Adolescence and emerging adulthood, JJ Arnett

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ARNEMF01_i-xvii-hr.qxd 5/26/09 4:32 PM Page i Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood A CULTURAL APPROACH JEFFREY JENSEN ARNETT Clark University Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen.
Adolescence and emerging adulthood/Jeffrey Jensen Arnett.--4th ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-10: 0-13-814458-3
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-814458-6
1. Adolescence--Cross-Cultural Studies. 2. Teenagers--Cross-cultural studies. 3. Young
adults--Cross-cultural studies. I. Title.
HQ796.A7255 2010
305.2355--dc22
2009007233
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Student edition: ISBN 10: 0-13-814458-3 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-814458-6 Exam Copy: ISBN 10: 0-20- 566525-X ISBN 13: 978-020-566525-9 Ala Cartй edition: ISBN 10: 0-205-75966-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-205-75966-8
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ARNEMF01_i-xvii-hr.qxd 5/26/09 4:32 PM Page v Brief Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Biological Foundations 30 3 Cognitive Foundations 58 4 cultural beliefs 92 5 Gender 120 6 The Self 146 7 Family Relationships 174 8 Friends and Peers 210 9 Love and Sexuality 240 10 School 276 11 Work 308 12 Media 336 13 Problems and Resilience 362 v
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Contents
Special Focus Boxes x Preface xi About the Author xvii 1 Introduction 1 Adolescence in Western Cultures: A Brief History 2 Adolescence in Ancient Times 2 Adolescence From Early Christian Times Through the Middle Ages 3 Adolescence From 1500 to 1890 3 The Age of Adolescence, 1890­1920 4 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood 7 The Transition to Adulthood 11 The Transition to Adulthood: Cross-Cultural Themes 12 The Transition to Adulthood: Cultural Variations 13 The Scientific Study of Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood 13 Methods Used in Research 16 Analysis and Interpretation 19 Theories and Research 20 Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory 20 Adolescence Around the World: A Brief Regional Overview 22 Sub-Saharan Africa 22 North Africa and the Middle East 22 Asia 23 India 23 Latin America 24 The West 24 Implications of Cultural Context 25 Other Themes of the Book 25 Historical Contrasts 25 Interdisciplinary Approach 25 Gender Issues 26 Globalization 26 Framework of the Book 27 2 Biological Foundations 30 The Biological Revolution of Puberty 32 The Endocrine System 32 Physical Growth During Puberty 34
Primary Sex Characteristics 39 Secondary Sex Characteristics 40 The Order of Pubertal Events 42 Cultural, Social, and Psychological Responses to Puberty 43 Culture and the Timing of Puberty 43 Cultural Responses to Puberty: Puberty Rituals 46 Social and Personal Responses to Puberty 48 Early and Late Pubertal Timing 52 Biological Development and the Environment: The Theory of Genotype­Environment Interactions 54 Genotype­Environment Interactions Over Time 55 3 Cognitive Foundations 58 Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 60 Stages of Cognitive Development in Childhood and Adolescence 61 Formal Operations in Adolescence 62 Abstract Thinking 63 Complex Thinking 63 Metacognition: Thinking About Thinking 64 Limitations of Piaget's Theory 64 Cognitive Development in Emerging Adulthood: Postformal Thinking 66 Pragmatism 66 Reflective Judgment 68 The Information-Processing Approach 69 Attention 69 Storing and Retrieving Information: Short-Term and Long-Term Memory 70 Processing Information: Speed and Automaticity 71 Limitations of the Information-Processing Approach 73 Practical Cognition: Critical Thinking and Decision Making 74 The Development of Critical Thinking 74 Can Adolescents Make Competent Decisions? 75 SOCIAL COGNITION 77 Perspective Taking 77 Adolescent Egocentrism 78 The Psychometric Approach: Intelligence Testing 81
vi
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The Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Intelligence Tests 81 Intelligence Tests and Adolescent Development 83 Other Conceptions of Intelligence: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences 84 Brain Development in Adolescence 85 Culture and Cognitive Development 87 4 Cultural Beliefs 92 What Are Cultural Beliefs? 93 Cultural Beliefs and Socialization 95 cultural values: Individualism and Collectivism 96 Broad and Narrow Socialization 97 Sources of Socialization 98 An Example of Socialization for Cultural Beliefs 98 Socialization for Cultural Beliefs in the West 100 Cultural Beliefs and the Custom Complex 101 Cultural Beliefs in Multicultural Societies 102 When East Meets West: Chinese Adolescents in Australia and the United States 104 Religious Beliefs 105 Religious Beliefs and Cognitive Development 108 Cultural Beliefs and Moral Development 109 Piaget's Theory 109 Kohlberg's Theory 110 Critiques of Kohlberg 112 Political Beliefs 115 Political Ideas as Cultural Beliefs 117 Emerging Adults' political involvement 117 5 Gender 120 Adolescents and Gender in Traditional Cultures 121 From Girl to Woman 122 From Boy to Man 123 Adolescents and Gender in American History 126 From Girl to Woman 126 From Boy to Man 128 Socialization and Gender in the West 129 The Gender Intensification Hypothesis 129 Cultural Beliefs About Gender 130 Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School 130 Media and Gender 131 Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems 132 Cognition and Gender 133
Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny 135 Gender Roles in American Minority Groups 138 Gender Stereotypes in Emerging Adulthood 139 The Persistence of Beliefs About Gender Differences 140 Gender and Globalization 141 6 The Self 146 Culture and the Self 148 Self-Conceptions 148 More Abstract 148 More Complex 149 Self-Esteem 150 Self-Esteem From Preadolescence Through Adolescence 151 Different Aspects of Self-Esteem 151 Self-Esteem and Physical Appearance 152 Causes and Effects of Self-Esteem 154 Self-Esteem in Emerging Adulthood 155 The Emotional Self 155 Gender and the Emotional Self: Do Adolescent Girls Lose Their "Voice"? 156 Identity 158 Erikson's Theory 159 Research on Identity 161 Critiques and Elaborations of Identity Theory and Research 163 Ethnic Identity 165 Identity and Globalization 167 The Self, Alone 170 7 Family Relationships 174 The Adolescent in the Family System 176 Parents' Development During Midlife 176 Sibling Relationships 178 Extended Family Relationships 181 Parenting Styles 182 Parenting Styles as Custom Complexes 183 The Effects of Parenting Styles on Adolescents 183 A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects 184 Parenting in Other Cultures 185 Attachments to Parents 188 Parent-Adolescent Conflict 190 Sources of Conflict With Parents 192 Culture and Conflict With Parents 193 Emerging Adults' Relationships With Parents 194 CONTENTS vii
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Historical Change and the Family 196 Patterns Over Two Centuries 196 The Past 50 Years 197 Effects of Divorce, Remarriage, Single Parenthood, and Dual-Earner Families 200 Divorce 200 Remarriage 202 Single Parenthood 203 Dual-Earner Families 204 Physical and Sexual Abuse in the Family 204 Physical Abuse 205 Sexual Abuse 205 Leaving Early: Runaways and "Street Children" 206 Running Away From Home 206 "Street Children" Around the World 206 8 Friends and Peers 210 Peers and Friends 211 Family and Friends 212 Emotional States With Friends: Higher Highs, Lower Lows 214 Family and Friends in Traditional Cultures 214 Developmental Changes in Friendships 215 Intimacy in Adolescent and Emerging Adult Friendships 215 Intimacy and Adolescent Development 217 Choosing Friends 218 Friends' Influence and Peer Pressure 219 Friends' Influence: Risk Behavior 220 Friends' Influence: Support and Nurturance 221 Friends and Leisure Activities in Emerging Adulthood 222 Cliques and Crowds 223 Sarcasm and Ridicule in Cliques 224 Relational Aggression 225 Developmental Changes in Crowds 225 Changes in Clique and Crowd Composition During Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood 229 Popularity and Unpopularity 230 The Importance of Social Skills 230 Social Skills and Social Cognition 231 The Continuity of Popularity and Unpopularity 231 Interventions for Unpopularity 232 Bullying 232 Youth Culture 233 Technological Change and the Power of Youth Culture 237 viii CONTENTS
9 Love and Sexuality 240 Love 241 The Changing Forms of Adolescent Love 241 The Developmental Course of Adolescent Love 242 Sternberg's Theory of Love 245 Adolescent Passion in Non-Western Cultures 247 Falling in Love 248 When Love Goes Bad: Breaking Up 250 Choosing a Marriage Partner 251 Arranged Marriages 252 Cohabitation 253 Sexuality 254 Rates of Adolescent Sexual Activity 254 Pornography 257 Cultural Beliefs and Adolescent Sexuality 257 Gender and the Meanings of Sex 260 Characteristics of Sexually Active Adolescents 261 Sexual Harassment and Date Rape 262 Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents 263 Contraceptive Use and Nonuse 265 Pregnancy, Parenthood, and Abortion in Adolescence 267 Sexuality in Emerging Adulthood 269 Sexually Transmitted Diseases 270 Sex Education 273 10 School 276 The Rise of Schooling for Adolescents 278 Changes in Schooling for Adolescents 279 Secondary Education Around the World 281 International Comparisons 284 What Works? The Characteristics of Effective Schools 284 Does Size Matter? 284 Junior High, middle school, or Neither? 285 Improving the School Experience of Adolescents 286 School Climate 288 Engagement and Achievement in High School: Beyond the Classroom 289 Family Environments and School 289 Peers, Friends, and School 292 Work, Leisure, and School 292 Cultural Beliefs and School 294 Academic Achievement in High School: Individual Differences 294 Ethnic Differences 294 Gender Differences 296 Extremes of Achievement 297
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Education in Emerging Adulthood: College and University 301 Characteristics of college students 302 Educational Success in College 303 Students' College Learning Experiences 304 11 Work 308 Adolescent Work in Traditional Cultures 310 Hunting, Fishing, and Gathering 310 Farming and Care of Domestic Animals 311 Child Care and Household Work 311 Globalization and Adolescent Work in Traditional Cultures 311 The History of Adolescent Work in the West 313 Adolescent Work Before 1900 313 Adolescent Work in the 20th Century 314 The Adolescent Workplace 316 Work and Adolescent Development 317 Work and Psychological Functioning 317 Work and Problem Behavior 317 The Case in Favor of Adolescent Work 319 From School and Part-Time Work to a "Real Job" 320 The Post­High School Transition to Work 320 School-to-Work Programs in the United States 321 Apprenticeships in Western Europe 322 Occupational Choice 323 The Development of Occupational Goals 324 Influences on Occupational Goals 326 Work in Emerging Adulthood 328 Unemployment 329 Volunteer Work--Community Service 330 Community Service and Adolescent Development 331 Community Service in Emerging Adulthood 332
Five Uses 340 Entertainment 340 Identity Formation 340 High Sensation 341 Coping 341 Youth Culture Identification 341 Media and Adolescent Socialization 343 Media and Other Sources of Socialization 343 Controversial Media 345 Television and Aggressiveness 345 Computer Games and Aggressiveness 347 Television and Movies and Sex 348 Sex and Violence on Music Television 349 Controversial Music: Rap and Heavy Metal 349 Controversial Advertising: The Marlboro Man and Friends 353 New Media 354 The Internet 355 New Internet Forms 356 mobile phones and Text messaging 357 Media and Globalization 358 13 Problems and Resilience 362 Two Types of Problems 363 Externalizing Problems 364 Risky Automobile Driving 364 Substance Use 367 Delinquency and Crime 371 Factors Involved in Risk Behavior 375 Internalizing Problems 382 Depression 382 Eating Disorders 387 Resilience 390
12 Media 336 Media and Young People's Development 338 Theories of Media Influence 338
Glossary 394 References 406 Credits 458 Name Index 460 Subject Index 472
CONTENTS ix
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Special Focus Boxes
CULTURE FOCUS Moroccan Conceptions of Adolescence Coming of Age in Samoa Formal Operations Among the Inuit The Bar and Bat Mitzvah Male and Female Circumcision in Adolescence The Native American Self
15 Young People and Their Families in India
186
47 Interethnic Friendships Among British Girls
219
67 Young People's Sexuality in the Netherlands
259
94 Japanese High Schools and Colleges
286
Germany's Apprenticeship Program
325
124 "Teenagers" in Kathmandu, Nepal
359
168 The Young Men of Truk Island
374
HISTORICAL FOCUS
The "Storm and Stress" Debate
10 The "Roaring Twenties" and the Rise of
Menarche as a Taboo Topic
51
Youth Culture
234
Gender and Cognitive Development in
The Birth of Dating
244
Emerging Adulthood
72 Higher Education and Cultural Beliefs
280
The Origin of the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts
102 Work Among British Adolescents in
The Women's Movement of the 1960s
137
the 19th Century
314
Young Man Luther
158 Elvis the Pelvis
350
Adolescents' Family Lives in the Great Depression 198 From Fasting Saints to Anorexic Girls
388
RESEARCH FOCUS
The "Monitoring the Future" Study
7 Participant Observation of Adolescent Crowds
228
Tanner's Longitudinal Research on Pubertal Development 44 Sex, Lies, and Methodology
256
The Wechsler IQ Tests
82 Two Approaches to Research on Adolescents'
Religious Practices and Social Desirability
107
School Experiences
290
Meta-Analyses of Gender Differences
142 A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents and Work
318
Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents
153 Media Use in Adolescents' Bedrooms
342
The Daily Rhythms of Adolescents' Family Lives
178 The Gluecks' Longitudinal Study of Delinquency
381
x
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Preface
New to the Fourth Edition I am delighted that with this edition of Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood we have added an online component called MyDevelopmentLab (visit www.pearsonhighered.com or ask your Pearson publishing representative for access information). This website contains terrific video material to illustrate topics such as ethnic identity and eating disorders. In addition, the website contains the following pedagogical materials: · chapter learning objectives to help students focus on key concepts. · online quizzes that include instant scoring and coaching responses. · web links specific to each chapter that provide a valuable source of supplemental materials for learning and research. · built-in gradebook that gives students the ability to forward essay responses and graded quizzes to their instructors. · an extensive faculty module that includes PowerPoint slides, presentation graphics, and lecture ideas and activities. This is the first edition of the book to include My Development Lab, and we will be continuing to develop it in future editions. Another major change in this edition was that I eliminated Chapter 14. In the first three editions of the book, there was a brief Chapter 14 entitled "Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood in the 21st Century" that provided a summary of the cultural background and experiences of adolescents in different regions of the world. In this edition I decided this material would be better placed in Chapter 1 as a way of giving students a broad cultural perspective for the chapters that follow. In reviews and responses to the first three editions of this book, instructors and reviewers have consistently mentioned three key strengths: (1) the cultural approach; (2) the inclusion of emerging adulthood along with adolescence; and (3) the quality of the writing. I have sought to enhance those strengths in the fourth edition. Research on adolescence around the world is growing, so there is even more cultural information than before. Recently I served as Editor-in-Chief of the two-volume International Encyclopedia of Adolescence, which appeared in 2007 and contained chapters from nearly 100 countries around the world. This position made it possible for me to enhance the cultural content of the text-
book as never before, with new material from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Every chapter in the fourth edition includes new material, from the encyclopedia and other sources, that will enhance students' understanding of cultural similarities and differences and how the development of adolescents and emerging adults is influenced by the culture they live in. Encouraged by the response to the material on emerging adulthood in the first three editions, I have continued to expand it in the fourth edition. Exciting developments in theory and research are taking place in this area, as more and more scholars recognize its importance and turn their attention to it, and I have sought to reflect those developments in this edition. Every chapter includes the latest, most up-to-date theory and research related to emerging adulthood. It has been gratifying to me to see how other textbooks have now incorporated theory and research on emerging adulthood, but as the originator of the idea I think it is not unreasonable for me to state that if you would like to have the most comprehensive and recent material on emerging adulthood in a textbook you will find it here. As for the writing style, I have continued to strive to make the book not only highly informative but also lively and fun to read. The best textbooks achieve both these goals. In addition to enhancing the aspects of the book that were so favorably received in the first three editions, I have made numerous changes, large and small, to each chapter. Hundreds of new citations from 2006­2009 have been added to this edition, incorporating the most recent findings in the field. Other changes have been made in response to comments and suggestions by instructors who reviewed the third edition. Still other changes were made on my own initiative, as I read the chapters before embarking on the fourth edition and made judgments about what should be added, changed, or deleted. For example, I added a section on bullying to the chapter on Friends and Peers, including information on "cyberbullying" through the Internet. I have added new material to the fourth edition, but also deleted material that was in the third edition. There is an unfortunate tendency for textbooks to add additional material with each edition, so that eventually they become about as thick as the phone book (and just about as interesting to read). I have tried to head off that tendency early on by resolving with each edition to make judicious cuts for each addition I make. I hope this approach will continue to make the textbook both up-to-date and enjoyable to read.
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Distinctive Features of This Book Adolescence is a fascinating time of life, and for most instructors it is an enjoyable topic to teach. For many students taking the course, it is the time of life they have just completed or are now passing through. Learning about development during this period is for them a journey of self-discovery, in part. Students who are beyond this period often enjoy reflecting back on who they were then, and they come away with a new understanding of their past and present selves. What students learn from a course on adolescence sometimes confirms their own intuitions and experiences, and sometimes contradicts or expands what they thought they knew. When it works well, a course on adolescence can change not only how students understand themselves, but how they understand others and how they think about the world around them. For instructors, the possibility the course offers for students' growth of understanding is often stimulating. My goal in writing this textbook has been to make it a book that will assist instructors and students in making illuminating connections as they pursue an understanding of this dynamic and complex age period. I wrote this book with the intention of presenting a fresh conception of adolescence, a conception reflecting what I believe to be the most promising and exciting new currents in the field. There are four essential features of the conception that guided this book: (1) a focus on the cultural basis of development; (2) an extension of the age period covered to include "emerging adulthood" (roughly ages 18 to 25) as well as adolescence; (3) an emphasis on historical context; and (4) an interdisciplinary approach to theories and research. All of these features distinguish this textbook from other textbooks on adolescence. The Cultural Approach In teaching courses on adolescence, from large lecture classes to small seminars, I have always brought into the classroom a considerable amount of research from other cultures. I am trained mainly as a developmental psychologist, a field that has traditionally emphasized universal patterns of development rather than cultural context. However, my education also included three years as a postdoctoral student at the Committee on Human Development at the University of Chicago, and the program there emphasized anthropology, which places culture first and foremost. Learning to take a cultural approach to development greatly expanded and deepened my own understanding of adolescence, and I have seen the cultural approach work this way for my students as well. Through an awareness of the diversity of cultural practices, customs, and beliefs about adolescence, we expand our conception of the range of developmental possibilities. We also gain a greater understanding of adolescent development in our own culture, by learning to see it as only one of many possible paths. Taking a cultural approach to development means infusing discussion of every aspect of development with a cul-
tural perspective. I present the essentials of the cultural approach in the first chapter, and it then serves as a theme that runs through ever y chapter. Each chapter also includes a Cultural Focus box in which an aspect of development in a specific culture is explored in-depth--for example, male and female circumcision in north Africa, adolescents' family relationships in India, and young people's sexuality in the Netherlands. My hope is that students will learn not only that adolescent development can be different depending on the culture, but how to think culturally--that is, how to analyze all aspects of adolescent development for their cultural basis. This includes learning how to critique research for the extent to which it does or does not take the cultural basis of development into account. I provide this kind of critique at numerous points throughout the book, with the intent that students will learn how to do it themselves by the time they reach the end. Emerging Adulthood Not only is adolescence an inherently fascinating period of life, but we are currently in an especially interesting historical moment with respect to this period. Adolescence in our time begins far earlier than it did a century ago, because puberty begins for most people in industrialized countries at a much earlier age, due to advances in nutrition and health care. Yet, if we measure the end of adolescence in terms of taking on adult roles such as marriage, parenthood, and stable full-time work, adolescence also ends much later than it has in the past, because these transitions are now postponed for many people into at least the mid-20s. My own research over the past decade has focused on development among young people from their late teens through their mid-20s in the United States and Europe. I have concluded, on the basis of this research, that this period is not really adolescence, but it is not really adulthood either, not even "young adulthood." In my view, the transition to adulthood has become so prolonged that it constitutes a separate period of the life course in industrialized societies, lasting about as long as adolescence. This view is now widely held by other scholars as well. Thus, a second distinguishing feature of the conception guiding this textbook is that the age period covered includes not only adolescence (ages 10­18) but also "emerging adulthood," extending from (roughly) ages 18 to 25. In theoretical papers, Research Papers, and two books, I have presented a theory of emerging adulthood, conceptualizing it as the age of identity explorations, the age of instability, the self-focused age, the age of feeling inbetween, and the age of possibilities. I describe this theory in some detail in the first chapter, and use it as the framework for discussing emerging adulthood in the chapters that follow. This is mainly a textbook on adolescence, and in any case there is not as much research on emerging
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adulthood as there is on adolescence, so the balance of material in each chapter is tilted quite strongly toward adolescence. However, each chapter contains material that pertains to emerging adulthood. The Historical Context Given the differences between adolescence now and adolescence in the past, knowledge of the historical context of development is crucial to a complete understanding of this age period. Students will have a richer understanding of adolescent development if they are able to contrast the lives of young people in the present with the lives of young people in other times. Toward this end, I provide historical material in each chapter. Furthermore, each chapter contains a Historical Focus box that describes some aspect of young people's development during a specific historical period--for example, adolescents' family lives during the Great Depression, the "Roaring Twenties" and the rise of youth culture, and work among British adolescents in the 19th century. An emphasis on the historical context of development is perhaps especially important now, with the accelerating pace of cultural change that has taken place around the world in recent decades due to the influence of globalization. Especially in economically developing countries, the pace of change in recent decades has been dramatic, and young people often find themselves growing up in a culture that is much different than the one their parents grew up in. Globalization is a pervasive influence on the lives of young people today, in ways both promising and troubling, and for this reason I have made it one of the unifying themes of the book. An Interdisciplinary Approach The cultural approach and the emphasis on historical context are related to a fourth distinguishing feature of the conception offered in this book, the interdisciplinary approach to theories and research. Psychology is of course represented abundantly, because this is the discipline in which most research on adolescent development takes place. However, I also integrate materials from a wide range of other fields. Much of the theory and research that is the basis for a cultural understanding of adolescence comes from anthropology, so anthropological studies are strongly represented. Students often find this material fascinating, because it challenges effectively their assumptions about what they expect adolescence to be like. Interesting and important cultural material on adolescence also comes from sociology, especially with respect to European and Asian societies, and these studies find a place here. The field of history is notably represented, for providing the historical perspective discussed above. Other disciplines used for material include education, psychiatry, medicine, and family studies.
The integration of materials across disciplines means drawing on a variety of research methods. The reader will find many different research methods represented here, from questionnaires and interviews to ethnographic research to biological measurements. Each chapter contains a Research Focus box, in which the methods used in a specific study are described. Chapter Topics My goal of presenting a fresh conception of young people's development has resulted in chapters on topics not as strongly represented in most other textbooks. Most textbooks have a discussion of moral development, but this textbook has a chapter on cultural beliefs, including moral development, religious beliefs, political beliefs, and a discussion of individualistic and collectivistic beliefs in various cultures. The chapter on cultural beliefs provides a good basis for a cultural understanding of adolescent development, because it emphasizes how cultural beliefs shape the socialization that takes place in every other context of development, from family to schools to media. Most textbooks include a discussion of gender issues at various points, and some include a separate chapter on gender, but in this textbook there is a chapter on gender that focuses on cultural variations and historical changes in gender roles, in addition to discussions of gender issues in other chapters. Gender is a fundamental aspect of social life in every culture, and the vivid examples of gender roles and expectations in non-Western cultures should help students to become more aware of how gender acts as a defining framework for young people's development in their own culture as well. This textbook also has an entire chapter on work, which is central to the lives of adolescents in developing countries because a high proportion of them are not in school. The work chapter includes extensive discussion of the dangerous and unhealthy work conditions often experienced by adolescents in developing countries as their economies enter the global economy. In industrialized societies, the transition from school to work is an important part of emerging adulthood for most people, and that transition receives special attention in this chapter. An entire chapter on media is included, with sections on television, music, movies, cigarette advertising, computer games and the Internet, and a new section in the fourth edition on social-networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace. Media are a prominent part of young people's lives in most societies today, but this is a topic that receives surprisingly little attention in most other textbooks. In fact, my textbook is the only major textbook on adolescence to include an entire chapter on media. This neglect is puzzling, given that adolescents in industrialized societies spend more time daily using media than they spend in school, with family, or with friends. I find young people's media uses to be not
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only an essential topic but a perpetually fascinating one, and students today almost invariably share this fascination, since they have grown up immersed in a media environment. One chapter found in most other textbooks but not this one is a chapter on theories. In my view, having a separate chapter on theories gives students a misleading impression of the purpose and function of theories in the scientific enterprise. Theories and research are intrinsically related, with good theories inspiring research and good research leading to changes and innovations in theories. Presenting theories separately turns theory chapters into a kind of Theory Museum, separate and sealed off from research. Instead, I present theoretical material throughout the book, in relation to the research the theory has been based on and has inspired. Each chapter contains a number of Thinking Critically questions. Critical thinking has become a popular term in academic circles and it has been subject to a variety of definitions, so I should explain how I used the term here. The purpose of the critical thinking questions is to inspire students to attain a higher level of analysis and reflection about the ideas and information in the chapters than they would be likely to reach simply by reading the chapter. With the critical thinking questions I seek to encourage students to connect ideas across chapters, to consider hypothetical questions, and to apply the chapter materials to their own lives. Often, the questions have no "right answer." Although they are mainly intended to assist students in attaining a high level of thinking as they read, instructors have told me that the questions also serve as lively material for class discussions or writing assignments. Acknowledgments Preparing a textbook is an enormous enterprise that involves a wide network of people, and I have many people to thank for their contributions. Becky Pascal, my original editor at Addison­Wesley, was the one who recruited me to write the book, and her excitement over my new ideas for a textbook helped persuade me to take on the project. Jeff Marshall, the current Pearson editor of the book, and Susan Hartman, Editor-in-Chief of Psychology, have provided welcome support for the book in this edition with the addition of My Development Lab. The reviewers of the first three editions of the book were indispensable for the many comments and suggestions for improvement they provided. I would like to thank: Denise M. Arehart, University of Colorado­Denver; Belinda Blevins-Knabe, University of Arkansas­Little Rock; Tanecia Blue, Texas Tech University; Curtis W. Branch, Columbia University; Melissa M. Branch; SUNY College of Brookport; Christy Buchanan, Wake Forest University; Jane Brown, University of North Carolina­Chapel Hill; Stephen Burgess, Southwestern Oklahoma State University;
Laurie Chapin, Colorado State University; Gabriela Chavira, CSUN; Gary Creasey, Illinois State University; Elizabeth Daniels, University of California­Los Angeles; Gypsy M. Denzine, Northern Arizona University; Shavari Dixit, San Jose State University; Bonnie B. Dowdy, Dickinson College; Elaine Eshbaugh, University of Northern Iowa; Shirley Feldman, Stanford University; Diane Fiebel, Raymond Walters College; Paul Florsheim, University of Utah; Suzanne Freedman, University of Northern Iowa; Andrew Fuligni, New York University; Nancy Galambos, University of Victoria; Albert Gardner, University of Maryland; Sheryl Ginn, Wingate University; Rebecca Griffith, College of the Sequoias; Jessica Gomel, California University­Fullerton; Julia A. Graber, Columbia University; Malinda Hendricks Green, University of Central Oklahoma; William R. Holt, University of Massachusetts­Dartmouth; Virginia Gregg, North Adams State College; Susan Harter, University of Denver; Joyce A. Hemphill, University of Wisconsin; Daniel Houlihan, Minnesota State University; Sharon Page Howard, University of Arkansas­Little Rock; Karen G. Howe, The College of New York; Janis Jacobs, Pennsylvania State University; Patricia Jarvis, Illinois State University; Marianne Jones, CSU­Fresno; Joline N. Jones, Worcester State College; David Kinney, Central Michigan University; Steven Kirsh, SUNY­Geneseo; Martin Kokol, Utah Valley State College; Reed Larson, University of Illinois; Dawn Lewis, Price George's Community College; Jennifer Maggs, Pennsylvania State University; Joseph G. Marrone, Siena College; Terry Maul, San Bernardino Valley College; Jeylan Mortimer, University of Minnesota; Christian Mueller, University of Memphis; Gail Overbey, Southeast Missouri State; Merryl Patterson, Austin Community College; Daniel Perkins, University of Florida; Daniel Repinski, SUNY­Geneseo; Julio Rique, Northern Illinois University; Vicki Ritts, St. Louis Community College--Meramec; Richard Rodgerson, University of Minnesota; Kathleen M. Shanahan, University of Massachusetts­Amherst; Merry Sleigh-Ritzer, George Mason University; Andrew Smiller, SUNY Oswego; Maureen Smith, San Jose State University; Susan M. Sobel, Middle Tennessee State University; Shirley Theriot, University of Texas Arlington; Julie Thompson, Duke University; Lisa Turner, University of South Alabama;
xiv PREFACE
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Randy Vinzant, Hinds Community College; Naomi Wagner, San Jose State University; Niobe Way, New York University; Belinda Wholeben, Rockford College; Missi Wilkenfeld, Texas A&M University; Sandy Wurtele, University of Colorado­Colorado Springs; James Youniss, Catholic University of America; Joan Zook, SUNY­Geneseo. I am grateful for the time and care expended by these reviewers to give me detailed, well-informed reviews. Finally, I wish to thank the many students and instructors who have contacted me since the publication of the first edition to tell me how they have responded to the textbook and
how it has shaped their thinking about human development. One of the reasons I wrote the textbook was that I love to teach, and it was attractive to think that instead of teaching a few dozen students a year I could assist instructors in teaching thousands of students a year. I hope students and instructors will continue to let me know their thoughts, not just about what I have done well but about how it can be done even better next time. JEFFREY JENSEN ARNETT Department of Psychology Clark University
PREFACE xv
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About the Author
Jeffrey Jensen Arnett is a Research Professor in the
Department of Psychology at
Clark University in Worcester,
Massachusetts. During 2005 he
was a Fulbright Scholar at the
University of Copenhagen,
Denmark. He has also taught
at Oglethorpe University and
the University of Missouri. He
was educated at Michigan State
University (undergraduate),
the University of Virginia
(graduate school), and the
University of Chicago (post-
doctoral studies). His research
interests are in risk behavior
(especially cigarette smoking),
media use in adolescence
(especially music), and a wide
range of topics in emerging
adulthood. He is editor of the
The author with his wife Lene Jensen and soon-to-be adolescents Miles and Paris, age 9.
Journal of Adolescent Research and of two encyclopedias, the
International Encyclopedia of
Adolescence (2007) and the Encyclopedia of Children, Adolescents, and the Media
(2006). His book Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens
through the Twenties, was published in 2004 by Oxford University Press. His edit-
ed book (with Jennifer Tanner), Emerging Adults in America: Coming of Age in the
21st Century, was published by APA Books in 2006. He lives in Worcester,
Massachusetts with his wife Lene Jensen and their nine-year-old twins, Miles and
Paris. For more information on Dr. Arnett and his research, see
www.jeffreyarnett.com.
xvii

JJ Arnett

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