suffix, linking verbs, Turkish alphabet, language learner, foreign language learning, CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS, native language, NP1 Ahmed, foreign language, contrastive linguistics, English language teaching, R. Lado, formal description, C. C. Fries, personal suffix, English Department, target language, Ottoman Turkish language, language system, Ibrahim Abushihab, Turkish sentence, linking verb, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Michigan, Tilburg University Press, Brad Davidson, Oxford University Press, Chicago Linguistic Society, H. Douglas Brown, Turkish Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, University of Chicago Press, Kerslake, University of Michigan, Pearson Longman, Celia Kerslake, Robert Stockwell, Peter Roach, Turkish language
IBRAHIM ABUSHIHAB* SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH I. INTRODUCTION The ,,Contrastive Analysis" (CA) of linguistic aspects is based on structural linguistics. In the 1950s and 1960s, behaviorism and structuralism were of great popularity and the CA was formulated by C. C. Fries (1945) and developed by R. Lado (1957). It was regarded as the comparison of the structures of two languages or more and finding out the points of differences which are the main source of difficulty for language learner and which form the basis for the preparation of language texts. The ultimate aim of contrastive linguistics is to compare phonological systems, morphological systems
, syntactic and lexical meanings of two or more languages. The Contrastive Analysis was the result of the need to teach a Second Language (L2) in the most efficient way, as R. Lado makes clear in R. Ellis (1985, p. 23): ,,The teacher who has made a comparison of the foreign language with the native language of the students will know better what the real problems are and can provide for teaching them. The origins of contrastive analysis, therefore, were pedagogic". The interest in contrastive linguistics originated in the US during the Second World War when an urgent need arose for English Language
teaching in an economical way. After the Second World War, foreign language learning
gained importance and CA became the landmark of preparing instructional materials and of teaching foreign languages. C. C. Fries (1945, p. 9) assures that ,,The most effective materials (for foreign language teaching) are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner." It must be noted that the CA hypothesis exists in strong and weak versions which are equally related to the notion of mother language (L1) interference. The strong version claims that all the errors in L2 can be predicted by identifying the differences between the learner's native language and the language being learned, but the weak one of the hypothesis claims to have the power to diagnose errors in * Ibrahim Abushihab: Assist. Prof., English Department, Alzaytoonah Private University of Jordan. DACOROMANIA, serie nou, XVII, 2012, nr. 2, p. 230244
SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH 231 L2. R. Wardhaugh (1970, p. 123) states that according to the strong version, all L2 errors that will occur can be predicted through the differences between L1 and L2 and the weak version claims that only some of the errors can be identified through these differences. H. D. Brown (2000, p. 208) claimes that ,,the principal barrier to the second language system is the interference of the first language system with the second language system, and that a scientific, structural analysis of the two languages in question would yield a taxonomy of a linguistic contrast between them in which in turn would enable the linguist to predict the difficulties a leaner would encounter". R. Stockwell et al. (1965) assure that the main source for predicting the difficulties is the interference between native language and target language
. They introduced a hierarchy of difficulty where the teacher or the linguist can predict of the difficulty of a given aspect of the target language. C. James (1980) states that CA involves two steps: 1. Description, that is, a formal description is made. 2. Comparison which is concerned with the identification of areas of differences and similarities, including ,,prediction" signaling which areas may cause errors and difficulties. This paper basically attempts to compare Turkish and English with the aim of describing the similarities and differences between them in the area of syntax. II. TURKISH AND ENGLISH ALPHABETS The Ottoman Turkish language is known today as Turkish. Modern Turkish is spoken by about 70 million people in The Republic of Turkey and about 200 000 people in Northern Cyprus. Turkish belongs to the Ural-Altaic family of languages. It is written from left to right. The Turkish alphabet is sorted as follows: a, b, c, з, d, e, f, g, , h, , i, j, k, l, m, n, o, ц, p, r, s, , t, u, ь, v, y, z. The Turkish alphabet contains 29 letters. Punctuation is the same as those characters used in English. The Turkish alphabet contains 29 uppercase and 29 lowercase letters. The English alphabet is sorted as follows; a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z. The English alphabet contains 26 letters. It also contains 26 uppercase and 26 lowercase letters. Although these two languages use the Latin alphabet, they have different letters. The letters (з, , , ц, , ь) in Turkish do not correspond to any letter in English, and the letters (q, w, x) are not normally used in Turkish. III. SOUND INVENTORIES OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH English and Turkish have 20 consonants in common. Almost every consonant that exists in Turkish also exists in English. English has a total number of 24 consonants; whereas Turkish has 21. Tables 1 and 2 display the phonetic nature of consonants in both languages.
Plosive Fricative Affricate Nasal Lateral Approximant
English consonant phonemes (adapted from Roach 2000)
Bila Labiobial dental pb fv
Place of articulation
alveolar (Post- Palatal alveo-
Manner of articulation
Turkish consonants differ from those of English in terms of their place of articulation, as table 2 displays
Table 2 Turkish consonant phonemes (adapted from Gцksel, Kerslake 2006, p. 3-6; see Appendix 1)
Place of articulation
Stops VI Vd Fricatives VI Vd Affricates VI Vd Nasals Laterals Approximants
Bilabial p b
Labiodental f v
Dental t d
Palatoalveolar s z t d n r
Alveopalatal 1 j
Palatal k g
English has 12 vowel phonemes with three degrees of tongue height such as high, mid and low as illustrated in Table 3:
High Mid low
English vowels (adapted from Roach 2000)
Front i: e ж
back u: : :
SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH 233
Turkish, on the other hand, has 8 vowels with two positions of tongue height; high and low as it is shown in table 4.
Turkish vowel phonemes (adapted from Gцksel, Kerslake 2006, p. 9;see Appendix 1)
Rounded ь u
High Unrounded i i
Non-high(mid and low)
IV. VOWEL HARMONY IN TURKISH
Vowel harmony is a phonological process which determine what vowel will appear in all but the first syllable of a word.If the vowels in the root are formed in the back of the mouth / ж /, undotted i //, o /:/, u // as in araba /жrжbж/ (car), we add -lar (plural suffix) to make arabalar (cars). If the vowels are made in the front of the mouth (e /e/, i //, ц //, ь /y/ ), we add -ler to ev /ev/ (house) to make evler (houses). Likewise bankalar /bжnkжlжr/ (banks) but otobьsler /:t:bysler/ (buses). Turkish language is an agglutinative language, which means that it attaches its grammatical information to the end of a root-word according to the vowel harmony rule. A suffix is sometimes preceded by a buffer letter such as ,,y" for smooth pronunciation. It is used between two vowels as follows: Gitmeyiz /gitmejiz/ Go + negative suffix (-me) + buffer sound (-y) + personal suffix stands for (we) (-iz) (We do not go.) As a result of vowel harmony, only the following sequences are permissible in native Turkish words:
`a' can only be followed by `a' or `'
Back Vowels `' can only be followed by `a' or `' `o' can only be followed by `a' or `u' `u' can only be followed by `a' or `u'
Front Vowels: `e' can only be followed by `e' or `i'
`i' can only be followed by `e' or `i' `ц' can only be followed by `e' or `ь' `ь' can only be followed by `e' or `ь'
(Gцksel and Kerslake 2006, p. 21)
V. SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS In this section, the basic sentence patterns in English and Turkish will be clarified to illustrate the similarities and differences between them. The syntax of
Turkish is very different from that of English. The Turkish language is characterized as a head final language where the modifier/specifier always precede the modified/specified. This characteristic affects the word order of the sentence which can be described as SOV where the verb is positioned at the end but the word order of English sentences can be described as SVO. Examples: 1. Progressive Tense (imdiki Zaman) Present continuous tense (imdiki zaman kipi) describes what is happening now at this moment. It is also used for what will happen in the near future as follows: a. Kцpek suyu iзiyor. /kpek sj itij:r/ (the) dog + water + drink + progressive marker (-ing) (-yor) (The dog is drinking water
.) b. Otele Bьlent gidiyor./ :tele bylent gidij:r/ (the) hotel + to (-e) + Bьlent + go + progressive marker (-ing) (-yor) (Bьlent is going to the hotel). 2. Past Tense (geзmi zaman) Unlike English, there are two types of past tense in Turkish. Turkish definite past tense (цrьlen Geзmi zaman) is eyewitness tense and it states that something definitely happened in the past. The definite past tense morpheme -di applies to verbs and it has eight allomorphs (-di, -di, -du, -dь, -ti, -ti, -tu, -tь). They are based on the vowel harmony rule stated above. The suffix vowel and the stem vowel have to share the same specification for both backness and rounding. Also, the suffix consonant and the stem consonant have to share the same voicing as the following examples show: a. Henrike ьniversitye gitti. /henrike yniversitje giti/ Henrike + university + to (-e) + go + definite past suffix (-ti) (Henrike went to university) b. Gьnder mektup yazd. /gynder mektp jжzd/ Gьnder + (a) letter + write + definite past suffix (-d) (Gьnder wrote a letter). Unlike the first type, indefinite past tense (renilen Geзmi zaman) is used for hearsay and reporting. It is used when the event has not been eyewitnessed personally and for tales and jokes. Turkish also adds the indefinite past tense morpheme -mi which has four allomorphs (-mu, -mi, - mi, -mь) to the verbs based on the vowel harmony rule as in the following examples: a. Ahmet dьn okula gelmi. /жhmet dyn :klж gelmi/ Ahmet + yesterday + school + to (-a) + come + indefinite past suffix (-mi) (It is said that Ahmed came to school yesterday).
SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH 235 b. renci bakkala git mi. /rendi bжkжlж gitmi/ (the) student + (the) shop + to (-a)+ go + indefinite past suffix (-mi) (It is said that the student went to the shop). 3. Future Tense (Gelecek zaman) The future tense suffix (based on vowel harmony) is either -acak, or -ecek. After a verb root ending in a vowel, a buffer letter -y is used to become (-yecek). If the suffix follows by a vowel, it will be transferred to (-ece or - aca) as in example c. a. Murat Ankaradan gelecek./mrжt жnkжrжdжn geledek/ Murat + Ankara + from (-dan) come + future suffix (-ecek) (will) (Murad will come from Ankara). b. Ahmet yarn sabah trenle Ankaraya gelecek./жhmet jжrn sжbжh trenle жnkжrжjж geledek/ Ahmet + tomorrow + morning + train + with (-le) + Ankara + buffer sound (-y) + to (-a) + come + future suffix (-ecek) will (Ahmed will come to Ankara with the train tomorrow morning). c. Ben alacaim / ben жlжdжm/ I + take + future suffix (-acak ) + personal suffix (-im) (I) (I will take) 4. Present Tense (Geni zaman) The simple present morpheme (ir) applies to verbs, and it has the following allomorphs: (-ar, -er, -ir, -ir, -ur, -ьr, -r). They are based on the vowel harmony rule as the following examples demonstrate: a. Ben зay iзerim. /ben tжj iterim/ I + tea + drink + personal suffix (I) (I drink tea). b. Ben okula giderim./ben : kulж giderim/ I + school + to (-a) + go + present suffix (-er) + personal suffix (I) (I go to school) Turkish examples stated above show that the word immediately before the verb is usually the most important word in the sentence and conveys the main point. The subject is often left out if it is a personal pronoun, since it can be derived from the verb conjugation as the following examples illustrate a. Bu kitab okuyorum./bu kitжb :kuj:rum/ this + book + read + progressive suffix (-yor) + personal suffix (I) (-um) (I am reading this book). b. Bu evi alyorum./bu evi жlj:rum/ this + house + buy+ progressive suffix (-yor) + personal suffix (I) (-um) (I buy this house).
As in most null subject languages, the subject in Turkish, as stated above, can be left unexpressed in finite clauses (Kornfilt 1988). The choice of a lexical subject in pro-drop languages relies greatly on pragmatic coordination, such as emphasis and contrast (Davidson 1996). The appearance of overt pronominal and lexical subjects is grammatically optional (Цzsoy 1987). When the intended referent can be recovered from the discourse, the speaker may use a pronoun or leave out the noun phrase
(NP) completely as in the following examples: 1. okula gidiyorum. /:klж gidij:rm/ school + to (-a) + go + progressive suffix (- ing) (-yor) + personal suffix (I) (-um) (I am going to school). or 2. Ben okula gidiyorum /ben :klж gidij:rm/ I + school + to (-a) + go + progressive suffix (- ing ) (-yor) + personal suffix (I) (-um) It should be noted that the above examples are equivalent with respect to their truth conditions
. The existence of the pronominal subject in example 2 doesn't affect the truth value of the sentence. It should also be noted that when the referent of the pronoun is contrasted with the referent of another NP, an overt pronominal subject is required as shown in the following example: Evi Deniz temizlemedi. Ben temizledim /evi deniz temizlemedi.ben temizledim/ house + Deniz + clean + neg. suffix (-me) + past suffix (-di) + I + clean + past suffix (-di) + personal suffix (I) (-im) (Deniz didn't clean the house. I cleaned (it).) It would not be possible to show contrast without pronouns, as the only indicator of person is the suffix (-m) on the verb while overt subject realization in English is a syntactic requirement, rather than a pragmatic one. Personal suffixes in Turkish are attached to nouns, adjectives and verbs as follows: a. nouns Example Ben retmenim /ben retmenim/ (( im) attached to noun) I + teacher + personal suffix stands for Be (-im) (I am a teacher) b. adjectives: Example: Ben Hastaym/ben hжstжjm/ (( m) attached to adjective) I + sick + (y) buffer sound between two vowels + personal suffix stands for BE (-im) (I am sick)
SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH 237
a. verbs: Example: Siz unutunuz /sz ntnz/ You (plural) forget + past suffix (-tu) + personal suffix stands for (you) (-nz) (you forgot.)
VI. VERBAL SENTENCE PATTERNS
To elaborate, the basic sentence patterns realized in both Turkish and English will be described and compared:
Vi (intransitive verb)
Example: Birds fly.
An intransitive verb is self-sufficient. It can stand alone with its subject. It
can be modified by words and word groups, known as adverbs and adverbials.
Example: The child runs fastly.
Turkish: NP1 Vi (NP1) (note: NP1 stated between brackets is optional) Example: kular uзar /Klжr tжr/ bird + pl. suffix(-lar) + fly + pres. suffix(-ar) (The birds fly.)
The pattern form NP Vi exists in English whereas the pattern (NP) Vi NP1 may occur in Turkish when the subject NP is a pronoun except for third person singular.
Example: (Ben) erken kalkerim /(ben) erken kжlkerim/
adv. Vi NP (-im)
(I) + early + wake up + present suffix (-er) + personal suffix (I) (-im)
(I wake up early)
but: ( O) erken kalker/ : erken kжlker/
NP1 adv. Vi + present suffix(-er)
(he / she) + early + wake up + (no personal suffix stands for he/she) (He / she wakes up early)
English: NP1 Vt (transitive verb) NP2 The girl likes the dog
Turkish: (NP1) NP2 Vt (NP1) Kz kpei sever /kiz kpei sever/
(the) girl + (the) dog + like + present marker (-er) (The girl likes the dog).
Both languages are similar because the transitive verb in English and Turkish takes a direct object NP. They are different in terms of Vt and NP. (direct object). Vt precedes the NP (D.O.) in English as in the following example:
The girl bought a dress
Vt NP2 (DO)
whereas Vt follows NP (DO) in Turkish, and the Vt may take the personal suffix reflecting the subject NP1 as the following examples show
Khalid Istanbuldan geler /kжlid stжnbldжn geler/
NP2 Vt + present suffix (-er)
Khalid + Istanbul + from (-dan) + come + present suffix (-er)
(Khalid comes from Istanbul.)
Ben зay severim /ben tжj severim/
I + tea + like + personal suffix (I) (-im)
(I like tea)
English: NP1 Vt NP2 NP3
The teacher lent the student a book.
Vt NP2 (I.O) NP3 (D.O)
The NP1, NP2 and NP3 have different referents. Such pattern has two grammatical objects. These two objects are called direct and indirect objects. The indirect object may often be replaced by a prepositional phrase
beginning with ,,to" or ,,for" or occasionally with a different preposition as follows: He sold a ticket to the student. This pattern sentence may be transformed into the passive by making either the direct or the indirect object the subject of the passive in English as in the following example:
I gave her a book. a. A book was given to her.
b. She was given a book by me.
Turkish: NP1 NP2 NP3 Vt (NP1) retmen renciye bir kitap dnз /retmen rendije bir kitжp dynt/
NP2 (I.O.) NP3 (D. O.) Vt
SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH 239 (The) teacher + (the) student + buffer sound (y) + to (-e) + a (-bir) + book + lent + no suffix stands for 3rd person singular (The teacher lent the book to the student.) This pattern in English and Turkish has direct and indirect object with the same type of transitive verb. NP1, NP2 and NP3 have different referents in both languages. The objects (N2 + N3) precede the Vt and the verb may take the personal suffix as stated in the above Turkish examples. In contrast, the corresponding pattern in English the Vt precedes the two objects. Although the pattern NP1 Vt NP2 NP3 in English may be transformed into the passive by making either the indirect object (NP2) or the direct object (NP3) the subject of the passive, there is only one passive form of corresponding pattern (NP1 NP2 Vt) in Turkish. Example: Mal tьccara teslim edildi /mжl tydжrж teslim edildi/ NP1 NP2 Vt + passive suffix(-il) + past suffix(-di) Goods + traders + to (-a) + give + passive suffix (-il) + past suffix (-di) The goods are given to the traders Mektup Aliya yazilmi /mektp жlijж jжzilmi/ NP1 NP2 Vt +passive suffix(-il) + past suffix(-mi) (a) letter + Ali + buffer sound (-y) + to (-a) + write + passive suffix (-il) + past suffix (mi) A letter is written to Ali. PATTERN 4: English: NP1 Vt NP2 NP2 The basketball team chose Murad captain. Turkish: (NP1) NP2 NP2 Vt (NP1) Basketbol takm Murad bakan seзti /bжsketb:l tжkm mrжd bжkжn setti / NP1 NP2 NP2 Vt + (past suffix) (-ti) (the) basketball + team + Murad + captain + choose + past suffix (-ti) (The basketball team chose Murad captain). The verb used in English and Turkish is transitive. The first NP2 in both languages is the direct object and the second NP2 is the objective complement. The Vt follows NP1- NP2 in Turkish; in contrast, it precedes NP1 NP2 in English as follows: Murad bakan seзtim /mrжd bжkжn settim / NP2 (object) NP2 Vt + past suffix (-ti)+ personal suffix (I)(-m) (NP1) I chose Murad captain.
Pattern 5: English: NP1 Vt NP2 Adj People thought Janet pretty NP1 Vt NP2 Adj Turkish: (NP1) NP2 Adj Vt (NP1) Herkes Janeti gьzel zannetti /herkes dжneti gyzel zжneti/ NP1 NP2 Adj Vt + past suffix(-ti) People + Janet + pretty + think + past suffix (-ti) (People thought Janet pretty) The pattern in English and Turkish employs the same type of transitive verb. The verb in English precedes the direct object with the adjective complement; in contrast, in Turkish the same type of verb follows the NP with its Adj. the subject NP is obligatory in English whereas it is optional in Turkish as in the following example; however, it is obligatory occupied at the end of the predicate: Janeti gьzel zannettim /dжneti gyzel zжnetim/ (subject NP is not used) NP1 (object) + Adj.+ Vt. + past suffix (-ti) + personal suffix stands for (I) (I thought Janet pretty). PATTERN 6: English: NP1 VL (linking verb) NP1 Ahmed became a teacher NP1 VL NP1 Turkish: (NP1) NP1 VL (NP1) Ahmet Цretmen oldu /жhmet retmen :ld / NP1 NP1 VL + past suffix(-du) Ahmed + teacher + become + past suffix (-du) (Ahmed became a teacher) In Turkish, the linking verbs cannot easily be recognized structurally. These verbs can be labeled according to their function in the sentences. The pattern in English and Turkish employs the same type of linking verbs. The second NP serves as a subjective complement (S.C).The first NP1 is optional in Turkish. It is obligatory in English. The linking verb precedes the second NP1 in English; in contrast, it follows the second NP1 in Turkish as in the following example: Цretmen oldum /retmen :ldm/ (subject NP is not used). NP1 (S.C) + VL+past suffix (-du) + personal suffix I (-m) (I became a teacher). We can also say: Ben цretmen oldum /ben retmen :ldm/ (subject is used) SNP NP (S.C) VL+ past suffix (-du) + personal suffix I (-um) (I became a teacher.)
SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH 241 VII. GENERAL PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS Turkish is classified as a head final language. This characteristic affects the word order of the sentence which can be described as an SOV where the verb is positioned at the end. Turkish learners will face difficulties while learning the English sentence patterns because their native language is an SOV but English is an SVO. Turkish is an agglutinative language.Its modals and auxiliaries are used as suffixes and they cannot be separated from the predicates(verbs/nouns/adjectives) which have final position but English modals and auxiliaries are used as separate words as the modal (-mali) in Turkish which is equivalent to (should) in English: Onunla konumalisin /:nnlж k:nmжlsn/ him + to (-a) + talk + modal (should) (-mali)+ personal suffix (you) (you should talk to him). and the progressive suffix (-yor) in Turkish which is equivalent to (Be+ing) as in the following example: Ben Ammana outuruyorum /ben жmжnж :trj:rm/ I + Amman + in (-a) + live + progressive suffix (-yor) + personal suffix (I) (-um) (I am living in Amman) Accordingly, Turkish learners may produce ,,I living in Amman" in place of ,,I am living in Amman". The clear distinction between the two languages will facilitate learning English languages for Turkish learners. Teachers of English who teach Turkish learners should place greater emphasis on the differences between English sentence patterns and Turkish sentence patterns in order to eradicate the problems which may appear in learning English sentences. The Turkish learners may produce sentences such as ,,The girl the dog like" because they may follow the same pattern in Turkish: (NP1) NP2 Vt (NP1) Kz kpei sever /kiz kpei sever/ NP1 NP2 Vt (the) girl + (the) dog + like + present marker (-er) (The girl likes the dog). 3rd Person singular(-s) is not used in Turkish language. The simple present morpheme (ir) applies to verbs regardless the singularity of the subject, and it has the following allomorphs: (-ar, -er, -ir, -ir, -ur, -ьr, -r). They are based on the vowel harmony rule as in the following example: Ahmet зayi iзer /жhmet tжj ter/ Ahmet + tea + drink + present suffix (er) (Ahmed drinks tea) Accordingly, Turkish learners may produce the following wrongly:
Ahmed drink tea. They may also produce the following: ,,We are teacher,, in place of ,,we are teachers" In English when the subject of the sentence is plural, the NP2 will be plural; when it is singular, the NP2 is singular; however, in Turkish whether the subject is plural or not the NP2 is normally singular as follows: Biz retmeniz /biz retmeniz/ We + teacher + personal suffix stands for (Be) NP1 (pl.) Np2 (sing.) (we are teacher) in place of (we are teachers) All in all, using different methods based on the distinction between two languages and creating solutions to the problems that students face
while learning a language different from their mother tongue may shape the classroom learning efficiently and affect the students' positivity.
CONCLUSION This paper attempts to compare Turkish and English in terms of describing the similarities and differences between them in terms of syntax. Basic sentence patterns in English and Turkish are clarified and studied. To conclude, the paper finds the following: 1. The word order of the Turkish sentences can be described as SOV where the verb is positioned at the end but the word order of English sentences can be described as SVO. 2. Unlike English, Turkish shows that the word immediately before the verb is usually the most important word and it conveys the main point. 3. Transitive verbs in English and Turkish take direct and indirect objects, but they are different in terms of Vt and NP. Vt precedes the NP in English whereas Vt follows NP in Turkish. The Vt may take personal suffix reflecting the subject (NP)in Turkish. 4. In Turkish, the linking verbs cannot easily be recognized structurally. These verbs can be labeled according to their functions in the sentences. 4. When the subject of the English sentence is plural, the NP will be plural; when it is singular, the NP is singular; however, in Turkish whether the subject is plural or not the NP is normally singular. We can say such results of contrastive analysis are transferred to language teaching materials
, syllabuses and test construction. As a result of contrastive analysis, it is possible to eradicate the errors caused by the differences between L1 and L2.
SYNTACTIC CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH 243 REFERENCES Brown 2000 = H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, San Francisco
, Pearson Longman, 2000. Davidson 1996 = Brad Davidson, Pragmatic Weight and Spanish Subject Pronoun: The Pragmatic and discourse uses of ,,tu" and ,,yo" in spoken Madrid Spanish, in ,,Journal of Pragmatics", 26, 1996, p. 543-565 Demircan 1996=Brad Demircan, Tьrзke'nin Sesdizimi, Der Yayinlari, Istanbul, 1996. Ellis 1985 = R. Ellis, Understanding Second language acquisition
, Oxford, Oxford University
Press, 1985. Fries 1945 = C. C. Fries, teaching and learning
English as a Foreign Language, Michigan, University of Michigan
, 1945. Gцksel, Kerslake 2005 = Asl Gцksel, Celia Kerslake, Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar, London, Routledge, 2005. James 1980 = C. James, Contrastive Analysis, Longman Group Ltd., 1980. Lado 1957 = R. Lado, Linguistics Across Cultures: Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers, Michigan, University of Michigan, 1957. Kornfilt 1988 = Jaklin Kornfilt, A typology of Morphological Agreement and its Syntactic Consequences, in D. Brentari, G. Larson, L. Macleod (eds.), Papers from the 24th Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society,CLS 24,Chicago , Chicago Linguistic Society, 1988. Цzsoy 1987 = Sumuru Цzsoy, Null subject Parameter in Turkish, in H. F, Boeschoten, L. Th. Verhoven (eds), Studies on Modern Turkish Proceedings of the third Conference on Turkish Linguistics (PP82-91), Tilburg, Tilburg University
Press, 1987. Roach 2000 = Peter Roach, English Phonetics and Phonology, Cambridge, Cambridge University
Press, 2000. Stockwell et al. 1965 = Robert Stockwell, J. Bowen, J. Martin, The Grammatical Structure of English and Spanish, Chicago, University of Chicago
Press, 1965. Wardhaugh 1970 = R. Wardhaugh, The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis, in ,,TESOL Quarterly", 4, 1970, p. 123130. Appendix 1 The Turkish alphabet and writing conventions (adapted from Gцksel and Kerslake 2006, p. XXII) The list below provides a rough guide to the pronunciation of the 22 consonants and 8 Vowels in Turkish. Letter Pronunciation: A, a pronounced as u in `cup'; B, b b as in `bit; C, c j as in `jam'; З, з ch as in `chip'; D, d d as in `deep'; E, e e as in `ten'; F, f f as in `fit' or `full'; G, g g as in `get' or `gull'; either lengthens the sound of the vowel preceding it or is silent between two vowels; H, h h as in `hope'; pronounced also in word medial and final positions and sometimes silent between two vowels; I, i pronounced as a in `among', `alone'; , i a shorter form of ee as in `beet' or i as in `bit'; J, j s as in `leisure'; K, k k as in `kept', `cure' and `calf'; L, l l as in `lamp', `bull' or `lurid'; M, m m as in `milk'; N, n n as in `no'; O, o o as in `off'; Ц, ц resembles the sound which is produced when e as in `bet' is pronounced with the lips rounded, as in the German sound `ц'; P, p p as in `pin'; R, r produced with the tip of the tongue touching the alveolar; S, s s as in `hiss'; , sh as in `sheep'; T, t t as in `time'; U, u u as in `cute' or put'; Ь, ь resembles the sound which is produced when i as in `bit' is pronounced with the lips rounded, as in the German sound `ь; V, v v as in `very'; Y, y y as in `you'; Z, z z as in `zigza.
Abstract This study explores the differences and similarities between Turkish and English in the area of syntax. The discussion leads to the conclusion that the word order of the Turkish sentence can be described as SOV where the verb is positioned at the end whereas the word order of the English sentence can be described as SVO. Example: Sabahta зay iзtim /sжbжhtж tжj ittim/ morning + in (-ta) + tea + drink + past suffix (-ti) + personal suffix (I) (-m) (I drank tea in the morning). In Turkish, the nominal sentence (non-verbal sentence) consists of the subject which takes the initial position and the predicate which follows. A Personal suffix is attached to the predicate as the following examples show: Ben retmenim /ben retmenim/ I + teacher + personal suffix standing for Be ( im) (I am a teacher.) Sen retmensin /sen retmensin/ You + teacher + personal suffix standing for Be (-sin) (you are a teacher) Unlike English, the subject of Turkish could be cancelled if it is stated in the previous sentence and the personal suffix is attached to the verb instead, as the following example testifies: Akamta Ankaraya gittim /жkжmtж жnkжrжjж gitim/ evening + in (-ta) + Ankara + buffer sound between two vowels (-y) + to (-a) + go + past suffix(-ti) + personal suffix (I) (-m) (I went to Ankara in the evening). Such conclusions are helpful in language teaching materials, syllabuses and test construction. Keywords: Turkish, English, Syntax, nominal sentence, non-verbal sentence. English Department Alzaytoonah Private University of Jordan [email protected]