VALHALLA UNION FREE SCHOOL DISTRICT, MJS Principal, MDMA Principal

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Content: VALHALLA UNION FREE SCHOOL DISTRICT VALHALLA HIGH SCHOOL HISTORY CURRICULUM Dr. Thomas Kelly, Ph.D. .................Superintendent of Schools Mr. Jerry Salese ...............................Principal Mrs. Diane Martin ...........................Assistant Principal Date Approved:
TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview of the History Program at Valhalla High School.......................................1 Grade 9 Global History and Geography.......................................................................2 Course Description ............................................ .......................................... 2 Student Objectives ....................................................................................................2 Course Content..........................................................................................................3 Assessment of Student Progress ....................................................................................6 Grade 10 Global Studies II.............................................................................................7 Course Description....................................................................................................7 Student Objectives ....................................................................................................7 Course Content..........................................................................................................8 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................13 Grade 10/11 Advanced Placement (AP)European History.......................................15 Course Description..................................................................................................15 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................15 Course Content........................................................................................................16 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................29 Grade 11 United States History and Government .....................................................31 Course Description..................................................................................................31 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................31 Course Content........................................................................................................31 Assessment of Student Progress .................................................................................33 Grade 11 Advanced Placement (AP)United States History ......................................34 Course Description..................................................................................................34 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................34 Course Content........................................................................................................34 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................48 Grade 12 Social Studies................................................................................................49 Course Description..................................................................................................49 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................49 Course Content........................................................................................................50 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................52
Grade 12 Government ..................................................................................................53 Course Description..................................................................................................53 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................53 Course Content........................................................................................................54 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................55 Economics/Entrepreneurship ......................................................................................57 Course Description..................................................................................................57 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................57 Course Content........................................................................................................57 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................58 Sociology .......................................................................................................................59 Course Description..................................................................................................59 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................59 Course Content........................................................................................................59 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................62 Psychology .....................................................................................................................63 Course Description..................................................................................................63 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................63 Course Content........................................................................................................64 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................74 Economics ......................................................................................................................75 Course Description..................................................................................................75 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................75 Course Content........................................................................................................76 Assessment of Student Progress ..................................................................................85 Advanced Placement Economics .................................................................................86 Course Description..................................................................................................86 Student Objectives ..................................................................................................86 Course Content........................................................................................................87 Assessment of Student Progress ................................................................................120 Accounting I ................................................................................................................121 Course Description................................................................................................121 Student Objectives ................................................................................................121 Course Content......................................................................................................122
Assessment of Student Progress ................................................................................123 Accounting II...............................................................................................................124 Course Description................................................................................................124 Student Objectives ................................................................................................124 Course Content......................................................................................................125 Assessment of Student Progress ................................................................................126 New York State Standards.........................................................................................127
Overview of the History Program at Valhalla High School The overall objective of the Valhalla High School History Program is to prepare students for life in the contemporary world through an understanding and appreciation of the ideas, events, and achievements of those who preceded them. The program draws upon the experiences of both East and West in order to provide instruction regarding the social, political, economic, geographic, and cultural realities that have shaped the global experience. As a result, the history program and its individual course curricula have been constructed to meet these specific goals: 1. All students will be presented with challenging instruction in history that is commensurate with their capabilities. 2. The passing of the New York State Global History and Geography and U.S. History & Government Regents is a priority for all students. Students develop the ability to think critically, become proficient in essay writing, interpret primary documents, and meet all standards as required in the curriculum. 1
GRADE 9 GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Course Description Grade 9 Global History and Geography is the first year of a two-year course culminating with the NYS Global History and Geography Regents Exam in June of the sophomore year. The ninth grade curriculum begins with instruction in the rise of civilizations and concludes with the Age of Revolutions (18th Century). Areas studied will include Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. The educational approach integrates social science concepts: cultural diffusion; geography; and changing political, economic and social themes. The culminating assessment is a building-based final exam in June, following the New York State Regents format. Student Objectives Grade 9 Global History and Geography provides students with an opportunity to broaden their awareness of history and its importance in shaping today's world. The course will adopt an interdisciplinary approach incorporating history, literature, archaeology, economics, arts, anthropology, and technology as sources of evidence and analysis. While learning the content in Global History and Geography 9 students will: · Examine the connections and interactions of people across time and space · Investigate the concept of change and continuity over time · Identify the key elements of geography including human, physical, and political geography · Analyze the emergence and spread of belief systems · Evaluate the interdependence of economics and economic systems throughout the world · Explore the political concepts of power, authority, governance, and law · Analyze and interpret primary source documents · Synthesize information and communicate concepts clearly; both written and verbally 2
Grade 9 Global History and Geography Course Content I. The Rise of Civilizations A. Human beginnings 1. Discovery of early humans in Africa 2. The appearance of Homo sapiens 3. Emergence of civilizations B. Early civilizations 1. The Nile Valley 2. The Fertile Crescent 3. Early South Asia 4. Early China C. Kingdoms and Empires in the Middle East 1. Trading peoples 2. Early Israelites 3. Empire builders II. Flowering Civilizations A. The Rise of Ancient Greece 1. Beginnings 2. The Polis 3. Rivals 4. War, glory, and decline B. The Height of Greek civilization 1. Quest for beauty and meaning 2. The Greek mind 3. Alexander's Empire C. Ancient Rome and Early Christianity 1. The Roman Republic 2. Expansion and crisis 3. The Roman Empire 4. The rise of Christianity 5. Roman decline 3
D. Flowering of African civilizations 1. Early Africa 2. Kingdoms in West Africa 3. African trading cities and states E. India's Great Civilization 1. Origins of Hindu India 2. Rise of Buddhism 3. Indian empires F. China's flourishing civilization 1. Three great dynasties 2. Three ways of life 3. Society and culture III. Regional Civilizations A. Byzantines and Slavs 1. The new Rome 2. Byzantine civilization 3. The Eastern Slavs B. Islamic civilization 1. A new faith 2. Spread of Islam 3. Daily life and culture C. The Rise of Medieval Europe 1. Frankish rulers 2. Medieval life 3. The Medieval church 4. Rise of European monarchy D. Medieval Europe at its height 1. The Crusades 2. Economic and cultural revival 3. Strengthening of the monarchy 4. The troubled church 4
E. East and South Asia 1. Central Asia 2. China 3. SouthEast Asia 4. Korea and Japan F. The Americas 1. The Early Americas 2. Early Mesoamerican cultures 3. The Aztec and Inca empires IV. Emergence of the Modern World A. Renaissance and Reformation 1. The Italian Renaissance 2. The Northern Renaissance 3. The Protestant Reformation 4. The Spread of Protestantism 5. The Catholic Reformation B. Expanding horizons 1. Early explorations 2. Overseas empires 3. Changing ways of life C. Empires of Asia 1. Muslim empires 2. Chinese dynasties 3. The Japanese empire 4. Southeast Asia D. Royal Power and Conflict 1. Spain 2. England 3. France 4. The German states 5. Russia 5
V. Age of Revolution · Scientific Revolution 1. New scientific ideas 2. Impact of science 3. Triumph of reason Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Multiple choice and short answer tests on class notes/reading/lectures 2. Document Based Question essays 3. Thematic and free response essays 4. Critical thinking activities and assignments 5. Web based activities 6. Group projects and presentations 7. Class discussion/debates 8. Midterm and final examinations in the format of the New York State Global History and Geography Regents 6
Grade 10 Global Studies II Course Description Global Studies II is the second-year of a two-year social studies sequence. The tenth grade segment begins with the Puritan Revolution and continues to present day history. Historical concepts include the changing political, economic, social, and cultural developments during this time. Students are expected to acquire an understanding of world history and geography. Upon the conclusion of the two-year sequence, students take the NYS Global History and Geography Regents exam. Student Objectives Tenth grade Global Studies II is a survey of global history from the English Revolution of the 17th century to the present. While learning the content of Global History II students will: · Know and understand the governmental systems of monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, democracy, and combinations/variations of these systems · Know and understand the meaning of an economic system and the world economic systems of capitalism, socialism, and combinations/variations of these systems · Know and understand the social and cultural patterns of global history, such as class structure, social interactions among various groups, religious beliefs/practices, and of people's art, music, literature, and architecture · Identify, read, and understand primary and secondary sources and to express their evaluations in both speech and writing · Formulate positions on issues, using facts and logic for support · Develop an ability to engage in civil discourse, regardless of the emotional content of the issues under discussion 7
Grade 10 Global Studies II Course Content I. English and American Revolutions A. Civil War 1. Opposition to James I 2. Charles I 3. The English Civil War 4. The Commonwealth 5. The Protectorate B. The Restoration 1. Charles II 2. James II 3. The Glorious Revolution 4. The Bill of Rights 5. Act of Succession 6. The Act of Union C. The American Revolution 1. Salutary neglect 2. The Seven Year War 3. Tightening colonial controls 4. Colonial protests D. The American Revolutionary War 1. Moving toward separation a. Thomas Paine b. Declaration of Independence 2. The War of Independence 3. United States government · The Constitution II. The French Revolution A. The old regime 1. The first estate 2. The second estate 8
3. The third estate B. The Estates General C. The Fall of the Bastille D. Constitutional Government 1. The Declaration of Rights 2. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy 3. The end of feudalism 4. The Constitution of 1791 5. The decline of monarchy E. Dawn of a new era 1. The First French Republic 2. Execution of Louis XVI 3. Jacobins 4. Girondists F. The Reign of Terror · Robespierre G. The Directory 1. Executive power 2. Legislative power 3. Coup d'etat H. The Consulate 1. First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte 2. Reforms a. Internal improvements b. Bank of France c. University of France d. Lycees e. Tax collection f. Governmental corruption g. The Code Napoleon 9
I. Napoleon's Empire 1. Battle of Trafalgar 2. The Continental System 3. The Treaty of Tilsit 4. The Russian campaign 5. The War of Liberation 6. The defeat of Napoleon · The Treaty of Fontainebleau J. The Congress of Vienna 1. The principle of legitimacy 2. The system of compensations 3. The system of alliances a. The Quadruple Alliance b. The Quintuple Alliance c. The Holy Alliance 4. The Concert of Europe III. The Age of Industry A. Village life B. Early industries 1. Wool 2. Coal mining C. Great Britain leads the way 1. Money 2. Natural resources 3. Large Labor Supply 4. Textile industry leads the way 5. Factory system D. The growth of industry 1. Mass production 2. Organizing business 3. Business cycles 10
E. Science and industry 1. Samuel Morse 2. Guglielmo Marconi 3. Alexander Graham Bell 4. Thomas Edison 5. Rudolf Diesel 6. Wilbur and Orville Wright F. The rise of the middle class G. Lives of the working class IV. Cultural Revolution A. New ideas 1. Capitalism 2. Adam Smith 3. Malthus and Ricardo 4. Jeremy Bentham 5. John Stuart Mill 6. Robert Owen 7. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 8. Socialism B. New science 1. Evolution: Charles Darwin 2. Genetics: Gregor Mendel 3. Edward Jenner 4. Louis Pasteur 5. New approaches to surgery 6. John Palton: Atomic Theory 7. Marie and Pierre Curie 8. Ivan Pavlov 9. Sigmund Freud C. Popular culture 1. Emigration 11
2. Immigration 3. Growth of cities 4. City services 5. Leisure time 6. Education for women: Mary Lyon D. Revolution in the Arts 1. Romantic movement a. Music b. Literature c. Painting 2. Realism a. Charles Dickens b. Leo Tolstoy 3. Impressionism 4. Post-impressionism V. Democracy and Reform A. Reform in Great Britain 1. Reform Act of 1832 2. Chartists 3. William Gladstone 4. Benjamin Disraeli 5. Fabians 6. House of Lords' power limited 7. Act of Union (1801) B. The Dominions 1. Canada 2. Australia 3. New Zealand C. Political struggles in France 1. Revolt of 1830 2. Revolt of 1848 12
3. The Second French Empire a. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte b. The Crimean War c. Franco-Prussian War d. Paris Commune 4. The Third French Republic · The Dreyfus Affair D. Latin American Independence 1. Peninsulares 2. Creoles 3. Mestizos 4. Revolt in Haiti 5. Mexican revolt 6. Latin American revolts VI. Nationalism · Unification of Italy 1. Risorgimento 2. Mazzini 3. Garibaldi 4. diCavour 5. Revolts of 1820, 1830, 1848 6. 1858 Alliance: Sardinia and France 7. 1859 Austro-Italian War 8. 1860 Red Shirts invade Sicily 9. 1866 Annexation of Venetzia 10. 1870 Annexation of Rome Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Multiple choice tests 2. Short answer tests 13
3. DBQ essays 4. Thematic essays 5. Critical thinking activities 6. Group projects 7. Class discussion 8. Midterm exam in the format of the New York State Global History and Geography Regents exam 9. New York State Global History and Geography Regents as a final exam 14
GRADE 10/11 ­ ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) EUROPEAN HISTORY Course Description Advanced Placement European history is equivalent to a college-level introductory course. In addition to providing a basic narrative of events and movements, the goals include an in-depth understanding of some of the principal themes in European History. These include the evolution of political and economic systems, religious and sociological changes, and an ability to analyze historical evidence and to express understandings of history in writing. The course covers events and trends from approximately 1450 to the present. The culminating assessment of this course is the nationally administered Advanced Placement exam in May. Students in Grade 10 will also be prepared for the New York State Global History and Geography Regents. Student Objectives Advanced Placement European History is equivalent to a college-level introductory course spanning from the Renaissance Period to the present. Students enrolled in Advanced Placement European History will be able to: · Know and understand the narrative of events and movements in European history from approximately 1450 to the present · Know and understand the principal themes in European History as they relate to how Europeans have governed themselves: the rise of the nation-state, monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, democracy, liberalism, nationalism, and imperialism · Know and understand the principle themes in European history as they relate to how Europeans have provided for the allocation of resources: capitalism, socialism, and combinations/variations of these systems · Know and understand the impact of religious, philosophical and sociological ideas on the course of European History: Christianity, the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Reformation, Anti-Semitism, Individualism, Collectivism, Fascism, Communism, and Utopian Socialism 15
· Identify, read, understand, and evaluate primary and secondary sources, and to express themselves in both speech and writing · Formulate positions on issues, supporting their positions with facts and logic · Develop an ability to engage in civil discourse, regardless of the emotional content of the issues under discussion Course Content I. The Crisis of the Later Middle Ages A. Prelude to Disaster B. Black Death 1. Pathology and Care 2. Social and Cultural Consequences C. The Hundred Years' War (ca 1337-1453) 1. Causes 2. The Popular Response 3. The Indian Summer of Medieval Chivalry 4. The Course of the War to 1419 5. Joan of Arc and France's Victory 6. Costs and Consequences D. The Decline of the Church's Prestige 1. The Babylonian Captivity 2. The Great Schism 3. The Conciliar Movement E. The Life of the People 1. Marriage 2. Life in the Parish 3. Fur-Collar Crime 4. Peasant Revolts 5. Race and Ethnicity on the Frontiers II. European Society in the Age of the Renaissance 16
A. The Evolution of the Italian Renaissance 1. Communes and Republics 2. The Balance of Power Among the Italian City-states B. Intellectual Hallmarks of the Renaissance 1. Individualism 2. Humanism 3. Secular Spirit C. Art and the Artist 1. Art and Power 2. The Status of the Artist D. Social Change 1. Education and Political Thought 2. The printed word 3. Clocks 4. Women 5. Gender and culture 6. Blacks in Renaissance Society E. The Renaissance in the North F. Politics and The State in the Renaissance (ca 1450-1521) 1. France 2. England 3. Spain III. Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church A. The Condition of the Church (ca 1400-1517) 1. Signs of disorder 2. Signs of vitality B. Martin Luther and the Birth of Protestantism 1. Luther's Early Years 2. The Ninety-Five Theses 3. Protestant Thought 4. The Social Impact of Luther's Beliefs 17
C. Germany and the Protestant Reformation 1. The Rise of the Hapsburg Dynasty 2. The Political Impact of Luther's Beliefs D. The Growth of the Protestant Reformation 1. Calvinism 2. The Anabaptists 3. The English Reformation 4. The Establishment of the Church of Scotland 5. Protestantism in Ireland 6. Lutheranism in Sweden, Norway and Denmark E. The Catholic Reformation and the Counter-Reformation 1. The Slowness of Institutional Reform 2. The Council of Trent 3. New Religious Orders 4. The Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office IV. The Age of Religious Wars and European Expansion A. Politics, Religion, and War 1. The Origins of Difficulties in France (1515-1559) 2. Religious Riots and Civil War in France (1559-1598) 3. The Netherlands Under Charles V 4. The Revolt of the Netherlands (1566-1587) 5. Philip II and the Spanish Armada 6. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) 7. Germany After the Thirty Years' War B. Discovery, Reconnaissance, and Expansion 1. Overseas Exploration and Conquest 2. Technological Stimuli to Exploration 3. The Explorers' Motives 4. The Problem of Christopher Columbus C. Later Explorers 18
1. The Economic Effects of Spain's Discoveries in the New World 2. Colonial Administration D. Changing Attitudes 1. The Status of Women 2. The Great European Witch Hunt 3. European Slavery and The Origins of American Racism E. Literature and the Art 1. The Essay: Michel de Montaigne 2. Elizabethan and Jacobean Literature 3. Baroque Art and Music V. Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (ca 1589-1715) A. Absolutism 1. The Absolute Monarchy of Louis XIV 2. Financial and Economic Management Under Louis XIV: Colbert 3. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 4. French Classicism 5. Louis XIV's Wars 6. The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century B. Constitutionalism 1. The Decline of Royal Absolutism in England (1603-1649) 2. Puritanical Absolutism in England: Cromwell and the Protectorate 3. The Restoration of the English Monarchy 4. The Triumph of England's Parliament: Constitutional Monarchy and Cabinet Government 5. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century VI. Absolutism in eastern Europe to 1740 A. Lords and Peasants in Eastern Europe 1. The Medieval Background 19
2. The Consolidation of Serfdom B. The Rise of Austria and Prussia 1. Austria and the Ottoman Turks 2. Prussia in the Seventeenth Century 3. The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism C. The Development of Russia 1. The Mongol Yoke and the Rise of Moscow D. Tsar and People to 1869 1. The Reforms of Peter the Great E. Absolutism and the Baroque 1. Palaces and Power 2. Royal Cities 3. The Growth of St. Petersburg VII. Toward a New World-View A. The Scientific Revolution 1. Scientific thought in 1500 2. The Copernican Hypothesis 3. From Brahe to Galileo 4. Newton's Synthesis 5. Causes of the Scientific Revolution B. The Enlightenment 1. The Emergence of the Enlightenment 2. The Philosophies and the Public 3. The Later Enlightenment 4. Urban Culture and Public Opinion C. The Enlightenment and Absolutism 1. Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe 2. Absolutism in France 3. The Overall Influence of the Enlightenment VIII. The Expansion of Europe in the Eighteenth Century A. Agriculture and the Land 20
1. The Open-field System 2. Agricultural Revolution 3. The Leadership of the Low Countries and England 4. The Cost of Enclosure B. The Beginning of the Population Explosion 1. Limitations on Population Growth 2. The New Pattern of the Eighteenth Century C. The Growth of Cottage Industry 1. The Putting-Out System 2. The Textile Industry D. Building the Atlantic Economy 1. Mercantilism and Colonial Wars 2. Land and Wealth in British America 3. The Growth of Foreign Trade 4. Revival in Colonial Latin America 5. Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism IX. The Changing Life of the People A. Marriage and the Family 1. Extended and Nuclear Families 2. Work Away from Home 3. Premarital Sex and Community Controls 4. New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy B. Children and Education 1. Child Care and Nursing 2. Foundlings and Infanticide 3. Attitudes Toward Children 4. Schools and Popular Literature C. Food and Medical Practice 1. Diets and Nutrition 2. The Impact of Diet on Health 3. Medical Practitioners 21
4. Hospitals and Medical Experiments D. Religion and Popular Culture 1. The Institutional Church 2. Protestant Revival 3. Catholic Piety 4. Leisure and Recreation X. The Revolution in Politics 1775-1815 A. liberty and equality B. The American Revolution 1775-1789 1. The Origins of the Revolution 2. Independence 3. Framing the Constitution 4. The Revolution's Impact on Europe C. The French Revolution, 1789-1791 1. The Breakdown of the Old Order 2. Legal Orders and Social Realities 3. The Formation of the National Assembly 4. The Revolt of the Poor and the Oppressed 5. The Limited Monarchy D. World War and Republican France, 1791-1799 1. Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War 2. The Second Revolution 3. Total War and the Terror 4. The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory, 1794-1799 E. The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 1. Napoleon's Rule of France 2. Napoleon's Wars and Foreign Policy XI. The Revolution in Energy and Industry A. The Industrial Revolution in Britain 1. Eighteenth-Century Origins 2. The First Factories 22
3. The Problem of Energy 4. The Steam Engine Breakthrough 5. The Coming of the Railroads 6. Industry and Population B. Industrialization in Continental Europe 1. National Variations 2. The Challenge of Industrialization 3. Agents of Industrialization C. Capital and Labor 1. The New Class of Factory Owners 2. The New Factory Workers 3. Conditions of Work 4. The Sexual Division of Labor 5. The Early Labor Movement XII. Ideologies and Upheavals 1815-1850 A. The Peace Settlement 1. The European Balance of Power 2. Intervention and Repression 3. Metternich and Conservatism B. Radical Ideas and Early Socialism 1. Liberalism 2. Nationalism 3. French Utopian Socialism 4. The Birth of Marxian Socialism C. The Romantic Movement 1. Romanticism's Tenets 2. Literature 3. Art and Music D. Reforms and Revolutions 1. National Liberation in Greece 2. Liberal Reform in Great Britain 23
3. The Revolution of 1830 in France E. The Revolutions of 1848 1. A Democratic Republic in France 2. The Austrian Empire in 1848 3. Prussia and the Frankfurt Assembly XIII. Life in the Emerging Urban Society A. Taming the City 1. Industry and the Growth of Cities 2. Public Health and the Bacterial Revolution 3. Urban Planning and Public Transportation B. Rich and Poor and Those in Between 1. Social Structure 2. The Middle Classes 3. The Working Classes C. The Changing Family 1. Premarital Sex and Marriage 2. Prostitution 3. Kinship Ties 4. Roles and Family Life 5. Child Rearing D. Science and Thought 1. The Triumph of Science 2. Social Science and Evolution 3. Realism in Literature XIV. The Age of Nationalism 1850-1914 A. Napoleon III in France 1. The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon 2. Napoleon III's Second Empire B. National Building in Italy and Germany 1. Italy to 1850 2. Cavour and Garibaldi in Italy 24
3. Germany Before Bismarck 4. Bismarck Takes Command 5. The Austro-Prussian War, 1866 6. The Taming of the Parliament 7. The Franco-Prussian War C. Nation Building in the United States 1. Slavery and Territorial Expansion 2. Civil War and Reunification D. The Modernization of Russia 1. The "Great Reforms" 2. Republican France 3. Great Britain and Ireland 4. The Austro-Hungarian Empire E. Marxism and the Socialist Movement 1. The Socialist International 2. Unions and Revisionism XV. The West and the World A. Industrialization and the World Economy 1. The Rise of Global Inequality 2. The World Market 3. The Opening of China and Japan 4. Western Penetration of Egypt B. The Great Migration 1. The Pressure of Population 2. European Migrants 3. Asian Migrants C. Western Imperialism 1. The Scramble for Africa 2. Imperialism in Asia 3. Causes of the New Imperialism 4. Critics of Imperialism 25
D. Responses to Western Imperialism 1. Empire in India 2. The Example of Japan 3. Toward Revolution in China XVI. The Great Break: War and Revolution A. The First World War 1. The Bismarckian System of Alliances 2. The Rival Blocs 3. The Outbreak of War 4. Reflections on the Origins of the War 5. The First Battle of the Marne 6. Stalemate and Slaughter 7. The Widening War B. The Home Front 1. Mobilizing for Total War 2. The Social Impact 3. Growing Political Tensions C. The Russian Revolution 1. The Fall of Imperial Russia 2. The Provisional Government 3. Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution 4. Trotsky and the Seizure of Power 5. Dictatorship and Civil War D. The Peace Settlement 1. The End of the War 2. Revolution in Germany 3. The Treaty of Versailles 4. American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty XVII. The Age of Anxiety A. Uncertainty in Modern Thought 1. Modern Philosophy 26
2. The Revival of Christianity 3. The New Physics 4. Freudian Psychology 5. Twentieth-Century Literature B. Modern Art and Music 1. Architecture and Design 2. Modern Painting 3. Modern Music C. Movies and Radio D. The Search for Peace and Political Stability 1. Germany and The Western Powers 2. Hope in Foreign Affairs (1924-1929) 3. Hope in democratic government E. The Great Depression, 1929-1939 1. The Economic Crisis 2. Mass Unemployment 3. The New Deal in the United States 4. The Scandinavian Response to the Depression 5. Recovery and Reform in Britain and France XVIII. Dictatorships and the Second World War A. Authoritarian States 1. Conservative Authoritarianism 2. Totalitarianism or Fascism? B. Stalin's Soviet Union 1. From Lenin to Stalin 2. The Five-Year Plans 3. Life and Culture in Soviet Society 4. Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges C. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy 1. The Seizure of Power 2. The Regime in Action 27
D. Hitler and Nazism in Germany 1. The Roots of Nazism 2. Hitler's Road to Power 3. The Nazi State and Society 4. Hitler's Popularity E. Nazi Expansion and the Second World War 1. Aggression and Appeasement 1933-1939 2. Hitler's Empire, 1939-1942 3. The Grand Alliance 4. The Tide of Battle XIX. Cold War Conflicts and Social Transformations 1945-1985 A. The Division of Europe 1. The Origins of the Cold War 2. West Versus East B. The Western Renaissance 1945-1968 1. The Postwar Challenge 2. Toward European Unity 3. Decolonization 4. America's Civil Rights Revolution C. Soviet Eastern Europe 1945-1968 1. Stalin's Last Years, 1945-1953 2. Reform and De-Stalinization 1953-1964 3. The End of Reform D. Postwar Social Transformations 1945-1968 1. Science and Technology 2. The Changing Class Structure 3. Youth and the Counter-Culture E. Renewed Challenges in the late Cold War 1968-1985 1. The United States and Vietnam 2. Detente or Cold War 3. The Troubled Economy 28
4. Society in a Time of Economic Uncertainty F. The Changing Lives of Women 1. Motherhood and Work Outside the Home 2. The Women's Movement XX. Revolution, Reunification, and Rebuilding, 1985 to Present A. The Decline of Communism in Eastern Europe 1. The Soviet Union in 1985 2. Solidarity in Poland 3. Gorbachev's Reforms in the Soviet Union B. The Revolutions of 1985 1. The Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe 2. The Disintegration of the Soviet Union 3. German Unification and the End of the Cold War C. Building a New Europe in the 1990s 1. Common Patterns and Problems 2. Recasting Russia 3. Progress and Tragedy in East Central Europe 4. Unity and Identity in Western Europe D. Entering the New Millennium Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Multiple choice tests 2. Short answer tests 3. Document Based Question essays 4. Free response essays 5. Critical thinking activities 6. Group projects 7. Class discussions 8. Midterm exam in the format of the New York State Global History and Geography Regents exam 29
9. The New York State Global History and Geography Regents exam as a final (for 10th grade students) 10. Advanced Placement exam in European History 30
GRADE 11 UNITED STATES HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT Course Description The U.S. History and Government course is taken during the junior year. It is a one-year course, which surveys American history from colonial times to present day. In June, all students are required to take the NYS United States History and Government Regents exam. Student Objectives U.S. History and Government provides students the opportunity to consider in depth U.S. history from the American Revolution to present day. The curriculum is designed to enhance student's interest in and awareness of U.S. history as an aspect of life outside the classroom. While learning the content of U.S. History and Government, students will: · Analyze primary and secondary documents and draw conclusions · Think critically · Express themselves both verbally and in writing · Learn correct research and citation methods · Be introduced to Regents-level multiple choice and essay questions · Have the opportunity to voice their opinions in a mature manner · Learn the foundations of our democratic structure · Work cooperatively in groups to exchange ideas and learn responsibility · Read newspapers and keep abreast of current issues in both the U.S. and the world Course Content I. Origins of a New Society to 1783 A. Before and After the 1400's B. European settlement and Native American Resistance 1519-1648 C. Colonial Societies 1689-1754 D. American Revolution 1754-1783 II. From Liberty to Order 1781-1830 31
A. Constitution 1781-1789 B. Origins of American Politics 1789 ­ 1820 C. Life in the New Nation 1783-1830 III. An Emerging New Nation 1800-1860 A. Market Revolution 1815-1845 B. Religion and Reform 1815-1860 C. Beyond the Mississippi 1800-1860 IV. Division and Uneasy Reunion 1848-1877 A. Foundations of the Civil War 1848-1861 B. The Civil War 1861-1865 C. Reconstruction 1863-1877 V. Expansion 1860-1920 A. American Industry 1865 ­ 1900 B. Westward Expansion 1860-1900 C. Politics and Immigration 1877-1920 D. Cultural and Social Changes 1870 ­ 1915 VI. U.S. Changing 1890 ­ 1920 A. Becoming a World Power 1890 ­ 1913 B. Progressivism 1890 ­ 1920 C. World War I Era 1914-1920 VII. From Boom Times to Hard Times 1919 ­ 1938 A. Post World War I 1919 ­ 1929 B. Crash and the Great Depression 1929-1933 C. New Deal 1933-1938 VIII. Hot and Cold War 1939 ­ 1960 A. World War II 1939 ­ 1945 B. On the Home Front 1941-1945 C. Cold War 1945 ­ 1960 D. Post War at Home 1945 ­ 1960 IX. The Sixties 1960 ­ 1975 32
A. John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson 1960 ­ 1968 B. Civil Rights 1960-1968 C. Social Revolution 1960 ­ 1975 D. Vietnam War 1960 ­ 1975 X. Continuity and Change 1968 ­ Present A. Nixon Years and Watergate 1968 ­ 1974 B. Post Watergate 1975 ­ 1980 C. Carter Years 1976 ­ 1980 D. Conservative Movement (Reagan and Bush) 1980 ­ 1992 E. Promises of Change (Clinton) 1992 - Present Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Multiple choice tests 2. Short answer tests 3. DBQ essays 4. Thematic essays 5. Critical thinking activities 6. Group projects 7. Class discussion 8. Midterm exam in the format of the New York State U.S. History and Government Regents exam 9. The U.S. History and Government Regents as a final exam 33
GRADE 11 ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) UNITED STATES HISTORY Course Description Advanced Placement U.S. History is an intensive college-level course taken during the junior year. It is a survey of American history from pre-colonial times to present day. This program requires extensive reading and work beyond the classroom. Students take the nationally administered Advanced Placement exam in early May and also take the NYS United States History and Government Regents exam in June. Student Objectives The Advanced Placement U.S. History curriculum is designed to provide students with the analytical skills and factual knowledge necessary to deal critically with the problems and materials in United States history. The program prepares students for intermediate and advanced college courses by making demands upon them equivalent to those made by full-year introductory college courses. Student will learn to: · Assess historical materials: their relevance to given interpretive problems, their reliability, and their importance · Weigh the evidence and interpretations presented in historical scholarship · Develop skills necessary to arrive at conclusions on the basis of an informed judgment · Present reasons and evidence clearly and persuasively in essay format · Read and analyze multiple choice questions and essays based on AP format · Formulate opinions and debates on controversial and historical issues both verbally and in writing Course Content I. Discovery and Settlement of the New World, 1492 - 1659 A. Europe in the sixteenth century B. Spanish, English, and French exploration C. First English settlements 1. Jamestown 2. Plymouth 34
D. Spanish and French settlements and long-term influence E. American Indians II. America and the British Empire, 1650 - 1754 A. Chesapeake Country B. Growth of New England C. Restoration colonies D. Mercantilism; the Dominion of New England E. Origins of slavery III. Colonial Society in the Mid-Eighteenth Century A. Social structure 1. Family 2. Farm and town life; the economy B. Culture 1. Great Awakening 2. The American mind 3. "Folkways" C. New immigrants IV. Road to Revolution 1754-1775 A. Anglo-French rivalries and Seven Years' War B. Imperial Reorganization of 1763 1. Stamp Act 2. Declaratory Act 3. Townsend Acts 4. Boston Tea Party C. Philosophy of the American Revolution V. The American Revolution, 1775 ­ 1783 A. Continental Congress B. Declaration of Independence C. The War 1. French alliance 2. War and society; Loyalists 35
3. War economy D. Articles of Confederation E. Peace of Paris F. Creating state governments 1. Political organization 2. Social reform: women, slavery VI. Constitution and New Republic, 1776 ­ 1800 A. Philadelphia convention: drafting the Constitution B. Federalists versus Anti-Federalists C. Bill of Rights D. Washington's presidency 1. Hamilton's financial program 2. Foreign and domestic difficulties 3. Beginnings of political parties E. John Adam's presidency 1. Alien and Sedition Acts 2. XYZ Affair 3. Election of 1800 VII. The Age of Jefferson, 1800-1816 A. Jefferson's presidency 1. Louisiana Purchase 2. Burr conspiracy 3. The Supreme Court under John Marshall 4. Neutral rights, impressments, embargo B. Madison C. War of 1812 1. Causes 2. Invasion of Canada 3. Hartford Convention 4. Conduct of the war 5. Treaty of Ghent 36
6. New Orleans VIII. Nationalism and Economic Expansion A. James Monroe; Era of Good Feelings B. Panic of 1819 C. Settlement of the West D. Missouri Compromise E. Foreign affairs; Canada, Florida, the Monroe Doctrine F. Election of 1824: end of Virginia dynasty G. Economic revolution 1. Early railroads and canals 2. Expansion of business a. Beginnings of factory system b. Early labor movement; women c. Social mobility; extremes of wealth 3. The cotton revolution in the South 4. Commercial agriculture IX. Sectionalism A. The South 1. Cotton Kingdom 2. Southern trade and industry 3. Southern society and culture a. Gradations of White society b. Nature of slavery: "peculiar institution" c. The mind of the South B. The North 1. Northeast industry a. Labor b. Immigration c. Urban slums 2. Northwest agriculture C. Westward expansion 37
X. XI. XII.
1. Advance of agricultural frontier 2. Significance of the frontier 3. Life on the frontier; squatters 4. Removal of American Indians Age of Jackson, 1828 ­ 1848 A. Democracy and the "common man" 1. Expansion of suffrage 2. Rotation in office B. Second party system 1. Democratic Party 2. Whig Party C. Internal improvements and states' rights: the Maysville Road veto D. The Nullification Crisis 1. Tariff issue 2. The Union: Calhoun and Jackson E. The Bank War: Jackson and Biddle F. Martin Van Buren 1. Independent treasury system 2. Panic of 1837 Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis A. Manifest Destiny and mission B. Texas annexation, the Oregon boundary, and California C. James K. Polk and the Mexican War; slavery and Wilmot Proviso D. Later expansionist efforts Creating an American Culture A. Cultural nationalism B. Education reform professionalism C. Religion; revivalism D. Utopian experiments: Mormons, Oneida Community E. Transcendentalists F. National literature, art, architecture
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G. Reform crusades 1. Feminism; roles of women in the nineteenth century 2. Abolitionism 3. Temperance 4. Criminals and the insane XIII. The 1850's Decade of Crisis A. Compromise of 1850 B. Fugitive Slave Act and Uncle Tom's Cabin C. Kansas-Nebraska Act and realignment of parties 1. Demise of the Whig Party 2. Emergence of the Republican party D. Dred Scott decision and Lecompton crisis E. Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858 F. John Brown's raid G. The election of 1860: Abraham Lincoln H. The secession crisis XIV. Civil War A. The Union 1. Mobilization and finance 2. Civil liberties 3. Election of 1864 B. The South 1. Confederate constitution 2. Mobilization and finance 3. State's rights and the Confederacy C. Foreign affairs and diplomacy D. Military strategy, campaigns, and battles E. The abolition of slavery 1. Confiscation Acts 2. Emancipation Proclamation 3. Freedmen's Bureau 39
4. Thirteenth Amendment F. Effects of war on society 1. Inflation and public debt 2. Role of women 3. Devastation of the South 4. Changing labor patterns XV. Reconstruction to 1877 A. Presidential plans: Lincoln and Johnson B. Radical (congressional plans) 1. Civil rights and the Fourteenth Amendment 2. Military reconstruction 3. Impeachment of Johnson 4. African American suffrage: the Fifteenth Amendment C. Southern state governments: problems, achievements, weaknesses D. Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction XVI. New South and the Last West A. Politics in the New South 1. The Redeemers 2. Whites and African Americans in the New South 3. Subordination of freed slaves: Jim Crow B. Southern economy; colonial status of the South 1. Sharecropping 2. Industrial stirrings C. Cattle kingdom 1. Open-range ranching 2. Day of the cowboy D. Building the Western railroad E. Subordination of American Indians: dispersal of tribes F. Farming the plains; problems in agriculture G. Mining bonanza XVII. Industrialization and Corporate Consolidation 40
A. Industrial growth: railroads, iron, coal, electricity, steel, oil, banks B. Laissez-faire conservatism 1. Gospel of Wealth 2. Myth of the "self-made man" 3. Social Darwinism; survival of the fittest 4. Social critics and dissenters C. Effects of technological development on worker/workplace D. Union movement 1. Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor 2. Haymarket, Homestead, and Pullman Strikes XVIII. Urban Society A. Lure of the city B. Immigration C. City problems 1. Slums 2. Machine politics 3. Awakening conscience; reforms 4. Social legislation 5. Settlement houses: Jane Adams and Lillian Wald 6. Structural reforms in government XIX. Intellectual and Cultural Movements A. Education 1. Colleges and Universities 2. Scientific advances B. Professionalism and the Social Sciences C. Realism in Literature and Art D. Mass Culture 1. Use of leisure 2. Publishing and journalism XX. National Politics, 1877 ­ 1896: The Gilded Age 41
XXI. XXII.
A. A conservative presidency B. Issues 1. Tariff controversy 2. Railroad regulation 3. Trusts C. Agrarian discontent D. Crisis of 1890's 1. Populism 2. Silver question 3. Election of 1896: McKinley versus Bryan Foreign Policy, 1865-1914 A. Seward and the purchase of Alaska B. The New Imperialism 1. Blaine and Latin America 2. International Darwinism: missionaries, politicians, and naval expansionists 3. Spanish-American War a. Cuban independence b. Debate on Philippines C. The Far East: John Hay and The Open Door D. Theodore Roosevelt 1. The Panama Canal 2. Roosevelt Corollary 3. Far East E. Taft and dollar diplomacy F. Wilson and moral diplomacy Progressive Era A. Origins of Progressivism 1. Progressive attitudes and motives 2. Muckrakers 3. Social Gospel
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B. Municipal, state and national reforms 1. Political: suffrage 2. Social and economic: regulation C. Socialism: alternatives D. Black America 1. Washington, DuBois and Garvey 2. Urban migration 3. Civil rights organizations E. Women's role: family, work, education, unionization, and suffrage F. Roosevelt's Square Deal 1. Managing the trusts 2. Conservation G. Taft 1. Pinchot-Ballinger controversy 2. Payne-Aldrich Tariff H. Wilson's New Freedom 1. Tariffs 2. Banking reform 3. Antitrust Act of 1914 XXIII. The First World War A. Problems of neutrality 1. Submarines 2. Economic ties 3. Psychological and ethnic ties B. Preparedness and pacifism C. Mobilization 1. Fighting the war 2. Financing the war 3. War boards 4. Propaganda, public opinion, civil liberties D. Wilson's Fourteen Points 43
1. Treaty of Versailles 2. Ratification fight E. Postwar demobilization 1. Red scare 2. Labor strife XXIV. New Era: The 1920's A. Republican governments 1. Business creed 2. Harding scandals B. Economic development 1. Prosperity and wealth 2. Farm and Labor problems C. New Culture 1. Consumerism: automobile, radio, movies 2. Women, the family 3. Modern religion 4. Literature of alienation 5. Jazz age 6. Harlem Renaissance D. Conflict of cultures 1. Prohibition, bootlegging 2. Nativism 3. Ku Klux Klan 4. religious fundamentalism versus modernists E. Myth of isolation 1. Replacing the League of Nations 2. Business and diplomacy XXV. Depression, 1929-1933 A. Wall Street crash B. Depression economy C. Moods of despair 44
1. Agrarian unrest 2. Bonus march D. Hoover-Stimson diplomacy: Japan XXVI. New Deal A. Franklin D. Roosevelt 1. Background, ideas 2. Philosophy of New Deal B. 100 Days: "alphabet agencies" C. Second New Deal D. Critics, left and right E. Rise of CIO; labor strikes F. Supreme Court fight G. Recession 1938 H. American people in the Depression 1. Social values, women, ethnic groups 2. Indian Reorganization Act 3. Mexican American deportation 4. The racial issue XXVII. Diplomacy in the 1930's A. Good Neighbor Policy: Montevideo, Buenos Aires B. London Economic conference C. Disarmament D. Isolationism: neutrality legislation E. Aggressors: Japan, Italy, and Germany F. Appeasement G. Rearmament; blitzkrieg; Lend-Lease H. Atlantic Charter I. Pearl Harbor XXVIII. The Second World War A. Organizing for war 1. Mobilizing production 45
2. Propaganda 3. Internment of Japanese Americans B. The War in Europe, Africa, and the Mediterranean; D-Day C. The War in the Pacific: Hiroshima, Nagasaki D. Diplomacy 1. War aims 2. Wartime conferences: Teheran, Yalta, Potsdam E. Postwar atmosphere; the United Nations XXVIX. Truman and the Cold War A. Postwar domestic adjustments B. The Taft-Hartley Act C. Civil Rights and the election of 1948 D. Containment in Europe and the Middle East 1. Truman Doctrine 2. Marshall Plan 3. Berlin crisis 4. NATO E. Revolution in China F. Limited war: Korea, MacArthur XXX. Eisenhower and Modern Republicanism A. Domestic frustrations; McCarthyism B. Civil Rights movement 1. The Warren Court and Brown v. Board of Education 2. Montgomery bus boycott 3. Greensboro sit-in C. John Foster Dulles' foreign policy 1. Crisis in Southeast Asia 2. Massive retaliation 3. Nationalism in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America 4. Khrushchev and Berlin 46
D. American people: homogenized society 1. Prosperity: economic consolidation 2. Consumer culture 3. Consensus of values E. Space race XXXI. Kennedy's New Frontier; Johnson's Great Society A. New domestic programs 1. Tax cut 2. War on poverty 3. Affirmative action B. Civil rights and civil liberties 1. African Americans; political, cultural, and economic roles 2. The leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr. 3. Resurgence of feminism 4. The New Left and the Counterculture 5. Emergence of the Republican Party in the South 6. The Supreme Court and the Miranda decision C. Foreign Policy 1. Bay of Pigs 2. Cuban missile crisis 3. Vietnam quagmire XXXII. Nixon A. Election of 1968 B. Nixon-Kissinger foreign policy 1. Vietnam: escalation and pullout 2. China: restoring relations 3. Soviet Union: dйtente C. New Federalism D. Supreme Court and Roe v. Wade E. Watergate crisis and resignation XXXIII. The United States since 1974 47
A. The New Right and the conservative social agenda B. Ford and Rockefeller C. Carter 1. Deregulation 2. Energy and inflation 3. Camp David accords 4. Iranian hostage crisis D. Reagan 1. Tax cuts and budget deficits 2. Defense buildup 3. New disarmament treaties 4. Foreign crises: the Persian Gulf and Central America E. Society 1. Old and new urban problems 2. Asian and Hispanic immigrants 3. Resurgent fundamentalism 4. African Americans and local, state, and national politics Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Short answer tests on class notes/lectures 2. Multiple choice tests on the text readings 3. DBQ essays 4. Free response essays 5. Critical thinking activities and assignments 6. Group projects 7. Class discussion/debates 8. Midterm exam in the format of the Advanced Placement exam 9. The New York State U.S. History and Government Regents as a final exam 48
GRADE 12 SOCIAL STUDIES Course Description Grade 12 Social Studies is a full-credit course that satisfies the New York State government and economics requirements for graduation. It utilizes an interdisciplinary approach that integrates topics in sociology and psychology. Emphasis is placed upon both the verbal and written expression of students. written assignments include, but are not necessarily limited to, critical analysis, simulations, keeping a log/journal, narrative essays, and pro/con essays. Grade 12 social studies curriculum includes participation in The Pro-Law Series, sponsored by the Westchester County District Attorney's Office. This program is comprised of six to seven topics that are periodically updated and are presented throughout the year. Themes include, but are not limited to, the following: genocide, the operation of Congress, executive power, Supreme Court landmark decisions, abortion, terrorism, crime, the criminal mind, the rights of the accused, religious fundamentalism, the conspiracy theses in the U.S., the functions and operations of the state and local government, discrimination in U.S. and civil rights, basic economic concepts, scarcity and opportunity, cost, inflation, unemployment, supply and demand, types of investments and their safety and risks, the banking system, and any current issues that affect our lives. Student Objectives Grade 12 Social Studies provides students with the opportunity to broaden their knowledge of important concerns, both historical and present, beyond the traditional topics covered in US history and government. In addition, this course gives students a solid working knowledge of various social studies disciplines. Although emphasis is placed upon government and economics, inquiry into sociology, psychology, and the other behavioral sciences are also introduced. Emphasis is placed upon verbal and written self-expression. Students enrolled in Social Studies 12 will: · Keep a daily journal/diary on a lengthy assignment · Understand how to write an persuasive essay effectively · Be exposed to various styles of writings, such as satire, analysis, and narrative · Make a short individual or group presentations on selected or assigned topics 49
· Understand the issue of civil rights and civil liberties as presented by the Bill of Rights and other amendments to the U.S. Constitution · Appreciate local and state laws through the use of the Pro-Law Series sponsored by the Westchester County District Attorney's Office · Relate to the many community resources available through the use of guest speakers and programs · Understand the basic elements of a market economy: supply, demand, and opportunity cost · Discuss economic trends/behaviors that include, but are not limited to, inflation, deflation, investments, unemployment, and banking activities · Be able to take opposing sides of an issue by analyzing pro-con arguments · Begin to understand social issues that include, but are not limited to abortion, terrorism, religious fundamentalism, genocide, homelessness, poverty, and segregation · Understand various psychological dysfunctions such as eating disorders, attention deficit disorder, autism, bi-polar disorder, social phobia, alcoholism, and schizophrenia Grade 12 Social Studies Course Content I. Issues in Public Education A. Budgets B. Boards of Education C. Urban Problems D. State Assessments E. Self-fulfilling prophecy F. Unions G. Administrations II. Understanding the Law A. Bill of Rights B. Civil liberties and civil rights C. Grand jury 50
D. Civil and criminal cases III. Current Issues A. Abortion rights B. Terrorism C. Religious fundamentalism D. Genocide E. Homelessness and poverty F. Discrimination and segregation G. Peaceful protests H. Social changes IV. Sociology A. Selected topics B. 1920's C. 1930's D. 1940's E. 1950's F. 1960's G. 1970's H. 1980's I. 1990's J. 2000's V. Psychology · Selected topics in abnormal psychology VI. Economics A. What is economics? 1. Making choices 2. Types of economic systems 3. The United States Free Enterprise System 4. Demand and supply 5. Money and the Banking System 6. How the value of money changes 51
· Consumer Price Index B. Spending and Savings 1. Consumers in a Market Economy 2. Selling and advertising to consumers a. The Federal Trade Commission b. Consumer advocate groups 3. Personal budgeting 4. Savings and investments · The power of compound interest 5. Life insurance 6. Stocks and Bonds Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Unit tests 2. journal writing on select topics 3. Logs 4. Class discussions 5. Critical evaluations 6. Group assignments 7. Homework 8. Research 9. Comparative analysis 52
GRADE 12 GOVERNMENT Course Description Government is a half-credit course and is a New York State requirement for graduation. An historical topical approach is used in this course in order to cover a variety of topics. These topics include, but are not necessarily restricted to the following: genocide, religious fundamentalism, abortion, discrimination, segregation, civil rights (of minorities, women and immigrants), terrorism, and the rights of the accused (5th, 6th, and 7th amendments). The curriculum also includes participation in The Pro-Law Series, sponsored by the Westchester County District Attorney's Office, which addresses a variety of problems such as violence in schools, search and seizure, sex-related crimes, road rage, conspiracy theories in U.S. history, and the functions of state and national governments. Two required writing assignments are expected which will constitute onehalf of the grade for each marking period: a critical analysis using an assigned reading and a research paper. Student Objectives Government offers students the opportunity to express themselves both verbally, through class discussions and presentations, and in writing through critical analysis and research assignments. Unlike prior social studies courses, where Regents exams were the basis of instruction and assessment, Government offers both the students and the teacher the flexibility to explore topics in a less rigid manner based upon both current events, as well as traditional historical topics. A priority of the course is to understand political and social issues, both past and present, that may affect and influence their attitudes and understanding of American democracy and our way of life. Throughout the study of government, students will demonstrate the ability to: · Understand how to distinguish between primary and secondary sources · Be exposed to a variety of sources, including on-line electronic sources · Understand the proper procedures for research documentation and citation · Understand how to write a critical analysis essay without merely summarizing information 53
· Appreciate various forms of writings, including historical satire, source documents, and journal/diaries · Make both individual and group presentation before the class · Study topics which reinforce understanding of the Bill of Rights as well as the entire U.S. Constitution · Discuss issues which include, but are not limited to the following: genocide, women's rights, minority rights, segregation, religious fundamentalism, public education, local and state government, credibility issues of elected officials, rights of expression, and criminal rights · Appreciate and understand legal issues presented by the Pro-Law Series sponsored by the Westchester County District Attorney's office · Utilize other community resources through the use of guest speakers Grade 12 Government Course Content I. Issues in Public Education A. Budgets B. Boards of Education C. Urban and Suburban problems D. State assessments E. Self-fulfilling prophecy F. Public relations G. Unions H. Administration II. Municipal Government A. County B. Town C. Villages III. Understanding the Law A. Bill of Rights B. Civil Liberties C. Civil Rights 54
D. Grand Jury E. Criminal and Civil cases F. Rights of the accused IV. The National Government A. Powers of the President B. Powers of the Congress C. The Supreme Court D. States rights vs. delegated powers E. Relationship between the States and National Government V. Conspiracy Theory in America A. Lincoln Conspiracy B. John F. Kennedy's assassination C. Watergate D. The media VI. Current and Popular Issues A. Abortion rights B. Terrorism C. Religious fundamentalism D. Genocide E. Homelessness and poverty F. Discrimination and segregation 1. Minorities 2. Women G. Peaceful protests H. Social changes Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Critical analysis on Profiles In Courage 2. Journal writing on the Civil War 3. Comparative analysis 55
4. Research on historical government topics 5. Group assignments 6. Class discussions 7. Analytic writing 8. Homework 9. Tests and quizzes 10. Summarizing information 56
ECONOMICS/ENTREPRENEURSHIP Course Description Economics/Entrepreneurship is a one-semester course offered senior year as an alternative to Economics 12. Students learn basic entrepreneurial skills, small business strategies, and basic economic principles. Assessment is measured throughout the year, and a business plan is required upon completion of the course. Students are assessed throughout the year in a variety of ways, and a business plan is required upon completion of the course. Student Objectives Economics/Entrepreneurship provides students the opportunity to broaden their economics background beyond basic textbook skills. Students will gain a good working knowledge of the business world and will learn how to start their own business. While taking the course students will: · Differentiate between employers and employees · Learn the legal structure of sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations · Construct their own individual business plan, using a power point presentation · Engage in a school sales event (after a wholesale trip) · Understand the critical role of the entrepreneur as a catalyst in a capitalist- driven global economy · Be introduced to legal bookkeeping and accounting skills · Learn to take responsibility for their actions as young adults and beyond post- secondary life · Improve their reading, writing, and critical-thinking skills Economics/Entrepreneurship Course Content I. Basic Business Plan: Starting your Business A. What is an entrepreneur? B. Opportunity Recognition C. Characteristics of the Successful Entrepreneur 57
D. Income Statements E. Return on Investment F. Inventions and Product Development G. Financing H. Selecting your Business I. Positive thinking J. The Costs of Starting and Operating a Business K. What is Marketing? L. Advertising and Publicity M. Cost/Benefit analysis N. Market Research II. Intermediate: Running a Business Successfully A. Competitive Advantage: Tactics and Strategies B. Keeping Good Records C. Negotiation Consume Analysis D. Sole Proprietorships and Partnerships E. Production/Distribution chain F. Technology G. Stocks H. Insurance Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Short answer tests and quizzes 2. Real life economic activities 3. Small papers 4. Class participation 5. PowerPoint business plan presentation 6. Wholesale sales event 7. Small group activities 8. Tests on movies viewed in class 58
SOCIOLOGY Course Description Sociology is a one-semester course offered to juniors and seniors. It is the study of society and of the interactions within and among the many different groups found in society. The curriculum uses the scientific approach: examining observable, measurable social facts, to reach conclusions. The course focuses on four major units: social structure, social institutions, socialization, and social problems. Students make cooperative learning group presentations, take tests, write essays based on research, and participate in class. The culminating assessment is a comprehensive final exam. Student Objectives Sociology provides students with an opportunity to broaden their awareness of contemporary American society by analyzing interactions within and between various groups in society. The course also provides students with an opportunity to improve their research, writing, and presentation skills. While learning the content of sociology students will: · Develop an understanding of the sociological perspective · Appreciate the logic of scientific investigation · Understand the importance of culture, norms, and values to social life · Describe social structure and its components · Appreciate the social significance of groups · Evaluate the degree of social stratification in contemporary American society · Understand the three major theoretical perspectives of sociology · Define demography and the elements of population change · Be able to identify, read, understand, and evaluate primary and secondary sources, and to express themselves orally and in writing Sociology Course Content I. Developing a Sociological Consciousness A. The development of sociology 59
· Auguste Compte, Harriet MARTINEAU, Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber B. Theoretical Perspectives · The functionist, conflict and interactionist perspectives C. Conducting Research · The logic of science, collecting data, and steps in the scientific method. II. Culture and Social Structure A. Norms, values, symbols, and language B. Cultural unity and diversity C. Social structure III. Socialization A. Foundations of socialization B. The self and socialization C. Socialization along the life course IV. Social Groups and Formal Organizations A. Group Relationships B. Group Dynamics C. Formal Organizations V. Deviance and Crime A. The nature of deviance B. Theories of deviance C. Crime and the criminal justice system VI. Social Stratification A. Patterns of social stratification B. The American class system C. Social Mobility D. Explanations of social stratifications VII. Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity A. Racial and ethnic stratification 60
B. Prejudice and discrimination C. Patterns of inter-group relations · Assimilation and pluralism D. Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States E. Sociological perspectives on inequalities of race and ethnicity F. The future of ethnic and minority group relations VIII. Gender Inequality A. Gender inequality B. Sociological perspectives on gender stratification IX. Population and The Environment A. Population · Elements, composition, Malthus and Marx, and demographics. B. The urban environment C. The ecological environment X. Social Change A. A world of change 1. Sources and perspectives on social change. B. Collective behavior C. Social movements 1. Causes and types 2. Social revolution 3. Terrorism XI. Sociology of sports A. What is it and why study it? B. Using social theories to study sports in society. C. Sports and socialization · Who plays and what happens to them? D. Deviance in sports · Is it out of control? E. Violence in sports · Does it affect our lives? 61
F. Gender in sports · Does equity require ideological changes? G. Race and ethnicity · Are they important in sports? H. Social Class · Do money and power matter in sports? I. Sports and the economy · What are the characteristics of commercial sports? J. Sports and the Media · Could they survive without each other? K. Sports in High School and College · Do Varsity sport program contribute to education? Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Short Answer tests on class notes/lectures 2. Multiple choice tests on the text readings 3. DBQ essays 4. Free response essays 5. Critical thinking activities and assignments 6. Group projects 7. Class discussion/debates 62
PSYCHOLOGY Course Description Psychology is a one-semester elective course offered to juniors and seniors. The course covers the following areas: the brain, sensation, states of consciousness, human growth/development, human behavior, learning/thinking, emotions, conflict/adjustment, and social behavior. Students make cooperative learning group presentations, take tests, write essays based on research, and participate in class. The culminating assessment is a comprehensive final exam. Student Objectives Psychology provides students with an opportunity to broaden their awareness and understanding of human behavior and interactions. The course also provides students with an opportunity to improve their research, writing, and presentation skills. While learning the content of psychology students will: · Appreciate the logic of scientific investigation and differentiate between social and other types of science · Seek to understand behavior through four basic goals: description, prediction, control, and explanation · Illustrate the biological systems associated with sensation, perception, and cognition · Develop a definition of consciousness · Become familiar with the stages of normal human development · Identify principles of learning and memory · Describe the major theories of personality and motivation · Describe major forms of mental illness and discuss methods of treatment · Be able to identify, read, understand, and evaluate primary and secondary sources and to express themselves orally and in writing 63
Psychology Course Content I. The Study of Psychology A. Definition of psychology B. Goals of psychology C. History of psychology 1. Structuralism 2. Functionalism 3. Behaviorism 4. Gestalt psychology 5. Psychoanalysis D. Current approaches to the study of psychology E. Subfields of psychology 1. Clinical psychology 2. Counseling psychology 3. School psychology 4. Industrial-organizational psychology 5. Developmental psychology 6. social psychology 7. Experimental psychology F. Methods of research 1. Ethical considerations in research 2. Naturalistic observation 3. Case study 4. Survey method 5. Testing method 6. Experiment 7. Correlation research G. Measurement in psychological research H. Validity and reliability I. Descriptive statistics J. Inferential statistics 64
II. Psychobiology A. Definition of psychobiology B. Neuron 1. Neural impulse 2. Synapse C. central nervous system 1. Spinal cord 2. Brain D. Peripheral nervous system 1. Somatic nervous system 2. Autonomic nervous system E. Endocrine system F. Heredity and behavior 1. Basic genetic principles 2. Behavior genetics III. Development A. Definition of development B. Prenatal development and birth C. Infancy 1. Sensory development 2. Motor behavior development 3. Personality development 4. Attachment D. Childhood 1. Social Development 2. Freud's Theory of Personality Development 3. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 4. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development E. Adolescence 1. Physical development and puberty 2. Personality and social development 65
3. Erickson's Psychosocial Life-Span Approach F. Adulthood 1. Physical development 2. Adult personality and social development 3. Cognitive development in older persons G. Psychological stages of dying IV. Sensation and Perception A. Definition of sensation and perception B. Sensory processes 1. Brief overview of the senses 2. Sensory adaptation 3. Measurement of sensation C. Vision 1. Physical structure of the eye 2. Theories of color vision D. visual perception 1. Perceptual constancy 2. Perceptual organization 3. Depth perception 4. Perception of movement 5. Visual illusions E. Hearing 1. Physical structure of the ear 2. Theories of hearing 3. Auditory perception F. Chemical senses 1. Smell 2. Taste G. Skin and body senses 1. Pressure 2. Pain 66
3. Temperature 4. Kinesthesis 5. The vestibular sense V. Sleep/Consciousness A. Definitions of sleep/consciousness B. Sleeping/dreaming 1. Two types of sleep 2. Theories pertaining to sleep 3. Sleep disorders 4. Dreams C. Psychoactive drugs 1. Depressants 2. Opiates 3. Stimulants 4. Psychedelic drugs and marijuana D. Hypnosis E. Meditation VI. Learning A. Definition of learning B. Classical conditioning 1. Classical conditioning terminology 2. Basic principles of classical conditioning C. Conditioned taste aversion D. Operant conditioning 1. Shaping (successive approximation) 2. Basic principles of operant conditioning 3. Reinforcement 4. Aversive conditioning 5. Punishment E. Comparison of classical and operant conditioning F. Cognitive learning 67
1. Latent learning 2. Observational learning G. Biological constraints on learning VII. Human Memory A. Definition of memory B. Memory processes C. Stages of memory storage 1. Sensory memory 2. Short-term memory 3. Long-term memory D. Forgetting 1. Verbal learning and memory 2. Measures of retention 3. Theories of forgetting E. Improvement of memory 1. Practice activities 2. Mnemonic techniques F. Biology of memory VIII. Language/Intelligence A. Definition of cognition B. Language 1. The structure of language 2. Language development in children 3. Theories of language development 4. Language and thought 5. Primate language studies C. Problem solving and creativity 1. Theories of problem solving 2. Stages in solving problems 3. Strategies in problem solving 4. Barriers to effective problem solving 68
5. Creativity D. Definition and theories of intelligence 1. Definition of intelligence 2. Theories of intelligence E. Measurement of intelligence 1. Characteristics of tests used to measure intelligence 2. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 3. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales F. Influences on intelligence · Genetic influences on intelligence G. The extremes of intelligence 1. Mental retardation 2. Intellectual giftedness IX. Motivation A. Definition of motivation B. Theories of motivation 1. Genetic theories 2. Drive theory 3. Incentive theory 4. Arousal theory 5. Maslow's Theory of Humanism 6. Cognitive theory C Biological motives 1. Hunger 2. Obesity 3. Eating disorders 4. Human sexual motivation D. Stimulus motives 1. Exploration and curiosity 2. Competence E. Stimulus motives 69
1. Exploration and curiosity 2. Competence F. Learned social motives 1. Achievement 2. Power 3. Affiliation X. Emotion A. Definition of emotion 1. Characteristics of emotion 2. Measurement of emotion 3. Physiology of emotion 4. Development of emotion 5. Classification of emotions B. Theories of emotion 1. The James-Lange Theory 2. The Cannon-Bard Theory 3. The Schachter-Singer Arousal-Cognition Theory 4. The Plutchik Functional Theory 5. The Cognitive-Motivational-Relational Theory C. Facial expressions of emotion D. Interpersonal attraction: liking and loving 1. Liking 2. Theories of love E. Human sexuality 1. Gender identity and sex roles 2. Human sexual response cycle 3. Human sexual behavior 4. Human sexuality concerns 70
XI. Personality A. Definition of Personality 1. Psychodynamic theories a. Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory b. Jung's Analytical Psychology c. Adler's Individual Psychology d. Horney's Cultural Psychology 2. Trait theories a. Allport's Trait Theory b. Pattell's Factor Theory c. Eysenck's Trait Model of Personality d. Five Factor Personality Model 3. Humanistic theories a. Rogers's Theory of Self b. Maslow's Self-Actualization Theory 4. Behavior and social cognitive theories a. Skinner's Behaviorism and Personality b. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory c. Rotter's Locus of Control Theory B. Personality assessment 1. Interview 2. Observation 3. Objective personality tests 4. Projective personality tests XII. Adjustment and Health A. Definition of adjustment B. Causes of stress 1. Life changes and daily nuisances 2. Major psychological causes of stress C. Reactions to stress 1. Anxiety 71
2. General adaptation syndrome
3. Psychological appraisal of stress
4. Burnout
5. Personal adjustment problems
D. Adjustment Techniques
1. Defense mechanisms
2. Coping techniques
3. Time management
a. Health psychology
b. Psychological effects on physical conditions
c. Type-A behavior
d. Health enhancement behavior
XIII. Psychological Disorders
A. Definition of abnormal behavior
·
Models of abnormal behavior
B. Classification of abnormal behaviors using (DSM-IV)
1. Anxiety disorders
a. Panic disorder and agoraphobia
b. Social and specific phobias
c. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
d. Generalized anxiety disorder
2. Mood disorders
a. Major depressive disorder
b. Dysthymic disorder
c. Bipolar disorders
i. Schizophrenia
ii. Clinical symptoms of schizophrenia
iii. Types of schizophrenia
iv. Causes of schizophrenia
72
d. Other DSM-IV classifications i. Delusional disorder ii. Somatoform and dissociative disorders iii. Personality disorder iv. Sexual disorders XIV. Therapy A. Insight therapy 1. Psychoanalysis 2. Person-centered therapy 3. Gestalt therapy B. behavior therapy 1. Reinforcement therapy 2. Systematic desensitization 3. Aversion therapy C. Cognitive behavior therapy 1. Rational-emotive therapy 2. Cognitive therapy 3. Modeling D. Group therapy 1. Family therapy 2. Marital therapy E. Evaluation of the effectiveness of psychotherapy F. Biological therapy 1. Drug therapy 2. Psychosurgery 3. Electroconvulsive therapy 73
Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Short Answer tests on class notes/lectures 2. Multiple choice tests on the text readings 3. DBQ essays 4. Free response essays 5. Critical thinking activities and assignments 6. Group projects 7. Class discussion/debates 74
ECONOMICS Course Description Economics is a one-semester course offered primarily to seniors. Students use economic reasoning to explain, evaluate, and predict events in our society. In addition to learning about national and international economic systems, students learn techniques of research. They learn to express their opinions in a coherent, well-reasoned manner both orally and in writing. Students develop group presentations, take tests, write research-based essays, and participate in class. The culminating assessment is a comprehensive final exam. Student Objectives Economics provides students with an opportunity to broaden their awareness of various economic principles, concepts and issues. It provides a chance for students to combine knowledge of the theoretical with practical, real-life decisions about employment options, consumer choices, and personal finance in order to prepare them to participate effectively as adult citizens in society. The course also provides students with an opportunity to improve their research, writing and presentation skills. While learning the content of economics students will: · Appreciate the logic of scientific investigation and differentiate between social and other types of science · Analyze the effectiveness of varying ways individuals, societies, and nations attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants · Define and apply basic economic concepts · Understand the nature of scarcity and describe how scarcity forces choices · Describe the economic system in the U.S. and compare it to other national economic systems · Illustrate the increasing interconnectedness of the world economy · Be able to identify, read, understand, and evaluate primary and secondary sources · To express themselves orally and in writing 75
Economics Course Content I. Economic Methods A. What is Economics? 1. Scarcity 2. The Scientific Method B. What are the tools of economics? 1. Factual Tools 2. Theoretical Tools C. What are the uses of Graphs? 1. Descriptive Charts 2. Analytical Diagrams II. Economic Choices A. What are the consequences of economic choices? 1. Trade-offs 2. Opportunity Costs B. Production Possibilities Frontier 1. Increasing Costs C. What are the basic economic questions? 1. What to produce? 2. How to produce? 3. For whom to produce? D. What are society's economic goals? 1. Growth 2. Efficiency 3. Price stability 4. Socioeconomic goals III. The Economic System A. Why are economic systems needed? 1. Specialization 2. Absolute and comparative advantage 3. Independence 76
B. What are the principle types of economic systems? 1. Market economies 2. Centrally directed economies 3. Traditional economies 4. Mixed economies C. How does a market system resolve the three basic economic questions? 1. Markets 2. Incentives D. Product and Factor Markets 1. Circular flow of the economy E. Market system resolution vs. alternatives IV. Market Pricing A. What forces determine prices in the marketplace? 1. Demand (The consumers' side of the market) 2. Supply (The sellers' side of the market) 3. Equilibrium B. What determines demand? 1. Tastes and preferences 1. Income 2. Substitutes and complements 4. Population C. What determines supply? 1. Prices and resources 2. Technology 3. Short run 4. Long run D. Why do prices change? 1. Shifts in demand 2. Shifts in supply 77
V. Earning and Spending: The Consumer A. What determines income? 1. Functional income distributional 2. Wage and salaries 3. Rent 4. Interest 5. Profits B. What choices do consumers make? 1. Spending choices 2. Consumer sovereignty 3. Savings choices C. How can consumers make better choices? 1. Information 2. Advertising VI. The Business Firm and Market Structure A. What are the forms and economic functions of business firms? 1. Forms of business organization 2. The four functions of business B. What determines a firm's profits? 1. Costs 2. Revenues 3. Profits C. How does industry market structure affect price and output decisions? 1. Pure competition 2. Differentiated competition 3. Pure monopoly 4. Shared monopoly VII. Industrial Performance A. What determines industry performance? 1. Productivity 78
2. Quality 3. Responsiveness to the market 4. Responsiveness to social concerns B. How can industry performance be improved? 1. Investment in capital equipment 2. Investment in human capital 3. Employee involvement 4. Research and development C. What are the effects of market structure on industry performance? 1. Market concentration 2. Aggregate Concentration 3. Concentration and industry performance VIII. Government and business A. How does the government limit monopoly power? 1. Antitrust legislation 2. Industrial consortiums 3. Public utility regulation 4. Deregulation B. Why does the government produce goods and services? 1. Collective goods 2. External economies 3. Collective goods and equity C. What is the role of government in protecting the environment? 1. Why pollution exists 2. How pollution is controlled 3. Have we been successful? IX. Government and Households A. What does the government do to reduce poverty? 1. The distribution of income 2. Created equal but..... 3. What is the answer to poverty? 79
B. What does the government do to help older Americans? 1. Social security 2. Social security reform C. What is the role of government in protecting consumers and workers? 1. Consumer protection 2. Worker protection X. Macroeconomics - Money A. What is Money? 1. Currency 2. Demand deposits 3. Near money B. What does money do? 1. Medium of Exchange 2. Unit of Measure 3. Store of Value C. How is money created? 1. Currency 2. Private Borrowing 3. Government Borrowing D. How is the supply of money controlled? 1. The Federal Reserve System 2. Reserve Requirements 3. Discounting 4. Open market operations XI. Economic Stability A. What causes Unemployment? 1. Unemployment 2. Frictional unemployment 3. Structural unemployment 4. Inadequate Aggregate (Total) Demand 80
5. Natural rate of unemployment 6. Hidden unemployment B. What causes inflation? 1. Measuring inflation 2. Demand-Pull inflation 3. Cost-push inflation 4. Monetary inflation C. Is there a trade-off between unemployment and inflation? 1. Phillips curve 2. Stagflation D. What are the consequences of unemployment and inflation? 1. Income effects of unemployment 2. Real output effects of unemployment 3. Social effects of unemployment 4. Income Effects of inflation 5. Real output effects of inflation 6. Inflation: How high is up? XII. The Economy's Output A. How much does the economy produce? 1. Expenditure categories 2. Income categories 3. Value added 4. Current and constant dollar GDP 5. Shortcomings of GDP B. What determines domestic output from the demand side point of view? 1. Consumption demand 2. Investment demand 3. Government demand 4. Equilibrium output 81
C. What determines domestic output from the supply side point of view? 1. Say's law 2. Incentives 3. Government deficits XIII. Public Finance A. On what do governments spend money? 1. Size of Government spending 2. Federal spending 3. State and Local Expenditure B. Where do governments get the money to spend? 1. Federal Government revenues 2. Federal spending 3. State and local expenditure C. Where do governments get the money to spend? 1. Federal Government Revenues 2. State and local government revenues D. Who pays for government spending? 1. Equity 2. Efficiency 3. Incidence XIV. Policies for Economic Stability and Growth A. What can the government do about unemployment and inflation? 1. Fiscal policy 2. Monetary policy B. How does fiscal policy help stabilize the economy? 1. Discretionary fiscal policy 2. The multiplier effect 3. Automatic stabilizers C. How can monetary policy help stabilize the economy? 1. Monetary policy tools 82
2. Controlling interest rates 3. Control of the money supply D. How can economic growth be increased? 1. Importance of economic growth 2. Increasing capital investment 3. Increasing capital efficiency 4. Increasing labor force participation rate 5. Increasing investment in human capital XV. World Economics ­ International Trade A. Why do we trade with other countries? 1. Absolute advantage 2. Comparative advantage 3. Specialization 4. Increasing costs B. Who benefits and who is hurt by foreign trade? 1. Consumer benefits 2. What do we import? 3. Producer and worker benefits 4. Import-competing firms' and workers' losses 6. Mobility of capital and labor 7. Domestic consumers of export industries C. How do we restrict foreign trade? 1. Tariffs 2. Quotas 3. Nontariff barriers 4. Export embargoes D. Should foreign trade be restricted? 1. Traditional protectionist arguments 2. Terms of trade 3. Neomercantilist arguments 4. The power of special interests 83
XVI. International Finance and the National Economy A. How do we pay for imports? 1. Foreign Exchange Market 2. Exchange rates 3. The causes of fluctuations in exchange rates 4. Exchange rate risk B. What happens when exports and imports do not balance? 1. Balance of payments 2. International capital flows C. What is the relationship between international finance and the domestic economy? 1. The foreign sector in the national economy 2. The foreign sector and national economic equilibrium XVII. Alternative Economic Systems: State Socialism, Soviet-Style A. How is the former Soviet Union's economy being restructured? 1. Getting prices right 2. Privatization 3. Financial Markets B. How are the economies of central and eastern Europe being restructured? 1. Restructuring the Polish economy 2. Hungary 3. The other CEE countries C. How is the Chinese economy being restructured? 1. China under Mao 2. Pragmatism 3. The Chinese future. XVIII. The Less Developed Countries (LDC's) A. What are the Characteristics of less developed countries? 1. Income 2. Income Distribution 84
3. Social indicators 4. Consumer Goods B. What makes countries poor? 1. Theories of economic development 2. Lack of physical and human capital 3. Exploitation 4. Economic policies C. What are the prospects for the economic development of the LDCs? 1. Industrial development 2. Infrastructure 3. Overpopulation 4. The debt crisis 5. Environmental threats 6. Institutions Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Short Answer tests on class notes/lectures 2. Multiple choice tests on the text readings 3. DBQ essays 4. Free response essays 5. Critical thinking activities and assignments 6. Group projects 7. Class discussion/debates 85
ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) ECONOMICS Course Description Advanced Placement economics consists of two distinct courses: Microeconomics in the fall and Macroeconomics in the spring. The course is open to seniors. AP Microeconomics is an intensive, college-level course designed to give students an understanding of the principles of economics as they apply to individual decision makers, both producers and consumers, within the larger economic system. AP macroeconomics is an intensive college-level course designed to give students a thorough grounding in the principles of economics that apply to the economy as a whole. While a strong mathematical background is not required, students are expected to be able to work with graphs and algebraic equations. The culminating assessment is the nationally administered AP exam offered by the College Board in May. Student Objectives AP economics provides students with an opportunity to broaden their awareness of various economic principles, concepts, and issues. It provides a chance for students to combine knowledge of the theoretical with practical, real-life decisions about employment options, consumer choices, and personal finance in order to prepare them to participate effectively as adult citizens. The course also provides students with an opportunity to improve their research, writing, and presentation skills. While learning the content of AP economics students will: · Appreciate the logic of scientific investigation and differentiate between social and other types of science · Analyze the effectiveness of varying ways individuals, societies, and nations attempt to satisfy their basic needs and wants · Define and apply basic economic concepts · Understand the nature of scarcity and describe how scarcity forces choices 86
· Describe the economic system in the U. S. and compare it to other national economic systems · Illustrate the increasing interconnectedness of the world economy · Be able to identify, read, understand, and evaluate primary/secondary sources · Express themselves orally and in writing Advanced Placement (AP) Economics Course Content Semester One: Microeconomics Part I: An Introduction to Economics and the Economy I. Nature and Method of Economics A. Economic perspectives 1. Scarcity/choice 2. Rational behavior 3. Marginalism: benefits/costs B. Purpose of pursuing economic study 1. Economics for citizenship 2. Professional and personal applications C. Economic methodology 1. Theoretical economics 2. Policy economics D. Macroeconomics and Microeconomics 1. Positive Economics 2. Normative Economics E. Pitfalls to objective thinking 1. Biases 2. Loaded terminology 3. Causation fallacies F. Graphs and their meaning 1. Constructing a graph 2. Direct and inverse relationships 3. Dependent and independent variables 87
4. Other things equal 5. Slope of a line 6. Vertical intercept 7. Equation of a linear relationship 8. Slope of a nonlinear curve II. Economizing Problem A. Foundation of economics 1. Unlimited wants 2. Scarce resources 3. Relative scarcity B. Economics: employment and efficiency 1. Full employment: using available resources 2. Full production: using resources efficiently 3. Production possibility table 4. Production possibilities curve 5. Law of increasing opportunity cost 6. Allocative efficiency revisited C. Unemployment, growth, and the future 1. Unemployment and productive inefficiency 2. A growing economy 3. A qualification: international trade 4. Applications D. Economic systems 1. Pure capitalism 2. The command economy 3. Mixed systems 4. The traditional economy E. Circular flow model 1. Resource and product markets 2. Limitations 88
III. Understanding Individual Markets: Demand and Supply A. Market demand 1. Law of demand 2. The demand curve 3. Individual and market demand 4. Determinants of demand 5. Change in demand 6. Changes in quantity demanded B. Supply 1. Law of supply 2. The supply curve 3. Changes in supply 4. Changes in quantity supplied C. Supply and demand: market equilibrium 1. Surpluses 2. Shortages 3. Equilibrium price and quantity 4. Rationing function of prices 5. Changes in supply, demand, and equilibrium 6. A reminder: "Other things equal" 7. Application: pink salmon IV. Pure Capitalism and the Market System A. Capitalist ideology 1. Private property 2. Freedom of enterprise and choice 3. Role of self-interest 4. Competition a. Markets and prices b. Limited government B. Other characteristics 1. Extensive use of technology and capital goods 89
2. Specialization 3. Use of money C. Competitive market system D. The five fundamental questions E. The market system at work 1. Determining what is to be produced 2. Organizing production 3. Distributing total output 4. Accommodating change F. Competition and the "invisible hand" V. Mixed Economy: Private and Public Sectors A. Households as income receivers 1. Functional distribution of income 2. Personal distribution of income B. Households as spenders 1. Personal taxes 2. Personal savings 3. Personal consumption expenditures C. The business population D. Legal forms of businesses 1. Sole proprietorship 2. Partnership 3. Corporation 4. Large corporations E. Economic functions of government F. Legal/social framework G. Maintaining competition H. Redistribution of income I. Reallocation of resources 1. Spillovers or externalities 2. Public goods and services 90
3. Quasi-public goods
4. Allocating resources to public and quasi-public goods
J. Stabilization
K. Circular flow revisited
L. Government finance
M. Federal finance
1. Federal expenditures
2. Federal tax revenues
N. State and local finance
·
Fiscal Federalism
Part II: Microeconomics and Product Markets I. Demand and Supply: Elasticities and Applications A. Price elasticity of demand (Ed) 1. Price elasticity coefficient and formula 2. Interpretations of Ed 3. Refinement: midpoint formula 4. Graphical analysis 5. Total revenue test 6. Price elasticity and the total-revenue curve 7. Determinants of price elasticity of demand B. Price elasticity of supply 1. Supply elasticity: the market period 2. Supply elasticity: the short run 3. Supply elasticity: the long run C. Cross and income elasticity of demand 1. Cross elasticity of demand 2. Income elasticity of demand D. Applications: government-controlled prices 1. Price ceilings and shortages 2. Price floors and surpluses
91
3. Controversial tradeoffs II. Consumer Behavior and Utility Maximization A. Two explanations of the Law of Demand 1. Income/substitution effects 2. Law of diminishing marginal utility B. Theory of consumer behavior 1. Consumer choice and budget restraint 2. Utility-maximizing rule 3. Algebraic restatement C. Utility maximization and the demand curve D. Applications and extensions 1. Diamond-water paradox 2. Value of time 3. Buying medical care 4. Transfers/gifts E. Indifference curve analysis 1. The budget line: What is attainable? 2. Indifference curves: What is preferred? 3. Indifference map a. Equilibrium at tangency b. Measurement of utility c. Deriving the demand curve III. Costs of Production A. Economic costs 1. Explicit/implicit costs 2. Normal profit as a cost 3. Economic or pure profit 4. Long-run/short-run profit B. Short-run production relationships · Law of diminishing returns C. Short-run production costs 92
1. Fixed, variable, and total costs 2. Per unit, or average, costs 3. Marginal costs 4. Shifting the cost curves D. Long-run production costs 1. Firm size and costs 2. Long-run cost curve 3. Economics and diseconomics of scale 4. Minimum efficient scale and industry structure IV. Pure Competition A. Four market models B. Pure competition: characteristics/occurrence C. Demand as seen by a purely competitive seller 1. Perfectly elastic demand 2. Average, total, and marginal revenue 3. Graphical portrayal D. Profit maximization in the short run 1. Total revenue-total cost approach: profit maximization case 2. Marginal revenue-marginal cost approach E. Marginal cost (MC) and short-run supply 1. Generalized depiction 2. Diminishing returns, production costs, and product supply 3. Supply curve shifts 4. Firm and industry: equilibrium price F. Profit maximization in the long run 1. Assumptions 2. Achieving long-run equilibrium 3. Entry eliminates economic profits 4. Exit eliminates losses 5. Long-run supply for a constant cost industry 93
6. Long-run supply for an increasing cost industry 7. Long-run supply for a decreasing cost industry G. Pure competition and efficiency 1. Product efficiency: P = Minimum Average Total Cost (ATC) 2. Allocative efficiency: P = MC V. Pure Monopoly A. Introduction 1. Characteristics 2. Examples of monopoly 3. Importance of monopoly and its study B. Barriers to entry 1. Economies of scale 2. Legal barriers to entry: patents and licenses 3. Ownership or control of essential resources 4. Pricing and other strategic barriers 5. Two implications C. Monopoly demand 1. Marginal revenue (MR) is less than price 2. The monopolist as a "price maker" 3. Monopolist prices in the elastic region of demand D. Output and price determination 1. Cost data 2. MR = MC rule 3. No monopoly supply curve 4. Misconceptions concerning monopoly pricing 5. Monopolist losses E. Economic effects of monopoly 1. Price, output, and efficiency 2. Income distribution 3. Cost complications 94
4. Policy options F. Price discrimination G. Consequences of price discrimination H. Regulated monopoly 1. Socially optimal price: P = MC 2. Fair return price: P =ATC 3. Dilemma of regulation VI. Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly A. Monopolistic competition: characteristics/occurrence 1. Relatively large numbers of sellers 2. Differentiated products 3. Non-price competition and advertising 4. Monopolistically competitive industries B. Monopolistic competition: price and output determination 1. The firm's demand curve 2. Short-run: profit or loss 3. Long-run: only a normal profit C. Monopolistic competition and economic efficiency 1. Excess capacity D. Monopolistic competition: non-price competition 1. Product differentiation 2. Product development 3. Monopolistic competition and economic analysis E. Oligopoly: characteristics/occurrence 1. A few large producers 2. Homogeneous or differentiated products 3. Control over price but mutual interdependence 4. Entry barriers 5. Mergers 6. Measure of industry concentration 7. Herfindahl Index 95
F. Oligopoly behavior: a game theory overview 1. Mutual interdependence revisited 2. Collusive tendencies 3. Incentive to cheat G. Three oligopoly models 1. Diversity of oligopolies 2. Complications of interdependence 3. Kinked demand theory: non-collusive oligopoly 4. Collusive pricing model 5. Cartels 6. Price leadership model H. Oligopoly and advertising 1. Positive effects of advertising 2. Potential negative effects of advertising 3. Graphical analysis I. Oligopoly and efficiency 1. Productive/allocative efficiency 2. Qualifications VII. Technology, Research and Development (R&D), and Efficiency A. Technological advance: invention, innovation, and diffusion 1. Invention 2. Innovation 3. Diffusion 4. R&D expenditures 5. Modern view of technological advance B. Role of entrepreneurs and other innovators 1. Entrepreneurs and startups 2. Innovators within existing firms 3. Anticipating the future 4. Exploiting university and government scientific research C. A firm's optimal amount of R&D 96
1. Interest rate cost of funds 2. Expected rate of return 3. Optimal R&D expenditures D. Increased profit via innovation 1. Increased revenue via product innovation 2. Reduced cost via process innovation E. Imitation and R&D incentives 1. Benefits of being first F. Role of market structure 1. Market structure and technological advance 2. Inverted-U theory 3. Technological advance: the evidence G. Technological advance and efficiency 1. Productive efficiency 2. Creative destruction PART III: Microeconomics of Resource Markets I. The Demand for Resources A. Significance and complexity of resource pricing B. Marginal productivity theory of resource demand 1. Resource demand as a derived demand 2. Marginal revenue product (MRP) 3. Rule for employing resources: MRP = MRC ­ MRP is resource demand schedule 4. Resource demand under imperfect competition 5. Market demand for a resource C. Determinants of resource demand 1. Changes in product demand 2. Productivity changes 3. Changes in the prices of other resources 4. Real-world applications 97
D. Elasticity of resource demand E. Optimal combination of resources 1. Least-cost rule 2. Profit-maximizing rule F. Marginal productivity theory of income distribution II. Wage Determination A. Labor, wages, and earning B. General level of wages 1. Role of productivity 2. Real wages and productivity 3. Secular growth of real wages 4. Recent stagnation of real wage growth 5. Slower productivity growth C. A purely competitive labor market 1. Market demand for labor 2. Market supply of labor 3. Labor market equilibrium D. Monopoly model 1. MRC exceeds the wage rate 2. Equilibrium wage and employment 3. Demand enhancement model 4. Three union models 5. Exclusive or craft union model 6. Inclusive or industrial union model 7. Wage increase and unemployment 8. Bilateral monopoly model 9. Indeterminate outcome 10. Desirability of bilateral monopoly 11. Minimum wage controversy 12. Case against the minimum wage 13. Case for the minimum wage 98
14. Evidence E. Pay for performance 1. Principal agent problem revisited 2. An addenda: negative side effects III. Rent, Interest, and Profit A. Economic rent 1. Perfectly inelastic supply 2. Changes in demand 3. A single tax on land 4. Productivity differences/rent differences 5. Alternative uses of land B. Interest 1. Loanable funds theory of interest 2. Extending the model 3. Land rent is a surplus payment 4. Range of interest rates 5. Pure rate of interest 6. Role of the interest rate 7. Application: usury laws C. Economic profit 1. Role of entrepreneur 2. Sources of economic profit 3. Functions of profit D. Income shares PART IV: Microeconomics of Government I. Government and Market Failure: Public Goods, Externalities, and Information Problems A. Public goods: extending the analysis 1. Determining the demand for public goods 2. Supply of public goods 99
3. Optimal quantity of a public good 4. Benefit cost analysis B. Externalities revised 1. Spillover costs 2. Individual bargaining: Case Theorem 3. Liability rules and lawsuits 4. Government intervention 5. A market for externality rights 6. Society's optimal amount of externality reduction C. A closer look at pollution 1. Dimensions of the problem 2. Causes: the law of conservation of matter and energy 3. Anti-pollution policy in the United States 4. Solid waste disposal and recycling D. Information failures 1. Inadequate information involving sellers 2. Inadequate information involving buyers 3. Qualification II. Public Choice Theory and Taxation A. Revealing preferences through majority voting 1. Inefficient voting outcomes 2. Paradox of voting 3. Median voter model B. Public sector failure 1. Special interests and rent seeking 2. Clear benefits, hidden costs 3. Limited/bundled choice 4. Bureaucracy/inefficiency 5. Imperfect institutions C. Apportioning the tax burden 1. Benefits received versus ability to pay 100
2. Progressive, proportional, and regressive taxes D. Tax incidence and efficiency loss 1. Elasticity and tax incidence 2. Efficiency loss of a tax 3. Probable incidence of U.S. taxes 4. The American tax structure E. Tax reform 1. Value added tax (VAT) 2. Flat tax 3. Criticisms of the VAT and the flat tax F. Issue of freedom 1. The conservative position 2. The liberal position PART V: Microeconomic Issues and Policies I. Antitrust Policy, Regulation, and Industrial Policy A. Definitions of industrial concentration B. Industrial concentration: advantages/disadvantages · Defenses of industrial concentration C. The Antitrust Laws 1. Historical background 2. Sherman Act of 1890 3. Clayton Act of 1914 4. Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 5. Celler Kefauver Act of 1950 D. Antitrust policy: issues/impacts 1. Issues of interpretation 2. Issues of enforcement: tradeoffs among goals 3. Effectiveness of antitrust laws 4. Problems E. Natural monopolies and their regulation 101
1. Natural monopoly 2. Problems 3. Legal cartel theory F. Deregulation 1. Controversy 2. Deregulation outcomes G. Social regulation 1. Distinguishing features 2. Controversies H. Industrial policy 1. Antecedents 2. Recent emphasis 3. Controveries II. Agriculture: Economics and Policy A. Economics of agriculture 1. Short-run problem: price and income instability 2. Long-run problem: a declining industry B. Economics of farm policy 1. Rationale for farm subsidies 2. Background: the parity concept 3. Economics of price supports 4. Coping with surplus C. Criticism, politics, and reform 1. Criticisms 2. The politics of farm policy 3. Recent reform: freedom to farm III. Income Inequality and Poverty A. Facts about income inequality 1. Personal income distribution 2. Trends in income inequality 3. Causes of growth inequality 102
4. The Lorenz Curve B. Income mobility: the time dimension C. Effect of government redistribution D. Causes of income inequality 1. Ability differences 2. Education and training 3. Discrimination 4. Tastes and risks 5. Unequal distribution of wealth 6. Market power 7. Luck, connections, and misfortunes E. Equality versus efficiency 1. The case for equality: maximizing total utility 2. The case for inequality: incentives and efficiency 3. The equality-efficiency tradeoff F. The economics of poverty 1. Definition of poverty 2. Demographics of the poor 3. Poverty trends 4. The "invisible" poor G. Income maintenance system 1. Social insurance programs 2. Public assistance programs H. Welfare: goals/conflicts 1. Common features-conflicts among goals I. Welfare: criticism/reform 1. Criticism leading to reform J. Last word: the failure of social security IV. Economics of Health Care A. The health care industry B. Twin problems: costs and access 103
C. High and rising health care costs 1. Health care spending 2. Quality of care: Are we healthier? 3. Economic implications of rising costs 4. The basic problem 5. Limited access D. Rapid rise in costs 1. Peculiarities of the health care market 2. Asymmetric information 3. Increasing demand for health care 4. Role of insurance 5. Supply factors in rising health care prices 6. Relative importance E. Reforming the health care system 1. Achieving universal access 2. Cost containment: altering incentives 3. Status report on health care reform V. Labor Market Issues: Unionism, Discrimination, and Immigration A. Unionism in the U.S. 1. Business unionism 2. Union membership 3. Decline of unionism B. Collective bargaining 1. The work agreement 2. The bargaining process C. Economic effects of unions 1. Union wage advantage 2. Efficiency/productivity D. Labor market discrimination 1. Types of discrimination 2. Costs of discrimination 104
E. Economic analysis of discrimination 1. Taste for discrimination model 2. Statistical discrimination 3. Occupational segregation: the crowding model F. Anti-discrimination policies and issues 1. Affirmative action controversy 2. Recent developments G. Immigration 1. Number of immigrants 2. Economics of immigration 3. Complications/modifications 4. Immigration: two views 105
Semester Two: Macroeconomics Part I: National Income, Employment, and Fiscal Policy I. Measuring Domestic Output, National Income, and Price Level A. Macroeconomic measurement B. Gross domestic product (GDP) 1. A monetary measure 2. Avoiding double counting 3. GDP excludes non-production transactions 4. Two sides to GDP: spending and income C. Expenditures approach 1. Gross private domestic investment 2. Government Purchases 3. Net exports: using the GDP equation D. Income approach 1. Compensation of employees 2. Rents 3. Interest 4. Proprietors' income E. Other national accounts 1. Net domestic product 2. National income 3. Personal income 4. Disposable income 5. The circular flow revisited F. Nominal versus real GDP 1. Adjustment process in a one-good economy 2. An alternative method 3. Real-world considerations and data G. Consumer price index H. GDP and economic well-being 1. Non-market transactions 106
2. Leisure 3. Improved product quality 4. Per capita output 5. GDP and the environment 6. Underground economy II. Macroeconomic Instability: Unemployment and Inflation A. The business cycle 1. Phases of the cycle 2. Causation: A first glance 3. Non-cyclical fluctuations 4. Cyclical impact: durables and non-durables B. Unemployment 1. Types of unemployment 2. Definition of full employment 3. Measuring unemployment 4. Economic costs of unemployment 5. Non-economic costs 6. International comparisons C. Inflation defined and measured 1. Definition of inflation 2. Measuring inflation 3. Facts of inflation 4. Causes: theories of inflation 5. Complexities of inflation D. Redistribution effects of inflation 1. Fixed-nominal-income receivers 2. Savers 3. Debtors and creditors 4. Anticipated inflation 5. Addenda E. Output effects of inflation 107
1. Stimulus of demand-pull inflation 2. Cost-push inflation and unemployment 3. Hyperinflation and breakdown III. Building the Aggregate Expenditures Model A. Historical backdrop 1. Classical economics and Say's Law 2. The Great Depression and Keynes B. Simplifications C. Tools of the aggregate expenditures model D. Consumption and saving 1. Income-consumption and income-saving relationships 2. Consumption schedule 3. Saving schedule 4. Average and marginal propensities 5. Non-income determinants of consumption and saving 6. Shifts/stability E. Investment 1. Expected rate of return 2. Real interest rate 3. Investment-demand curve 4. Shifts in the investment-demand curve 5. Investment schedule 6. Instability of investment F. Equilibrium GDP: expenditures-output approach 1. Tabular analysis 2. Graphical analysis G. Equilibrium GDP: leakages-injections approach 1. Tabular analysis 2. Graphical analysis H. Planned versus actual investment 1. Disequilibrium and inventories 108
2. Achieving equilibrium IV. Aggregate Expenditures: Multiplier, Net Exports, and Government A. Changes in equilibrium GDP and the multiplier 1. Multiplier effect B. International trade and equilibrium output 1. Net exports and aggregate expenditures ­ net export schedule 2. Net exports and equilibrium GDP 3. International economic linkages C. Adding the public sector 1. Simplifying assumptions 2. Government purchases and equilibrium GDP 3. Taxation and equilibrium GDP 4. Balanced-budget multiplier D. Equilibrium versus full-employment GDP 1. Recessionary gap 2. Inflationary gap E. Historical applications 1. The Great Depression 2. Vietnam War inflation F. Critique and preview V. Aggregate Demand/Aggregate Supply A. Aggregate demand (AD) 1. Aggregate demand curve 2. Deriving the aggregate demand curve from the aggregate expenditure model 3. Determinants of aggregate demand 4. Aggregate demand shifts/aggregate expenditures model B. Aggregate supply (AG) 1. Aggregate supply curve 2. Determinants of aggregate supply 109
C. Equilibrium: real output/price level D. Changes in equilibrium 1. Shifting aggregate demand 2. Multiplier with price level changes 3. Ratchet effect 4. Shifting aggregate supply VI. Fiscal Policy A. Legislative mandates B. Discretionary fiscal policy 1. Expansionary fiscal policy 2. Contractionary fiscal policy 3. Financing deficits/disposing of surpluses 4. Policy options: G or T C. Non-discretionary fiscal policy: built-in stabilizers 1. Automatic or build-in stabilizers 2. Actual versus full-employment budget 3. Proposed balanced budget requirement D. Problems, criticisms, and complications 1. Problems of timing 2. Political problems 3. Crowding-out effect 4. Fiscal policy, aggregate supply, and inflation 5. Fiscal policy in the open economy 6. Supply side fiscal policy Part II: Money, Banking, and Monetary Policy I. Money and Banking A. Function of money B. Supply of money 1. Defining money: M1 2. Near-monies: M2 and M3 3. Near-monies implications 110
4. Credit cards C. Basis of money supply 1. Value of money 2. Money and prices 3. Maintaining money's value D. Demand for money 1. Transactions demand 2. Asset demand 3. Total money demand E. The money market 1. Responses to a shortage of money 2. Responses to surplus of money F. The Federal Reserve and the Banking System 1. Historical background 2. Board of governors 3. Assistance and advice 4. The twelve federal reserve banks 5. commercial banks and thrifts 6. Federal Reserve functions and the money supply 7. Federal Reserve independence G. Recent developments in money and banking 1. The relative decline of banks and thrifts 2. Globalization of financial markets 3. Electronic money II. How Banks Create Money A. Balance sheet of a commercial bank B. Prologue: The Goldsmiths C. A single commercial bank D. Money-creating transactions of a commercial bank 1. Profits, liquidity, and the Federal funds market 2. Money multiplier 111
E. Banking system: multiple-deposit expansion F. Money multiplier 1. Some modifications G. Need for monetary control III. Monetary Policy A. Goal of monetary policy B. Consolidated balance sheet of the Federal Reserve banks 1. Assets 2. Liabilities C. Tools of monetary policy 1. Open market operations 2. The reserve ration 3. The discount rate 4. Easy money and tight money 5. Relative importance D. Monetary policy, real GDP, and the price level 1. Cause-effect chain 2. Effects of an easy money policy 3. Effects of a tight money policy 4. Refinements and feedback 5. Monetary policy and aggregate supply E. Effectiveness of monetary policy 1. Strengths of the monetary policy 2. Shortcomings and problems 3. Recent focus: the federal fund rate 4. Monetary policy and the international economy Part III: Problems and Controversies in Macroeconomics I. Extending the Analysis of Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand A. Short-run and long-run aggregate supply 1. Definitions: short-run/long-run 112
2. Long-run aggregate supply 3. Equilibrium in the extended AD-AS model B. Applying the extended AD-AS model 1. Demand-pull inflation in the extended AD-AS model 2. Cost-push inflation in the extended AD-AS model 3. Recession and the extended AD-AS model C. The Phillips Curve 1. The basic idea 2. Tradeoffs 3. Stagflation: a shifting Phillips Curve 4. Adverse aggregate supply shocks 5. Stagflation's demise D. Natural rate hypothesis 1. Adaptive expectations theory 2. Rational expectations theory 3. Changing interpretations E. Supply side economics 1. Tax-transfers disincentives 2. Laffer Curve 3. Criticisms of the Laffer Curve 4. Overregulations 5. Reaganomics II. Disputes in Macro Theory and Policy A. Historical background 1. Classical view 2. Keynesian view B. Causes of macro instability 1. Mainstream view 2. Monetarist view 3. Real-business cycle view 4. Coordination failures 113
C. Economy self-corrects 1. New classical view of self-correction 2. Mainstream view of self-correction D. Fiscal policy: regulation versus discretion 1. Support of regulation 2. Defense of discretionary stabilization policy 3. Increased macro stability E. Summary of alternative views III. Economic Growth A. Growth economics 1. Definitions of economic growth 2. Growth as a goal 3. Arithmetic of growth B. Ingredients of growth C. Graphical analysis 1. Growth and production possibilities 2. Extended AD-AS model D. Growth in the United States E. Accounting for growth 1. Input versus productivity 2. Quantity of labor 3. Technological advance 4. Quantity of capital 5. Education/training 6. Resource allocation and scale economies 7. Detriments to growth 8. Other contributing factors 9. Macroeconomic instability and growth F. Productivity slowdown 1. Significance 2. Causes of the slowdown 114
G. The question of a "new economy" H. Growth Policies 1. Demand-side policies 2. Supply-side policies I. Advantages/disadvantages of growth IV. Budget Deficits and the Public Debt A. Definitions of deficits and debt B. Budget philosophies 1. Annually balanced budget 2. Cyclically balanced budget 3. Functional finance C. Public debt: facts and figures 1. Causes/quantitative aspects D. Economic implications/false issues 1. Distinction between public debt and governmental bankruptcy 2. Shifting burdens E. Implications/issues 1. Income distribution 2. Incentive 3. External debt 4. Curb on fiscal policy 5. Crowding out and the stock of capital F. Recent Federal deficits 1. Large size G. Budget deficits and trade deficits 1. Higher interest rates 2. Dollar appreciation 3. Trade deficits 4. Related effects 5. Policy responses 115
6. Positive role of debt Part IV: International Economics and World Economy I. The U.S. in the Global Economy A. World trade 1. Volume/pattern 2. Rapid trade growth 3. Participants B. Circular flow of global economics C. Specialization and comparative advantage 1. Basic principle 2. Comparative costs 3. Terms of trade 4. Gains from specialization and trade D. Foreign exchange market 1. Dollar/yen market 2. Changing rates 3. Depreciation/appreciation a. Depreciation b. Appreciation E. Government and trade 1. Trade impediments/subsidies 2. Government trade interventions 3. Costs to society F. Multilateral trade agreements and free trade zones 1. European Union 2. North American Free Trade Agreement 3. Hostile trade blocs versus further integration G. American firms in the world economy II. International Trade A. Facts of international trade B. Economic basis for trade 116
C. Comparative advantages 1. Specializing according to comparative advantages 2. Terms of trade 3. Gains from trade 4. Trade with increasing costs 5. The case for free trade D. Supply and demand analysis of exports and imports 1. Supply/demand in the U.S. 2. Supply/demand in Canada 3. Equilibrium world price, exports, and imports E. Trade barriers 1. Economic impact of tariffs 2. Economic impact of quotas F. Economic protection: rationale 1. Military self-sufficiency argument 2. Increased domestic employment argument 3. Diversification for stability 4. Infant-industry argument 5. Protection against dumping argument 6. Low foreign labor cost argument G. Costs of a protectionist economic policy 1. Cost to society 2. Impact on income distribution H. U.S. international trade policy 1. Aggressive export promotion 2. Bilateral negotiations III. Exchange Rates, The Balance of Payments, and Trade Deficits A. Financing international trade 1. U.S. export transaction 2. U.S. import transaction B. The balance of payments 117
1. Current account 2. Capital account 3. Official reserves account 4. Payments, deficits, and surpluses C. Flexible exchange rates 1. Depreciation/appreciation 2. Determinants of exchange rates 3. Flexible rates and the balance of payments 4. Disadvantages of flexible exchange rates D. Fixed exchange rates 1. Use of reserves 2. Trade policies 3. Exchange controls and rationing 4. Domestic macroeconomic adjustments E. International exchange rate systems 1. Gold standard: fixed exchange rates 2. Bretton Woods system 3. Current system: the managed float F. Recent U.S. trade deficits 1. Causes of the trade deficit 2. Implications of U.S. trade deficits IV. The Economics of Developing Countries A. The rich and the poor 1. Growth, decline, and income gaps 2. Implications B. Obstacles to economic development 1. Natural resources 2. Human resources 3. Capital accumulation 4. Technological advance 5. Socio-cultural and institutional factors 118
C. The vicious circle D. Role of government 1. Expanding trade 2. Foreign aid: public loans and grants 3. Private capital flows E. Policies for the future 1. DVC policies for promoting growth 2. IAC policies for fostering DVC Growth V. Transition Economies: Russia and China A. Ideology/institutions B. State ownership/central planning C. Planning goals/techniques D. Problems with central planning 1. Coordination 2. Incentive to work E. The collapse of the Soviet economy 1. Declining growth 2. Poor product quality 3. Lack of consumer goods 4. Large military burden 5. Agricultural drag F. The Russian transition to a market system 1. Privatization 2. Price reform 3. Promotion of competition 4. Joining the world economy 5. Price level stabilization 6. Major problems 7. Future prospects G. Market reforms in China 1. Agricultural/rural 119
2. Reform of urban industries 3. Special economic development of supporting institutions zones 4. Transformation of the SOEs H. Outcomes/prospects 1. Positive outcomes of reform 2. Problems Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Multiple choice tests 2. Short answer tests 3. DBQ essays 4. Thematic essays 5. Critical thinking activities 6. Group projects 7. Class discussion 120
ACCOUNTING I Course Description Accounting I is the first half of two courses offered to juniors and seniors. Upon graduation students will be prepared for entry-level positions as accounting clerks and other related clerical positions. Accounting I is designed to: · Prepare students for entry-level accounting and clerical positions upon high school graduation · Develop traits of neatness, accuracy, and orderliness · Prepare students for college accounting and other college business courses related to accounting · Apply the knowledge of accounting to a variety of family, club, or professional association needs, and to demonstrate familiarization with the complete accounting cycle Student Objectives The purpose of this course is to develop skills in the techniques of understanding and implementing the accounting cycle. The ability to record and to interpret transactions in the operation of a business will be the main emphasis. The various financial statements of proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations, will be introduced and analyzed, and the role of the accountant in the total business situation will be studied. While learning the content of Accounting I students will be able to: · Understand how modern technology has improved efficiency, accuracy, and speed in the accounting profession · Understand how to account for the payroll and taxes involved in preparation of the payroll · Understand procedures for petty cash and the voucher system · Examine accounting transactions · Understand debits and credits in the analysis of transactions · Understand and interpret the information on financial statements 121
Course Content ­ Accounting I I. The Language of Business A. The elements of accounting B. The accounting equation II. The Accounting Equation A. Transactions with permanent accounts B. Transactions with temporary accounts C. Interpreting and summarizing accounting information III. The Accounting Cycle Using Debits and Credits A. Forms of accounts B. Debiting and crediting assets and liabilities C. Debiting and crediting owner's equity D. Proving the ledger IV. Summarizing the Accounting Cycle A. Trial balance and income statement B. Balance sheet C. Updating owner's equity accounts V. Origination and input of accounting data A. Originating data with source documents B. Journalizing data in the general journal VI. Processing Accounting Data A. Posting data from the journal to the ledger B. Preparing accounting proofs C. Completing the worksheet VII. Output of Accounting Data A. Preparing the financial statements B. Updating Accounts C. Interpreting financial information 1. Income statement 2. Balance sheet D. Financial statements for partnerships and corporations 122
VIII. Banking Activities A. Paying by check B. Depositing Cash C. Bank reconciliation statements D. Petty cash funds Assessment of Student Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Tests 2. Quizzes 3. Workbook Problems 4. Cooperative Problem Solving 5. Neatness 6. Accuracy 7. Cumulative end-of-semester project on the accounting cycle 8. Class discussions 9. Class presentations on selected topics 123
ACCOUNTING II Course Description Accounting II is the second of two courses offered to juniors and seniors. Upon graduation students will be prepared for entry-level positions as accounting clerks and other related clerical positions. Accounting II is designed to develop the students' ability: · Prepare students for entry-level accounting and clerical positions upon high school graduation · Develop traits of neatness, accuracy, and orderliness · Prepare students for college accounting and other college business courses related to accounting · Apply the knowledge of accounting to a variety of family, club, or professional association needs, and to demonstrate familiarization with the complete accounting cycle Student Objectives The purpose of this course is to develop skills in the techniques of understanding and implementing the accounting cycle. The ability to record and to interpret transactions in the operation of a business will be the main emphasis. The various financial statements of proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations, will be introduced and analyzed, and the role of the accountant in the total business situation will be studied. While learning the content of Accounting II students will be able to: · Handle payroll procedures, notes payable, and uncollectible accounts · Understand subsystems for handling cash receipts, cash payments, purchases, and sales procedures · Prepare and understand the information contained on the balance sheet, income statement, worksheet, and comparative financial statements · Understand and account for adjusting entries · Understand the concepts of accruals and deferrals · Work with reversing entries 124
· Understand and work with special journals and the subsidiary ledgers · Understand the accounting procedures for depreciation Course Content ­ Accounting II I. Cash Receipts Subsystem A. Controlling cash receipts B. Processing cash receipts C. Credit card sales II. Cash Payment Subsystem A. Controlling cash payments B. Processing cash payments C. Proving cash III. Purchases Subsystem A. Controlling purchases 1. Ordering, receiving, accounting for, and storing merchandise B. Processing purchases C. Controlling the accounts payable ledger D. Controlling net purchases E. Controlling cash payments on account IV. Sales Subsystem A. Controlling sales of merchandise B. Processing sales on credit C. Controlling net sales D. Controlling cash received on accounts V. Personnel an Payroll Subsystem A. Controlling personnel and payroll B. Controlling gross earnings C. Deductions from gross earnings D. Processing the payroll E. Preparing payroll tax returns 125
VI. General Accounting Subsystem C. Controlling a general accounting subsystem D. Proving the ledgers and completing the worksheet E. Preparing financial statements F. Adjusting and closing the ledger G. Interpreting financial information VII. Updating Accounts ­ Uncollectible Accounts and Depreciation A. Updating accounts receivable B. Estimating and writing off uncollectible accounts C. Updating plant and equipment assets VIII. Updating Accounts for Accruals and Deferrals A. Accrued expenses and liabilities B. Accrued revenue and assets C. Accounting for deferred revenue and expenses 1. Adjusting entries 2. Reversing entries Student Assessment Progress A variety of methods are used to assess all students. These include: 1. Tests 2. Quizzes 3. Workbook problems 4. Cumulative end-of-semester project on special journals, subsidiary ledgers, and advanced topics such as accruals and deferrals 5. Neatness 6. Accuracy 7. Speed 8. Cooperative problem solving 9. Class discussions 10. Presentation of select topics to the class 126
NEW YORK STATE STANDARDS Standard 1: History of the United States and New York Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in the history of the United States and New York. 1. The study of New York State and United States history requires an analysis of the development of American culture, its diversity and multicultural context, and the ways people are unified by many values, practices and traditions. 2. Important ideas, social and cultural values, beliefs, and traditions from New York State and United States history illustrate the connections and interactions of people and events across time and from a variety of perspectives. 3. Study about the major social, political, economic, cultural, and religious developments in New York State and United States history involves learning about the important roles and contributions of individuals and groups. 4. The skills of historical analysis include the ability to: explain the significance of historical evidence; weigh the importance, reliability, and validity of evidence; understand the concept of multiple causation; understand the importance of changing and competing interpretations of different historical developments. Standard 2: World History Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in world history and examine the broad sweep of history from a variety of perspectives. 1. the study of world history requires ;an understanding of world cultures and civilizations, including an analysis of important ideas, social and cultural values, beliefs, and traditions. This study also examines the human 127
condition and the connections and interactions of people across time and space, and the ways different people view the same event or issue from a variety of perspectives. 2. Establishing timeframes, exploring different periodizations, examining themes across time and within cultures, and focusing on important turning points in world history help organize the study of world cultures and civilizations. 3. Study of the major social, political, cultural, and religious developments in world history involves learning about the important roles and contributions of individuals and groups. 4. The skills of historical analysis include the ability to investigate differing and competing interpretations of the theories of history, hypothesize about why interpretations change over time, explain the importance of historical evidence, and understand the concepts of change and continuity over time. Standard 3: Geography Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the geography of the interdependent world in which we live ­ local, national, and global ­ including the distribution of people, places, and environments over the Earth's surface. 1. Geography can be divided into six essential elements which can be used to analyze important historic, geographic, economic, and environmental questions and issues. These six elements include: the world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical settings (including natural resources), human systems, environment and society, and the use of geography. (Adapted from The National Geography Standards, 1994: Geography for Life) 2. Geography requires the development and application of the skills of asking and answering geographic questions; analyzing theories of geography; and acquiring, organizing, and analyzing geographic 128
information. (Adapted from The National Geography Standards, 1994 Geography for Life) Standard 4: Economics Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of how the United States and other societies develop economic systems and associated institutions to allocate scarce resources, how major decision-making units function in the United States and other national economies, and how an economy solves the scarcity problem through market and non-market mechanisms. 1. The study of economics requires an understanding of major economic concepts and systems, the principles of economic decision making, and the interdependence of economics and economic systems throughout the world. 2. Economics requires the development and application of the skills needed to make informed and well-reasoned economic decisions in daily and national life. Standard 5: Civics, Citizenship, and Government Students will used a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments; the governmental system of the United States and other nations; the United States Constitution; the basic civic values of American constitutional democracy; and the roles, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship, including avenues of participation. 1. The study of civics, citizenship, and government involves learning about political systems; the purposes of government and civic life; and the differing assumptions held by people across time, and place regarding power, authority, governance, and law. (Adapted from The national Standards for Civics and Government, 1994) 2. The state and federal governments established by the Constitutions of the United States and the State of New York embody basic civic values (such as justice, honesty, self-discipline, due process, equality, majority rule 129
with respect for minority rights, and respect for self, others, and property), principles, and practices and establish a system of shared and limited government. (Adapted from The national Standards for Civics and Government, 1994) 3. Central to civics and citizenship is an understanding of the roles of the citizen within American constitutional democracy and the scope of a citizen's rights and responsibilities. 4. the study of civics and citizenship requires the ability to probe ideas and assumptions, ask and answer analytical questions, take a skeptical attitude toward questionable arguments, evaluate evidence, formulate rational conclusions, and develop and refine participatory skills. 130

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