Women, armies, and warfare in early modern Europe, JA Lynn, A John

Tags: Cambridge University Press, John A. Lynn, Frontmatter, John A., Helena Grace Lynn, Warrior Women, the British Library, information cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn, Women soldiers, Bridgeman Art Library, early modern Europe, Bibliotheque de Geneve, the University of Amsterdam, Staatliche Graphishe Sammlung, British Museum, Huntington Library, Hertzog August Bibliothek, Bibliotheque National, mid-sixteenth century, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, National Army Museum, London, Art Resource, Virgil Solis, Martin Weygel, Brunswick Monogrammist, Franchesco Petrarca, woodcut, Landsknecht, Heinrich Steyner, Jacques Callot, Martin Treu, Jean-Baptiste Letourmy, Catalina de Erauso, Peg Woffington, Jacob Baum, University of Illinois, Augustin Daly, Daniel Hopfer, Hannah Snell, John Faber, Richard Phelps, Baggage Train
Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-72237-7 - Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn II Frontmatter More information Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe examines the important roles of women who campaigned with armies from 1500 to 1815. This included those notable female individuals who assumed male identities to serve in the ranks, but far more numerous and essential were the formidable women who, as women, marched in the train of armies. While some worked as full-time or part-time prostitutes, they more generally performed a variety of necessary gendered tasks, including laundering, sewing, cooking, and nursing. Early modern armies were always accompanied by women and regarded them as essential to the well-being of the troops. John A. Lynn II argues that, before 1650, women were also fundamental to armies because they were integral to the pillage economy that maintained troops in the field. John A. Lynn II earned his Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles. He is the author of Bayonets of the Republic: Tactics and Motivation in the Army of Revolutionary France, 1791­94 (1984); Giant of the Grand Siecle: The French Army, 1610­1715 (1997); The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667­1714 (1999); The French Wars 1667­1714: The Sun King at War (2002); and Battle: A History of Combat and Culture (2003 and 2004). He has edited Tools of War: Ideas, Instruments, and Institutions of Warfare, 1445­1871 (1990), and Feeding Mars: Logistics in Western Warfare from the Middle Ages to the Present (1993). He has also published eighty chapters, articles, and papers. He has served as president of the United States Commission on military history and as vice-president of the Society for Military History. In addition, he has been awarded the Palmes Academiques at the rank of chevalier from the French government and the Wissam al Alaoui at the rank of commander from his Majesty, King Mohammed VI of Morocco.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-72237-7 - Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn II Frontmatter More information Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe JOHN A. LYNN II
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-72237-7 - Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn II Frontmatter More information cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sa~ o Paulo, Delhi Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, n y 10013-2473, u s a www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521722377 Є John A. Lynn II 2008 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2008 Printed in the United States of America A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Lynn, John A. (John Albert), 1943­ Women, armies, and warfare in early modern Europe / John A. Lynn II. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. i s b n 978-0-521-89765-5 (hbk. : alk. paper) 1. Women and war­Europe­History. 2. Camp followers­Europe­History. 3. Women soldiers­Europe­History. 4. Military art and science­Europe­History. I. Title. u 21.75.l 96 2008 355.00820094­dc22 2008028107 i s b n 978-0-521-89765-5 hardback i s b n 978-0-521-72237-7 paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of u r l s for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-72237-7 - Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn II Frontmatter More information This book about women of strength, endurance, and courage is dedicated to my granddaughter Helena Grace Lynn
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-72237-7 - Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn II Frontmatter More information
Contents
List of illustrations Acknowledgments Introduction: Identifying Issues and Questions I Situating the Story: Armies, Communities, and Women II Camp Women: Prostitutes, "Whores," and Wives III Women's Work: Gendered Tasks, Commerce, and the Pillage Economy IV Warrior Women: Cultural Phenomena, Intrepid Soldiers, and Stalwart Defenders Conclusion: Proposing Answers and Suggesting Hypotheses Index
page ix xi 1 18 66 118 164 215 233
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-72237-7 - Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn II Frontmatter More information
List of illustrations
1 The Cobbler and His Girl, a woodcut attributed
to Erhard SchoЁ n, 1568.
page 16
2 Jacques Callot, Pillage of a Large Farmhouse from
Les miseres et malheurs de la guerre, Paris, 1633.
22
3 Les Quatres Veritez (The Four Truths), a popular print
by Jean-Baptiste Letourmy, ca. 1780.
25
4 Petrarch Master, Landsknechts in Tavern Brawl, a
woodcut in Franchesco Petrarca, Von der Artzney bayder
GluЁ ck, des guten vnd widerwertigen, published by
Heinrich Steyner in 1532.
42
5 Jacques Callot, Peasants' Revenge from Les miseres et
malheurs de la guerre, Paris, 1633.
49
6 Pierre Bontemps, bas-relief on the tomb of Francёois I,
circa 1547, showing heavily burdened women on the
march with the army.
54
7 Martin Weygel, The Landsknecht's Whore, with verse,
mid-Sixteenth Century.
74
8 Louis-Joseph Watteau, Un grenadier prenant conge
de sa maitresse, 1766.
80
9 Visions of the world turned upside down by Ewout
Muller of Amsterdam, late sixteenth century.
98
10 Martin Treu, woodcut showing a battle
for the pants with the woman wielding a cudgel,
ca. 1540­43.
101
11 Brunswick Monogrammist, The Loose Society
(Brothel Scene), ca. 1535­40.
107
12 Jost Amman, illustration from Fronsperger,
Kriegsordnung und Regiment, 1564.
112
13 British light dragoon barracks, 1788.
121
14 Erhard SchoЁ n, Woman's Reputation, 1533.
128
ix
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-72237-7 - Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn II Frontmatter More information
x
List of illustrations
15 Jan Martszen the Younger, a camp scene with a
sutler's tent, from Battle Subjects, mid-seventeenth
century.
141
16 Woodcut from Johannes Stumpf, Schwytzer Chronica
published in 1554.
148
17 Tortures committed by soldiers, in P. Vincent,
Lamentations of Germany (1638).
152
18 Christian Richter, attack on a woman,
ca. mid-seventeenth century.
155
19 David Rijckaert III, Plundering, mid-seventeenth
century.
158
20 Daniel Hopfer, Soldier and His Wife, ca. 1530.
161
21 Hannah Snell in a mezzotint print by John Faber,
1750, after a painting by Richard Phelps.
175
22 Handbill for Peg Woffington performing "The Female
Volunteer," 1746, reproduced in Augustin Daly,
Woffington: A Tribute to the Actress and the Woman.
181
23 Engraving of Catalina de Erauso based on 1630
portrait, from Historia de la monja Alferez don~ a
Catalina de Erauso (Paris: 1829).
192
24 A contemporary print of Gesche Meiburg.
206
25 Virgil Solis, A Boy and a Woman of the Baggage
Train, mid-sixteenth century.
219
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-72237-7 - Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe John A. Lynn II Frontmatter More information
Acknowledgments
Writing Women, Armies, and Warfare in Early Modern Europe has been a great ride. Begun simply as a chapter in another manuscript, it grew to such proportions that it clearly demanded to be a book of its own. The subject matter took charge, and I followed where it led me. At first I wanted to stay in my comfort zone, restricting the tale to a military history focused on women with early modern armies, but well into the project it became clear that it also needed to be a work of women's history per se, or at least as much as I could make it. During this journey I accumulated many debts, and I would like to acknowledge those who contributed so much. The early Europe reading group at the University of Illinois would not let me settle for less and encouraged me to strive for more. Many thanks to Clare Crowston, Jennifer Edwards, Amanda Eisemann, Caroline Hibbard, Craig Koslosky, David O'Brien, Dana Rabin, and Carol Symes. Beyond these colleagues, I benefited from those who braved reading the entire manuscript at various stages: Fred Jaher, Barton Hacker, Lynn Hunt, Frank Tallett, and the second reader for Cambridge University Press. Drawing on his own considerable expertise, Brian Sandberg provided me with a particularly knowledgeable and helpful reading. I also gained from the translation help of Kelly De Vries, Mary Beth Ailes, Alex d'Erizans, and, Jacob Baum. Above all, Jacob Baum gave me access to important material that I otherwise could not have employed. This is the kind of book that relies upon the work of many scholars who, through their books and articles, have taught me much and provided me with a great many of the sources used here. I have followed many a footnote and found gold. Thank you for all you have given and all I have gained. Illustrations play a substantial role in this volume; they are not simply amusing pictures. Assembling them required help from a number of libraries, museums, and collections. These include: Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Lilly Library, Indiana University; xi
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xii
Acknowledgments
Huntington Library; Bibliotheque de Geneve; Library of the University of Amsterdam; Hertzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuettel; British Museum; Bibliotheque National; Musee de l'image, Epinal; Germanisches Nationalmuseum, NuЁ rnberg; Albertina Museum, Vienna; National Army Museum, London; Staatliche Graphishe Sammlung, Munich; Art Resource; Bridgeman Art Library; Lukas, Art in Flanders; and the very helpful people at Abaris Books. And thanks to my wife, Andrea Lynn, not only for her talents as an editor but also for enduring as I became so obsessed with the formidable women who populate the pages. Being a writer herself, she understands how the book kidnaps the author.
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JA Lynn, A John

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