The Basic Requirements for Personnel Monitoring, S SERIES

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No. 14
The Basic Requirements for Personnel Monitoring
International Atomic Energy Agency VIENNA, 1965
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This publication is not longer valid Please see THE BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR PERSONNEL MONITORING
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The following States are Members of the International Atomic Energy Agency:
The Agency's Statute was approved on 23 October 1956 by the Conference on the Statute o f the IAEA held at United Nations Headquarters, New York; it entered Into force on 29 July 1957. The Headquarters of the Agency are situated in Vienna. Its principal objective is "to accelerate and enlarge the contribution o f atom ic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world". © IAEA, 1965 Permission to reproduce or translate the information contained in this publication m ay be obtained by writing to the International Atomic Energy Agency, K&rntner Ring 11, Vienna I, Austria. Printed by the IAEA in Austria April 1965
This publication is not longer valid Please see International Atomic Energy Agency. The basic requirements for personnel moni torin g. Report of a panel of experts. Vienna, the Agency, 1965. 43 p. (IA EA , Safety s e r ie s no. 14) 614.876 5 3 9 .1 2 .0 8 THIS CODE IS ALSO PUBLISHED IN FRENCH, RUSSIAN AND SPANISH THE BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR PERSONNEL MONITORING IAEA, VIENNA, 1965 STI/P U B /95
This publication is not longer valid Please see FOREWORD The code of practice presented here as part of the Agency's Safe ty Standards deals with the problem of personnel monitoring in establishments in which, or in part of which, work is primarily with radiation sources. It is a development of the fundamental require ments on the subject contained in the Agency's Basic Safety Standards. The code has been prepared by the Secretariat of the Agency on the basis of the work of a panel of experts drawn from a number of member states. In addition, representatives of several interested International Organizations participated in the work of the panel. The Board of Governors of the Agency considered this code of practice in September 1964 and authorized its application to Agency and Agency-assisted operations and recommended to Member States that it be taken into account in the formulation of national regulations or recommendations.
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LIST OF PANEL M EM BER S.............................................................. 9
1. IN TR O D U C TIO N ..................................................................................... 11
1.1. 1.2. 1.3.
G en eral............................................................................................ 11 Purpose and s c o p e ................................................... ............... 11 Explanation of term s used ..................................................... 12
2. BASIC CONCEPTS AND O R G A N IZA T IO N ................................ , 13 2 . 1 . Objectives ............................................... .................................... 13 2 . 2 . Requirements ............................................................................ 13 2 . 3 . Responsibilities and allocation of ta s k s ......................... 14
3. M ETHODS.......................... ....................................................................... 16 3. 1 . Individual monitoring ............................................................ 16 3. 2 . Area m onitoring........................................................................ 18
4. E X T E N T .............................. .................................................................... 20 4 . 1 . General ........................................................................................ 20 4 . 2 . Requirements related to the individual radiation sta tu s.......................................................................... 20 4 . 3 . Requirements related to the area radiation situ ation ........................................................................................ 21 4 . 4 . Requirements related to the job radiation situ ation ....................................................................................... 24 4 . 5 . Choice of devices, methods and frequency of a s s e s s m e n t............................................................................ 24
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5 . 1 . Selection of instruments ....................................................... 27 5 . 2 . Instruments for emergency u s e ......................................... 29 5 . 3 . Testing of instruments ......................................................... 29 5 . 4 . Calibration procedures ......................................................... 30
6. DOSE ASSESSMENT ............................................................................ 31 6 . 1 . G e n e r a l......................................................................................... 31 6 . 2 . Low -level exposure ................................................................ 31 6 . 3 . Significant levels of exposure............................................. 31 6 . 4 . O ver-exp osu re........................................................................... 32
7. R E C O R D S .................................................................................................. 33 7 . 1 . G e n e r a l......................................................................................... 33 7 . 2 . Individual radiation h is to r ie s ............................................. 33 7 . 3 . Records of environmental radiation levels .................. 34 7 . 4 . Calibration and maintenance r e c o r d s ............................. 34
8. T R A IN IN G .................................................................................................. 35
9. RE PO R TIN G ............................................................................................. 36
ANNEX I BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................. 37
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LIST OF panel members
G. Cowper (Chairman)
Atom ic Energy of Canada Ltd. , Chalk R iver, O n t . , Canada
F.P. Cowan** Y. Feige V. V. Frolov J.W. Healy* J . M. Lavie assisted by M. Dousset B . A . J . Lister T . Musialowicz S.D . Soman E. Stedje A. R. Wilson
Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, United States of A m erica Israel Atomic Energy Com m ission, Rehovoth, Israel State Com m ittee for Atom ic Energy, M oscow , USSR General E lectric C o . , Schenectedy, New York, United States of A m erica C o m m issa ria t &. l'E n e r g ie atomique, B . P . 307, Paris, France C om m issariat k l'E nergie atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France Atomic Energy Research Establish ment, Harwell, Be r k s . , England Central Radiological Protection Laboratory, W arsaw , Poland Atom ic Energy Establishment Trom bay, Bombay, India Institutt f^r Atom energi, K jeller, Norway Australian Atom ic Energy Com m ission, N. S. W. , Australia
* Participated in the first meeting only. * * Participated in the second meeting only. 9
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OBSERVERS W. G. P. Hiibner** Y. Nishiwaki * * F. Devik* L.E. Larsson** E. Hellen * J. N ehem ias** M iss E. Rhem** F. D. Sowby* C . Polvani * * E. Wallauschek
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Federal Republic of Germany Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-Okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland International Labour Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland International Labour Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland International Organization for Standardization, Paris, France International Commission on Radio logical Protection, Sutton, Surrey, England International Commission on Radio logical Protection, CNEN, Rome, Italy Organization for Economic Co operation and Development/European Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris, France
Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, IAEA
* Participated in the first meeting only. * * Participated in the second meeting only. 10
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1 .1 .
GENERAL This manual sets forth the objectives and requirements of an adequate system of personnel monitoring in a Radiation Protection programme, and describes the responsibilities inherent therein. In addition to a classification of the monitoring methods, the manual presents rules that govern their application as well as a choice of techniques and in struments. Reference is made also to the management and use of exposure data, and of personnel monitoring re cords. Annex I contains a bibliography of manuals, re ports and handbooks to supplement the contents of this manual.
1.2. 1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3.
PURPOSE AND SCOPE This code of practice for the establishment of adequate system s of personnel monitoring is part of the Agency's Safety Standards. It elaborates in detail the requirements of the Agency's Basic Safety Standards1) with respect to the assessment of exposure of individuals to ionizing radi ation within establishments where radiation sources are used. The code is provided for the guidance of those persons and authorities who are responsible for protection against ionizing radiation and for those concerned with the planning and management of personnel monitoring systems. Based on practices found satisfactory in establishments which have considerable experience, the code is par ticularly intended to be useful in situations where little or no previous experience ex ists.
>) Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, Safety Series No. 9, IAEA, Vienna (1962). 11
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1.3. 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.3.3.
EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED The term "personnel monitoring" commonly refers only to activities whose purpose is the direct evaluation of indi vidual doses and body burdens. For the purposes of this code, however, the term also includes activities (such as measurements of concentrations of radioactive material in air and measurements of area radiation levels) which contribute indirect information useful in evaluating indi vidual doses and body burdens. Thus, in this context, per sonnel monitoring encompasses individual monitoring and some aspects of area monitoring. "S h all" and "m u st" are used when the provision specifies a minimum standard of performance. "Should" is used where the provision is recognized as good practice which should be applied wherever feasible. Where the term "sign ifican t" is used, no particular nu merical limits are to be understood; the expert, from his own training and experience, will understand from the con text the degree of qualification intended. Where reference is made to radiological quantities and units, the definitions are in accordance with those given in the International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) report on radiation quantities and units2) . Definitions of other technical terms are to be found in Annex II. - If no definition is given, the term is understood to be used in its normally accepted scientific sense.
2) INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS. Report No. 10a, National Bureau o f Standards Handbook 84, Washington D. C. (1962).
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OBJECTIVES The principal objectives of a personnel monitoring system are to prevent over-exposure and avoid unnecessary expo sure of personnel working with various sources of radi ation. Within this general framework the system can be used for the following: (i) To give early indication of significant exposure so that the need for improved supervision, instruction, training and /or protective m easures can be a sse ssed ; (ii) To give prompt notice of accidental over-exposure so that appropriate, action may be taken; (iii) To a s s e s s the radiation sa fety of working a r e a s ; (iv) To observe the trends of exposure histories of indi viduals or groups of w orkers, in order to a ss e s s ithe need for improved standards of radiation protection; and (v) To provide a record of information which may be needed for legal purposes.
An adequate system of personnel monitoring must provide for the measurement, evaluation and recording of signifi cant doses accumulated by individuals together with a re cording of the conditions under which these doses were re ceived. The monitoring methods which may be required are: (i) Individual monitoring, including: (a) external radiation monitoring, for which radi ation measuring devices are worn by the worker (see 3. 1. 1. ); (b) internal contamination monitoring, by apparatus designed to measure radiation emitted from the
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body (whole-body monitors or partial-body mo nitors) or by bioassay procedures (see 3 . 1 . 2 . ) ; and (c) measurements of skin and clothing contamina tion (see 3 . 1 . 3 . ) ; and (ii) Area monitoring,including the determination of radi ation levels, air contamination and surface contami nation in the working area. This is done by: (a) measurements with radiation measuring instru ments and devices; and (b) calculations based on the amount of radioactive material present, its form and the nature of the processes in which the workers are exposed. An adequate system of personnel monitoring therefore requires: (i) Specification of the type and extent of personnel m o nitoring to be done; (ii) Selection, testing, calibration, maintenance and issue of suitable instruments; (iii) Monitoring and sample collection; (iv) Processing and interpretation of personnel moni toring data; (v) Interpretation of area monitoring data; and (vi) Maintenance of adequate records, and provision of the means to report such records. The functions described in (ii) and(iv) above may be carried out by a centralized service outside the particular installation.
2.3.1. 2.3.2.
In conformity with paragraph 5 . 1 . 2 . of the Agency's Basic Safety Standards the authority in charge shall, as part of its responsibility of ensuring protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, establish an adequate system of per sonnel monitoring and provide for the required services. When the personnel monitoring system is put into oper ation, the duties it entails should be distributed through out the organization, from the authority in charge down to the individual, to the extent appropriate at each level.
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2.3.3. 2.3.4.
The authority in charge shall: (i) Designate a technically qualified person to advise on the establishment of an appropriate personnel monitoring system within the establishment, to supervise its performance, and to report to the au thority in charge the doses received by individuals. The same person shall also advise on improvements to protection measures and on the action to be taken if perm issible exposure levels have been or are likely to be exceeded; and (ii) Ensure that department heads arrange for local supervision of the personnel monitoring system . Individual workers, after receiving appropriate instruc tions, shall be responsible for the correct wearing of phy sical indicators and for following the prescribed steps for internal dose determinations.
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The purpose of this section is to define and classify the methods of personnel monitoring discussed in subsequent sections. A brief description is given of the purpose of each method, how the method is applied, and what its limitations are.
Monitoring of external exposure
3 . 1 . 1 . 1 . Monitoring of external exposure is used: (i) To assess the whole-body dose and the doses received by parts of the body if there is any likelihood of their being significantly in excess of the whole-body dose. In cases of accidental over-exposure, such addition al information may be particularly useful in deciding on subsequent action; and (ii) To analyse the types and qualities of radiation to which the individual has been exposed. 3 . 1 . 1 . 2. Monitoring by physical indicators External exposure is usually monitored with physical in dicators. Physical indicators of small weight and size(film badges, pocket chambers, activation detectors, etc.) make it possible to estimate the dose equivalent for the region of the body where they are placed (see 4. 4 . 1 . 1 . ) , provided that the conversion factors required to calculate the dose equivalent from measured quantities can be determined. 3 . 1. 1. 3 . Monitoring by biological indicators If acute accidental over-exposure is suspected, additional data for the estimation of the individual dose may be ob tained from biological indicators, such as the whole body, body tissue and fluids, or excreta. The most suitable indi cator is selected after a study of any other information available about the exposure. In general the accuracy with 16
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which the conversion factors required to estimate the dose equivalent from the response of the biological indicators can be determined is lim ited, so that the monitoring by biological indicators, in general, gives only an order of magnitude of the dose equivalent.
3 . 1. 2.
Monitoring o f internal contamination
3.1. 2.1. 3. 1. 2. 2.
Monitoring of internal contamination is used for the identi fication of contaminants and the quantitative assessm ent of internally deposited radioactive materials. In all cases where the quantity is significant, the determination of the whole-body burden, the distribution within the body and the excretion pattern should be attempted to enable the best possible a ssessm en t of the dose equivalent. Internal contamination can be monitored by bioassay and/ or by whole-body or partial-body in vivo measurements. In the former case, the method is valid only to the extent that the relationship between the activity of the sample and the whole-body burden is known. In the latter case, the photon radiation from the radioactive substance taken into the body must be sufficiently energetic to allow a reasonable estimate of the body burden from the observed activity. It follows that such determinations will be seriously upset by the presence of superficial contamination on the body. The estimation of the dose equivalent from body burden values depends upon many parameters (e. g. macroscopic and microscopic distribution of the contaminant in the body, its retention in body tissu es, e t c . ) and is limited by the accuracy with which these param eters are known.
M onitoring o f skin and clothing contamination
Norm ally, monitoring of the skin and clothing is used to detect any potential risk of incorporation of radioactive material. For that purpose it is enough to employ a con tamination detector which will indicate whether the conta mination is below an acceptable lim it. A contamination detector which gives a quantitative response is useful in indicating the progress of decontamination and, in severe cases, the level of contamination.
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3 . 1 . 3. 2. 3. 1. 3. 3.
Skin and clothing contamination may be monitored by any detector of adequate sensitivity to the radiation in question, which is calibrated in accordance with the monitoring geo metry used so that its response can be interpreted in terms of the surface contamination. Special hand monitors or hand/foot monitors maybe convenient if frequent monitoring of hands or feet is required. It must be appreciated that the accuracy of skin contami nation measurements is limited by the accuracy with which the manv variable parameters (e. g. self absorption, geo metry, etc.) entering into the calculation are known. While: it is reasonable to lay down acceptable levels of surface contamination, the relationship between surface activity and detector output is sufficiently uncertain that the dis covery of any contamination should be treated with proper caution.
3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2.
AREA MONITORING Some indication of the dose received by a person may be obtained by monitoring his environment. In order to apply the results of such monitoring to the individual one must know how long he has been in the area, details of his move ments therein, and changes in environmental conditions with time. Unless these additional factors are accurately known, complete reliance can be placed on area monitoring only where the hazard is trivial and where the monitoring devices give adequate warning of any deterioration in ex posure conditions. The object of area monitoring is to provide an adequate assessm ent of the following: (i) External radiation; (ii) Concentrations of radioactive aerosols and gases in the air. A discussion of the details of instrumen tation and techniques applicable to area monitoring
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3.2.3. 3.2.4. 3.2.5.
will be found in the manuals of the IAEA Safety S e r i e s 3),-and (iii) Surface contamination. When the purpose is to provide an assessment of individual exposure, area monitoring is carried out in the specific working area of the individual concerned. It is aimed at determining the type, energy, level and uniformity of the radiation. Radiation levels are determined by instruments (portable or semi-portable) designed to indicate directly the rate of external radiation exposure. Area monitoring for the assessment of individual exposure is carried out in such a manner that the results are typi cal of the radiation intensity during the working period. Care must be taken to account for spatial and tem poral variations in the working area, as otherwise the results will be of value only so long as the radiation conditions remain unchanged. A ir sampling procedures are based on the assumption that the activity of the sampled air is representative of the ac tivity in the inhaled air. Since the concentration of activity in the air an individual breathes may be substantially dif ferent from that in the working space as a whole, it is pre ferable to sample the air directly in his zone, using port able or semi-portable devices. It should be noted that the activity retained by the individual may not be equal to the activity in the air inhaled.
3') Safe Handling of Radioisotopes, Safety Series No. 1, pp. 20-23.
Safe Handling of Radioisotopes, Safety Series No. 2 - Health Physics Addendum, p. 43.
Safe Handling of Radioisotopes, Safety Series No. 3 Medical Addendum,
p. 35.
Safe Operation of Critical Assemblies and Research Reactors, Safety Series No. 4,pp. 23,
35-36. Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, Safety Series No. 9, pp. 24*26, 28.
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4.1.1. 4.1.2.
The extent of personnel monitoring required in any situ ation will depend upon the following: (i) The radiation status of the individual, i.e . the dose limitation which must be applied to his work or activity during a given surveillance period as a consequence of his radiation category4' , his ex posure history or for other reasons; (ii) The over-all radiation situation in the area con cerned, i . e . the exposure potentials in that area; and (iii) The radiation situation associated with the job in hand, i. e. the exposure potentials related to the par ticular work performed. An adequate system of personnel monitoring, while meeting all the technical objectives, should be designed to operate within reasonable cost lim its.
4 . 2 . 1 . W orkers d irectly engaged in radiation work
4. 2.1.1.
Depending upon the area radiation situation every worker directly engaged in radiation work shall be subject to per sonal exposure evaluation for: (i) External radiation only; or (ii) Internal contamination only; or (iii) Both external radiation and internal contamination.
4) See IAEA Safety Series No. 9, paragraph 2. 3. 20
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4. 2 . 1 . 2. 4. 2 . 1 . 3. 4. 2.1.4.
The radiation status of these workers shall be checked periodically, and adequate records of all occupational radi ation exposure must be kept in accordance with chapter 7. If a person considered for employment has already been a radiation worker, individual monitoring of internal con tamination may be considered before his employment. This process will be useful only in connection with certain radionuclides. The results of such analyses may have a bearing on the suitability of applicants for employment. When the accumulated dose equivalent of a worker is near the accepted lim its, or when some special restriction of exposure is advisable for other reasons, and it is not practicable to change his work to avoid subsequent ex posure, it would be prudent to increase the extent of indi vidual monitoring in that particular case.
W ork ers not d ire c tly engaged in radiation work
4. 2. 2.1. 4. 2. 2. 2.
Norm ally, it will be sufficient to monitor the conditions under which a worker not directly engaged in radiation work is exposed in a controlled area by area monitoring techniques. However, it may be advisable to apply individual moni toring methods if the worker could receive a significant radiation dose as a result of unexpected acts or occurren ces in the area (see 4. 3 . 1. 3 and 4. 3. 2. 1).
4. 2. 3.
Visitors shall be treated as workers not directly engaged in radiation work.
Normal Working Conditions
4. 3.1.1.
Working areas should be classified to indicate whether, under normal operating conditions, personnel risk being exposed:
This publication is not longer valid Please see (i) To external radiation only; (ii) To loose surface and/or air contamination only,- or (iii) To both (i) and (ii). A further classification ac cording to the level of the risk might be desirable to determine whether special control and super vision are required to keep radiation exposures within the recommended lim its. 4 . 3 . 1 . 2. Individual monitoring shall be provided for each person working in a controlled area who could be exposed to ex ternal radiation or to internal contamination resulting in annual doses in excess of those given in paragraph 3 .2 of IAEA Safety Series No. 9. (i) The doses received from external radiation shall be evaluated by the use of one or more individual radi ation detectors carried continuously on the person while in the controlled area. (ii) The doses received from internal radiation shall be evaluated where necessary by in vivo measurements or bioassay techniques which enable the intake or body burden of radioactive materials to be evaluated. The frequency of assessm ents shall be such that com pliance with the Basic Safety Standards is ensured. 4. 3. 1. 3. The case of each individual who occasionally enters a con trolled area shall be reviewed in the light of area surveys and personal contamination surveys to decide whether he shall be subject to individual monitoring. 4. 3 . 1 . 4 . Where significant contamination may occur, monitoring of skin and clothing contamination shall be carried out on all persons leaving the area; as a minimum, hands and shoes shall be monitored. 4. 3. 1. 5. Area monitoring shall be done in all areas where exposure conditions cannot be predicted or could be subject to un expected and significant changes. The use of installed instruments with recording and alarm facilities may be a convenience in installations where many areas have to be kept under scrutiny. Where area monitoring is done by manual methods, the frequency of monitoring should be related to the operations in progress and should be higher during any period when significant changes in radi ation levels are possible. 22
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4 .3 .2 . Emergency conditions
4. 3. 2.1. 4. 3. 2. 2. 4. 3. 2. 3. 4. 3.2.4.
Qualified experts should define areas in which serious radi ation hazards could arise in the event of an accident. Where such areas exist it is n ecessa ry to plan the monitoring system s required under emergency conditions. The ex tent of such planning and the provision of facilities for dose evaluation under emergency conditions will depend on both the probability and the seriousness of the potential em er gency situation. Where a very serious accident is at all likely to occur, planning should include: (i) The establishment of an emergency monitoring pro gramme, including detailed guidance as to the se quence of operations to be performed, the monitoring methods which must be applied, the processing and evaluation of monitoring data, and subsequent actions; (ii) The training of monitoring and rescue personnel in the proper execution of the monitoring programme under emergency conditions; (iii) Arrangements for help from dosimetry experts out side the establishment if the capability of the establishments's own staff is insufficient; (iv) The installation of monitoring devices adequate to measure foreseeable radiation hazards. An essen tial feature of these devices is an alarm which gives an unambiguous indication to everyone in the hazard area that a serious situation has arisen; and (v) The provision of high range portable monitoring de vices, which should be kept in working order at all tim es. Personnel working in areas of potentially high radiation hazard should be supplied with d osim eters enabling the rapid identification of highly exposed persons who may need m edical care, and covering a dose range relevant to clinical treatment. D isaster dosim eter stations containing neutron detectors should be designed so that it is possible to extract the dosi m eters for evaluation after the event without excessive additional exposure of w orkers. Bioassay services should be adequate to handle, without unreasonable delay, the number of people who may be in
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volved in a serious contamination emergency. This may require arrangements for assistance from outside the establishment.
The characteristics of each job should be examined to de termine the risk of radiation exposure associated with it. 4 . 4 . 1 . The following items may be relevant in assessing the job radiation situation. Some of these can be anticipated with greater certainty than others, and the gradual acquisition of experience will lead to improved assessments. 4 . 4 . 1 . 1 . For external radiation: (i) The types and energies of external radiation; (ii) The spatial distribution of radiation sources and their associated radiation fields; and (iii) Predictions of close rates associated with the de tailed operations to be performed and their likely variations with time. 4 . 4 . 1 . 2. For internal contamination: (i) The nature and quantity of the radioactive materials handled; (ii) The degree of containment (e.g. glove boxes, manipu lation chambers, etc.); (iii) The nature of the operation (e. g. wet chemistry, dry operations, etc.); (iv) The laboratory conditions (e. g. ventilation rates); and (v) The existence of associated dangers (e. g. spontane ous combustion or explosion).
4 . 5 . 1 . External radiation 4. 5 . 1 . 1 . A proper assessment of the individual, area and job radi ation situations should make it possible to select adequate 24
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4. 5. 1. 2. 4. 5. 1. 3. 4. 5.1.4. 4. 5 . 1. 5.
personnel monitoring devices and methods, and the proper frequency of exposure assessm ents. In simple cases it will be sufficient if the individual wears a single dosimeter on the trunk of the body; the readings provided by this dosimeter are accepted as representing the whole body exposure to external radiation. In situations made complex by the presence of several types of radiation it will be necessary to wear a dosimeter sen sitive to all types of radiation likely to be encountered. In situations where the radiation distribution is not uniform it may be necessary to wear dosimeters in several places on the body, so that an adequate assessment of the exposure can be made. Individual dosimeters should be read as frequently as the nature of the work demands. Where estimates of the radi ation hazard can be made with confidence, it will be suf ficient to take readings once every few weeks. In special cases where radiation levels can change unpredictably, it is advisable for individuals to wear warning dosimeters which sound an alarm when a predetermined level has been reached, so that exposures can be minimized. Area surveys are an essential procedure in assessing the job radiation situation. The frequency and extent of such surveys will depend upon the work in hand, and previous experience may be useful. However, the possibility of the unexpected happening should never be overlooked, and in particular during the early stages of new p ro ce sse s frequent monitoring will be advisable.
4. 5. 2. Internal contamination
4. 5. 2.1.
The choice of monitoring methods and frequency of moni toring will depend on one's knowledge of the radioactive m aterials and conditions of work found in the particular job and working area; the decision must be left to the dis cretion of an expert. However, in the event of an un predicted change in the radiation situation of the job or working area involving the possibility of internal contami nation, the authority on the spot (or when necessary, the individual worker) should clearly understand it is his duty to report the situation and follow instructions concerning
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5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3.
Equipment for each monitoring method should be selected with the following points in mind: (i) Instrum ents should yield valid and rep rod u cib le data and should not e x ce e d rea son a b le lim its with re g a rd to in itial cost or the co st o f operation and m aintenance; and (ii) The limitations of each instrument should be clearly understood by the u sers. No single instrument can be expected to perform all the monitoring functions re quired, and for any particular function its per formance may not measure up to the desired stan dards. The user should also realize that even the best instrument may easily give incorrect informa tion when incorrectly operated. The adequacy o f an instrum ent used fo r quantitative m ea su re m ents should be a sse sse d by the extent to which (i) Its response to the quantity measured can be cali brated and interpreted; (ii) It maintains its calibration; (iii) Its sensitivity suits the intended application; (iv) Its response is directional; (v) Its response is affected by variations in environ mental conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, dust, vapour, wind, light, electric or magnetic fields) and operational conditions (e. g. rough treatment, voltage and frequency fluctuations of the mains, e t c . ). If an instrument is to be used for personnel dosimetry of external radiation, it must either respond to radiations of different qualities and types with enough sensitivity to give a true indication of the dose equivalent, or a lte r natively it must contain sufficient components sensitive mainly to radiations of different types that a proper estimate of the dose equivalent can be computed from the 27
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5.1.4. 5.1.5. 5.1.6. 5.1.7. 28
responses of the components. The detector of an instru ment used for individual monitoring of external radiation must also be of sufficiently sm all size to permit it to be worn by the individual without inconvenience. Desirable characteristics of survey (dose-rate, flux den sity, contamination) meters are: (i) An adequate range of response; (ii) A short response time; (iii) Full scale readings for levels above the range of the instrument; (iv) A built-in performance check; (v) A detachable detector head so that remote oper ation is possible; (vi) An audible output in the case of contamination m eters; and (vii) Background compensation. In vivo m easurem ents can be made with the following: (i) A whole-body counter which should possess the cha racteristics outlined below: (a) Its response should be independent of the distri bution of activity within: the body; (b) Its output should indicate by the spectrum of the radiation emitted the probable identity of the in ternal contamination; and (c) Its background activity should be low and constant; (ii) A partial-body counter for the external measurement of radiation from particular organs; and (iii) Probes of small dimensions for the detection of radio active materials in wounds. Whilst sensitive whole-body counters are generally ex pensive, less sensitive ones adequate for emergency per sonnel monitoring can be obtained at relatively low cost. For internal contamination the application of proper bio assay techniques is probably more important than the de tailed ch aracteristics of the analytical instrumentation used. It is not possible to make a generalized statement about this aspect of monitoring. Air sampling, sam ple-processing and sample-monitoring techniques should be adapted to the nature of the contami nant (the particular radionuclide, particle size, etc. ) and
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to the area for which the sample is intended to be repre sentative (e. g. general area or breathing zone). There fore, it is hard to generalize about the characteristics a good instrument should have. Its m erits must be de termined by the extent to which it meets the specific re quirements of each particular monitoring method.
5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.2.3. 5.2.4.
Rate m eters should have the following characteristics: (i) A practical range; (ii) A high degree of reliability rather than high accuracy; (iii) Adequate ruggedness; (iv) Simple operating convenience, including a single logarithmic scale and provision for remote handling and remote readings; and (v) Good shelf life to permit use at any time. D osim eters (non-alarm ) should have the two character istics listed below: (i) A range of response covering doses of clinical inte rest; and (ii) Provision for rapid reading. D osim eters (alarm) should give an unambiguous audible indication when a preselected dose is reached. The characteristics of installed high-range area monitors are: (i) F ail-sa fe devices such as low-reading indicators and the possibility to show a small positive reading at all times; (ii) Alarm signals which cannot be confused with any other audible signals in use; (iii) Additional indicators which can be read outside the region of actual hazard; and (iv) Reliable power sources.
5.3. 5.3.1.
TESTING OF INSTRUMENTS Before issue, and after each maintenance procedure, in struments must be given an adequate test.
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5 .3 .2 . 5. 3.3 . 5.3.4.
Each type of instrument will require a test procedure to be applied during use. The frequency and extent of testing will depend on its particular characteristics and the manner in which'it is used. Functional testing by users should be arranged in a manner sufficiently convenient to encourage its application. Users should realize the importance of returning any ap parently defective instrument for maintenance.
CALIBRATION PROCEDURES The calibration of instruments should be verified at regu la r intervals, the actual interval depending upon the instrument type. In selecting acceptable lim its of p er form ance, the u ser should bear in mind the overall ac curacy required and demand no more than the performance which is necessary and reasonable.
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GENERAL The relative accuracy of dose assessm ent should be ap propriate to the level of exposure. These levels may be classified as follows: (i) L o w -le v e l ex p osu re, at w hich the d ose accum ulated o v e r an extended p eriod w ill be below the ap p rop riate recom m ended lim its; (ii) Significant exposure, i. e. exposure which if continued would lead to an accumulated dose beyond the recom mended lim its . Such exposure may require investi gation so that sim ilar occurrences can afterwards be avoided; (iii) Over-exposure, which requires immediate investi gation and which, above a certain level, may re quire medical examination or treatment.
6.2. 6.2.1.
LO W -LEVEL EXPOSURE In the case of low-level exposure, where the only purpose of assessm ent is to accumulate lifetime radiation history, the external dose distribution over the whole body is of trivial importance. The data provided by a personnel dosi meter at one point on the body are adequate. In cases of very slight internal contamination, it is adequate if the assessment merely confirms that "insignificant" contami nation has occurred.
6. 3.1.
At the significant level, it may be necessary to assess the dose to particular organs when non-uniform exposure to external radiation has occurred. For the purposes of con-
This publication is not longer valid Please see trol, the dose to the portable dosimeter on the trunk of the body may be reported as the dose received by the whole body. Where there has been significant internal contamination, it is important to express the amount quantitatively if pos sible. If the dose equivalent is thought to be appreciable, every effort should be made to a sse ss the internal dose contribution. The level of internal contamination may be indicated by any of the following: (i) Specific activity of a bioassay sample; (ii) Activity of the whole body; (iii) Activity of the critical organ; or (iv) Dose equivalent of the dose received by the critical organ. In assessing the dose equivalent, the quality and distri bution factors must be applied if the relevant information is available. OVER-EXPOSURE When an over-exposure has taken place, it is important to determine its severity as soon as p ossible. A more exact estim ate can be made after the em ergency. The early estimates should be aimed at identifying the seriously exposed workers. In severe cases of skin contamination or internal contami nation, the time spent on the measurement of known con tamination should be balanced against the urgency of de contamination. In cases of severe over-exposure, all available dosimetry information should be gathered, in view of the fact that these data may be of great importance to the individual's welfare and also, because such incidents are comparative ly rare, that they are likely to be of considerable value in furthering knowledge of radiation effects upon humans. It may be necessary to simulate the radiation incident with proper precautions to gather such data.
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7.1. 7.1.1. 7.1.2.
GENERAL Personal exposure records must be kept to permit periodic evaluation of the effectiveness of radiation protection with in the organization, and to enable the occupational radi ation exposure history of any individual covered by per sonnel monitoring system s to be presented in sufficient detail. Individual exposure records should include details of moni toring procedures so that the validity of the data can be a sse ssed . In addition, records of environmental radi ation conditions should also be kept. Records of the cali bration and maintenance of monitoring devices are of tra n sito ry significance and th erefore le s s im portant.
7. 2. 7.2.1. 7.2.2. 7.2.3.
IN D IV ID U A L R A D IA T IO N H ISTO RIES Individual radiation histories should include: (i) Details of external radiation exposure based on routine dosimetry methods and equivalent data from internal contamination measurements; (ii) Adequate descriptions - including descriptions of doses received - of particular incidents involving out-of-the-ordinary exposures; and (iii) Other pertinent details where appropriate. Records of the assessm en t of individual doses shall be p reserved during the lifetim e of the person concerned, and in any case for at least 30 years after he has ceased to do work involving exposure to ionizing radiation. The method of storing data will depend on the size of the organization and the frequency with which a ccess to the records is needed. There should always be sufficient in formation stored with the exposure data to ensure clear identification of the individual concerned. It should be 33
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noted, in this regard, that the storage of data concerning temporary workers and visitors may present particular p roblem s.
7.3. 7.3.1. 7. 3. 2. 7.3.3.
RECORDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION LEVELS It may be desirable for several reasons to keep records showing the radiation conditions of working areas as well as areas in proxim ity to the installation which are fr e quented by the general public. Information obtained from properly identified recording meter data will have greater significance than the listing of isolated m easurements. However, for unusual oc currences involving significant radiation exposure only the latter may be available. In these cases, care should be taken to ensure, that the record of the incident is as com plete and reliable as possible. Except where significant exposure to an individual is in volved, records of survey meter readings are in general only of transitory interest and serve principally to guide operators in the improvement of radiation working conditions.
7.4.1. 7.4.2.
The calibration record of a monitoring device is of interest only during the period between calibrations. The record should indicate the prim ary standard against which the calibration has been made and should also identify any se condary standards used to provide a link between the device and the primary standard. The maintenance record of an instrument should establish: (i) The types of instrument that are sufficiently reliable; (ii) The confidence in a particular instrument or model; and (iii) The Performance requirements for improved in struments for particular tasks.
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8.1. 8.2.
All persons, before entering controlled areas for the first time or taking up radiation work, shall be given general information sufficient to acquaint them with personal monitoring devices and with the radiation protection poli cies and practices that are in effect within the installation. A ll workers should be adequately informed as to how to proceed in the event of an alarm indicating a serious radi ation emergency.
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9.1. 9.2. 9.3.
Radiation exposure data should be available to the indi vidual concerned. It is considered good practice to inform workers of the dose they have received. The frequency with which such information is made known will depend on local factors. Whenever an individual is involved in a radiation incident of any kind requiring investigation (whether over-exposure is involved or not) he should be so advised. His viewpoint of the incident m ay a ssist in avoiding a recurrence and should be given appropriate consideration by the authority in charge. When it is felt desirable, the supervisor, the radiation p ro te ctio n sta ff o r the m e d ica l sta ff - depending on lo c a l practice - may discuss an individual's radiation status with him.
This publication is not longer valid Please see ANNEX I BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. STANDARDS AND CODES OF PRACTICE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY [1] Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, Safety Series No. 9, IAEA, Vienna (1962). [2] Code o f Practice for the Provision o f Radiological Protection Services, Safety Series No. 13, IAEA, Vienna (1964). [3] Safe Handling of Radioisotopes, 1st Ed., Appendix I, Rev., Safety Series No. 1, IAEA, Vienna (1962). [4] Safe Handling of Radioisotopes, Health Pfiysits Addendum, Safety Series No. 2, IAEA, Vienna (1960). [5] Safe Handling of Radioisotopes, Medical Addendum, Safety Series No. 3, IAEA, Vienna (1960). [6] Safe Operation-of Critical Assemblies and Research Reactors, Safety Series No. 4, IAEA, Vienna (1961). INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION [7 ] Manual o f Industrial Radiation Protection, Part I: Convention and Recommendation con cerning the Protection o f Workers against Ionizing Radiations, ILO, Geneva (1960). [8] Manual of Industrial Radiation Protection, Part II: Model Code of Safety Regulations (Ionizing Radiations), ILO, Geneva (1959). [9] Manual on Industrial Radiation Protection, Part III; General Guide on Protection against Ioni zing Radiation, ILO, Geneva (1963). WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION [10] Public Health Responsibilities in Radiation Protection, Technical Report Series No. 254, WHO, Geneva (1963). [11] Medical Supervision in Radiation Work, Technical Report Series No. 196, WHO, Geneva (I960). INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS [12] Radiation Quantities and Units, ICRU Report No. 10 a, National Bureau of Standards, Hand book 84, Washington D. C. (1962). 2. TECHNICAL REPORTS, PROCEEDINGS, etc. 2. 1. MONITORING OF EXTERNAL RADIATION INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY [1] The Use of Film Badges for Personnel Monitoring, Safety Series No. 8, IAEA, Vienna (1962). [2] Selected Topics in Radiation Dosimetry, Proc. Symp. , Vienna (June 1960) IAEA, Vienna (1961). 37
This publication is not longer valid Please see EUROPEAN NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY [3] Personnel Dosimetry Techniques for External Radiation, Proc. Symp. Madrid, ENEA, Paris (1963). UNITED KINGDOM ATOMIC ENERGY AUTHORITY [4] Film Badge Dosimetry. Proc, Symp. Harwell, (Oct. 1961) UKAEA,Harwell (1962). 2. 2. MONITORING OF CONTAMINATION (internal, skin and clothing) INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY [1] Directory o f Whole-Body Monitors, IAEA, Vienna (1964). [2] Whole-Body Counting, Proc. Symp. Vienna (June 1961) IAEA, Vienna(1962). [3] Assessment of Radioactive Body Burdens in Man, Proc. Symp. Heidelberg (May 1964) IAEA, Vienna _I, H (1964). [4] Diagnosis and Treatment o f Radioactive Poisoning, Proc. Scientific Meeting, Vienna (Oct. 1962) IAEA, Vienna (1962). [5 ] Radiological Health and Safety in Mining and Milling o f Nuclear Materials, Proc. Symp. Vienna (Aug. 1963) IAEA, Vienna II (1964), pp. 363-508. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION [6] Methods of Radiochemicai Analysis, Technical Report Series No. 173, WHO, Geneva (1959). EURATOM [7] Radioactive Contamination o f Workers, Proc. Symp. Munich (Oct. 1962) EURATOM, Brussels (1964). 38
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Authority, competent
A governmental or international authority having jurisdiction in respect o f the activities under consideration.
Authority in charge
The official o f an installation held responsible by the competent authority.
Area, controlled
An area scheduled as such for the purpose o f controlling individual ex posure, and under the supervision o f a person who has the knowledge and responsibility to apply appropriate radiation protection regulations. ·
The word "bioassay" refers to the analysis o f biological material with a view to assessing the body's content o f Toxic Substances.
Contamination, radioactive Contamination, internal Expert Exposure
Radioactive contamination is the presence in or on a material of radio active substances, in concentrations greater than those which occur naturally, so that either a technical inconvenience or a radiation hazard is caused. Radioactive contamination of surfaces is referred to as surface contamination. Surface contamination may be in loose or fixed form. The former is easily removed by normal cleaning methods whereas removal of the latter may result in damage to the contaminated surface. Radioactive contamination of air is referred to as air contamination. Air contamination may be caused by radioactive gases, vapours or solids in air. The presence of foreign radioactive substances within the body. An expert is a person having the knowledge and training required to give advice on protective measures and operating procedures which will ensure effective radiation protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiation. Ln general, for the purposes o f this manual, the term exposure is used in its more general sense with reference to objects or bodies exposed to ex ternal and/or internal radiation. Where the term is used as a physical quantity it is underlined (e. g. exposure, exposure rate).
Exposure, planned emergency
A planned emergency exposure is a planned exceptional exposure required by compelling or overwhelming necessity.
Over-exposure, accidental
An accidental over-exposure is an unforeseen exposure resulting in a radiation dose or in the intake of radioactive materials, in excess of the maxi mum permissible values.
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Radiation, external Source Source, sealed Source, unsealed
External radiation is ionizing radiation reaching the body from external sources. A source is an apparatus or substance em itting ionizing radiation. A sealed source is comprised of encapsulated or bonded radioactive materials used to provide an external radiation field but so constructed as to prevent the escape of any radioactive materials under all foreseeable conditions of use. An u n sealed so u rce is an y ra d io a c tiv e so u rce w hich is not a se a le d so u rce.
This publication is not longer valid Please see OTHER A G E N C Y PUBLICATIONS IN THE S A F E T Y SERIES No. 1 - SAFE HANDLING OF RADIOISOTOPES - STI/PUB/l/REV. 1 120 p. (14.8x 21 cm ) - US $1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. This Manual, prepared by an International Group of experts in consultation with other inter national agencies, and originally published in 1958, covers medical, technical and organizational aspects o f safety practices and deals with maximum permissible levels for exposure to radiation, organization o f safety, medical supervision of workers, monitoring and records, use, storage and transportation of sealed and unsealed sources, accidents, de contamination and waste disposal. The current edition (published 1962) has a revised Appendix I incorporating the latest ICRP recommendations. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 2 - SAFE HANDLING OF RADIOISOTOPES - HEALTH PHYSICS ADDENDUM - STl/PUB/10 120 p. (14.8X 21 cm ) US $1.50; S 31.50; 9 /-stg . The Health Physics Addendum is one of two supplements to the Manual on "Safe Handling of Radioisotopes", which the IAEA published in 1958. It contains technical information needed by health physicists in implementing the controls recommended in the Manual and was compiled by the Agency's Secretariat on the basis o f material prepared by two of the expert members of the Panel whose recommendations form the text of the Manual itself. A valuable feature of the Addendum is the Annex of useful health physics data in the form of tables, diagrams and illustrations of instruments. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 3 - SAFE HANDLING OF RADIOISOTOPES - MEDICAL ADDENDUM - S T l/P U B /ll 80 p. (1 4.8X 21 cm ) - US $1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. The Medical Addendum is one of two supplements to the Manual on "Safe Handling of Radio isotopes", which the IAEA published in 1958. It contains technical information needed by medical officers in implementing the controls recommended in the Manual and was compiled by the Agency's Secretariat on the basis o f material prepared by two of the expert members of the Panel whose recommendations form the text of the Manual itself. It also contains a useful bibliography of the relevant international literature. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 4 - SAFE OPERATION OF CRITICAL ASSEMBLIES AND RESEARCH REACTORS - STI/PUB/29 104 p. (14.8 X 21 cm) US $1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. This Manual was prepared by the Agency's Secretariat, after careful consideration of existing national safety practices, with the assistance o f an international panel of experts and in 41
This publication is not longer valid Please see consultation with other international bodies concerned, in order to meet an urgent need for a manual o f practices in the safe operation of critical assemblies and research reactors. Many suggestions are included which also concern the organizational and administrative side of reactor operation. The Manual, therefore, is a useful guide not only for technical men but also for various authorities and persons otherwise responsible for the use of such equipment. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 5 - RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL INTO THE SEA - STl/PUB/14 168 p. (14.8X21 cm) US $2.50: S 52.50; l5/-stg. This document, which has becom e known as the "Brynielsson Report", is the report o f a panel convened by the Agency's Director General and presided over by Mr. Harry Brynielsson, managing director of AB Atomenergi (Sweden). While it does not necessarily express the views on this subject either o f the Agency or o f the bodies to which the individual panel members belong, it represents the general considered opinion of a group of distinguished scientists and other experts, who believe that waste disposal operations can be controlled in such a way as to safeguard man against the deleterious effects of radiation, A series of recommendations for an international agreement to that effect is offered, together with material for the practical guidance of those who are technically concerned with radioactive waste disposal into the sea. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 6 - REGULATIONS FOR THE SAFE TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS - STl/PUB/40 76 p. (14.8 x 21 cm) US $1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. This publication contains the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials to be applied to all Agency operations and to Agency-assisted operations. These regulations were prepared in draft form by two panels o f experts. Topics dealt with include packaging requirements, limitation o f external dose rate, general requirements for the transport of radioactive materials o f low specific activity, of fissile materials, and of large radioactive sources. The Annexes to the regulations provide information on the classification of radio nuclides in terms o f their radiotoxicity and on the methods of ensuring that packages o f fissile materials are safe from nuclear interaction. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 7 - REGULATIONS FOR THE TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS: NOTES ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE REGULATIONS - STI/PUB/32 112 p. (14.8X21 cm) - US $1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. This booklet contains background information on the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (Safety Series No. 6). On the one hand, some of the scientific consider ations which led to the specific limits laid down in the Regulations are discussed; on the other, the practical information it contains on the meaning and use of the Regulations, including a "layman' s guide", a synoptic table, guidance on packaging, e t c ., will be of 42
This publication is not longer valid Please see value to transporters o f radioactive materials who are called upon to comply with the Re gulations. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 8 - USE OF FILM BADGES FOR PERSONNEL MONITORING - STI/PUS/43 80 p. (14.8 X 21 cm) - US $1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. This Manual offers an exhaustive review o f the subject of the use o f photographic film in personnel monitoring. It is especially useful for persons working with radionuclides, whether natural or artificial; however, since the principles o f photographic personnel monitoring apply to any kind of ionizing radiation, regardless of its source, the manual is equally ap plicable for persons using X-ray machines, neutron generators or particle accelerators. A large number of references to the literature, including relevant national and international recommendations, is given. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 9 - BASIC SAFETY STANDARDS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION - STI/PUB/26 57 p. (14.8X21 cm) US $1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. A panel o f 20 experts under the chairmanship o f Prof. L. Bugnard of France assisted the IAEA in formulating these Basic Safety Standards. They are also recommended as a basis for the formulation of national regulations. Contents: Explanation of terms; Scope; Maximum permissible doses; Practical control of radiation doses; Fundamental operational principles. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. No. 10 - DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES INTO FRESH WATER - STI/PUB/44 100 p. (14.8 x 21 cm) - US$1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. This is the Report o f an ad hoc panel under the chairmanship o f Dr. J.J.Hopmans of the Netherlands. The volume is a complement to Safety Series No. 5. Subjects: (Part 1) fate o f wastes in fresh water; radiation exposure from waste disposal; site considerations; determination of discharge procedures and monitoring and control require ments; legal, administrative and organizational principles o f pollution control; pollution control o f international fresh water; conclusion and recommendations; (Part II) sources, amounts and management practices; main transfer mechanisms; dose calculations. A vailable in English, French, Russian and Spanish. N o .ll - METHODS OF SURVEYING AND MONITORING MARINE RADIOACTIVITY - STI/PUB/86 95 p. (14.8x21 cm ) - US $2.00; S 42.00; 12/-stg. A manual based on the report of an ad hoc panel under thechairmanship of Dr. C. Polvani o f Italy which describes techniques for surveying and monitoring the marine environment for radioactivity. 43
This publication is not longer valid Please see Contents: Introduction; selection o f required measurements and sampling; survey; moni toring; analytical procedures for radionuclides of interest; measurement of radioactivity; natural radionuclides in marine material; sampling procedures with reference to size of sample; examples o f survey and monitoring practices and facilities. The text also includes numerous references and bibliographical data. Available in English, French, Russian and Spanish. N o.l2-TH E MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES PRODUCED BY RADIOISOTOPE USERS STI/PUB/87 60 p. (14.8X21 cm )-U S $ 1 .5 0 ; S 31.50; 9/-stg. This publication is intended for the guidance o f radioisotope users and others responsible for the individual or collective management of radioactive wastes from laboratories, hospitals and industry where no special facilities are available. No. 13 - THE PROVISION OF RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION SERVICES- STl/PUB/95 7 7 p ..(14.8X21 cm) - US $1.50; S 31.50; 9/-stg. This publication is a code o f practice for the provision o f radiological protection services for establishments in which, or in part of which, work is primarily with radiation sources. It was prepared with the help o f an international panel of experts and representatives of international organizations which have an interest in this field. 44
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