitional crises.5 3:4 Transforming selves for a sustainable world Article seven noted how there is a need for a collective response to the current global and spiritual state of emergencies beyond individual transformation5, which highlighted the need for "transcendent action in the service of collective transformation" (p.207).7 From this transformational perspective article ten iterated the need for human consciousness to realign its relationship with nature and a wider 74
experience of the cosmos (transpersonal),10,11,12 suggesting that spiritual emergencies could even be considered predictable in view of the current global crises10 due to worsening environmental conditions, and confrontations with the numinous power of nature (Schoen, 1998).10,11 It is important that modern societies recognise the transformational potential of encounters with the numinous and spiritual emergencies7,10 even though they might temporarily disturb the prevailing consensus reality. Articles seven and ten identified the need to deepen the dialogue about transitional and transformative states of consciousness and how numinous encounters could catalyse behaviour changes in an ever growing global state of emergency.7,10 Articles seven and ten identified how spiritual emergencies have the power to shift the focus of human consciousness from the personal to a transpersonal perspective.5 ,11 Recognising such deep shifts has considerable implications for both individuals and societies, which could inspire a re-visioning of the attitudes and values underpinning modern consensus reality towards living more deeply and sustainably with nature (Collins, 2010c, 2010d).7,10 The re-emergence of a transpersonal dimension of consciousness7 situates human beings in a more holistic relationship to others, nature, the planet and the cosmos as a whole.10,11 This shift in collective consciousness has important implications for how human beings integrate new ways of doing and being as part of a collective process of transformation through lived attitudes and behaviours.5,7,9,10 Using the language of complexity, people's experiences of spiritual emergencies could become tipping points that inspire (rather than generate fear about) collective transformation for the creation of a more sustainable future.10 Indeed, the role and function of spiritual emergencies5 within the context of a global crisis could 75
be a catalyst for understanding collective potential.7,10 It is here that the transpersonal orientation of Carl Jung could be highly relevant.12 Jung (1959, p.272) faithfully kept alive the view that the development of consciousness is the way out of an "imprisonment in unconsciousness". A vital process within this transformation of consciousness is the recognition that everything in nature eventually flows to its opposite, which is encapsulated in the ancient Greek philosophical term enantiodromia (Jacobi, 1980). Article ten highlighted the relevance of Jung's (1959) work on enantiodromia, which supports the notion of shifts in collective consciousness inspired by spiritual emergencies (Collins, Hughes & Samuels, 2012) .10 It is here that the one-dimensional focus (Marcuse, 1964/1991) that is dominating modern societies, through a material view of existence and a compromised relationship to a wider ecology, is challenged (Collins, 2010c ; Yunt, 2001).7,10,11 However, the size of the task is put into context by Yunt (2001, p.110). From Jung's perspective, as consciousness reaches higher levels of differentiation and asserts its rational self-sufficiency and self-certainty, the unconscious falls farther behind and is forced to compensate for its neglect. [...] It does this through dreams, psychic disturbances, and/or projections. Quotation shortened Articles seven and ten proposed that spiritual emergencies (as an enantiodromia in collective consciousness) 10 may well be revealing psychic disturbances that could act as a wake-up call for humanity to explore and co-create a renewed vision for a deeper relationship to consciousness and life as a whole. The possibilities for an enantiodromia in collective consciousness has been put another way by Richard 76
Tarnas (2002b, p.10), who has asked if the modern psyche is undergoing a rite of passage. If the question put forward by Tarnas is correct, the transition will need to address those collective processes that have been split off within consciousness,7,10 for example, not assuming that people in the midst of transformational crises have mental health problems (Laszlo et al., 2003). Article ten articulated the view that the emerging archetypal pattern of collective transformation needs to be envisioned as a solution for inspiring and engaging collective change.10 However, the transpersonal shift required within society has to include a political level of transformation in order to facilitate a more progressive and non-pathological understanding for spiritual emergencies (Collins, 2008c) and expanded states of consciousness (Read and Crowley, 2009).5,7,10,11,12 The position taken in article ten considers the current global state of emergency as an opportunity to realign humanity to a re-sacralised political vision that takes into account the deep reality of the psyche (Samuels, 1993).7,10 From this perspective, article ten identified that spiritual emergencies could encourage people to engage in deeper relationships with life, outlining six areas where deep change could occur: learning, citizenship, democracy, culture, ecology and human occupation. These six domains could act as focal points for a re-sacralised political vision for the 21st century, which emphasise transformative action from crisis to renewal.10 Indeed, transformative shifts in consciousness could be supported by a collective recognition that the current global crisis is also a collective spiritual emergency.7,10 This viewpoint highlights the need for a radical revision in people's behaviours within daily life,2,6,9 thereby accommodating a wider transpersonal perspective,5,7,8,10 based on human beings' capacities to reflect and act in new ways.11,12 77
3:5 From numinous reflections to transformative action The function of transformative reflection and action has to be centred on recognising the deep potential of human beings for adaptation and change.2 Article eleven discussed how radical transformation is needed to bring about meaningful change, and how spiritual emergencies actually pose a problem-setting agenda within collective consciousness. Article eleven explored reflexivity as a way of inspiring deep changes in actions and behaviours that intelligently meet the challenge of transformation.11 And, it is here that the archetypes (via the collective unconscious) are an important link to ecological awareness within the current ecological crisis. Roszak (2001, p.304) has noted that: The collective unconscious, at its deepest level, shelters the compacted ecological intelligence of our species. Indeed, greater communion from humans with nature could result in a participation mystique, revealing "human beings' unconscious identity with the environment, with nature" (Le Grice, 2010, p.48), when, for example, the archetypes of the natural world (trees, mountains, rivers, and flowers, etc) are encountered (Liotta, 2009a, 2009b). Thus, it is humanity's capacity to reflect deeply (Schцn, 1987) and engage with the numinous quality of such natural encounters that further highlights their importance for developing a reflexive level of consciousness within the process of transformation (Collins, 2008c). 7,10,11,12 The exploration of deep transformative states of consciousness will undoubtedly confront modern societies with what Pillow (2003, p.192) has described as "reflexivity of discomfort", which reveals the troubling dimensions of a given 78
situation, leading to "confounding disruptions ­ at times even a failure of our language and practices." Article eleven proposed that one of the central confounding disruptions of our era concerns the collective understanding of spiritual emergencies in relation to the global state of emergency. This article11 considered that if spiritual emergencies are important indicators revealing a growing edge within collective transformative potential, then a central question has to be, how can such reflexivity be developed? 11 The root meaning of the modern word reflexivity is associated with the GraecoRoman term parrhesia, which is concerned with truth-telling (Bleakley, 2000, p.14). The act of reflection encourages people to take responsibility for their life stories, the structures surrounding those stories, and their subsequent actions in life (Bolton, 2006). Article eleven identified two key areas for reflection and transformation in the context of a global and spiritual state of emergency. The first is the necessity for honest reflection about the scale of human destruction in the modern world. The second concerns the acknowledgement of our full human potential, which not only focuses on self-responsibility, but also on our attitudes towards one another (Wellington & Austin 1996) and all life forms.7,10,11 The two points outlined above highlight the value of transformative narratives (to the collective) of people who have experienced spiritual emergencies (Collins, 2008c). The reflexive value of transformative narratives ­ from the personal to the transpersonal ­ is their ability to convey autobiographical accounts of change that go far beyond the self of the author (Humphreys, 2005), particularly in relation to exceptional human experiences (White, 1998) such as spiritual emergencies. The 79
value of gathering biographical evidence has recently been emphasised by Brett (2010), which is consistent with the views of Collins (2008c), noting that transformative narratives could be employed as a means of encouraging greater transparency towards such states of consciousness (Collins, 2008c).7,10 This point has also been discussed by House (2010a, p.151), who has identified the importance of a "transbiographical" dimension in relation to "exceptional subjective experiences". It is in relation to this last point that article twelve makes an original contribution to the literature on spiritual emergencies, concerning the role of doing and its relationship to being, through analysing Carl Jung's autobiographical account of his transformative crisis.12 The inspiring reflections outlined in the transformative journey of Carl Jung (in his Red Book) constitute a detailed testimony of his deep transitions in consciousness that could have wider applications for humanity at a collective level. Indeed, Jung's (2009) account of his spiritual crisis and renewal could be pivotal for how modern humans develop their reflexive capacities and appreciate the value of deep transitions in consciousness. Correspondence with Stanislav Grof (2010) (appendix 6, p. 351) has highlighted the importance of Jung's crisis encounter with the unconscious, and the influence of his archetypal encounters on the field of transpersonal studies: The stormy personal history of C. G. Jung shows the extraordinary creative power that spiritual emergency can have under the best of circumstances: when it happens to a person with an unusual gift for introspection, great intelligence, and impressive educational background. Jung's psycho-spiritual crisis gave birth to a new psychology that in recent decades has had increasing 80
influence on the field. His recently published Red Book is an extraordinary travelogue of his own "Night Sea Journey". In discussing the need for a reflexive approach to transpersonal phenomena, it is evident that people's non-ordinary experiences of consciousness (Grof, 2000) will require the development of what the author of this thesis has described as a transreflexive position within consciousness (Collins, 2008c).7,10 Trans-reflexivity is recognition of the deep connections that people have between humans, nature, other species and the planet as a whole.11,12 This trans-reflexive position is concerned with developing a greater capacity between personal and transpersonal experiences of consciousness, whilst recognising that such encounters are often ineffable and transcend the everyday boundaries of the self (Collins 2008c). Yet, trans-reflexivity could be highly important for its impact on changed perceptions and actions (as revealed in article nine, case vignette).2,5,7,10,11,12 3:6 Archetypal occupations and the transformation of consciousness Article twelve has provided detailed analysis of Jung's transformational crisis and how he worked with images and symbols arising from the collective unconscious that went beyond his usual ego functioning. Jung's journey of discovery into the collective unconscious made clear the connections between the archetypal (and numinous) processes involved in spiritual development and the unfolding journey of individuation (Stein, 2007) and process of renewal (Slattery, 2004), (appendix 3g, p.215). It is interesting to note that in his work on holotropic states of consciousness, Grof (2000, p.271) found many resonances with Jung's archetypal perspective, where "we discover that our psyche has access to entire pantheons of mythological figures, 81
as well as the domains they inhabit", which reveals the nature of the archetypes as transpersonal (Jung, 1959). The transformational crisis experienced by Jung led to a new stage of conscious development for him12 which was initiated through archetypal encounters, and ­ typically ­ the emergence of these deep transpersonal symbols often arrive without any warning (Stein, 2007, p.91). Jung (1983, p.233) described his journey of individuation as an "intense preoccupation" dealing with the "the stream of fantasies" that held him captive. The publication of Jung's (2009) Red Book has provided understanding of how Jung engaged with and transformed his preoccupations into meaningful reflections and actions. The important link between doing and being in Jung's individuation process was a key focus within article twelve. In his journey of individuation Jung (1983, p.233) struggled with the question: "What does one do with the unconscious?" This statement shows the great emphasis Jung placed on the need for action, that is, he did not ponder on how it is to be with the unconscious.12 Within Jung's journey of individuation there is an important transitional process, between his meaningful occupational engagement that resulted in the production of the Red Book (writing and painting about the material he was encountering from the unconscious), and the construction of the tower at Bollingen (building and engaging in craftwork as a meaningful concrete representation of his individuation expressed in the world).6 Article twelve explored how Jung reflected and acted throughout his transitional encounter with a spiritual emergency, which further revealed the complementary functions between his new ways of exploring doing and being. 82
Jung's process of individuation reflects a tension between personal encounters with the numinous "archetype of initiation" (Corbett, 2007, p.53) which can be experienced through spiritual emergencies,12 connecting to a transpersonal "archetype of wholeness" (Edinger, 1992, p.3), inspiring new ways of doing and being.12 To this end, the Red Book served as an initiatory function, and acted as a catalyst and container that reflected the depth of the unchartered territory Jung was exploring from the unconscious. It is evident that Jung evolved this ongoing integration through new ways of doing and being at his Bollingen Tower. Yet, we also know from Jung (1983, p.252) that the construction of the tower was much more than an act of ego, when he said that he built it in a kind of "dream", that is, he was related to engaging the unconscious processes within his daily occupations.3,6 Article twelve situates Jung's archetypal encounters in relation to living a more deep and expansive view of reality, which is expressed through his occupational engagement. The quality of Jung's (1983, p.252) trans-reflexive experiences7,10,11 is expressed in his own words: At times I feel as if I am spread out over the landscape and inside all things, and am myself living in every tree, in the splashing waves, in the clouds and the animals that come and go, in the procession of the seasons. [...]Quotation shortened Article twelve explicated how transformations within consciousness include the ability to work with archetypal symbols and images (inner work) and to consider how these are encouraging a synergy with the lived potentials that are expressed through everyday occupations and actions (outer work).2,3,5,6,9,10,11,12 Jung's (1983, p.392) own words bear testimony to the possibilities for individuation following a 83
transformational crisis: "[T]he more uncertain I have felt about myself, the more there has grown up in me a feeling of kinship with all things." Such a transpersonal perspective is greatly needed in the world today9 and yet the journey of spiritual emergence inclusive of understanding the importance of spiritual emergencies has yet to take root in the modern world.5,7,10,11,12 However, the transformational imperative expressed through archetypal and numinous encounters associated with spiritual emergencies7,10 highlights the important roles of discovering new ways of doing and its relationship to being for the process of self and collective renewal.1,2,6,9,10,11 It reflects a depth and quality of engagement that the author of this thesis named in article twelve as archetypal occupations.12 The conceptual development of archetypal occupations12 reflects a new theoretical development that is based on the explication of Jung's occupational engagement (via the creation of the Red Book and the building of the tower at Bollingen), which have revealed renewed ways of considering the integration of transpersonal consciousness within everyday lived experiences.12 Jung's (1983, 2009) reflections and actions linked to his journey of transformation may well be highly relevant for the modern world today. The value of Jung's biographical details to the collective is that transformational crisis and deep transitions in consciousness are possible.5,7,10,12 Such a transformational shift highlights the profound (numinous) role of human occupations in demonstrating how the complementary functions of doing and being may be necessary for the mediation and creation of an improved future.5,6,9,10,12 3:7 Summary 84
The key articles presented in chapter three7,10,11,12 provide a detailed discussion of humanity's collective spiritual heritage and how numinous encounters can have a deep archetypal impact upon the psyche, proposing that spiritual emergencies are symptomatic of a collective potential that gives some indication of a need to return to the sacred. The articles7,10,11,12 have demonstrated a progressive discussion highlighting the inevitable shifts within human consciousness ­ from the personal to a transpersonal perspective ­ when the numinous is encountered, which further underscores the need for a reflexive position to mediate such transitions using the author's concept of trans-reflexivity. Chapter three has demonstrated the integral links between doing and being via the individuation process of C.G. Jung, where his deep inner and outer work led to greater transpersonal participation. 85
Chapter Four: From Crisis to Renewal: Transforming Self and Society Through New Ways of Doing and Being Perry, J.W. (1987, p.184) Quote removed 86
4:1 Introduction Transpersonal knowledge has recently been considered from a participatory perspective (Ferrer, 2002) where people's unique transpersonal journeys in life are embedded within the context of everyday life (Daniels, 2005, p.69). The work of Jorge Ferrer (2008, p.142) has contextualised engagements with the transpersonal dimension as pluralistic, stating that "no pre-given ultimate reality exists" and that spiritual paths are enacted (intentionally or spontaneously) through participation and co-creation within a dynamic mystery. The essence of participatory epistemology incorporates postmodern ways of knowing, whilst also going beyond them, as noted by Tarnas (1991/2010, p.435): The human spirit does not merely prescribe nature's phenomenal order; rather, the spirit of nature brings forth its own order through the human mind. [...] In such knowledge, the human mind "lives into" the creative activity of nature, then the world speaks its meaning through human consciousness. Quotation shortened This participatory approach reflects an embodied perspective within daily life, which coheres with an occupational focus for engaging meaning-making (Desrosiers, 2005; Hemmingsson & Jonsson, 2005; Law, 2002). However, there has only been minimal consideration of transpersonal implications of participation within the occupational therapy and occupational science literature. The deep links between transpersonal consciousness and human occupations could be a vital contribution to humanity's efforts to participate in the co-creation of an improved future. 87
The potential synergies that can be furthered through greater coherences between occupational and transpersonal perspectives for participation are important in relation to engaging doing and being towards collective renewal, which situates human beings "as part of a greater whole" (Schlitz, Vieten & Amorok, 2007, p.161). Transpersonal participation, via direct knowing and engagement within an "undetermined mystery" (Ferrer, 2008, p.158) reveals how humanity can engage co-creatively through enactments (doing) that contribute to a "self-unfolding of being" (Ferrer, 2005, p.121), thereby giving full expression to human potential. The discussion presented in chapter four considers how spiritual development, as embodied participation, includes the process of renewal between spiritual emergence and emergency. Within this process of renewal, the complementary roles of doing and being can support the integration of transpersonal experiences into daily life, which could benefit both self and society in terms of "enhanced human flourishing" and "collaborative action for change" (Lahood, 2007, p.5). Chapter four presents a synthesis of the theoretical position outlined in the preceding chapters and draws together all of the articles submitted. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Key issue addressed: The collective meaning and value of spiritual emergencies could be significant in the way that they reflect the need for human transformation (from a one-dimensional existence) to a greater transpersonal outlook. People's experiences of spiritual emergencies could have resonances with the burgeoning global state of emergency, in that the process of self-renewal has many parallels with collective renewal in terms of participation and the co-creation of an improved future. Chapter four is divided into the following sub-sections: 88
4:2 The dynamics of transformation 4:3 The politics of doing 4:4 Towards renewed ways of doing and being 4:5 Occupation, integration and transformation 4:2 The dynamics of transformation Since the end of the second world war there have been significant developments within the western world, which Metzner (2008, p.25) has described as a new "culture of consciousness expansion", for example, in movements advocating civil rights, ecology, women's liberation, and creative expression through the arts (Metzner, 2008, p.42). Coupled with these developments there has also been a more recent growth of interest in justice and reconciliation, as well as the expansion of spirituality and transpersonal developments, which are informing "philosophical perspectives on deep ecology, social ecology, ecofeminism [...] and ecopsychology" (Metzner, 2008, p.51). The upsurge of interest in these new perspectives is indicative that "another world is possible" (Metzner, 2008, p.82). Sociological approaches to co-constructing "new possibilities" between the social and natural worlds have highlighted the need for greater reflexivity to tackle environmental problems (Irwin, 2001, p.183). This position corresponds with ecosocialism's call for humanity to find ways of connecting with nature as a whole, inclusive of a spiritual emphasis (Pepper, 1993). From this perspective the reflexivity associated with cultivating an "ecological awareness" has direct links to developing "spiritual awareness", revealing humanity's connection to nature at its deepest level (Capra, 1995, p.21). However, a counter position to such ecological holism (inclusive 89
of self-actualisation and spirituality) is noted by Lucardie (1993, p.25), who has stated that "human beings differ widely in psychological habits, needs, and so on", suggesting that not everyone will feel deeply satisfied by a "life in nature" (Lucardie, 1993, p.25). The argument put forward by Lucardie (1993, p.34) is antagonistic to deep and/or transpersonal ecology, suggesting that these theoretical ideologies are akin to following "the path of the mystic". According to his writings, Lucardie (1993) would undoubtedly dismiss the transformative narratives of people who have transited spiritual emergencies (Ankrah, 2002; Collins, 2008c), yet such biographies reveal important experiential and reflexive testimonies of lived transpersonal encounters. Transformative narratives reflect information linked to first-person accounts that are important for understanding experiences of consciousness (Varela & Shear, 1999), and transpersonal participation in the world, which may be important to the collective. A central question concerning humanity's psycho-spiritual responses to a burgeoning global state of emergency primarily needs to take account of the degrees of dissociation and separation of human beings' deeper connections with nature ­ not speculations about individual preferences or prejudices concerning nature as discussed by Lucardie (1993). It is here that a "revised conception of humanity" as noted by Hunt (1995, p.279) emphasises the importance of collective functioning inclusive of psychology (from the viewpoint of Jung's collective unconsciousness) as well as sociology (from the viewpoint of Durkheim's collective consciousness). These psychological and sociological theories give some indication that the relationship between individual consciousness and collective functioning are relevant and important. 90
From the perspective of human (collective) consciousness the growing problem of the global ecological crisis will undoubtedly impact on the way that people view the natural world. Humanity's predicament in the face of a global state of emergency has been described as a collective "lack of awareness" (Loy & Stanley, 2009, p.7). However, when contrasted against the theories of Carl Jung and transpersonal psychology, it could be argued that modern societies are reflecting a loss of "soul" or a "loss of a sense of being and felt reality" (Hunt, 1995, p.297). Essentially, there is a fundamental gap concerning the way that humanity is failing to grasp that all life exists as an interconnected whole (Anderson, 2011, p.250-1). This is an issue explicated further by Collins (2011b, p.219-20): The transformative value of people making personal changes within everyday activities and relationships at home, in neighbourhoods, towns, and cities, etc reflects possibilities for developing transpersonal potential collectively. Transpersonal ways of participating in life are based on an understanding that ­ if all life is connected ­ what we `do' in our everyday activities, to one another, and the planet ­ we also do to ourselves. As the global crisis deepens, Loy and Stanley (2009, p.7) have asserted that humanity will "need a collective awakening from collective delusions" which (particularly in the west) are found in the overemphasis placed on "individualism" and not a shared sense of a collective "we" (Murphy, 2009, p.198) on issues as important as the environment. The psychological impact of the current global situation is well illustrated in the words of Roger Walsh (1996, p.396), who has noted the power of belief which has resulted in humanity's lack of meaningful response to the global crisis, portraying typical avoidant or passive statements, such as: "it's not my 91
responsibility" or, there is "nothing I can do" (Walsh (1996, p.397). The paradox within the issue highlighted by Walsh (1996) is that doing is actually pivotal and complementary to the transformation of being as a means of affecting deep change. The current global state of emergency could be a collective wake-up call for humanity (Bache, 2000) to care for the earth's finite resources. Former USA Vice President Al Gore (1992, p.367) has stated that the current ecological crisis is highlighting a "collective identity crisis" with people now beginning to reflect on questions such as: "Who are we?" and "What is our purpose?" Gore (1992, p.367) goes on to conclude that there is a "spiritual crisis in modern civilisation that seems to be based on an emptiness at its centre and the absence of a larger spiritual purpose." This dilemma has highlighted the need for a collective response to the ecological and spiritual crisis, which has been termed the "Great Work" by Thomas Berry (1999, p. 200), who has noted that: What happens to the outer world happens to the inner world. If the outer world is diminished in its grandeur then the emotional, imaginative, intellectual, and spiritual life of the human is diminished or extinguished. The preceding quote reveals the dynamic equilibrium between the inner and the outer, with spiritual significance. The conviction of eco-philosopher Joanna Macy (2009, p.177) is that "spiritual practices can provide the moral strength to see things as they are"; however, there is still very little consideration given to the parallels between the global state of emergency (Baring, 2007) and people's experiences of spiritual emergencies.7,10,11,12 Catherine Lucas (2011, p.183) has recently stated that it is a reciprocal relationship: "The microcosm of individual spiritual awakening is reflected in the macrocosm of humanity's awakening of consciousness." Yet humanity appears 92
to be avoidant or in denial about the scale of the problem it has created, which is clearly iterated by activist Susan Murphy (2009, p.201): Can we really be allowing our astonishing living planet to die [...] Perhaps it is still wholly an inward cry. But the relative planetary silence scares me deeply. Does it alarm you too? How are you handling it? The preceding quote reflects the lack of any authentic collective reaction to the scale of the global crisis, and the question that has to be asked is why? In his conversations with Carl Jung, anthropologist Laurens Van Der Post (1976, p.246) noted the psychologist believed one of the reasons why modern people have become so "poor in spirit" is they no longer lived a "symbolic life". The operative words here are "symbolic" and "lived" and the functional implications of living symbolically have deep significance for how human beings relate to one another, other species and the natural world. For example, Mircea Eliade interviewed Carl Jung in 1952, who said that modern people have lost the deep contact with the sacred, and the relevance of this loss is reflected in the ever increasing crisis in the modern world (Moore, 2002). Human beings have it in themselves to rediscover a deeper connection to a spiritual view of life, yet Allen and Sabini (1997, p.215) have posed the following question: Where are we to turn for healing when the rationality we so highly value has itself severed us from the healing grace of the numinous? [...] Quotation shortened Because the global crisis can be viewed as a collective spiritual emergency (Baring, 2007; Laszlo, Grof & Russell, 2003; Lucas, 2011; Sorrell, 2009)7,10,11,12, the scale of the problem reflects an archetypal level of transformation7,10,12 that has major 93
implications for changes in ways of doing and states of being with transpersonal significance.2,5,8,9 4:3 The politics of doing As stated in previous chapters the dominant focus on spiritual emergence and transformation have been explored through states of being.2,6 For example, Le Grice (2010, p.39) has stated that in a time of such transformative potential some people "are seeking a new way of understanding and a new way of being." The preceding quote illustrates the neglected roles and functions of doing in order to assist in the exploration and integration of human potential.1,2,6,9 The humanistic foundations that have encouraged links between doing and being (Wilcock, 1998/2006)1,6 have been developed further to include a transpersonal perspective (do Rozario, 1997),2,5,8,9 which provides greater scope for understanding and managing individual experiences of spiritual emergencies.5 Yet, one of the key problems identified in this thesis has been the reality that spiritual emergencies are viewed solely as individual experiences, which overlooks the collective dimension of humanity's evolutionary and sacred heritage.7,10 In view of the current global state of emergency there are possibilities that spiritual emergencies ­ from the vantage point of collective consciousness ­ could act as a catalyst for the emergence of a renewed vision for inspiring new ways of doing and being (appendix 3h, p.219), linked to the interconnected and transpersonal nature of reality (Bache, 2000).7,10,11,12 It is evident that in order to create a sustainable future, there needs to be a break from traditional ways of doing and being that have led to the current crisis. This much 94
needed transition puts the emphasis on people to find new ways of living for the cocreation of an improved future12, one that is inclusive of a transpersonal perspective and considers the sacredness and unity of all life. However, as Albert Einstein noted, today's problems cannot be tackled by the same mentality that created the problems in the first place (Bussey, 2006). Thus, humanity will need to find solutions outside of the everyday reference points that shape current ideologies and practices. The incisive analysis of philosopher Herbert Marcuse (1964/1991, p.250-1), suggested that a onedimensional, overly conforming and bureaucratic mindset is unlikely to be conducive for engaging transformative potential:7,10 [...] [H]ow can the administered individuals ­ who have made their mutilation into their own liberties and satisfactions, and thus reproduce it on an enlarged scale ­ liberate themselves from themselves as well as from their masters? Quotation shortened The first problem with a one-dimensional mode of consciousness is that it must free itself from the self-perpetuating binds of its own creation. That is, the political onedimensional mode which underpins our administered lives is a reflection of our compromised relationship to a greater transpersonal representation of reality (Collins, 2008c, 2009).7,10 There is a need for a renewed politics of consciousness (Collins & Wells, 2006) that gives greater recognition for what are currently termed non-ordinary states of consciousness, such as spiritual emergencies (Grof & Grof, 1989), 5 which are likely to increase as the global crisis worsens.10,11 Recognition of the value of such transformative states of consciousness are still beyond the boundaries of mainstream thinking7,10, as stated by Nelson (1994, p.418): 95
The ordinary state of consciousness is hopelessly limited if we wish to generate breakthrough solutions to multilevel environmental and social problems. [...] Quotation shortened In noting the need for a transformational response to the current global situation, Bragdon (1990, p. 8) has stated that the work "needs to be done within oneself". However, she has also noted that humanity needs to develop a global consciousness, which "is an essential part of the spiritual emergence for all people on this planet" (Bragdon, 1990, p. 192).7,10,11,12 This last point highlights the importance of a critical mass of people doing their inner transformational work (as exemplified by Carl Jung's process of individuation)12, but also joining with others to create transformative shifts through engaging in outer transformational work (as exemplified in the participatory philosophy of Ervin Laszlo).12 Such a transformative process would have to consider the complementary functions of doing and being within the journey of renewal1,2,3,4,5,6 for both individuals and the collective.7,8,9,10,11,12 Human beings' capacities to experience a wider sense of universal (transpersonal) belonging (Maslow, 1968/1999)9 is in stark contrast to the modern socio-political mind-sets that have led to the creation of one-dimensional (materialistic and consumer based societies) which are increasingly bound to administered lives (Marcuse 1964/1991).7,10 It is hardly surprising then, that the psyche is beginning to stir (enantiodromia).10 If the current global state of emergency begins to deteriorate further it will undoubtedly have an effect on human consciousness and behaviours through the recognition that the world is in a precarious situation (Glenn et al., 2008, 2011; Lean & Owen, 2008).10,11,12 Thus, there is a need to find "an inspiring vision of 96
transformation" (Rust, 2008, p.160) that motivates people's engagement of psychospiritual renewal through doing and being1,2,3,4,6 linked to collective human potential.7,9,10,11,12 Jungian analyst Anne Baring (2007, p.245) has stated that "if the sacredness, oneness and interconnectedness of life were truly perceived, we would have a new ethical and moral framework within which to assess our actions". The key question at this juncture is to consider how such a vision can be considered. 4:4 Towards renewed ways of doing and being There is a misappropriated view of doing within the modern world, which is allied to superficial understandings of human action and potential. A good example of this is captured in the words of transpersonal psychologist Steve Taylor (2011, p.186), whose commentary on evolving "a higher state of being" suggested that people who engage in active transformation have shifted "into a mode of `being' rather than `doing'". Whilst there is a need to understand the differences between doing and being, the more important position is to consider how they are complementary within transformative processes. This is a point that concurs with observations made by Satish Kumar (2010, p.184), who has commented on participation in life, especially in simple activities such as baking bread or cooking food etc, where: "It is in the dance of doing and being that spirituality is to be found." One of the central themes in this thesis concerns the integration of doing and being1,2,6,9 to ground and integrate the transformative potential of spiritual emergence3,4,8 and emergency.5,10,11,12 Doing is a vital part of any transformative practice that helps to shape human potential through meaningful engagement in life (Duncan & Watson, 2004).1,2,3,5,6,8,9,11,12 It is here that deep occupations3,10,12 could facilitate contact with archetypal processes of 97
change10,12, further identifying how people's active participation in daily-life contains the possibilities for evolving deeper relationships to life as a whole. Indeed, Ram Dass (1970, p.26) has stated that everything human beings do, reveals how "evolved a consciousness they have". This viewpoint is predicated on the understanding that psycho-spiritual developments within daily life can occur through the awakening and engagement of intelligence6,9 that brings about a revolution (Krishnamurti, 1970; 1973a) "in our way of living, in our feeling, in the activities of our daily living" (Krishnamurti, 1973a, p.188)6 through engaging transpersonal potential (Collins, 2010c, 2010d, 2011b).9,11The words of Thomas Berry (2001, p.65-6) are instructive to the position outlined above: [T]he special attribute of the human is to enable the universe to reflect on itself with a special mode of intelligible self-awareness, to enjoy itself and to celebrate itself in the light of the numinous mystery that is expressed in everything. Yet, the current ecological crisis has been connected with spiritual emptiness and a collective disenchantment (McGrath, 2002), and it is here that the current global state of emergency reflects a collective spiritual emergency.7,10,11,12 From this position there is a need to evolve new ways of doing and being, requiring an intelligent response to life that connects occupational potential (doing)6,9 to the expression of collective transpersonal potential (being).10.11,12 There is a need for a socio-political realignment based on a sacred view of life, where people's deep spiritual experiences are understood in relation to encounters with the numinous (Samuels, 1993). This is certainly the case with regard to the treatment of people experiencing spiritual emergencies who may end up in psychiatric hospitals 98
(Lukoff, 2010a).5,7,10 If the political and personal dimensions of experience are inextricably linked, as commented on by Samuels (1998), then the implications for understanding the transformative narratives of people who have transited spiritual emergencies (for example, appendix 2, p. 166) are wholly relevant to the process of inspiring a renewed vision for collective action and participation.5,7,10,11,12 The interface between doing and being could yet reveal a more productive relationship to the deep and unexpected trajectories within the journey of transforming consciousness.2,6,8 For example, Johnson and Ruhl (2007, p.234) have said that the particular quality of engagement in the ways human beings express what they do in life is dependent upon the consciousness that is brought forth, where "doing is in service to being." The importance of doing to being is further emphasised by Hollis (2009, p.95) who has stated: "That we live verbs not nouns." This last point indicates how dynamic interactions between doing and being can have profound consequences for people's psycho-spiritual development. This has been identified by Thomas Moore (1996, p.72), who has considered the work coming from human hands as "an extension of the spirit breaking into ordinary life", and which Matthew Fox (1994, p.296) has described as a "sacrament". It is here that everyday activities create opportunities for encountering the transpersonal dimension,8,9,12 where the reflective relationship between consciousness and the cosmos could lead to a more "balanced state of Being as well as Doing" (Pearson, 2006, p.174). This thesis has underscored the depth and value of everyday occupations, which can have powerful resonances with human beings' spiritual development,1,2,3,4,5,6,9,12 and as Moore (1996, p.72) has stated: "The work that we do with our hands satisfies the 99
soul's vocation, whether or not it has anything to do with our making a living." The important links between doing, being and individuation are noted for their connection to living a sacred life (Moore, 1996, p.291). Thomas Moore (2008, p.170) explains that: A life at work is nothing less than the mystery of who we are [...] it is profoundly spiritual and can only be approached with the sense that we are connected somehow to the world in which we live. In many ways Jung's process of individuation was punctuated by the creative connection to the deep activities he performed as part of his psycho-spiritual growth, for example, from the creation of his Red Book to the construction of his tower at Bollingen,6,12 which revealed the influence of the archetypes in his daily life and occupational engagement. 4:5 Occupation, integration and transformation Working with and integrating archetypal (numinous) encounters ­ as part of a process of individuation ­ can lead to greater resonances with transpersonal experiences, as noted by the author of this thesis.7,10,12 Archetypes can inform the evolution and development of collective human awareness (Jung, 1959,1998), outlining the way that "true individuation" involves greater communion within the world (Le Grice, 2010, p.238). Such a transformative process offers great potential for engaging what futurologist Barbara Marx-Hubbard (1998) has described as cooperative action for the evolution of a "planetary consciousness" (Laszlo, 2009, p.11).11,12 From this perspective the words of Michael Daniels (2005, p.278) highlight the links between deep engagement of our full human potential and awakening to a greater collective experience of consciousness and meaning: 100
Head, Heart, and Hands are all needed in our shared quest for the human good and for the achievement of spiritual transformation. [...] Quotation shortened One of the reasons why processes of spiritual emergence become spiritual emergencies is due to the deeply transformational nature of the process.5,7,10,12 And, it has to be pointed out that in the modern world there is still limited recognition of the positive and transformative effects that spiritual emergencies can bring to modern consciousness (Collins, 2008c).7,10 Until people who are experiencing the depths of such transformational crises are viewed differently in the collective (e.g., not being labelled as having mental health problems) 5, humanity will falter in its ability to navigate deep vectors of transformation collectively. Why? Because any real encounter that reveals transpersonal, archetypal or unconscious contents always carries the risk of precipitating a crisis (Reich, 2001).10,12 The process of transforming consciousness requires an attitude of acceptance, learning and trust, which means having the courage (and support) to accommodate the productive elements of a crisis, in the knowledge that these antecedents for individual change1,3,4,6 also reflect the potential for collective transpersonal development.2,5,7,9 To this end spiritual emergencies may well reflect the deepest opportunities for understanding the trials of transformation at a collective level.10,11,12 Schlitz (2009, p.173) has noted the importance of doing in the transformation of being, where living deeply involves a change in the self "through action and service[...] and appreciation for the sacred in every aspect of life." It is in the face of transformative crises that the complementary nature of doing and being is exemplified in the process of renewal.5,10,11,12 101
The global state of emergency (if left unaddressed) will undoubtedly amplify into a growing sense of crisis, that is, until humanity adjusts to the realisation that the earth is an essential life support system rather than a "commodity" (Ricard, 2009, p.203). With this focus in mind the global state of emergency reveals the destructive consequences of consumer based lifestyles, in the knowledge that human beings are not separate from the planet that is currently being destroyed.10,11,12 The future of humanity may well depend upon individuals recognising their human potentials and working towards what Wesselman (2007, p.207) has referred to as a "transformational community". The scale of the current global crisis means that humanity will have to consider the positive value of transformational crises, which in the longer term may enable human beings to explore and express their potential through discovering new ways of doing and being to be able to participate in the creation of an improved future.1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12 102
Conclusion Crisis or Opportunity? The Case for Spiritual Emergency as a Force for Productive Transformation in the World At the outset of this thesis chapter's one and two illustrated the complexity of engaging psycho-spiritual potential within a postmodern worldview, not only in terms of being, but also with regard to doing. The thesis discussed complexities associated with the shifts between spiritual emergence and spiritual emergencies, which went beyond mental health to transpersonal health. From an evolutionary and transformative perspective, chapter three emphasised the importance of human beings' reflexive capacities for engaging numinous encounters, where the limitations of individualising spiritual emergencies were countered from a collective viewpoint. The collective dimensions of spiritual emergencies highlighted the importance of archetypal and unconscious processes (enantiodromia) connected to the current global state of emergency, and humanity's need to find new ways of doing and being that facilitate collective change. Chapter four asserted that the global crisis could actually force humanity to engage in the transformation of consciousness, linked to engaging new ways of doing and being, in order to participate in the creation of a sustainable future. The current global state of emergency could well lead to an escalation of spiritual emergencies, highlighting the need for transformation within collective consciousness and Human Behaviours. The hitherto unexplored potential between doing and being in relation to spiritual emergencies and the collective global state of emergency could go some way to fulfilling the early aspirations of the founders of humanistic and 103
transpersonal psychology, that is, by its collective efforts, humanity can fulfil its transformative potential. It is through the complementary functions of doing and being that the transformative journey from crisis to renewal could be relevant for both individuals and societies in the service of an improved future. 104
Reflective Summary of the Thesis The Interface between the Human and the Sacred Hick, J. (2004, p. 118) Quote removed 105
5:1 Introduction The central discussion presented in this thesis concerns the tension between experiences of the sacred and its impact on the ego-self in relation to the transformative potential within human beings. The thesis has explored the interactions between the personal self and transpersonal Self when working through transformational crises. The preceding chapters have emphasised the complementary relationship between doing and being as important functions for the integration of spiritual emergencies at an individual level, and possibly at a collective level. The thesis draws on the work of key transpersonal scholars and practitioners, most notably Carl Jung and Stanislav Grof, and to a lesser extent Michael Washburn, and Ken Wilber. These individuals have all produced cartographies of the transpersonal and transformational potential of human beings' spiritual development. Whilst these various models are well suited to understanding transformation from an individual perspective, they are more problematic when considered from cross-cultural and collective view points. A key problem remains how to inspire and facilitate transitions in consciousness at a collective level at this time of growing global crisis. This reflective summary explicates and critiques two important contemporary transpersonal models, with a view to examining their differences and offering a tentative proposition for how to understand spiritual emergencies in relation to collective transformations in a wider global context. The reflective summary also evaluates the antecedents for spiritual emergencies in relation to mysticism, which explores the meaning these experiences have for understanding transpersonal potential and the wider reaches of human development. Finally, spiritual emergencies are considered in the context of cross-cultural awareness, and a model for engaging 106
transpersonal potential following a spiritual emergency is presented, see figure 1: the EPIC model of doing and being. Key issue addressed: Existing models of transpersonal potential reveal complexities that need to be discussed in order to explore possible future directions. The engagement of transpersonal potential takes into account existing traditions that have represented mystical experiences in the lives of spiritual practitioners who have encountered spiritual emergencies. A critical point for consideration is the need for cross-cultural perspectives when evaluating spiritual emergencies globally. The reflective summary is divided into the following sub-sections: 5:2 The pre/trans fallacy and conflicting maps of transpersonal consciousness development 5:3 Mysticism and the meaning of the numinous for engaging collective transformative potential 5:4 Transpersonal potential and the importance of cross-cultural awareness 5:2 The pre/trans fallacy and conflicting maps of transpersonal consciousness development The work of Ken Wilber has made a monumental impact on the development of transpersonal theory. Wilber's (2006, p. 52) discussion of the pre/trans fallacy (PTF) has been useful in drawing a distinction between `pre' (as in pre-personal) and `trans' (as in transpersonal) stages of consciousness development. The pre/trans fallacy was formulated by Wilber (2006) to tackle errors in judgment, such as reducing transpersonal experiences to pre-rational infantilisms [PTF1] (which Wilber believes can be found in the theories of Sigmund Freud), or elevating infantile experiences to transpersonal glory [PTF2] (which Wilber believes can be found in the theories of Carl Jung). 107
Whilst the pre/trans fallacy provides a useful distinction to discriminate between different types of developmental experiences, it is curious that Wilber cites Jung's work as being involved in elevating infantile states to "transpersonal glory". Wilber (1998, p. 149) believes that Jung's conceptualisation of the archetypes does not fully reflect transpersonal development. In contrast Wilber's non-dual level is at the top of his structural-hierarchical model of transpersonal consciousness. However, Wilber's (1998) critique of Jung's theory (of the archetypes) does not stand up to scrutiny, particularly as Jung had always maintained that the archetypes are carriers of numinous experience (Progoff, 1987), and this is a crucial point in any analysis of Jung's work on the archetypes. Interestingly, John Rowan, an advocate of Ken Wilber's structural-hierarchical model (and often critical of Jung), has discussed the importance of the numinous. Rowan (1993, p. 60) has stated that the numinous brings a "quality of divinity which as we have seen so many times is the hallmark of the truly transpersonal." Indeed, the numinous is considered to be the core of religious experience, based on cross-comparisons of spiritual traditions (Otto, 1923/1958), and is of prime importance to transpersonal theory. Wilber's (1996) structural-hierarchical model of consciousness outlines various stages (fulcrums), inclusive of sensory-motor, emotional/sexual, magic, mythic, rational, vision-logic, psychic (the beginning of the transpersonal levels), subtle, causal, and non-dual (particularly in relation to the advaita vednta teachings of Hinduism, and the vajrayna teachings of esoteric Buddhism). Unfortunately, Wilber relegates shamanic traditions to the magic and mythic levels; however, the perceived biases in his model (where he gives preference to Eastern non-dual perspectives at the pinnacle of his hierarchy) have been challenged by contrasting evidence of the sophistication 108
of shamanic traditions (Kremer, 1998) and criticism of Wilber's cultural relativism (Winkelman, 1993). Wilber's (1996, p. 224) structural-hierarchical model prescribes a trajectory of consciousness development that, in his own words, can lead to "true mystical union" reflecting a process of "evolution in transcendence of ego." Yet Wilber does not include complexities such as the numinous or spiritual emergencies in his model, which do not lend themselves to convenient formulations. It is also worth noting that Wilber (as a theoretician) has no formal clinical training and experience, unlike Carl Jung and Stanislav Grof (both psychiatrists) who have integrated the numinous and spiritual crises in their work. Transpersonal philosopher and contemporary critic of Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn (1994, 1995) has proposed an alternative perspective to Wilber, based on the work of transpersonal psychiatrists, Carl Jung, Stanislav Grof and Roberto Assagioli. Washburn (1994, 1995) acknowledges the veracity of the pre/trans fallacy, yet he highlights problems with its conceptual basis, which does not consider the impact of numinous encounters. Washburn (1994, 1995) includes the numinous and spiritual crisis in his own `spiral path' model, which resonates with the patterns of integration found in Jung's process of individuation. In Washburn's model, the ego (self) remains an executor of daily activities and functions, yet he also includes pre-egoic and transegoic levels of experience (pre/trans) in his schema. The importance of Washburn's model is that he includes numinous encounters (as non-egoic potential), since such experiences, can result in what he has described as a process of ego "regression in the service of transcendence" (Washburn, 1995, p. 171). Here, the process of consciousness development can include spiritual emergency and a gradual process of 109
"regeneration in spirit" (Washburn, 1995, p. 203), where the path of integration can lead to further transpersonal (Self) representation (Washburn, 2003, p. 122) in lived experience. Washburn (2003) has cautioned that Wilber's approach does not address all aspects of development. For example, Washburn (2003) illustrates how Wilber commits his own pre/trans fallacy [PTF3], when he (Wilber) suggests that all that is developmentally `pre' is inherently `pre', yet this assumption does not cater for the impact of non-egoic potentials, such as the numinous. Indeed, Sean Kelly (1998, p. 121) has said that Wilber's structural-hierarchical model is complex when trying to make sense of children's "transpersonal epiphanies." Wilber's linear (and rigid) model links prepersonal stages of development to Piaget's cognitive stages of development. Here, Kelly (1998) has discussed how a child can have a spiritual experience, for example, at the psychic level (the beginning of the transpersonal levels ­ in Wilber's model), whilst being developmentally linked to another level, for example, the mythic level (which correlates with Piaget's concrete operational thinking ­ in Wilber's model). Yet, Wilber maintains that people cannot skip levels in his hierarchical system, and it is on this point that Michael Washburn's model is most useful when considering spiritual emergencies. The value of Washburn's spiral path model is that he examines the dynamic impact of numinous encounters on the ego, as well as offering the potential for transpersonal development (in the presence of a crisis). It should be remembered that the numinous is also referred to as the mysterium, that is, it has clear links to the sacred mystery, and this provides important connections to the wider literature on mystical experience. 110
5:3 Mysticism and the meaning of the numinous for collective transformative potential Since the earliest of times humanity has evolved religious ideas and practices, from stone age shamanism to the Eleusinian Mysteries of ancient Greece (Eliade, 1978); from the religions of India, including Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as the Middle East traditions of Judaism, Christianity (Eliade, 1982) and Islam (Eliade, 1985). Humanity's impressive spiritual heritage reveals a vast spectrum of rituals and practices that underscore the prime importance of "human existence and sanctified life" (Eliade, 1959, p. 162). The inspired and ingenious responses to sacred encounters by human beings is reflected in the work of Karen Armstrong (2006, p. xi), who has discussed the emergence of religious developments during the Axial Age (900 to 200 BCE). Armstrong has pointed out how spiritual traditions developed practices that integrated compassion, kindness, love and recognition of a "transcendent dimension" at the frontier of "human consciousness" (Armstrong, 2006, p. xiii). These developments reflect the art and "technology of transcendence designed to catalyze transpersonal development" (Vaughan & Walsh, 1998, p.24). Technologies of transcendence include, among many others, shamanic journeying, which include entering into processes of symbolic "death and mystical resurrection" (Eliade, 1964/1989, p. 43); Buddhist tantra, involving meditations with the subtle body ­ channels (nd) and flow of energy/wind (prajn) ­ which are intended to awaken the mind to a direct cognition of emptiness (shnyat) (Hopkins, 1984) and "non-duality" (Yeshe, 1987, p. 109); Sufism, where inner practices are focused on "annihilation and resurrection" (self-Self) (Schimmel, 2007, p. 289), with the intention of connecting people to mystical experiences and spiritual renewal 111
(Burckhardt, 2008); and Christianity, which includes contemplative practices, such as "divine indwelling" that can lead to a "purification of illusion" (Keating, 2001, p. 8) and experience of "redemption" (Freeman, 2002, p. 36). The quality of this inner spiritual journey (Kisly, 2006) is suitably reflected in the statement by the 14th century German mystic, Meister Eckhart, as follows: "The eye with which I see God is the same eye with which God sees me" (Mindell, 2000a, p. 212). A helpful way of understanding the technologies of the transcendent is found in Rudolph Otto's (1923/1958) analysis of the function of the numinous, which he described as a universal quality of the holy. He stated that: "There is no religion in which it does not live as the real innermost core, and without it no religion would be worthy of the name" (Otto, 1923/1958, p. 6). It must be remembered that the numinous was considered by Otto (1923/1958, p. 11) as a "primary immediate datum of consciousness", and that it "must be awakened from the spirit" (Otto, 1023/1958, p. 60), that is, the mystery of the numinous can only be experienced directly. There are many famous accounts of saints and sages who have encountered the numinous and awakened to the trials that such experiences bring, for example, Saint Teresa of Бvila, Sri Ramana Maharshi, Mother Julian of Norwich, Jiddu Krishnamurti, and Saint Francis of Assisi. The writings of Carmelite monk, Saint John of the Cross, who lived in Spain (circa 1542), reveals how the trials of numinous encounters can manifest as a dark night of the soul, leading to an experience of purgation (Starr, 2002), when a person is opened up to the mystery of the divine. Former Catholic monk and now psychotherapist, Thomas Moore (2004, p. xvi) has spoken about the dark night of the soul as a "period of transformation." It is crucial that mystical experiences, manifesting as spiritual 112
emergencies, are recognised and treated as transpersonal developments, otherwise we are capable of considering "saints as psychotic" (Storr, 1997, p. 84). It is evident that the mystical path is fraught with complexity and it takes courage to stay with the unfolding process, especially when encountering the mystery of the unknown, as intimated in the poetry of Saint John of the Cross, translated by Jones (1993, p. 111): "My own self died in you". The documentation of spiritual emergencies and transformations in the lives of great saints and sages reveals that mystical shifts in consciousness are part of the transformative potential that human beings possess. Indeed, the famous examples listed above contextualise contemporary understandings of spiritual crises, as noted in chapters two and three of the thesis. Here, a growing body of knowledge is revealing how spiritual emergencies are considered as transitions in consciousness that lead towards the full expression of people's transpersonal potential. A central issue today is to find collective and culturally competent ways to navigate what Catherine Lucas (2011, p. 183) has recently described (in relation to spiritual emergencies) as "the dark night of the globe." Any notion of global transformation of consciousness will need to take full account of the various meanings associated with spiritual emergencies cross-culturally, such as Yoshiyuki Kogo's (2002) work on the complexities of spiritual emergencies in Japan. Kogo's (2002) work illustrates how spiritual crises can be triggered through social relations in a culture where a sense of collective belonging is strongly linked to personal and social identity. 113
5:4 Transpersonal potential and the engagement of cross-cultural awareness One of the issues highlighted in this thesis is that spiritual emergence is becoming more widely understood and accepted these days, whereas spiritual emergencies have not gained the same recognition, despite their importance to people's transpersonal development (Grof & Grof, 1989). One of the problems associated with a collective lack of awareness about spiritual emergencies is tackled in chapter four of the thesis, where it is suggested that spiritual emergencies may even become more predictable in light of a growing global state of emergency. Chapter four discussed that if/when global conditions worsen; people may be shocked into awakening about the full scale of environmental degradation on the planet. The question remains, what can be done to support a shift in people's consciousness individually and collectively to develop more awareness of our transpersonal potential. The dynamics of such a transformative process is summed up in the words of Sri Ramana Maharshi, who has revealed that the mystical journey starts within each human being exploring the reality beyond the ego-self and discovering the "real quest for the Self" (Jacobs, 1997, p. 449). In Jungian/transpersonal terminology the collective dimensions of such an undertaking is conveyed as follows: "the archetypal basis of the personal self is the transpersonal Self" (Corbett, 1996, p. 220). The thesis has highlighted the importance of Jungian/transpersonal approaches for working with transformations in consciousness, linked to religious traditions. Jung viewed human beings as "Homo mysticus" (Coxhead, 1985, p. 21), which is revealed in the Jungian/transpersonal explorations of the meaning of mystical traditions, such as shamanism (Ryan, 2002), Christianity (Bryant, 1983), Tibetan Buddhism (Moacanin, 1986), tantra (Breaux, 1989), Native American spirituality (Owen, 2002) and Judaism (Lancaster, 2008). These diverse examples of religious/spiritual 114
traditions being considered in relation to Jungian/transpersonal approaches could provide important links for evolving cross-cultural and collective awareness about transpersonal potential and transformations in consciousness in two ways. First, it demonstrates that there is a meeting point (Jungian/transpersonal perspectives) for understanding and sharing the wisdom of religious/spiritual insights, and what these could mean to collective awareness in terms of psycho-spiritual responses to human potential, both individually and collectively. Second, whilst Jungian/transpersonal approaches are essentially psychological disciplines, connections are being made to other disciplines, such as illustrated in this thesis. For example, the author's contributions within the occupational therapy and occupational science literature have discussed how transpersonal potential and consciousness can be engaged through the complementary functions of doing and being, recognising the importance of crosscultural differences. The proposition made in this thesis is that doing adds enormous currency to discussions about the engagement of transpersonal potential, individually and collectively. For example, there is growing recognition globally that meaningful activity and participation are common human needs, as exemplified in the International Classification of Functioning (World Health Organisation, 2001), which is supported by occupational therapy's theoretical underpinnings, that also acknowledges how cultural meanings in terms of activity and participation will vary (American Occupational Therapy Association, 2008). However, whilst the profession of occupational therapy has made important links to spirituality, it is only just starting to develop meaningful connections to transpersonal states of consciousness, and how these impact on human occupation, as discussed in the thesis. There is growing recognition that activity and participation as (potentially) numinous phenomena can 115
be engaged (potentially) through familiar modes of human expression. For example, Corbett (1996, p. 65) has noted how numinous experiences may occur in a variety of ways within daily life, through: [L]istening to music, dancing, painting, weaving, watching children play, doing in the wilderness, writing or cooking are only a few of them. [...] Quotation shortened The thesis has made novel and important connections between transpersonal potential, transformative states of consciousness and human occupations (complementary to being) in two ways. First, human occupations have the potential to connect with deep archetypal/numinous experiences, as discussed in chapter four of this thesis, and from this perspective, such developments can provide rich opportunities for the engagement of transpersonal potential. Second, it highlights the importance of crosscultural practices of doing and being, with a need to be mindful of avoiding hegemonic solutions to global problems. Jorge Ferrer's (2008, p. 136) inspired call for "participatory action", based on pluralistic understandings of the transpersonal, inclusive of cross-cultural perspectives, is highly instructive to the discussion being made. Human beings have the opportunity to wake up to what Michael Washburn (2003, p. 184) has described as the "mystical body", where possibilities exist for a "spirit of connection, of belonging to the world and belonging with others as members of the human family" (Washburn, 2003, p. 89). The stark reality is that transformations in consciousness start with each individual, yet the power of human relationships that allow people to work together and open up to their collective potential should not be underestimated. Indeed, Washburn (2003, p. 190) notes the inspirational impact that 116
people can have on one another when he states that: "[A]wakened people ­ are numinous attractors." To conclude this chapter, the EPIC model of doing and being, see figure 1, captures key themes represented in the thesis (from a selection of chapters and submitted articles). The EPIC model focuses on the journey of spiritual emergency in relation to doing and being, taking into consideration cultural implications, as well as any adaptations that may need to be made. The model includes four qualities of engagement (experience, participation, integration, consciousness), which may support the expression of transformative potential. The final box (yellow) in figure 1 proposes the development of a web-based facility for a Global Transformation Network, which is based on comments from the Millennium Project: State of the Future reports, advocating the use of modern communication systems to facilitate global change projects (Glenn et al, 2008, 2011). The EPIC model of doing and being is a potential step towards communicating individual (cross-cultural) narratives of transformative journeys through the World Wide Web, in the hope that this would contribute towards collective understanding and change. 117
118
List of references Allen, M., & Sabini, M. Renewal of the Sacred Tree. (1997). In The Sacred Heritage: The Influence of Shamanism on Analytical Psychology, eds D. Sander & S. Wong, 215-25. London: Routledge. Almaas, A.H. (2004). The inner journey home: Soul's realization of the unity of reality. Boston: Shambhala. American Occupational Therapy Association. (2008). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process, 2nd edition. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62(6), 625-83. Amlani, A. (1998). Internal events and archetypes. In Transpersonal research methods for the social sciences: Honouring human experience, eds W. Braud & R. Anderson, 179-84. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Anderson, R. (1998). Introduction. In Transpersonal research methods for the social sciences: Honouring human experience, eds W. Braud & R. Anderson, xix-xxxi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Anderson, S. (2011). What holistic means to me. In Conscious connectivity: Creating dignity in conversation, ed M. Brenner, 233-54. Charleston, SC: Pan American. Ankrah, L. (2002). Spiritual emergency and counselling: An Exploratory Study. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 2(1), 55-60. Armor, T. (1969). A note on the peak experience and transpersonal psychology. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1(1), 47-50. Arons, M. (1999). Abraham Maslow: Yesterday, tomorrow, and yesteryear. In Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical source book, ed D. Moss, 334-46. Westport, CO: Greenwood Press. Asaba, E., & Wicks, A. (2010). Occupational terminology: Occupational potential. Journal of Occupational Science, 17(2), 120-24. Ashbrook B. "Mind" as humanizing the brain: Toward a neurotheology of meaning. Zygon, 1997: 32 (3): 301-320. Assagioli, R. (1965). Psychosynthesis: A collection of basic writings. New York: Viking Press. 119
Assagioli, R. (1969). Symbols of transpersonal experience. Journal of transpersonal psychology, 1(1), 33-45. Assagioli, R. (1973). The act of will: A guide to self-actualization and self-realization. Wellingborough: Turnstone Press. Assagioli, R. (1991). Transpersonal development: The dimension beyond psychosynthesis. London: Crucible. Austin, J.H. (1998). Zen and the brain. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Bache, C.M. (2000). Dark night, early dawn: Steps to a deep ecology of mind. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Baring, A. (2007). A metaphysical revolution? Reflections on the idea of primacy of consciousness. In Mind before matter: Visions of a new science of consciousness, eds T. Pfeiffer, J.E. Mack & P. Devereux, 233-50. Winchester; O Books. Barker, P., & Buchanan-Barker, P. (2004). Spirituality and mental health. London: Whurr. Bateson, M.C. (1989). Composing a life. New York: Grove Press. Bateson, M.C. (1996). Enfolded activity in the concept of occupation. In Occupational science: The evolving discipline, eds R. Zemke & F. Clark, 5-12. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company. Battista, J.R. (1996). Abraham Maslow and Robert Assagioli: Pioneers of transpersonal psychology. In Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology, eds B.W. Scotton, A.B. Chinen & J.R. Battista, 52-61. New York: Basic Books. Beauregard, M., & O'Leary, D. (2007). The spiritual brain: A neuroscientist's case for the existence of the soul. New York: Harper Collins. Berry, T. (1999). The great work: Our way into the future. New York: Random House. Berry, T. (2001). Belonging. In Gathering sparks, eds D. Appelbaum and J. Kulin, 64-9. New York: Parabola Press. Bertalanffy, L.V. (1975). Perspectives on general system theory. New York: George Braziller. Blakney, R.B. (1955). The way of life: Lao Tzu. New York: New American Library. Blair, S.E.E. (2000). The centrality of occupation during life transitions. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(5), 231-7. Blau, E. (1995). Krishnamurti: 100 years. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. 120
Bleakley, A. (2000). Writing with invisible ink: Narrative, confessionalism and reflective practice. Reflective Practice, 1(1), 4-11. Bloom, S. (1997). Creating sanctuary: Toward the evolution of sane societies. New York: Routledge. Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Ark. Bolton, G. (2006). Narrative writing: Reflective enquiry into professional practice. Educational Action Research, 14(2), 203-18. Bolton, G. (2010). Reflective practice: Writing and professional development. London: Sage Publications. Boucouvalas, M. (1999). Following the movement: From transpersonal psychology to a multi-disciplinary transpersonal orientation. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 31(3), 27-39. Bragdon, E. (1990). The call of spiritual emergency: from personal crisis to personal transformation. San Fransisco: Harper Row Publishers. Braud, W. (1998). Can research be transpersonal? Transpersonal Psychology Review, 2(2), 9-17. Braud, W. (2001). Non-ordinary and transcendent experiences: transpersonal aspects of consciousness. Retrieved July 2nd 2007, from www.integralinquiry.com/docs/649/nonordinary.pdf. Date accessed: 02/07/2007. Breaux, C. (1989). Journey into consciousness: The chakras, tantra and Jungian psychology. York Beach, MA: Nicolas-Hays. Brenner, M. (2011). 3rd wave: Discovering the nature of me. In Conscious connectivity: Creating dignity in conversation, ed M. Brenner, 65-92. Charleston, SC: Pan American. Brett, C. (2003). Spiritual experience and psychopathology: Dichotomy or interaction. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, 9(4), 373-80. Brett, C. (2010). Transformative crises. In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I. Clarke, 155-74. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition. Brooke, R. (1991). Jung and phenomenology. London: Routledge. Bryant, C. (1983). Jung and the Christian way. London: Barton, Longman and Todd. Bucke, R.M. (1929/2009). Cosmic consciousness: A study in the evolution of the human mind. New York: Dover Publications. Bulkley, K. (1991). The quest for transformative experience: Dreams and environmental ethics. Environmental Ethics, 13, 151-63. 121
Burckhardt, T. (2008). Introduction to Sufi doctrine. Bloomington, IND: Worl Wisdom. Burkert, W. (1996). Creation of the sacred: Tracks of biology in early religions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Burnham, S. (1997). The ecstatic journey: The transforming power of mystical experience. New York: Ballentine Books. Burston, D. (1999). Erich Fromm: Humanistic psychoanalysis. In Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical source book, ed D. Moss, 276-86. Westport, CO: Greenwood Press. Bussey, M. (2006). Critical spirituality: Towards a revitalised humanity. Journal of Future Studies,10(4), 39-44. Bьtz, M.R. (1997). Chaos and complexity: Implications for psychological theory and practice. London: Taylor Francis. Campbell, J. (1948). The hero with a thousand faces. New York: Bollingen Fondation/Pantheon Books. Campbell, J. (1972/1992). Myths to Live By: Mythology for our Time. London: Souvenir Press. Campbell, J. (1991a). Primitive Mythology: The Masks of God. London: Arkana. Campbell, J. (1991b). Creative Mythology: The masks of god. London: Arkana. Campbell, J. (2001). On waking up. In Gathering sparks, eds D. Appelbaum and J. Kulin, 12-17. New York: Parabola Press. Caplan, M. (2001). The fate and failings of contemporary spirituality. ReVision, 24(2), 51-6. Capra, F. (1975). The tao of physics: An exploration of the parallels between modern physics and eastern mysticism. London: Flamingo. Capra, F. (1982). The turning point: Science, society, and the rising culture. London: Flamingo. Capra, F. (1995). Deep ecology: A new paradigm. In Deep ecology for the 21st century: Readings on the philosophy and practice of the new environmentalism, ed G. Sessions, 19-25. Boston: Shambhala. Capra, F. (1996). The web of life: A new synthesis of mind and matter. London: Harper Collins. 122
Capra, F. (2002). The hidden connections: A science for sustainable living. London: Harper Collins. Casement, A. (2006). Witchcraft: The numinous power in humans. In The idea of the numinous: Contemporary and psychoanalytic perspectives, eds A. Casement & D. Tacey, 20-33. London: Routledge. Casement, A., and Tacey, D. (2006). Preface. In The idea of the numinous: Contemporary and psychoanalytic perspectives, eds A. Casement & D. Tacey, xvixvii. London: Routlegde. Champagne, T.T., Ryan, J.K., Saccomando, H.M., & Lazzarani, I. (2007). A nonlinear dynamics approach to exploring spiritual dimensions of occupation. E:Co, 9(4), 29-43. Christiansen, C. (1997). Acknowledging the spiritual dimension in occupational therapy practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51(3), 169-72. Christiansen, C. (1999). The 1999 Eleanor Clark Slagle lecture ­ Defining lives: Occupation as identity: An essay on competence, coherence, and the creation of meaning. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 547-58. Christiansen, C. (2000). Identity, personal projects and happiness: Self-construction in everyday action. Journal of Occupational Science, 7(3), 98-107. Cilliers, P. (1998). Complexity and postmodernism: Understanding complex systems. London: Routledge. Clark, F.A., Parham, D., Carlson, M., Frank, G., Wolfe, R., & Zemke, R. (1991). Occupational science: Academic innovation in the service of occupational therapy's future. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(4), 300-10. Clarke, C. (2005). Final reflections. In Ways of knowing: Science and mysticism today, ed C. Clarke, 234-6. Exeter: Imprint Academic. Clarke, I. (2001/2010). Psychosis and spirituality: The discontinuity model. In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I. Clarke, 101-14. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition. Clarke, I. (2005). There is a crack in everything: That's how the light gets in. Ways of knowing: Science and mysticism today, ed C. Clarke, 90-102. Exeter: Imprint Academic. Clarke, I. (2008). Madness, mystery and the survival of god. Winchester: O Books. Claridge, G. (2010). Spiritual experience: Healthy psychoticism? In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I. Clarke, 75-87. Chichester: WileyBlackwell, 2nd edition. 123
Claxton, G. (1999). Neurotheology: Buddhism, cognitive science and mystical experience. In The psychology of awakening: Buddhism, science and our day-to-day lives, eds G. Watson, S. Batchelor & G. Claxton, 90-111. London: Rider. Clements, J. (2004). Organic inquiry: toward research in partnership with spirit. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 36(1), 26-49. Clocksin, W. (1998). Artificial intelligence and human identity. In Consciousness and human identity, ed J. Cornwell, 101-21. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Collins, M. (1998). Occupational therapy and spirituality: Reflecting on quality of experience in therapeutic interventions. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(6), 280-4. Collins, M. (1999a). Quantum questions: The uncertainty principle in psychiatric practice, part 1. The Journal of Holistic Health, 61, 21-3. Collins, M. (1999b). Quantum questions: The uncertainty principle in psychiatric practice, part 2. The Journal of Holistic Health, 62, 21-3. Collins, M. (1999c). Paradigms in transition: The dilemma of evidence in the quantum era. Symposium on Evidence Based Practice. British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 6(6), 281. Collins, M. (2001). Who is occupied? Consciousness, self-awareness and the process of human adaptation. Journal of Occupational Science, 8(1), 25-32. Collins, M. (2004). Dreaming and occupation. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(2), 96-8. Collins, M. (2006a). Unfolding spirituality: Working with and beyond definitions. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 13(6), 254-8. Collins, M. (2006b). Who is occupied? Multi-dimensional functioning, quality of consciousness, and the fluid I. Canadian Society of Occupational Science: Conference. Vancouver, 5th-6th May. Collins, M. (2006c). Occupational intelligence: Consciousness, identity and the process of individuation. College of Occupational Therapists: National conference. Cardiff, 20th-23rd June. Collins, M. (2007a). Spiritual emergency and occupational identity: A transpersonal perspective. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(12), 504-12. Collins, M. (2007b). Engaging self-actualisation through occupational intelligence. Journal of Occupational Science, 14(2), 92-9. Collins, M. (2007c). Spirituality and the shadow: Reflection and the therapeutic use of self. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(2), 88-90. 124
Collins, M. (2008a). Politics and the numinous: Evolution, spiritual emergency, and the re-emergence of transpersonal consciousness. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 6(3), 198-211. Collins, M. (2008b). Transpersonal identity and human occupation. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(12), 549-52. Collins, M. (2008c). Spiritual emergency: Transpersonal, personal, and political dimensions. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 6(1), 3-16. Collins, M. (2009). Spiritual emergency and the politics of transformation within mainstream mental health practice. The 11th EUROTAS Conference ­ Beyond the mind: Towards a consciousness of unity, 15-18th October, Milan: Official conference for the European Transpersonal Association. Collins, M. (2010a). Engaging transcendent actualisation through occupational intelligence. Journal of Occupational Science 17(3),177-86. Collins, M. (2010b). Global Crisis and Transformation: From spiritual emergency to spiritual intelligence. Network Review. Journal of the Scientific and Medical Network, 103, 17-20. Collins, M. (2010c). Spiritual intelligence: Evolving transpersonal potential towards ecological actualization for a sustainable future. World Futures 66: 320-34. Collins, M. (2010d). Global crisis and opportunity: from spiritual emergency to spiritual intelligence. The Scientific and Medical Network Conference ­ A New Renaissance: Transforming Science, Spirit and Society. 6th November, University of London. Collins, M. (2011a). The Akashic Field and Archetypal Occupations: Transforming Human Potential through Doing and Being. World Futures,67(7), 453-79. Collins, M. (2011b). The global crisis and holistic consciousness: How assertive action could lead to the creation of an improved future. In Conscious connectivity: Creating dignity in conversation, ed M. Brenner, 214-23. Charleston, SC: Pan American. Collins, M., & Wells, H. (2006).The politics of consciousness: Illness or individuation? Psychotherapy and Politics International, 4(2), 131-41. Collins, M., Hughes, W., & Samuels, A. (2010). The politics of transformation in the global crisis: How spiritual emergencies may be reflecting an enantiodromia in modern consciousness. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 8(2), 162-176. Collins, M., Hughes, W., & Samuels, A. (2012). The politics of transformation in the global crisis. In Vital signs: Psychological responses to ecological crisis, eds M.J. Rust & N. Totton, 163-74. London: Karnac Books. 125
Combs, A., & Krippner, S. (2003). Process, structure, and form: An evolutionary transpersonal psychology of consciousness. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 22, 47-60. Cook, C., Powell, A., & Sims, A. (2009). Spirituality and psychiatry. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists. Corbett, L. (1996). The religious function of the psyche. London: Routledge. Corbett, L. (2006). Varieties of numinous experience: The experience of the sacred in the therapeutic process. In The idea of the numinous: Contemporary and psychoanalytic perspectives, eds A. Casement & D. Tacey, 53-67. London: Routlegde. Corbett, L (2007). Psyche and the sacred: Spirituality beyond religion. New Orleans: Spring Journal Books. Cortright, B. (1997). Psychotherapy and spirit: Theory and practice in transpersonal psychotherapy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Cox, L.M., & Lyddon, W.J. (1997). Constructivist conceptions of self: A discussion of emerging identity constructs. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 10, 201-19. Coxhead, N. (1985). The relevance of bliss: A contemporary exploration of mystical experience. London: Wildwood House. Creek, J. (1998). Occupational therapy: New perspectives. London: Whurr Publishers. Crepeau, E.B. (2003). Analyzing occupation and activity: A way of thinking about occupational performance. In Willard and Spackman's occupational therapy, eds E.B. Crepeau, E.S. Cohn & B.A. Boyt Schell, 189-198. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 10th edition. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I.S. (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & LeFevre, J. (1989). Optimal experience in work and leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(5), 815-22. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). Activity and happiness: Toward a science of occupation. Journal of Occupational Science, 1(1), 38-42. 126
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1994). The evolving self: A psychology for the third millennium. New York: Harper Perennial. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: Harper Collins. Daniels, M. (2005). Shadow, self, spirit: Essays in transpersonal psychology. Exeter: Imprint Academic. d' Aquili, E., & Newberg, A.B. (1999). The mystical mind: probing the biology of religious experience. Minneapolis: Fortress press. Dass, R. (1970). Doing your own being. London: Neville Spearman. Dass, R., & Gorman, P. (1993). Service: The soul of community. In In the company of others: Making community in the modern world, ed C. Whitmyer, 89-92. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Davis, J., Lockwood, L., & Wright, C. (1991). Reasons for not reporting peak experiences. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 31(1), 86-94. de Bus, D. (1991). The self is a moving target: The archetype of individuation. In Mirrors of the self: Archetypal images that shape your life, ed C. Downing, 53-62. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Deike, T. (1988). Primal tasks. In Transformation: The poetry of spiritual consciousness, ed J. Ramsey. Hungerford: Rivelin Grapheme Press. Dennett, D.C. (2006). Breaking the spell: Religion as a natural phenomenon. London: Allen Lane. Department of Health. (2004). Standards for better health. London. Department of Health. (2011). No health without mental health. London. Desrosiers, J. (2005). Participation and occupation. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4(72), 195-203. 127
de Waard, F. (2010). Spiritual crisis: Varieties and perspectives of a transpersonal phenomenon. Exeter: Academic Imprint. Diamond, J., & Spark Jones, L. (2004). A path made by walking: Process work in practice. Portland, OR: Lao Tse Press. Diessner, R. (2011). Beauty and the moral education. In Conscious connectivity: Creating dignity in conversation, ed M. Brenner, 278-316. Charleston, SC: Pan American. do Rozario, L. (1994). Ritual meaning and transcendence: the role of occupation in modern life. Journal of Occupational Science, 1(3), 46-53. do Rozario, L. (1997). Shifting paradigms: the transpersonal dimensions of ecology and occupation. Journal of Occupational Science, 4(3): 112-18. do Rozario, L. (1998). From ageing to sageing: Eldering and the art of being as occupation. Journal of Occupational Science, 5(3), 119-26. Douglas-Klotz, N. (2010). Missing stories: Psychosis, spirituality and the development of western religious hermeneutics. In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I. Clarke, 49-61. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition. Drury, N. (2004). The new age: Searching for the spiritual self. London: Thames and Hudson. Duncan, E.A.S. (2002) Foundations for practice in occupational therapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 4th edition. Duncan, M., & Watson, R. (2004). Transformation through occupation: Towards a prototype. In Transformation through occupation, eds R. Watson & L, Swartz, 301318. London: Whurr Publishers. Dunne, C. (2000). Carl Jung: Wounded healer of the soul. London: Continuum. Eagleton, T. (2003). After theory. New York: Basic Books. Edinger, E. (1984). The creation of consciousness: Jung's myth for modern man. Toronto: Inner City Books. Edinger, E. (1992). Ego and archetype: Individuation and the religious function of the psyche. Boston: Shambhala. 128
Egan, M., & Delaat, M. (1994). Considering spirituality in occupational therapy practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(2), 95-101. Egan, M., & Delaat, M. (1997). The implicit spirituality of occupational therapy practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy,64(3), 115-21. Elam, J. (2005). Soul's sanctuary: Mystical experiences as a way of knowing. In Ways of knowing: Science and mysticism today, ed C. Clarke, 50-66. Exeter: Imprint Academic. Eliade, M. (1954). The Myth of the eternal return, translated W.R. Trask. New York: Bollingen Foundation/Pantheon Books. Eliade, M. (1958). Rites and symbols of initiation: The mysteries of birth and rebirth, translated W.R. Trask. New York: Harper Torchbooks. Eliade, M. (1959). The sacred and the profane: The nature of religion. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Eliade, M. (1960). Myths, dreams and mysteries. London: The Fontana Library of Theology and Philosophy. Eliade, M. (1964/1989). Shamanism: Archaic techniques of ecstasy. London: Arkana. Eliade, M. (1978). A history of Religious ideas: From the stone age to the Eleusinian mysteries, volume 1, translated by W.R. Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Eliade, M. (1982). A history of Religious ideas: From Gautama Buddha to the triumph of Christianity, volume 2, translated by W.R. Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Eliade, M. (1985). A history of Religious ideas: From Muhammad to the age of reforms, volume 3, translated by W.R. Trask. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Elkins, D.N. (1998). Beyond religion: A personal program for building a spiritual life outside the walls of traditional religion. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, The Theosophical Publishing House. Emmons, R. (2000a). Spirituality and intelligence: Problems and prospects. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(1), 57-64. Emmons, R. (2000b). Is spirituality an intelligence? Motivation, cognition, and the psychology of ultimate concern. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(1), 3-26. Erikson, E.H. (1959/1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 129
Erikson, E.H. (1996). The Galilean sayings and the sense of I. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 19(2), 291-337. Erikson, E.H. (1996). The life cycle completed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Erikson, E.H., & Erikson, J.M. (1997). The life cycle completed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Fadiman, J. (2005). Transpersonal transitions: the higher reaches of psyche and psychology. In Higher wisdom, eds R. Walsh & C.S. Grob, 25-45. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Fahlberg, L.L., Wolfer, J., & Fahlberg L.A. (1992). Personal crisis: Growth or pathology. American Journal of Health Promotion, 7(1), 45-52. Feinstein, D. (1997). Personal mythology and psychotherapy: Myth making in psychotherapy and spiritual development. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64(4), 508-21. Feinstein, D., & Krippner, S. (1997). The mythic path. New York. Jeremy P. Tarcher. Feng, G.F., & English, J. (1973). Lao Tsu: Tao Te Ching. London: Wildwood Press. Fenwick, P. (2009). Neuroscience of the spirit. In Spirituality and psychiatry, eds C. Cook, A. Powell & A. Sims, 169-89. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists. Ferrer, J.N. (2000). Transpersonal knowledge: A participatory approach to transpersonal phenomena. In, Transpersonal knowing: Exploring the horizon of consciousness, eds T. Hart, P. L. Nelson & K. Puhakka, 213-252. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Ferrer, J.N. (2001). Toward a participatory vision of human spirituality. ReVision, 24(2), 15-26. Ferrer, J.N. (2002). Revisioning transpersonal theory: A participatory vision of human spirituality. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Ferrer, J.N. (2003). Participatory spirituality: An introduction. Network Review: The Journal of the Scientific and Medical Network, 83, 3-7. Ferrer, J.N. (2005). Spiritual knowing: A participatory understanding. In Ways of knowing: Science and mysticism today, ed, C. Clarke, 107-28. Exeter: Imprint Academic. Ferrer, J.N. (2008). Spiritual knowing as participatory enaction: An answer to the question of religious pluralism. In The participatory turn: Spirituality, mysticism, 130
religious studies, eds J.N. Ferrer & J.H. Sherman, 135-169. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Fickeison, D. (1993). Skills for living together. In In the company of others: Making community in the modern world, ed C. Whitmyer, 46-55. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Fidler, G.S., & Fidler, J.W. (1978). Doing and becoming: Purposeful action and selfactualization. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 32(5), 305-10. Firman, J., & Varigu, J.G. (1996). Personal and transpersonal growth: The perspective of psychosynthesis. In Transpersonal psychotherapy, ed S. Boorstein, 117-42. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Foster, C. (1989). Wired for God?: The biology of spiritual experience. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Fox, M. (1994). The reinvention of work: A new vision of livelihood for our time. New York: Harper Collins. Frankl, V. (1962). Man's search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. London: Hodder and Staughton. Frankl, V. (1967). Psychotherapy and existentialism: Selected papers on logotherapy. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Frankl, V. (1978). The unheard cry for meaning: Psychotherapy and humanism. London: Hodder and Staughton. Freeman, A. (2006). A Daniel come to judjement? Dennett and the revisioning of transpersonal theory. Journal of Consciousness studies, 13(3), 95-109. Freeman, L. (2002). Jesus the teacher within. New York: Continuum. Frey-Rohn, L. (1974). From Freud to Jung: A comparative study of the psychology of the unconscious. New York: C.G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology. Frey-Rohn, L. (1991). How to deal with evil. In Meeting the shadow: The hidden power of the dark side of human nature, ed's C. Zweig & J. Abrams, 264-68. New York: Jeremy P Tarcher/Perigee. Friedman, H. (1983). The self-expansivness level form: A conceptualization and measurement of a transpersonal construct. Journal of transpersonal psychology, 15, 37-50. Friedman, H., Krippner, S., Riebel, L., & Johnson, C. (2009). Transpersonal and other models of spiritual development. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 28, 112-18. 131
Fromm, E. (1968). The revolution of hope: Toward a humanized technology. New York: Harper and Row. Frosh, S. (1991). Identity crisis: Modernity, psychoanalysis and the self. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Gilbert, P. (2007). The spiritual foundation: Awareness and context for people's lives today. In, Spirituality, values and mental health: Jewels for the journey, eds M. E. Coyte, P. Gilbert & V. Nicholls, 19-44. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Glenn, J.C., Gordon, T.J., & Florescu, E. (2008). State of the future: Executive summary. World Federation of United Nations Associations. Retrieved August 1st 2008, from www.millennium-project.org/millennium/issues.html. Glenn, J.C., Gordon, T.J., & Florescu, E. (2011). State of the future: Executive summary. The Millennium Project: Global Futures Studies and Research. Retrieved August 2nd 2011, from www.millennium-project.org/millennium/2011SOF.html. Glover, J. (1988). I: The philosophy and psychology of personal identity. London: Penguin Books. Gore, A. (1992). Earth in the balance: Ecology and the human spirit. New York: Rodale. Goswami, A. (1993). The self-aware universe: How consciousness creates the material world. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. Goswami, A. (2000). The visionary window: A quantum physicist's guide to enlightenment. Wheation, IL: Quest Books, The Theosophical Publishing house. Goswami, A. (2007). From information to transformation. In Mind before matter: Visions of a new science of consciousness, eds T. Pfeiffer, J.E. Mack & P. Devereux, 21-37. Winchester; O Books. Graham, H. (1986). The human face of psychology: Humanistic psychology in its historical, social, and cultural context. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Greenwood, S. (1990). Йmile Durkheim and C.G. Jung: Structuring a transpersonal sociology of religion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29(4), 482-95. Griffith, J., Caron, D.C., Desrosiers, J., & Thibeault, R. (2007). Defining spirituality and giving meaning to occupation: The perspective of community-dwelling older adults with autonomy loss. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(2), 78-90. Groesbeck, C.J. (1997). C.G.Jung and the shaman's vision. In The sacred heritage: The influence of shamanism on analytical psychology, eds D.F. Sander & S.H. Wong, 29-43. New York: Routledge. 132
Grof, C. (1993). The thirst for wholeness: Attachment, addiction, and the spiritual path. New York: Harper Collins. Grof, S. (1987). Psychodynamic factors in depression and psychosis: Observations from modern consciousness research. In Pathologies of the modern self, ed D. M. Levin, 439-78. New York: New York University Press. Grof, S. (1996). The multi-dimensional psyche. In Towards a new worldview: Conversations at the leading edge, ed R.E. di Carlo, 116-128. Edinburgh: Floris Books. Grof, S. (2000). Psychology of the future: Lessons from modern consciousness research. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Grof, S. (2001). Non-ordinary states of consciousness: Healing and heuristic potential. In Thinking beyond the brain: A wider science of consciousness, ed D. Lorimer, 15168. Edinburgh: Floris Books. Grof, S. (2006). Ervin Laszlo's akashic field and the dilemmas of modern consciousness research. World Futures, 62, 86-102. Grof, S. (2009). Evidence for the akashic field from modern consciousness research. In The Akashic experience: Science and the cosmic memory field, ed E. Laszlo,193211. Rochester, VER: Inner Traditions. Grof, S. (2010). Personal communication. Tuesday 30th March. Grof, S., & Grof, C. (1986). Spiritual emergency: The understanding and treatment of transpersonal crises. Re-Vision, 8, 7-20. Grof, S., & Grof, C. (1989). Spiritual emergency: When personal transformation becomes a crisis. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Grof, S., & Grof, C. (1991). The stormy search for the self: Understanding and living with spiritual emergency. London: Mandala. Grof, S., & Grof, C. (1993). Transpersonal experiences and the global crisis. In Paths beyond ego: The transpersonal vision, eds R. Walsh & F. Vaughan, 251-252. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. Grof, S., & Grof, C. (2010). Holotropic breathwork: A new approach to selfexploration and therapy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Guiley, R.E. (1991). Encyclopedia of mystical and paranormal experience. Edison, NJ: Castle Books. Gunn, R.J. (2000). Journeys into emptiness: Dogen, Merton, Jung and the quest for transformation. New York: Paulist Press. 133
Gunn, R.E. (2009). Two arrows meeting in mid-air. In Self and no-self: Continuing the dialogue between Buddhism and psychotherapy, eds D. Mathers, M.E. Miller & O. Ando, 19-24. London: Routledge. Hagedorn, R. (1995). Occupational therapy: Perspectives and processes. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Hagedorn, R. (2000). Tools for practice in occupational therapy: A structured approach to core skills and processes. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Hagedorn, R. (2004). Foundations for practice in occupational therapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Halling, S., & Carroll, A. (1999). Existential­phenomenological psychology. In Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical source book, ed D. Moss, 93-124. Westport, CO: Green wood Press. Hamel, S., Leclerc, G., & Lefrancois, R. (2003). A psychological outlook on the concept of transcendent actualisation. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 13(1), 3-15. Hamilton, V. (1973). Psychology in society: End or ends? Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 25, 93-100. Hannah, B. (1981/2001). Encounters with the soul: Active imagination as developed by C.G. Jung. Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publications. Hardy, A. (1966). The divine flame: Natural history and religion. London: Collins. Hardy, A. (1979). The spiritual nature of man: A study of contemporary religious experience. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hart, N. (1994). Humans are occupational beings. Journal of Occupational Science, 1(3), 54-6. Hartelius, G., Caplan, M., & Rardin, M.A. (2007). Transpersonal psychology: defining the past, divining the future. The Humanistic Psychologist, 35(2), 135-60. Hastings, A. (1999). Transpersonal psychology: The fourth force. In Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical source book, ed D. Moss, 192-208. Westport, CO: Green wood Press. Haule, J.R. (1983). Archetype and integration: Exploring the Janetian roots of analytical psychology. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 28, 253-67. Haule, J.R. (1984). From somnambulism to the archetypes: The French roots of Jung's split with Freud. The Psychoanalytic Review, 71(4), 635-59. Haule, J.R. (2011a). Jung in the 21st century: Volume 1. Evolution and archetype. Hove: Routledge. 134
Haule, J.R. (2011b). Jung in the 21st century: Volume 2. Synchronicity and science. Hove: Routledge. Hemmingsson, H., and Jonsson, H. (2005). An occupational perspective on the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health ­ some critical remarks. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59(5), 569-76. Hendrix, H. (1991). Creating the false self. In Meeting the shadow: The hidden power of the dark side of human nature, eds C. Zweig & J. Abrams, 49-52. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Perigee Books. Heron, J. (1998). Sacred science: Person-centred inquiry into the spiritual and the subtle. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books. Hick, J. (2004). The fifth dimension: An exploration of the spiritual realm. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. Hocking, C. (2000). Occupational science: A stock take of accumulated insights. Journal of Occupational Science, 7(2), 58-67. Hollenback, J.R. (1996). Mysticism: Experience, response, and empowerment. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University. Hollis, J (1996). Swamplands of the soul: New life in dismal places. Toronto: Inner City Books. Hollis, J. (2001). Creating a life: Finding your individual path. Toronto: Inner City Books. Hollis, J. (2003). In this journey we call life: Living the questions. Toronto: Inner City Books. Hollis, J. (2009). What matters most: Living a more considered life. New York: Gotham Books. Holmes, R. (1996). Homo religiousus and its brain: Reality, imagination, and the future of nature. Zygon, 31(3), 441-55. Hopkins, J. (1984). The tantric distinction. Boston: Wisdom. Horne, M. (2002). Aristotle's ontogenesis: A theory of individuation which integrates the classical and developmental perspectives. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 47, 613-28. House, R. (2010a). In, against and beyond therapy: Critical essays towards a `postprofessional' era. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books. 135
House, R. (2010b). `Psychopathology', `psychosis' and the kundalini: Post-modern perspectives on unusual subjective experiences. In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I. Clarke, 89-97. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition. Howard, A. (2005). Counselling and identity: Self-realisation in a therapy culture. Basingstoke. Palgrave Macmillan. Howard, B., & Howard, J. (1997). Occupation as spiritual activity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy,51(3), 181-85. Humphreys, M. (2005). Getting personal: Reflexivity and autoethnographic vignettes. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(6), 840-60. Hunt, H.T. (1995). On the nature of consciousness: Cognitive, phenomenological, and transpersonal perspectives. New Haven: Yale University Press. Huskinson, L. (2006). Holy, holy, holy: The misappropriation of the numinous in Jung. In The idea of the numinous: Contemporary and psychoanalytic perspectives, eds A. Casement & D. Tacey, 200-12. London: Routledge. Ikiugu, M. (2005). Meaningfulness of occupations as an occupational-life-trajectory attractor. Journal of Occupational Science, 12(2), 102-9. Irwin, A. (2001). Sociology and the environment: A critical introduction to society, nature and knowledge. Cambridge: Polity. Jackson, M., & Fulford, K. (1997). Spiritual experience and psychopathology. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology. 4(1), 42-65. Jackson, M, (2010). The paradigm-shifting hypothesis: A common process in benign psychosis and psychotic disorder. In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I. Clarke, 139-153. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition. Jacobi, J. (1980). The psychology of C.G.Jung. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Jacobs, A. (1997). The element book of mystical verse. Element: Shaftesbury. James, W. (1902). Varieties of religious experience. New York: The Modern Library. Jannerod, M. (2003). Consciousness of action and self-consciousness: A cognitive neuroscience approach. In Agency and awareness: Consciousness and self consciousness, ed, J. Roessler & N. Eilan, 128-49. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Jilek, W.G. (1989). Therapeutic use of altered states of consciousness in contemporary North American Indian dance ceremonials. In Altered states of consciousness and mental health: A cross cultural perspective, ed C.A. Ward, 167-85. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. 136
Johnson, C., & Friedman, H. (2008). Enlightened of delusional?: Differentiating religious, spiritual, and transpersonal experience from psychopathology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 48(4), 505-27. Johnson, R.A. (1991). Transformation. New York: Harper Collins. Johnson, R.A., & Ruhl, J.M. (2007). Living your unlived life. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin. Jones, K. (1993). The poems of Saint John of the cross. Tunbridge Wells: Burns and Oates. Joseph, R. (2001). The limbic system and the soul: Evolution and the neuroanatomy of religious experience. Zygon, 36(1), 105-36. Jung, C.G. (1940). The integration of the personality, translated S.M. Dell. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Jung, C.G. (1945). Modern man in search of a soul, translated W.S. Dell., and C.F. Baynes. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Jung, C. G. (1954). Answer to Job. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Jung, C.G. (1954/1993). The practice of psychotherapy. London: Routledge. Jung, C.G. (1959). Collected works, vol 9, part 1: The archetypes and the collective unconscious, translated R.F.C. Hull. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd. Jung, C. G. (1964). Man and his symbols. London: Aldus Books Ltd. Jung, C.G. (1980). C.G. Jung speaking: Interviews and encounters, eds W. McGuire and R.F.C. Hull. London: Picador. Jung, C.G. (1983). Memories, dreams, reflections. London: Flamingo. Jung, C. G. (1987). Cited in A. Samuels., B. Shorter., & F. Plaut. A critical dictionary of Jungian analysis. London: Routledge, Kegan and Paul. Jung, C. G. (1995). In M. Stein, ed. Jung on evil. London: Routledge. Jung, C.G. (1997). In R. Main, ed. Jung on synchronicity and the paranormal. London: Routledge. 137
Jung C. G. (1998). In R. Segal, ed. Jung on mythology. London: Routledge. Jung, C.G. (2000). Cited in C. Dunne. Carl Jung: Wounded healer of the soul. London: Continuum. Jung, C.G. (2009). The red book: Liber novus, ed S. Shamdasani. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. Kane, A. B. (2006). Spiritual emergency and spiritual emergence: Differentiation and interplay. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering US: ProQuest Information and Learning, 66(10b), 5685. Kang, C. (2003). A psychospiritual integration frame of reference for occupational therapy part 1: Conceptual foundations. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 50, 92-103. Kason, Y. (1993). Farther shores: Exploring how near-death, kundalini and mystical experiences can transform ordinary lives. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse. Kasprow, C. M., & Scotton, W. B. (1999). A review of transpersonal theory and its application to the practice of psychotherapy. The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 8(1), 12-23. Kawai, T. (2006). The experience of the numinous today: From the novels of Haruki Murakami. In The idea of the numinous: Contemporary Jungian and psychoanalytic perspectives, eds A. Casement & D. Tacey, 186-99. London: Routledge. Keating, T. (2001). The divine indwelling: Centering prayer and its development. New York: Lantern Books. Kelly, S. (1993). Individuation and the absolute: Hegel, Jung and the path toward wholeness. New York: Paulist Press. Kelly, S. (1998). Revisioning the mandala of consciousness: A critical appraisal of Wilber's holarchical paradigm. In Ken Wilber in dialogue: Conversations with leading transpersonal thinkers, ed's D. Rothberg., & S. Kelly, 117-30. Wheaton, ILL: Quest Books. Kelly, S. (2008). Participation, complexity and the study of religion. In The participatory turn: Spirituality, mysticism, religious studies, eds J.N. Ferrer & J.H. Sherman, 113-33. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Kiesling, C., Sorell, G.T., Montgomery, MJ., & Colwell, R.K. (2006). Identity and spirituality: A psychosocial exploration of the sense of spiritual self. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1269-77. Kihlstrom, J.F., Barnhardt, T.M., & Tataryn, D.J. (1992). The psychological unconscious: Found, lost, and regained. American Psychologist, 47(6), 788-91. 138
Kisly, L. (2006). The inner journey: Views from the Christian tradition. Standpoint, ID: Morning Light Press. Klein, J. (1988). Who am I?: The sacred quest. Shaftesbury: Element Books. Korton, D.C. (2007). Two stories ­ conflicting visions of the human possible. In Mind before matter: Visions of a new science of consciousness, eds T. Pfieffer, J.E. Mack & P. Devereux, 128-39. Winchester: O Books. Kogo, Y. (2002). Aum Shinrikyo and spiritual emergency. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42(4), 82-101. Kremer, J.W. (1998). The shadow of evolutionary thinking. In Ken Wilber in dialogue: Conversations with leading transpersonal thinkers, ed's D. Rothberg., & S. Kelly, 237-58. Wheaton, ILL: Quest Books. Krippner, S. (1989). A call to heal: Entry patterns in Brazilian medium ship. In Altered states of consciousness and mental health: A cross cultural perspective, ed C.A. Ward, 186-206. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Krishnamurti, J. (1969). Freedom from the known. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. Krishnamurti, J. (1970). The only revolution. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. Krishnamurti, J. (1973a). The impossible question. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. Krishnamurti, J. (1973b). The awakening of intelligence. London: Gollancz Ltd. Kumar, S. (2010). The spiritual imperative: Elegant simplicity is the way to discover spirituality. In A new renaissance: Transforming science, spirit and society, eds D. Lorimer & O. Robinson, 177-187. Edinburgh: Floris Books. Kwilecki, S. (2000). Spiritual intelligence as a theory of individual religion. A case application. The international Journal for the Psychology of Religion 10(1), 35-46. Lahood, G. (2007). The participatory turn and the transpersonal movement: A brief introduction. ReVision, 29(3), 2-6. Laing, R.D. (1961). Self and others. Harmondsworth: Pelican Books. Laing, R.D. (1969). The divided self. Harmondsworth: Pelican Books. Laing, R.D. (1982). The voice of experience. New York: Pantheon Books. Laing, R.D. (1987). Hatred of health. Journal of Contemplative Psychotherapy, 4, 7786. Lajoie, D., & Shapiro, S. (1992). Definitions of transpersonal psychology: The first 23 years. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 24(1), 79-98. 139
Lambert, R. (2009). Intervention in panic and anxiety disorders through lifestyle modification. In International handbook of occupational therapy interventions, ed I. Sцderback, 287-94. New York: Springer. Lancaster, B. L. (1991). Mind, brain, and human potential: The quest for an understanding of self. Shaftesbury: Element. Lancaster, B.L. (2002). In defence of the transcendent. Transpersonal Psychology Review, 6(1), 42-51. Lancaster, B.L. (2004). Approaches to consciousness: The marriage of science and mysticism. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. Lancaster, B.L. (2008). Engaging with the mind of God: The participatory path of Jewish mysticism. In The participatory turn: Spirituality, mysticism, religious studies, ed's J.N. Ferrer., & J.H. Sherman, 173-95. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Lancaster, B.L. (2010). Cognitive neuroscience, spirituality and mysticism: Recent developments. In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I. Clarke, 19-34. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition. Larsen, S. (1990/1996). The mythic imagination: The quest for meaning through personal mythology. Rochester, VER: Inner Traditions International. Larson, E., Wood, W., & Clark, F. (2003). Occupational science: Building the science and practice of occupation through an academic discipline. In Willard and Spackman's occupational therapy, eds E.B. Crepeau, E.S. Cohn & B.A. Boyt Schell, 15-26. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 10th edition. Laszlo, E. (1999). Consciousness, creativity, responsibility. In Wider horizons: Explorations in science and human experience, eds D. Lorimer, C. Clarke, J. Cosh, M. Payne & A. Mayne, 323-7. Leven, Fife: The Scientific and Medical Network. Laszlo, E. (2004). Mind and matter: The new holism and the greater humanity. In The great adventure: Toward a fully human theory of evolution, ed D, Loye, 39-52. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Laszlo, E. (2006a). The chaos point: The world at a crossroads. London: Piatkus. Laszlo, E. (2006b). Science and the re-enchantment of the cosmos: The rise of an integral vision of reality. Rochester, VER: Inner Traditions. Laszlo, E. (2007). Elements of the new concept of consciousness. In Mind before matter: Visions of a new science of consciousness, eds T. Pfeiffer, J.E. Mack & P. Devereux, 70-82. Winchester; O Books. Laszlo, E. (2008). Quantum shift in the global brain: How the new scientific reality can change our world. Rochester, VER: Inner Traditions. 140
Laszlo, E (2009). Worldshift 2012: Making green business, new politics & higher consciousness work together. Rochester, VER: Inner Traditions. Laszlo, E (2010). The world's health problem: An integral diagnosis. In A new renaissance: Transforming science, spirit and society, eds D. Lorimer & O. Robinson, 17-33. Edinburgh: Floris Books. Laszlo, E., Grof, S., & Russell, P. (2003). The consciousness revolution. London: Elf Rock. Laszlo, K.C., Laszlo, A., Romero, C., & Campos, M. (2003). Evolving development: An evolutionary perspective on development for an interconnected world. World Futures,59(2), 105-19. Law, M. (2002). Participation in the occupations of everyday life. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 56(6), 640-8. Lean, G., & Owen, J. (2008). We've seen the future...and we may not be doomed. Independent on Sunday Investigation: The World View. Independent on Sunday, 13th July: 8-9. Leary, M. (2004). The curse of the self: Self-awareness, egotism, and the quality of human life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Le Grice, K. (2009). The birth of a new discipline: Archetypal cosmology in historical perspective. Archai: The Journal of Archetypal Cosmology, 1(1), 2-22. Le Grice, K. (2010). The archetypal cosmos: Rediscovering the gods in myth, science and astrology. Edinburgh: Floris Books. Light, A. (2000). What is an ecological identity? Environmental Politics, 9(4), 59-81. Liotta, E. (2009a). Space, genius loci and sacrality of place. In On soul and earth: The psychic value of place, ed E. Liotta, 65-88. London: Routledge. Liotta, E. (2009b). On Carl Gustav Jung's "mind and earth". In On soul and earth: The psychic value of place, ed E. Liotta, 22-40. London: Routledge. Littlewood, R. (1997). Commentary on "spiritual experience and psychopathology." Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, 4(1), 67-73. Loy, D.R., & Stanley, J. (2009). The buddhadharma and the planetary crisis. In A Buddhist response to the climate emergency, eds J. Stanley, D.R. Loy & G. Dorje, 313. Boston: Wisdom Publications. Loye, D. (2004). Darwin, Maslow, and the fully human theory of evolution. In The great adventure: Toward a fully human theory of evolution, ed D. Loye, 20-36. Albany,NY: State University of New York Press. 141
Lu, F., Lukoff, D., & Turner R. (1997). Commentary on spiritual experience and psychopathology. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 4(1), 75-77. Lucardie, P. (1993). Why would egocentrists become ecocentrists: On individualism and holism in green political theory. In The politics of nature: Explorations in green political theory, eds A. Dobson & P. Lucardie, 21-35. London: Routledge. Lucas, C. (2006). When spiritual emergence becomes an emergency. Caduceus, 68, 28-30. Lucas, C (2011). In case of spiritual emergency: Moving successfully through your awakening. Forres: Findhorn Press. Lukoff, D. (1985). The diagnosis of mystical experiences with psychotic features. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 17(2), 155-81. Lukoff, D. (1996). Transpersonal psychotherapy with psychotic disorders and spiritual emergencies with psychotic features. In Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology, eds B.W Scotton, A.B. Chinen & J.R. Battista, 271-81. New York: Basic Books. Lukoff, D. (2006). Spirituality and recovery. www.cimh.networkofcare.org Date accessed: 18th December. Lukoff, D. (2010a). Foreword. In F. de Waard. Spiritual crisis: Varieties and perspectives of a transpersonal phenomenon. Exeter: Academic Imprint. Lukoff, D. (2010b). Visionary spiritual experiences. In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I Clarke, 205-16. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition. Lukoff, D., Lu, F., & Turner, R. (1992). Toward a more culturally sensitive DSM-IV: Psychoreligious and psychospiritual problems. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180(11), 673-82. Lukoff, D., Lu, F., & Turner, R. (1996). Diagnosis: A transpersonal clinical approach to religious and spiritual problems. In Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology, eds B.W Scotton, A.B. Chinen & J.R. Battista, 231-49. New York: Basic Books. Lukoff, D., Lu, F., & Turner, R. (1998). From spiritual emergency to spiritual problem: The transpersonal roots of the new DSM-IV category. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 3(2), 21-50. MacDonald, D.A. (2009). Identity and spirituality: Conventional and transpersonal perspectives. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 28, 86-106. Mack, J.E. (2007). Why worldviews matter. In Mind before matter: Visions of a new science of consciousness, eds T. Pfieffer, J.E. Mack & P. Devereux, 1-2. Winchester: O Books. 142
Macy, J. (2009). On being with our world. In A Buddhist response to the climate emergency, eds J. Stanley, D.R. Loy & G. Dorje, 177-79. Boston: Wisdom Publications. Main, R. (2006). Numinosity and terror: Jung's psychological revision of Otto as an aid to engaging religious fundamentalism. In The idea of the numinous: Contemporary and psychoanalytic perspectives, eds A. Casement & D. Tacey, 15370. London: Routledge. Main, R. (2007). Revelations of chance: Synchronicity as spiritual experience. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Marcia, J.E. (1966). Development and validation of ego-identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), 551-58. Marcuse, H. (1964/1991). One-Dimensional Man. London: Routledge, 2nd edition. Marshall, P. (2005). Mystical encounters with the natural world: Experiences and explorations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Martin, J. (2006). The meaning of the 21st Century: A blueprint for ensuring our future. Eden Project Books. Marx-Hubbard, B. (1998). Conscious evolution: Awakening the power of our social potential. Novato, CA: New World Library. Marzanowski, M., & Bratton, M. (2002). Psychopathological symptoms and religious experience: A critique of Jackson and Fulford. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology. 9(4), 359-71. Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Maslow, A.H. (1968/1999). Toward a psychology of being. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 3rd edition. Maslow, A.H. (1969a). The farther reaches of human nature. Journal of transpersonal psychology, 1(1), 1-9. Maslow, A.H. (1969b). Various meanings of transcendence. Journal of transpersonal psychology, 1(1), 56-66. Maslow, A.H. (1970). Religions, values and peak experiences. New York: Viking Press. Maslow, A.H. (1971). The farther reaches of human nature. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 143
Maturana, H.R., & Poerkson, B. (2004). From being to doing: The origins of the biology of cognition. Heidelberg: Carl-Auer Verlag. Mautner, T. (1997). Dictionary of philosophy. London: Penguin Books. May, R.M. (1991). Cosmic consciousness revisited: The modern origins and development of a western spiritual psychology. Rockport, MA: Element. McColl, M.A. (2000). Muriel Driver Lecture: Spirit, occupation and disability. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(4), 217-28. McColl, M.A. (2003). Toward a model of practice for spirituality in occupational therapy. In Spirituality and occupational therapy, ed M. McColl, 133-44. Ottawa, ON: CAOT Publications. McDermott, R.A. (1993). Transpersonal worldviews: historical and philosophical reflections. In Paths beyond ego: The transpersonal vision, eds R. Walsh & F. Vaughan, 206-212. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. McGrath, A. (2002). The reenchantment of nature: The denial of religion and the ecological crisis. New York: Doubleday. McGuire, W. (1974). The Freud/Jung letters. Translated R. Manheim., and R.F.C. Hull. London: Picador. Menken, D. (2001). Speak out: Talking about love, sex and eternity. Tempe, AR: New Falcon Publications. Mental Health Foundation. (1999). The courage to bare our souls. London: The Mental Health Foundation. Mental Health Foundation. (2002). Taken seriously: The Somerset spirituality project. London: The Mental Health Foundation. Merkur, D. (1999). Mystical moments and unitive thinking. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. 144
Metzner, R. (1986). The unfolding self: Varieties of transformative experience. Novato, CA: Origin Press. Metzner, R. (1999). Green psychology: Transforming our relationship to the earth. Rochester, VER: Park Street Press. Metzner, R. (2008). The expansion of consciousness. Berkeley, CA: Green Earth Foundation/Regent Books. Miller, J. (2004). The Transcendent Function: Jung's Model of Psychological Growth through Dialogue with the Unconscious. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Mindell, A. (1987). The Dreambody in Relationships. London: Arkana. Mindell, A. (1988). City shadows: Psychological interventions in psychiatry. London: Arkana. Mindell, A. (1990a). Working on yourself alone: Inner dreambody work. London: Arkana. Mindell, A. (1990b). Dreambody: The Body's Role in Revealing the Self. London: Arkana. Mindell, A. (1995). Sitting in the fire: Large group transformation using conflict and diversity. Portland, OR: Lao Tse Press. Mindell, A. (1996). Discovering the world in the individual and the world channel in psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 36(3), 67-84. Mindell, A. (2000a). Dreaming while awake. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing. Mindell, A. (2000b). Quantum mind: The edge between physics and psychology. Portland, OR: Lao Tse Press. Mindell, A. (2001). The Dreammaker's Apprentice: Using Heightened States of Consciousness to Interpret Dreams. Charlottesville, VA. Hampton Roads Publishing Company. Mindell, A. (2004). The quantum mind and healing: How to listen and respond to your body's symptoms. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company. Mindell, A. (2007). Earth-based psychology: Path awareness from the teachings of Don Juan, Richard Feynman and Lao Tse. Portland, OR: Lao Tse Press. 145
Mindell, A. (2010). Process mind: A user's guide to connecting with the mind of god. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, The Theosophical Publishing House. Moacanin, R. (1986). Jung's psychology and Tibetan Buddhism: Western and Eastern paths to the heart. London: Wisdom Publications. Montouri, A., Combs, A., & Richards, R. (2004). Creativity, consciousness, and the direction for human development. In The great adventure: Toward a fully human theory of evolution, ed D. Loye,197-236. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Moore, T. (1996). The re-enchantment of everyday life. New York: Harper Collins. Moore, T. (2002). The Soul's Religion: Cultivating a Profoundly Spiritual Way of Life. London: Bantam Books. Moore, T. (2008). A life at work: The joy of discovering what you were born to do. London: Piatkus Books. Morgan, A.E. (1993). Homo sapiens: The community animal. In In the company of others: Making community in the modern world, ed C. Whitmyer, 16-19. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Moss, D. (1999a). Abraham Maslow and the emergence of humanistic psychology. In Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical source book, ed D. Moss, 24-35. Westport, CO: Green wood Press. Moss, D. (1999b). The historical and cultural context of humanistic psychology: Ike, Annette, and Elvis. In Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical source book, ed D. Moss, 7-11. Westport, CO: Green wood Press. Moss, D. (1999c). The continuing need for a humanistic and transpersonal psychology. In Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical source book, ed D. Moss, 211-26. Westport, CO: Green wood Press. Moustakas, C. (1985). Humanistic or humanism? Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(3), 5-11. Murphy, S. (2009). The untellable nonstory of global warming: Can we really be allowing our planet to die? In A Buddhist response to the climate emergency, eds J. Stanley, D.R. Loy & G. Dorje, 195-201. Boston: Wisdom Publications. 146
National Institute for Mental Health in England. (2003). Inspiring hope: Recognising the importance of spirituality in a whole person approach to mental health. Leeds: National Institute for Mental Health in England. Nelson, J. E. (1994). Healing the split: Integrating spirit into our understanding of the mentally ill. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Nelson, K. (2011). The god impulse: Is religion hard wired into the brain? London: Simon & Schuster. Nelson, P.L. (2000). Mystical experience and radical deconstruction: Through the ontological looking glass. In Transpersonal knowing: Experiencing the horizon of consciousness, eds T. Hart, P.L. Nelson & K. Puhakka, 55-84. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Newberg, A.B. (2001). Putting the mystical mind together. Zygon, 36(3), 501-7. Newberg, A.B. (2008). Spirituality, the brain and health. In Measuring the immeasurable: The scientific case for spirituality, ed T. Simon, 349-71. Boulder, CO: Sounds True. Newberg, A.B., D'Aquili., & Rause, V. (2001). Why God won't go away. New York: Ballantine Books. O'Brien, L. (2003). On knowing one's actions. In Agency and awareness: Consciousness and self consciousness, eds J. Rossler & N. Eilan, 358-82. Oxford: Cloarendon Press. Okoro, K.N. (2011) Towards a new world and new humanity: Rabindranath Tagore's model. In Conscious connectivity: Creating dignity in conversation, ed M. Brenner, 255-77. Charleston, SC: Pan American. Otto, R. (1923/1958). The idea of the holy: An inquiry into the non-rational factor in the idea of the divine and its relation to the rational. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oubrй, A. (1997). Instinct and Revelation: Reflections on the Origins of Numinous Perception. London: Taylor and Francis. Owen, M. (2002). Jung and the Native American moon cycles: Rhythms of influence. Berwick, ME: Nicolas-Hays. Palmer, G., & Braud, W. (2002). Exceptional human experiences, disclosure, and a more inclusive view of physical, psychological, and spiritual well-being. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 34(1), 29-61. Pawle, R. (2009). The ego in the psychology of Zen: Understanding reports of Japanese Zen masters on the experience of no-self. In Self and no-self: Continuing the dialogue between Buddhism and psychotherapy, eds D. Mathers, M.E. Miller & O. Ando, 45-55. London: Routledge. 147
Pearson, N. (2006). Where the heavens meet the earth: Inspirations from the lives of Carl Jung, Jalal-U-Din Rumi and Mahatma Ghandi. In Sky and Psyche: The relationship between cosmos and consciousness, eds N. Campion & P. Curry, 169-81. Edinburgh: Floris Books. Peloquin, S.M. (1997). The spiritual depth of occupation: Making worlds and making lives. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 51(3), 167-8. Pepper, D. (1993). Eco-socialism: From deep ecology to social justice. London: Routledge. Perry, J.W. (1974). The far side of madness. Dallas, TEX: Spring Publications. Perry, J.W. (1953/1987). The self in psychotic process: Its symbolism in schizophrenia. Dallas, TEX: Spring Publications. Perry, J.W. (1987). The heart of history: Individuality in evolution. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Perry, J.W. (1999). Trials of a visionary mind: Spiritual emergency and the renewal process. Albany, NY: State University of New York. Perry, W.N. (1991). A treasury of traditional wisdom. Cambridge: Quinta Essentia. Pietikainen, P. (1998). Archetypes as symbolic forms. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 43, 325-45. Pillow, W. (2003). Confession, catharsis, or cure? Rethinking the uses of reflexivity as methodological power in qualitative research. Qualitative Studies in Education, 16(2), 175-96. Podvoll, E. (1990). The seduction of madness: A revolutionary approach to recovery at home. London: Century. Powell, A. (1961). Zen and reality: An approach to sanity and happiness on a nonsectarian basis. London: George Allen and Unwin. Powell, A (2001). Beyond space and time: The unbounded psyche. In Thinking beyond the brain: A wider science of consciousness, ed D. Lorimer, 169-186. Edinburgh: Floris Books. Pratt, V. (1970). Religion and secularisation. London: Macmillan and Co. Prigogine, I., & Stengers, I. (1985). Order out of chaos: Man's new dialogue with nature. London: Flamingo. Progoff, I. (1973). Jung's psychology and its social meaning. New York: Anchor books. 148
Progoff, I. (1987). Jung, Synchronicity and Human Destiny: C G Jungs Theory of Meaningful Coincidence. New York: Julian Press. Puhakka, K. (2000). An invitation to authentic knowing. In Transpersonal knowing: Exploring the horizon of consciousness, ed T. Hart, P.L. Nelson & K. Puhakka, 11-30. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Purton, C. (2010). Spirituality, focusing and the truth beyond concepts. In The human being fully alive: Writings in celebration of Brian Thorne, ed J. Leonardi, 112-27. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books. Read, T., & Crowley, N. (2009). The transpersonal perspective. In Spirituality and psychiatry, eds C. Cook, A. Powell and A. Sims, 212-32. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists. Reason, P., & Rowan, J. (1981). Human inquiry: A source book of new paradigm research. Chichester. John Wiley and Sons. Rebillot, P. (1989). The hero's journey: Ritualizing the mystery. In Spiritual emergency: When personal transformation becomes a crisis, eds S. Grof & C. Grof, 211-24. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Redfield, J., Murphy., & Timbers, S. (2002). God and the evolving universe: The next step in personal evolution. London: Bantam Books. Reed, K., Hocking, C., & Saythe, L. (2010). The interconnected meaning of occupation: The call, being-with possibilities Journal of Occupational Science,17(3), 140-9. Reich, K.H. (2001). Spiritual development: Han De Wit's and Stanislav Grof's differing approaches. Zygon, 36(3), 509-20. Ricard, M (2009). The future doesn't hurt...yet. In A Buddhist response to the climate emergency, eds J. Stanley, D.R. Loy & G. Dorje, 203-7. Boston: Wisdom Publications. Rice, D. (1999) Carl Rogers: Client heal thyself. In Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical source book, ed D. Moss, 385-93. Westport, CO: Green wood Press. Robertson, R. (1995). Jungian archetypes: Jung, Godel, and the history of archetypes. York Beach, ME: Nicolas­Hays. Rogers, C.R. (1961). On becoming a person: A therapist's view of psychotherapy. London: Constable & Company. Rogers, C.R. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 149
Rosen, D.H., Smith, S.M., Huston, H.L., & Gonzalez, G. (1991). Empirical study of associations between symbols and their meanings: Evidence of collective unconscious (archetypal) memory. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 36(2), 211-28. Rosen, D. (1996). The tao of Jung: The way of integrity. New York: Arkana. Roszak, T. (2001). The voice of the earth: An exploration of eco-psychology. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 2nd edition. Rothberg, D. (1998). Ken Wilber and the future of transpersonal inquiry: An introduction to the conversation. In Ken Wilber in dialogue: Conversations with leading transpersonal thinkers, eds D. Rothberg & S. Kelly, 1-27. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, The Theosophical Publishing House Rothberg, D. (2003). Contribution in, Caplan, M., Hartelius, G., & Rardin, M.A. Contemporary viewpoints on transpersonal psychology. Journal of transpersonal psychology, 35(2): 143-162. Rowan, J. (1981). The psychology of science by Abraham Maslow: An appreciation. In Human inquiry: A source book of new paradigm research, eds P. Reason & J. Rowan, 83-91. Chichester. John Wiley and Sons. Rowan, J. (1993). The transpersonal: Psychotherapy and counselling. London. Routledge. Rowan, J. (2001). Ordinary ecstasy: The dialectics of humanistic psychology. Hove, East Sussex. Brunner-Routledge. 3rd edition. Rowan, J. (2002). A transpersonal way of relating to clients. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 32(1), 101-10. Russell, P. (1982). The awakening earth: The global brain. London: ARK. Rust, M.J. (2008). Climate on the couch: Unconscious processes in relation to our environmental crisis. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 6(3), 157-70. Ryan, R.E. (2002). Shamanism and the psychology of C.G. Jung. London: Vega. Samuels, A., Shorter, B., & Plaut, F. (1986). A critical dictionary of Jungian analysis. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Samuels, A. (1993). The Political Psyche. London: Routledge. Samuels, A. (1998). And if not now, when?: Spirituality, psychotherapy, politics. Psychodynamic Practice, 4(3), 349-63. Sandywell, B. (1996). Reflexivity and the crisis of western reason: Logical investigations, volume 1. London: Routledge. 150
Sannella, L. (1989). Kundalini: classical and clinical. In Spiritual emergency: When personal transformation becomes a crisis, eds S. Grof & C. Grof, 99-108. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Sannella, L. (1992). The kundalini experience: Psychosis or transcendence? Lower Lake, CA: Integral Publishing. Saunders, P., & Skar, P. (2001). Archetypes, complexes and self-organization. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 46, 305-23. Steinberg, D, (2005). Complexity in healthcare and the language of consultation: Exploring the other side of medicine. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing. Scharfstein, B.A. (1973). Mystical experience. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Schimmel, A. (2007). The ritual of rebirth in the inner journey. In The inner journey: Views from the Islamic tradition, ed W.C. Chittick, 287-90. Standpoint, ID: Morning Light Press. Schlamm, L. (2007). C.G. Jung and numinous experience: Between the known and the unknown. European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling, 9(4), 403-14. Schlitz, M.M. (2009). Exploring the akashic experience: Bridging subjective and objective ways of knowing. In The akashic experience: Science and the cosmic memory field, ed E. Laszlo,160-74. Rochester, VER: Inner Traditions. Schlitz, M.M., Vieten, C., & Amorok, T. (2007). Living deeply: The Art and Science of transformation in everyday life. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications. Schoen, D. (1998). Divine Tempest: The Hurricane as a Psychic Phenomenon. Toronto: Inner City Books. Schцn, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San fransisco, CA: Jossey Bass. Schulz, E.K. (2005). The meaning of spirituality for individuals with disabilities. Disability and rehabilitation, 27(21), 1283-95. Scotton, B. (1996a). The contribution of C.G. Jung to transpersonal psychiatry. In Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology, eds B.W Scotton, A.B. Chinen & J.R. Battista, 39-51. New York: Basic Books. Scotton, B. (1996b). The phenomenology and treatment of kundalini. In Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology, eds B.W Scotton, A.B. Chinen & J.R. Battista, 261-70. New York: Basic Books. Scotton, B.W., Chinen, A.B., & Battista, J.R. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology. New York: Basic Books. 151
Shalit, E. (2002). The complex: Path of transformation from ego to archetype. Toronto: Inner City Books. Sharp, D. (1991), C.G. Jung Lexicon: A Primer of Terms and Concepts. Toronto: Inner City Books. Sherman, J.H. (2008). A genealogy of participation. In The participatory turn: Spirituality, mysticism, religious studies, eds J.N. Ferrer & J.H. Sherman, 81-112. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Sinetar, M. (1986). Ordinary people as monks and mystics: Lifestyles for selfdiscovery. New York: Paulist Press. Slattery, D. (2004). The myth of nature and the nature of myth: Becoming transparent to transcendence. The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 24, 29-36. Smart, N. (1996). Dimensions of the sacred: An anatomy of the world's beliefs. London: Harper Collins Publishers. Sollod, R. N., Wilson, J.P., & Monte, C.F. (2009). Beneath the mask: An introduction to the theories of personality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 8th edition. Sorrell, S. (2009). Depression as a spiritual journey. Winchester: O Books. Spark Jones, L. (2001). Not knowing: Ancient mystical approach, postmodern psychotherapeutic practice. Journal of Process Oriented Psychology 8(1),17-26. Sperry, L. (2003). Integrating spiritual direction functions in the practice of psychotherapy. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 31(1), 3-13. Starr, M. (2002). Dark night of the soul: Saint John of the cross. New York: Riverhead Books. Stein, M. (2006). On the importance of numinous experience in the alchemy of individuation. In The idea of the numinous: Contemporary and psychoanalytic perspectives, eds A. Casement & D. Tacey, 34-52. London: Routledge. Stein, M. (2007). On modern initiation into the spiritual. In Initiation: The living reality of an archetype, eds T, Kirsch, V. Beanne-Rutter & T, Singer, 85-102. London: Routledge. Steinberg, D. (2005). Complexity in healthcare and the language of consultation: Exploring the other side of medicine. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing. Stevens, A., & Price, J. (2000). Evolutionary Psychiatry: A New Beginning. London: Routledge. Stevens-Long, J. (2000). The prism self: Multiplicity on the path to transcendence. In The psychology of mature spirituality: Integrity, wisdom, transcendence, eds P. Young-Eisendrath & E. Miller, 160-74. London: Routledge. 152
Storr, A. (1983). Jung: Selected writings. London: Fontana Press. Storr, A. (1997). Commentary on "spiritual experience and psychopathology." Philosophy, Psychiatry, Psychology, 41(1), 83-5. Sutich, A. (1969). Some considerations regarding transpersonal psychology. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1(1), 11-20. Sutich, A. (1976). The emergence of the transpersonal orientation: a personal account. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 8(1), 5-19. Swinton, J. (2001). Spirituality and mental health care: Rediscovering a forgotten dimension. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Tacey, D. (2006). The role of the numinous in the reception of Jung. In The idea of the numinous: Contemporary and psychoanalytic perspectives, eds A. Casement & D. Tacey, 213-28. London: Routledge. Talbot, M. (1991). The holographic universe. New York: Harper Collins. Tantam, D. (1999). R.D. Laing and anti-psychiatry. In A century of psychiatry, ed H. Freeman, 202-7. London: Mosby-Wolfe Medical Comunications. Tarnas, R. (2002a). Foreword. In Revisioning transpersonal theory: A participatory vision of human spirituality, ed J. Ferrer, vii-xvi. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Tarnas, R. (2002b). Is the modern psyche undergoing a rite of passage? ReVision, 24(3), 2-8. Tarnas, R. (2003). Contribution in, Caplan, M., Hartelius, G., & Rardin, M. Contemporary viewpoints on transpersonal psychology. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 35(2), 143-62. Tarnas, R. (2006a). Cosmos and psyche: Intimations of a new world view. New York: Viking. Tarnas, R. (2006b). Understanding the modern disenchantment of the cosmos In Sky and Psyche: The relationship between cosmos and consciousness, eds N. Campion & P. Curry, 183-99. Edinburgh: Floris Books. Tarnas, R. (2009). Archetypal principles. Archai: The Journal of Archetypal Cosmology, 1(1), 23-35. Tarnas, R. (1991/2010). The passion of the western mind: Understanding the ideas that have shaped our world view. London: Pimlico. Tarrant, D. (1988). Symbols of transformation. In Transformation: The poetry of spiritual consciousness, ed J. Ramsey. Hungerford: Rivelin Grapheme Press. 153
Tart, C. (1997). Editor's introduction. In Body, mind, spirit: Exploring the parapsychology of spirituality, ed C. Tart, 21-31. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company. Tart, C. (2009). The end of materialism: How evidence of the paranormal is bringing science and spirit together. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications. Taylor, E. (1996). William James and transpersonal psychiatry. In Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology, eds B.W Scotton, A.B. Chinen & J.R. Battista, 21-8. New York: Basic Books. Taylor, E. (1997). A psychology of spiritual healing. West Chester, PA: Chrysalis Books. The Swedenborg Foundation. Taylor, E. (1999). Shadow culture: Psychology and spirituality in America. Washington, D.C: Counterpoint. Taylor, E. (2009). The mystery of personality: A history of psychodynamic theories. Dordrecht, Heidelberg: Springer. Taylor, S. (2011). Out of the darkness: From turmoil to transformation. London: Hay House. Teske, J. (2006). Neuromythology: Brains and stories. Zygon, 41(4), 169-196. Thorne, B. (1996). person centred therapy. In Handbook of individual therapy, ed W. Dryden, 121-46. London: Sage Books. Thorne, B. (2011). Foreword. In Exploring therapy, spirituality and healing, ed W. West, xvii-iii. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. Tillich, P. (1952). The courage to be. London: The Fontana Library. Todres, L.A. (2000). Embracing ambiguity: Transpersonal development and the phenomenological traditions. Journal of Religion and Health, 39(3), 227-37. Todres, L.A. (2007). Embodied enquiry: Phenomenological touchstones for research, psychotherapy and spirituality. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. Toffler, A. (1984). Foreword: Science and change. In I. Prigogine & I. Stengers. Order out of chaos: Man's new dialogue with nature. London: Flamingo. Townsend, E. (1997). Occupation: potential for personal and social transformation. Journal of Occupational Science, 4(1), 18-26. Traherne, T. (1980). My spirit. Cited in George Trevelyan. Magic Casements: The use of poetry in the expanding of consciousness. London: Coventure. Underhill, E. (1911/1967). Mysticism. London: Methuen. 154
Underhill, E. (1913). The mystic way: A psychological study in Christian origins. London: J.M. Dent & Sons. Unruh, A. (1997). Spirituality and occupational therapy: Garden musings and the Himalayan blue poppy. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy,64(3), 156-60. Unruh, A.M., Versnel, J., & Kerr. (2004). Spirituality in the context of occupation: A theory to practice application. In Occupation for occupational therapists, ed M. Molineux, 32-45. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Urbanowski, R. (2003). Spirituality in changed occupational lives. In Spirituality and Occupational Therapy, ed M.A. McColl, 93-114. Ottawa, ON: CAOT Publications ACE. Valla, J.P., & Prince, R.H. (1989). Altered states of consciousness. In Altered states of consciousness and mental health: A cross cultural perspective, ed C.A. Ward, 149-66. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Van Der Post, L. (1976). Jung and the story of our time. London: The Hogarth Press. Van Zyl, D. (2009). Polarity processing: Self/no-self, the transcendent function, and wholeness. In Self and no-self: Continuing the dialogue between Buddhism and psychotherapy, eds D. Mathers M.E. Miller & O. Ando, 109-20. London: Routledge. Varela, F.J., & Shear, J. (1999). First person methodologies: What, Why, How? In The view from within, eds F.J. Varela & J. Shear, 1-4. Exeter: Imprint Academic. Vargo, J., & Urbanowski, R. (1994). Spirituality, daily practice and the occupational performance model. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy,61(2), 88-94. Vaughan-Clark, F. (1977). Transpersonal perspectives in psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 17(2), 69-81. Vaughan, F. (1985). Discovering transpersonal identity. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(3) 13-38. Vaughan, F. (1995). Shadows of the sacred: Seeing through spiritual illusions. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, The Theosophical Publishing House. Vaughan, F., & Walsh, R. (1998). Technology of transcendence. In Inner knowing: Consciousness, creativity, insight, intuition, ed H. Palmer, 24-30. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. Viggiano, D.B., & Krippner, S. (2009). The Grof's model of spiritual emergencies in retrospect: Has it stood the test of time? International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 28, 112-8. Von Essen, C. (2007). The hunters trance: Nature, spirit and ecology. Great Barrington, MA: Lindisfarne Books. 155
Von Uexkull, J. (2011). When denial has to end. Network Review. The Journal of the Scientific and Medical Network, 106, 20-3. Von Franz, M.L. (1972/1995). Creation myths. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications. Von Franz, M.L. (1974/1995). Shadow and evil in fairy tales. Boston: Shambhala. Von Franz, M.L. (1976). Foreword. In Jung and politics: The political and social ideas of C.G. Jung, ed V.W. Odajynk, ix-xii. New York: New York University Press. Wain, A. (2005). Myth, archetype and the neutral mask: actor training and transformation in light of the work of Joseph Campbell and Stanislav Grof. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 24, 37-47. Waldfogel, S., & Wolpe, P. (1993). Using awareness of religious factors to enhance interventions in consultation-liaison psychiatry. Hospital and Community Psychiatry. 44, 473-477. Wallace, G. (2009). Dying to be born: Transformative surrender within analytical psychology from a clinician's perspective. In Self and no-self: Continuing the dialogue between Buddhism and psychotherapy, eds D. Mathers, M.E. Miller & O. Ando, 143-52. London: Routledge. Walsh, R. (1996). Toward a psychology of human and ecological survival: Psychological approaches to contemporary global threats. In Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology, eds B.W Scotton, A.B. Chinen and J.R. Battista, 396-405. New York: Basic Books. Walsh, R. (2001). Shamanic experiences: A developmental analysis. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 41(3), 31-52. Walsh, R. (2007). The World of shamanism: New views of an ancient tradition. Woodbury, MIN: Llewellyn Publications. Walsh, R., & Shapiro, D.H. (1983a). Epilogue. In Beyond health and normality: Explorations of exceptional psychological well-being, eds R.Walsh & D. H. Shapiro, 494-495. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Walsh, R., & Shapiro, D.H. (1983b). In search of a healthy person. In Beyond health and normality: explorations of exceptional psychological well-being, eds R.Walsh & D. H. Shapiro, 3-13. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Walsh, R., & Vaughan, F. (1983). Towards an integrative psychology of well-being. In Beyond health and normality: explorations of exceptional psychological wellbeing, eds R.Walsh & D. H. Shapiro, 399-431. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Walsh, R., & Vaughan, F. (2005). On transpersonal definitions. In Transpersonal psychology: Meaning and developments, eds D. Fontana, I. Slack & M. Treacy, 51-6. 156
Transpersonal Psychology Review: Special Edition: The British Psychological Society. Warwick, S., & Waldram, R. (2010). Exploring the transliminal: Qualitative studies. In Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm, ed I, Clarke, 175-91. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition. Washburn, M. (1990). Two patterns of transcendence. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 30(3), 84-112. Washburn, M. (1994). Transpersonal psychology in psychoanalytic perspective. Albany, NY. State University of New York Press. Washburn, M. (1995). The ego and the dynamic ground: A transpersonal theory of human development. Albany, NY. State University of New York Press. Watkins, P. (2007). Recovery: A guide for mental health professionals. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Watts, A. (1966). The book on the taboo against knowing who you are. London: Abacus. Watts, A. (1995/2003). Become what you are. Boston: Shambhala. Watts, A. (1995). The meaning of happiness: The quest for freedom of the spirit in modern psychology and the wisdom of the east. London: Ryder & Company. Watts, A. (1992). Tao: The watercourse way. London: Arkana. Watson, K. (1994). Spiritual emergency: Concepts and implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 34(2), 22-45. Watson, R., & Swartz, L. (2004). Transformation through occupation. London: Whurr Publishers. Webster, R. (2005). Personal identity: Moving beyond essence. International Journal of Children's Spirituality, 10(1), 5-16. Wellington, B,. & Austin, P. (1996). Orientations to reflective practice. Educational Research, 38(3), 307-16. Welwood, J. (1992). Ordinary magic: everyday life as a spiritual path. Boston: Shambhala. Welwood, J. (1999). Realisation and embodiment: Psychological work in the service of spiritual development. In The psychology of awakening: Buddhism, science and our day-to-day lives, eds G. Watson, S. Batchelor & G. Claxton, 137-66. London: Rider. 157
Wesselman, H. (2007). The transformational perspective: An emerging world view. In Mind before matter: Visions of a new science of consciousness, eds T. Pfeiffer, J.E. Mack & P. Devereux, 192-209. Winchester; O Books. West, W. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy: Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. West, W. (2011). Research in spirituality and healing. In Exploring therapy, spirituality and healing, ed W. West, 189-202. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. Westland, G. (1978). Current crises of psychology. London: Heinmann. White, R.A. (1998). Becoming more human as we work: The reflexive role of exceptional human experience. In Transpersonal research methods for the social sciences: Honouring human experience, eds W. Braud & R. Anderson, 128-45. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. White, V. (1960). God and the unconscious: An encounter between psychology and religion. London: Fontana Books. Whitmyer, C. (1993). Epilogue. In In the company of others: Making community in the modern world, ed C. Whitmyer, 251-56. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher. Wicks, A. (2001). Occupational potential: a topic worthy of exploration. Journal of Occupational Science, 8(3), 32-5. Wicks, A. (2005). Understanding occupational potential. Journal of Occupational Science, 12(3), 130-9. Wilber, K. (1977). The spectrum of consciousness. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, The Theosophical Publishing House. Wilber, K. (1980). The atman project: A transpersonal view of human development. Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, The Theosophical Publishing House. Wilber, K. (1981). No boundary: Eastern and western approaches to personal growth. Boulder, CO: Shambhala. Wilber, K. (1985). The holographic paradigm and other paradoxes: Exploring the leading edge of science. Boston: Shambhala. Wilber, K. (1996a). A brief theory of everything. Dublin: Newleaf. Wilber, K. (1996b). Eye to eye: The quest for the new paradigm. Boston: Shambhala. Wilber, K. (1998). The essential Ken Wilber: An introductory reader. Boston: Shambhala. 158
Wilber, K. (2000). Sex, ecology, spirituality: The spirit of evolution. Boston: Shambhala. Wilber, K. (2004). The simple feeling of being: Embracing your true nature. Boston: Shambhala. Wilber, K. (2005). A sociable god: Toward a new understanding of religion. Boston: Shambhala. Wilber, K. (2006). Integral spirituality: A startling new role for religion in the modern and postmodern world. Boston: Integral Books. Wilcock, A.A. (1991). Occupational science. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(8), 297-300. Wilcock, A.A. (1998). Reflections on doing, being and becoming. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(5), 248-56. Wilcock, A.A. (1999). Creating self and shaping the world. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 46, 77-88. Wilcock, A.A. (1998/2006). An occupational perspective of health. Thorofare, NJ: Slack, 2nd edition. Wilcock, A.A. (2001) Occupation for health. Volume 1: A journey from self health to prescription. London: College of Occupational Therapy. Wilcock, A.A. (2007). Occupation and health: Are they one and the same? Journal of Occupational Science, 14(1), 3-8. Williams, D.E. (1981). Border crossings: A psychological perspective on Carlos Castaneda's path of knowledge. Toronto: Inner City Books. Winkelman, M. (1993). The evolution of consciousness? Transpersonal theories in light of cultural relativism. Anthropology of consciousness, 4(3), 3-9. Winkelman, M. (2002). Shamanism as neurotheology and evolutionary psychology. American Behaviour Scientist, 14(12), 1875-87. Winkelman, M. (2004). Shamanism as the original neurotheology. Zygon, 39(10, 193217. Wolf, F.A. (1999). The spiritual universe: One physicist's vision of spirit, soul, matter, and self. Portsmouth, NH: Moment Point Press. Woodhouse, M.B. (1996). Paradigm wars: Worldviews for a new age. Berkeley, CA: Frog Ltd. Woodman, M. (1985). The pregnant virgin: A process of psychological transformation. Toronto: Inner City Books. 159
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability, and health. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Yandell, K.E. The epistemology of religious experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Yerxa, E. J. (1998). Health and the human spirit for occupation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(6), 412-18. Yerxa, E. J. (2000). Occupational Science: A renaissance of service to humankind through knowledge. Occupational Therapy International, 7(2), 87-98. Yeshe, L. (1987). Introduction to tantra: A vision of totality. Boston: Wisdom. Yunt, J.D. (2001). Jung's contribution to an ecological psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 41(2), 96-121. Zimmerman, M.E. (1998). A transpersonal diagnosis of the ecological crisis. In Ken Wilber in dialogue: Conversations with leading transpersonal thinkers, eds D. Rothberg & S. Kelly, 180-206. Wheaton, Illinois: Quest Books, The Theosophical Publishing House. Zohar, D., and Marshall, I. (2000). Spiritual intelligence: The ultimate intelligence, London: Bloomsbury. Zukav, G. (1979). The dancing Wu Li masters: An overview of the new physics. New York: William Morrow & Company. 160
Appendices Appendix 1-9: pages 160-371 removed 161

MW Collins

File: spiritual-emergence-and-spiritual-emergency-the-complementary.pdf
Title: Spiritual emergence and emergency:
Author: MW Collins
Author: Mick Collins
Published: Thu Oct 16 14:02:10 2014
Pages: 161
File size: 0.91 Mb


, pages, 0 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb

Diversité des animaux, 85 pages, 1.7 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com