Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study Emissions Inventory, H Kuhns, M Green, V Etyemezian, J Watson

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Content: Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study Emissions Inventory Updated: 6/1/2003 Prepared by Hampden Kuhns, Ph.D. ([email protected]) Mark Green, Ph.D. and Vicken Etyemezian, Ph.D. Desert Research Institute 755 E. Flamingo Rd. Las Vegas NV 89119 (702) 895 0433 Prepared for BRAVO Technical Steering Committee
Acknowledgments This project was funded with support from the National Park Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission. We would like to thank the following persons for their generous time and assistance provided to help complete this project. Gildardo Acosta (Acosta y Associados, Mexico) Murray Brown (Minerals Management System) Hugo Delgado (Instituto de Geofisica, Mexico) Paula Fields (Eastern Research Group) Marc Houyoux (North Carolina Super Computing Center) Jim Mackay (Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission) Gerardo Mejia (University of Monterrey, Mexico) Kirk Nabors (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) Enrique Ortiz (University of Monterrey, Mexico) Elizabeth Peuler (Minerals Management System) Marc Pitchford (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency) Bill Powers (Powers Engineering) Doug Solomon (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) John Watson (Desert Research Institute) Sam Wells (Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission) Marty Wolf (Eastern Research Group) Jim Yarborough (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) i
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A modeling emissions inventory has been assembled for the U.S.-Mexican Border Region to better understand the sources of visibility impairment at the Big Bend National Park. The BRAVO-EI covers 14 states in the U.S. (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi), 10 states in Mexico (San Luis Potosi, Baja California Norte, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Durango, and Zacatecas) and offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. The emissions inventory for Mexico is the first regional scale inventory for this area. The National Emissions Inventory for base year 1999 version 100 (NEI99) was used as a starting point for the U.S. emissions inventory. The database of annual and ozone season day (OSD) emissions was reduced to contain only the emissions from the 14 BRAVO states. The Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission provided improved emissions data for onroad mobile sources, commercial ships, construction equipment, and oil field equipment in the state of Texas. The NEI emissions inventory was updated with these locally produced emissions datasets. Hourly emissions data from Continuous Emissions Monitors (CEM's) on power plants were obtained from the U.S. E.P.A.'s Clean Air Market Program. These SO2 and NOx emissions data were reconciled with the NEI datasets by matching facility process emissions in the NEI to stack emissions from the CEM's. The matched emissions account for 89% of all SO2 and 86% of all NOx emitted from external combustion power generators in the14 BRAVO states. A national emissions inventory for criteria pollutants does not currently exist for the country of Mexico. Data was assembled from a variety of sources in order produce the BRAVO EI. Urban scale emissions inventories have been assembled for the cities of Tijuana, Mexicali, Juarez, and Monterrey as part of Mexico's Program to Improve air quality.5 Area and mobile emissions factors were calculated for these cities based on five activity indicators: population, number of households, total number of registered vehicles, agricultural acreage, and number of head of cattle.6,2 Activity data obtained from the Mexican Census Borough (INEGI) was used to estimate emissions for the uninventoried areas of Mexico within the BRAVO domain. Emissions from power plants were estimated from fuel usage and facility type data obtained as part of the Center for Environmental Cooperation's "Taking Stock" program.7 These data were generated as part of an ongoing hazardous air pollutant emission inventory for North America. Emissions for these facilities were calculated using AP-42 emissions factors. Emissions for manufacturing facilities were calculated using emissions factors based on manufacturing sector employment from the Sistema Nacional de Informacion de Fuentes Fijas (SNIF) database maintained by the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (INE). Employment data was obtained from INEGI for the top 4 manufacturing sectors for each Mexican state. Average annual emissions from the active Popocatepetl Volcano for 1999 were acquired from scientists at the Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED) in Mexico. SO2 emissions from the volcano are measured with a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) two to three times per week. The highest measured SO2 emissions from the crater since 1994 were 50,000 tons per day while typical emissions are approximately 3000-5000 tons per day.8 Annual volcanic emissions were estimated for PM10, PM2.5, and SO2 only. These estimates are highly ii
uncertain and should be considered as order of magnitude approximates of the true emissions. Aggregate emissions from Mexico City and the industrialized area of Tula-Vitro-Apaxco were included into the inventory as point sources. No source classification was given to these cities. All Mexican emissions data were integrated into a unified database of both area and point emissions. Precautions were taken to prevent double counting of emissions derived from separate sources. The Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Activity Database (MOAD3) inventories emissions for the development of outer continental shelf petroleum resources in the Gulf of Mexico. The MOAD3 catalogs emissions from the development of petroleum resources in the Gulf of Mexico for base year 1992. Sources are based activities occurring on 1857 platforms. Emissions of CO, SOx, NOx, PM, and VOC's are reported for several activities in the gulf. Only VOC emissions are reported for the majority of flaring emissions. As a result, the inventory may grossly underestimate CO, SO2, NOx, and PM emissions from flaring. All emissions data are integrated into a common database. Major sources of each pollutant are identified for each source region (i.e. U.S., Mexico, and Offshore). Emissions maps are presented to identify major source areas of all pollutants. The largest sources of sulfur dioxide in the BRAVO EI are: the Popocatepelt Volcano (Mexico), NorthEast Texas power plants (U.S.), the Tula Industial Park (Mexico), the Carbon I/II power plants (Mexico), and Coal fired power plants in the Midwest U.S. iii
Table of Contents 1. Introduction.................................................................................................................... 1-1 1.1 Guide to Report............................................................................................................ 1-1 2. Emissions Inventory Domain ........................................................................................ 2-1 3. United states Emissions ................................................................................................. 3-1 3.1 Area Sources ................................................................................................................ 3-1 3.1.1 Construction, Mining, and Oil Field Equipment ..................................................... 3-1 3.1.2 Commercial Marine Vessels .................................................................................... 3-2 3.1.3 Ammonia Emissions ................................................................................................ 3-3 3.2 Mobile Sources ............................................................................................................ 3-4 3.3 Point Sources ............................................................................................................... 3-4 3.3.1 Annual and Ozone Season Day Emissions .............................................................. 3-4 3.3.2 Continuous Emissions.............................................................................................. 3-5 4. Mexico Emissions ........................................................................................................... 4-1 4.1 Domain and FIPS Coding ............................................................................................ 4-1 4.2 Emissions data sources............................................................................................... 4-1 4.2.1 Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (INE)....................................................................... 4-1 4.2.2 System Nacional de Informacion de Fuentes Fijas (Manufacturing Emissions) 4-2 4.2.3 Eastern Research Group (Area, Mobile, and Point Sources)................................... 4-4 4.2.4 Acosta y Associados (Power Plant Emissions)........................................................ 4-6 4.2.5 Instituto de Geofisica (Popocatepetl Volcano Emissions)....................................... 4-8 4.3 Mexican Emissions Integration ................................................................................... 4-9 4.3.1 Area and Mobile Sources......................................................................................... 4-9 4.4 Source Classification Coding (SCC) of Mexican Sources .......................................... 4-9 5. Gulf of Mexico Emissions.............................................................................................. 5-1 6. Summary of Results....................................................................................................... 6-1 6.1 Major Source Categories by Region............................................................................ 6-1 6.1.1 United States ............................................................................................................ 6-1 6.1.2 Mexico 6-4 6.1.3 Gulf of Mexico......................................................................................................... 6-6 6.2 6-8 6.3 Gridded Emissions Visualizations ............................................................................... 6-8 iv
7. Conclusions..................................................................................................................... 7-1 8. References....................................................................................................................... 9-1 9. Appendix A. .................................................................................................................. 10-1 v
TABLE OF TABLES Table 2-1. MM5 Grid Cell Specifications. ................................................................................. 2-2 Table 2-2. List of data providers that will supply information for each general source type in the United States, Mexico, and offshore. ................................................................. 2-3 Table 3-1. Comparison of annual emissions from Construction and Mining sources (non fugitive dust) for the state of Texas. .................................................................................... 3-1 Table 3-2. Comparison of Commercial Marine Emissions Estimates in the Houston- Galveston Area..................................................................................................................... 3-2 Table 3-3. Comparison of non point source NH3 emissions from Texas from the University of Texas Austin (UTA96) emissions inventory and the National Emissions Inventory (NEI99). ............................................................................................. 3-3 Table 3-4. Comparison of the sum of Mobile Emissions for the State of Texas for on road vehicles. ....................................................................................................................... 3-4 Table 3-5. Summary of U.S. point sources deleted from BRAVO EI because the location of the sources were unknown. "All Point Sources" refers to all point sources that are reported as annual emissions rather than hourly emissions (See next section). .................. 3-5 Table 4-1. List of States in BRAVO Northern Mexico EI. ........................................................ 4-1 Table 4-2. INE emissions inventories for 20 major cities in Mexico. Emissions are in U.S. tons per year................................................................................................................. 4-2 Table 4-3. Conversion between International Standard industrial classification (ISIC) codes and source classification codes (SCC)....................................................................... 4-3 Table 4-4. Emissions from major point sources in Northern Mexico......................................... 4-5 Table 4-5. List of criteria pollutant emissions from power generation facilities in Northern Mexico.................................................................................................................. 4-7 Table 4-6. Description of fictitious SCC's. ............................................................................... 4-10 Table 5-1. Aggregate emissions from offshore platforms from MOAD3. ................................. 5-2 Table 6-1. Total Emissions from each source region in the BRAVO EI for base year 1999...................................................................................................................................... 6-1 Table 6-2. Sum of point, mobile, and area emissions from each U.S. State in the BRAVO EI for base year 1999. .......................................................................................................... 6-1 Table 6-3. Major source types of CO emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States. ....................... 6-2 Table 6-4. Major source types of NH3 emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States. Biogenic NH3 from plants is not included in this summary. ............................................... 6-2 Table 6-5. Major source types of NOX emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States. ..................... 6-2 Table 6-6. Major source types of PM10 emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States. .................... 6-3 1-1
Table 6-7. Major source types of PM2.5 emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States..................... 6-3 Table 6-8. Major source types of SO2 emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States. ...................... 6-3 Table 6-9. Major source types of VOC emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States. .................... 6-3 Table 6-10. Sum of point, mobile, and area emissions from each Mexican State in the BRAVO EI for base year 1999. ........................................................................................... 6-4 Table 6-11. Major source types of CO emissions in the 9 BRAVO Northern Mexico States. ................................................................................................................................... 6-4 Table 6-12. Major source types of NH3 emissions in the 9 BRAVO Northern Mexico States. ................................................................................................................................... 6-5 Table 6-13. Major source types of NOx emissions in the 9 BRAVO Northern Mexico States. ................................................................................................................................... 6-5 Table 6-14. Major source types of PM10 emissions in the 9 BRAVO Northern Mexico States. ................................................................................................................................... 6-5 Table 6-15. Major source types of PM2.5 emissions in the 9 BRAVO Northern Mexico States. ................................................................................................................................... 6-5 Table 6-16. Major source types of SO2 emissions in the 9 BRAVO Northern Mexico States. ................................................................................................................................... 6-6 Table 6-17. Major source types of VOC emissions in the 9 BRAVO Northern Mexico States. ................................................................................................................................... 6-6 Table 6-18. Major source types of CO emissions in the Gulf of Mexico................................... 6-6 Table 6-18. Major source types of NOx emissions in the Gulf of Mexico. ................................ 6-7 Table 6-18. Major source types of PM10 emissions in the Gulf of Mexico. ............................... 6-7 Table 6-18. Major source types of PM2.5 emissions in the Gulf of Mexico. .............................. 6-7 Table 6-18. Major source types of SO2 emissions in the Gulf of Mexico. ................................. 6-7 Table 6-18. Major source types of VOC emissions in the Gulf of Mexico. ............................... 6-8 Table 9-1. Hydrocarbon emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources ................... 10-1 Table 9-2. Nitrogen oxide emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources ................ 10-1 Table 9-3. Carbon monoxide emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources ........... 10-2 Table 9-4 Sulfur dioxide emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources .................. 10-2 Table 9-5. Ammonia emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources ........................ 10-2 Table 9-6. Particulate Matter emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources ........... 10-2 1-2
TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 2-1. MM5 Meteorological Nested Modeling Domain..................................................... 2-1 Figure 2-2. Domain of the BRAVO Study EI............................................................................. 2-2 Figure 3-1. Comparison of SO2 and NOx emissions from matched sources from the NEI 1999 and CEM 1999 databases............................................................................................ 3-7 Figure 3-2. Map of CEM sources producing SO2 within the BRAVO EI domain..................... 3-9 Figure 5-1. Map of US counties, Mexican municipios, and offshore platforms in the BRAVO emissions inventory. ............................................................................................. 5-1 Figure 6-1. Gridded carbon monoxide emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. ..................................................................... 6-10 Figure 6-2. Gridded ammonia emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. Biogenic emissions from plant respiration are not shown. ................................................................................................................................ 6-10 Figure 6-3. Gridded nitrogen oxide emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. .............................................................................. 6-11 Figure 6-4. Gridded PM10 emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. ............................................................................................ 6-11 Figure 6-5. Gridded PM2.5 emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. ............................................................................................ 6-12 Figure 6-6. Gridded sulfur dioxide emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. .............................................................................. 6-12 Figure 6-7. Gridded volatile organic carbon emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. .......................................................... 6-13 1-3
1. INTRODUCTION The field study portion of the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study occurred during July through October 1999 in the region surrounding Big Bend National Park (BBNP) in Texas. The study involved speciated air quality monitoring at more than 30 sites in Texas as well as measurements of upper air meteorology. An artificial tracer was also released from 3 sites in Texas and monitored at many of the air quality sites. Air quality transport, chemical, and dispersion models will be applied to the region to assess the impacts of major sources on the visibility at BBNP. The field measurement data from the study will be used to validate the accuracy of the air quality models. The BRAVO Study Emissions Inventory (BRAVO-EI) will be used as input for the air quality models and will accomplish the following tasks as part of the overall BRAVO Study: · Serve as a basis for modeling ambient particulate matter (PM) air concentrations in and around Big Bend National Park · Identify major emissions sources, general emissions levels, spatial patterns, and temporal trends. · Identify and document gaps and inadequacies in our current knowledge of emissions in both the United States and Mexico. The BRAVO-EI is compiled from existing emissions inventories in the U.S., Gulf of Mexico, and Mexico. The major scope of the current project involves acquiring existing datasets, evaluating their appropriateness, and reformatting the data to be input into the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE). SMOKE is an advanced emissions processing software package that can be used to prepare modeling inventory files for a variety of air quality models. Concurrent with the development of the emissions inventory, the four dimensional data assimilation meteorological model MM5 is being applied to the majority of the United States, Mexico, and Canada (Seaman and Anthes, 1981; Stauffer and Seaman, 1994). The wind fields output by the MM5 model will be used to simulate the transport of the emissions from the BRAVO-EI. Two models are scheduled to be run over the study domain. REMSAD (SAI, 1998) will be run for the entire United States and Mexico to simulate the air quality for the year 1999. CMAQ is a detailed extension of the Models-3 program and will be applied to a more limited domain to investigate specific episodes of poor air quality at Big Bend National Park. 1.1 Guide to Report Section 1 is the current section. Section 2 describes the EI domain and outlines the data sources used to assemble the emissions inventory. The BRAVO EI is subdivided into three independent inventories based on geographic area (i.e. the Southern Middle United States, Gulf of Mexico, and Northern Mexico.) Sections 3 ­ 5 present the methodology used to assemble each of these subdivisions. Section 6 presents the integrated emissions inventory using gridded maps to show areas of high emissions as well as tables to indicate the most prevalent sources of each pollutant. 1-1
2. EMISSIONS INVENTORY DOMAIN The meteorological model MM5 is run over the modeling domain using a nested grid system. The map in Figure 2-1 shows the locations of the three nested grids. The specifications of the grids are shown in Table 2-1. The domain of the REMSAD simulation corresponds to the 36 km grid scale. The domain of the CMAQ simulation extends throughout the 12 km grid area. The center of the entire modeling grid is located at 33.5 deg N and ­97.0 deg E. The projection of the grid is Lambert Conformal. "IX" and "IJ" represent the number of grid cells in the NorthSouth and East-West directions, respectively. "NESTI" and "NESTJ" are the coordinates (in terms of the next larger grid system) of the lower left grid cell of each nest. For example, the 12 km grid domain is 142 cells in the north-south direction, 154 cells in the east-west direction, and its lower left grid cell is in the lower left corner of the 36 km grid cell located 30 cells from the western edge and 45 cells from the southern edge of the 36 km domain. Figure 2-1. MM5 Meteorological Nested Modeling Domain. 2-1
Table 2-1. MM5 Grid Cell Specifications.
Grid Size
IX
36 km
124
12 km
142
4 km
205
JX
NESTI
NESTJ
150
1
1
154
30
45
145
20
24
The area that represented in the BRAVO EI is composed of the states of Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. The inventory will also account for emissions from the offshore activities in the Gulf of Mexico overseen by the Minerals Management Service. Emissions from Mexican sources will be included for the states of San Luis Potosi, Baja California Norte, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Durango, and Zacatecas.
Figure 2-2. Domain of the BRAVO Study EI. The base period of the EI is the four months July, August, September, and October of 1999. The EI is assembled from existing inventories that document the emissions of the following species: NOx, SO2, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3. 2-2
The inventory documents the emissions of point, area, and mobile sources. All emissions data are presented with units of U.S. tons (909.1 kg) in order to maintain consistency with the National Emissions Inventory format.
The emissions inventory is assembled in the Inventory Data Analysis (IDA) format which is compatible with the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) Modeling System. The SMOKE emissions processing software facilitates the spatial and temporal allocation of the emissions. SMOKE outputs the emissions inventory in a standard format that can be directly read into CMAQ and REMSAD.
Emissions data have been aggregated from a wide variety of data providers in order to best estimate both natural and anthropogenic sources within the study domain. Emissions data sources can be divided into three groups based on their regional coverage: (1) United States, (2) Mexico, and (3) Offshore. Table 2-2 shows the sources of data for each general source type in the United State, Mexico, and offshore. The following sections describe the data used to generate inventories for each of these domains.
Table 2-2. List of data providers that will supply information for each general source type in the United States, Mexico, and offshore.
Source Region
Area
·
·
· Mobile ·
·
Point
·
·
Biogenic ·
United States
NET database for AR, AZ, CO, ·
LA, MO, NM, OK, KS, KY, MS,
IL, TN, TX, and UT.
Replace TX sources for
·
Construction and Oil and Gas using
NONROAD model with TNRCC
Activity
Ammonia emissions from UTA
report
NET county level database for AR, ·
AZ, CO, LA, MO, NM, OK, KS,
KY, MS, IL, TN, TX, and UT.
Replace TX onraod mobile with ·
1996 base year emissions from TTI
CEM database for point sources in ·
14 BRAVO states
NET Point sources from 14
·
BRAVO states
·
·
·
Calculated by MCNC in SMOKE ·
Mexico ERG Emissions Factors from TJ, CJ, and Mexicalli supplemented with Monterrey emissions Extrapolate emissions across non inventoried areas based on activity from MX Census
Off Shore · N/A
ERG Emissions Factors from TJ, · CJ, and Mexicalli supplemented with Monterrey emissions Extrapolate emissions across non inventoried areas based on activity from MX Census Acosta y Associados-42 Power · plants based on fuel use and type. ERG-Cabon I/II and Nacazari Watson/Profepa-20 SO2 sources CENAPRED-Popocatepetl Volcano INEGI-Mexico City and Tula Calculated by MCNC in SMOKE ·
N/A MMS MOAD3 database N/A
2-3
3. UNITED STATES EMISSIONS This section describes the data sources and methods used to generate the BRAVO EI for the 14 states in the U.S. spanned by the BRAVO modeling domain. The National Emissions Inventory for base year 1999 (version 100) was used as a starting point for the emissions inventory. The database was reduced to contain only the emissions from the 14 BRAVO states. Data were formatted to adhere to the SMOKE input guidelines. In some cases, the NEI data was replaced with emissions data from the Texas National Resources Conservation Commission (TNRCC). These cases are described in more detail below.
3.1 Area Sources 3.1.1 Construction, Mining, and Oil Field Equipment Area source data was principally derived from the 1999 NEI version 100 database. Personal communications with Sam Wells of TNRCC indicated that NEI estimates of construction emissions were substantially different from those estimated by the Houston construction project in March 2000. Mr. Wells supplied improved activity and equipment population files for the state of Texas. These files were generated as part of the Houston and Dallas Diesel Construction Emissions Projects (Baker, 2000; Wells, 2000). The improved equipment population and activity files were used to run EPA's NONROAD emissions model (Environ, 1998). NONROAD is used to calculate fuel based emissions (e.g. exhaust and evaporation) for the 1999 NEI v100. Fugitive dust emissions are not calculated by the NONROAD model. The model was rerun with the Texas specific files for base year 1999. The sums of the annual emissions from "Construction and Mining" sources in Texas are compared in Table 3-1 for the TNRCC and NEI databases. For most species, the revised TNRCC emissions estimates are one half of the original NEI 1999 estimates. Improved allocation files were also supplied for "Oil and Gas Field" equipment. The revised files changed statewide emissions by less than 20% and are also shown in Table 3-1. Table 3-1. Comparison of annual emissions from Construction and Mining sources (non fugitive dust) for the state of Texas. Construction Equipment Oil and Gas Equipment
CO NH3 NOX PM10 PM25 SO2 VOC
NEI 99 (tpy) 114191 114 95286 9979 9181 19896 17881
TNRCC NEI 99 TNRCC (tpy)
(tpy)
(tpy)
82368 109531
104519
*57
20
*18
47911 16972
15204
5171
812
750
4758
748
690
12316 1989
2184
10667 3564
4317
*Estimated by ratio of NH3 to NOx from NEI99. Ammonia emissions are not estimated by the NONROAD model. Emissions of ammonia were inferred from the TNRCC NOx emissions by multiplying NOx by the ratio of NH3 to NOx
3-1
for Construction and Mining Sources in the NEI99. Since, priority is given to locally produced emissions estimates, the default NEI99 emissions from "Construction and Mining" and "Oil Field" equipment sources were replaced with the Texas NONROAD model calculations.
3.1.2 Commercial Marine Vessels
The commercial marine emissions inventory in the Houston-Galvaston Area (i.e. Harris, Galveston, Chambers, and Brazoria Counties) has undergone extensive evaluation as part of the Ozone State Implementation Plan. The domain of this inventory covers the Houston Ship Channel and the Inter-coastal Waterway extending out past the "sea bouy" outside the Bolivar Straight. The Houston Galveston Area Vessel Emissions Inventory (HGAVEI) prepared by Starcrest Consulting Group (Starcrest, 2000) estimated emissions from three primary vessel categories: ocean going vessels, towboats, and harbor vessels in the four Texas counties. This inventory used vessel counts, surveys, and interviews to improve emissions estimates for commercial marine sources. The inventory was produced for base year 1997 and spatially apportions ship emissions throughout the Houston ship channel and inter coastal waterway. The HGAVEI is the latest and most sophisticated in a series of commercial marine inventories produced over the 1990's.
The first inventory for the area, the 1990 Base Year Emissions Inventory was produced by the EPA and used AP-42 emissions factors tied to marine fuel sales to estimate emissions. The second study, the Booz-Allen Hamilton Inventory was prepared for EPA in 1991. For this study, emissions were based on 1988 Texas vessel registries and counts as well as AP-42 emissions factors. The 1999 NEI uses the same methods as the 1990 Base Year EI estimating emissions based on marine fuel sales. The NEI99 groups commercial marine sources into two categories based on fuel use: diesel and residual oil. Table 3-2 compares these emissions inventories with the HGAVEI. The tables shows the EI's based on fuel sales (i.e. Base Year EI and NEI99) are consistently higher than inventories based on vessel registries and counts. This is to be expected since the fuel sales are likely to reflect the activity of all local vessels as well as the ocean going vessels while the vessel count based inventory should be related to the activity within the inventory domain.
Table 3-2. Comparison of Commercial Marine Emissions Estimates in the Houston-Galveston Area.
Study Base Year CO (tpy) NH3 (tpy) NOX (tpy) PM10 (tpy) PM2.5 (tpy) SO2 (tpy) VOC (tpy)
Base Year EI (EPA) 1990 11,800 NA 27,485 NA NA NA 5,366
Booz-Allen Hamilton 1988 2,128 NA 14,611 NA NA NA 1,391
NEI99
HGAVEI
(EPA) (Starcrest, 2000)
1999
1997
21,883
1,679
115
*10
135,739
11,461
2,118
690
1,948
**635
19,132
*1615
4,397
292
*Emissions inferred from NEI99 ratio of NH3 or SO2 to NOx.
**Emissions inferred from NEI99 ratio of PM2.5 to PM10.
The HGAVEI estimates emissions of VOC, NOx, CO, and PM. The HGAVEI spatially allocates emissions based on shipping lanes and estimated trips throughout the water system. The BRAVO EI incorporates the HGAVEI emissions of VOC, NOx, CO, and PM for the
3-2
counties of Harris, Galveston, Chambers, and Brazoria. Emissions are allocated to each county based on the spatial allocation of NOX in the NEI99. Emissions of NH3 and SO2 are estimated based on the ratio of NH3 and SO2 to NOx in the NEI99. Emissions of PM2.5 are estimated based on the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 in the NEI99. All NEI99 Commercial Marine emissions were deleted from the NEI99 for the four counties in the Houston-Galveston area and replaced by the total emissions from the HGAVEI for base year 1997.
3.1.3 Ammonia Emissions
A detailed review of NH3 emissions for the state of Texas was prepared for TNRCC by the University of Texas Austin for the base year 1996 (Corsi et al., 2000). A thorough literature review was conducted for research relating to NH3 emissions from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Emissions factors for all sources categories in Texas were evaluated and single factors were selected for each source based on the literature review. The revised factors were then applied to activity data from the state of Texas to produce an annual emissions inventory. The results of this annual inventory (UTA96) are compared with emissions estimates from the NEI 1999 v100 database in Table 3-3.
Table 3-3. Comparison of non point source NH3 emissions from Texas from the University of Texas Austin (UTA96) emissions inventory and the National Emissions Inventory (NEI99).
Base Year Source Catagory Animal Husbandry Domestic Fertilizer Application Non Road Sources Highway Vehicles wastewater treatment TOTAL
UTA96 1996 NH3 (tpy) 397907 29687 40420 113 11536 6632 486295
NEI99 v100 1999 NH3 (tpy) 419584 0 62683 719 21643 6280 510908
The sum of NH3 emissions from the UTA96 inventory is within 5% of the sum of emission from the NEI99 v100 emissions inventory. The major source of ammonia emissions in both inventories is Animal Husbandry with is dominated by cattle production. This source category accounts for more than 80% of the ammonia emissions in both inventories. In the NH3 inventory database supplied with the UTA96 report, county level emissions were reported base on the five source categories listed in the table above. These categories correspond to multiple SCC codes that are not amenable to grouping by a generalized SCC code. Because, the net emissions for the listed sources are quite similar, the decision was made to retain the NEI99 NH3 emissions in the BRAVO EI.
In addition to the sources listed in Table 3-3, the UTA96 inventory identified natural sources of NH3 as a major source category. Natural sources include biogenic emissions from forests, pastures, and grasslands and were estimated to emit 535,000 tons of NH3 per year. These emissions are approximately equal to the sum of all other non point NH3 sources in Texas. The emission from the natural biogenic sources were formatted into the SMOKE input format. Biogenic emissions will be modeled for the BRAVO domain using a module within SMOKE. If this module does not include NH3 emissions from these sources, the UTA96 biogenic inventory should be appended to the existing list of area sources.
3-3
3.2 Mobile Sources
Mobile source emissions from the 1999 NEI version 100 are produced by EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality. Emissions are estimated either by growing the emissions from the 1996 NEI according to economic growth for each state or by recalculating emissions using revised vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and EPA emissions factors (i.e. MOBILE5 and PART5 emissions models). In addition to the NEI mobile inventories, the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) produced a separate Texas based mobile emissions inventory for base year 1996. The mobile EI was produced in two components: one for the sixteen ozone nonattainment counties and one for the rest of the state. The emissions are based on locally produced emissions factors and activity data for on road sources including gasoline vehicles and trucks, diesel vehicles and trucks, and motorcycles. The TTI mobile EI was calculated only for CO, NOx, and VOC species. The 1996 TTI, 1996 NEI, and 1999 NEI mobile emissions results for the state of Texas are shown in Table 3-4.
Table 3-4. Comparison of the sum of Mobile Emissions for the State of Texas for on road vehicles.
CO NH3 NOx PM10 PM2.5 SO2 VOC
TTI96 (tpy) 3,007,174 *13,923 364,731 *7,179 *4,441 *14,821 308,513
NEI99 (tpy) 2,189,728 12,785 249,811 5,337 3,175 12,296 265,698
NEI96 (tpy) 2,064,976 9,799 220,615 4,687 2,909 10,065 220,843
* Calculated based on NEI96 emissions ratios of NH3, PM10, PM2.5, and SO2 to NOx emissions for each vehicle class. The table shows that the TTI96 mobile emissions are between 15% and 50% higher than the 1999 NEI and between 41% and 63% higher than the 1996 NEI emissions for species CO, NOx, and VOC. Because the TTI96 mobile EI was produced using locally generated activity and emissions factors, it is the preferred mobile inventory for the state of Texas. For the Mobile U.S. emissions component of the BRAVO EI, the NEI99 data set is used for all states. In Texas however, the NEI99 mobile emissions were updated with the corresponding emissions of CO, NH3, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, and VOC from the TTI96 EI. 3.3 Point Sources 3.3.1 Annual and Ozone Season Day Emissions U.S. point source emissions were obtained from the NEI 1999 v100 for typical ozone season day and annual emissions. Raw data was obtained in the new NIF 2.0 format. Data were formatted into the PTINV format as describe in the SMOKE users manual. A total of ~175,000 individual point source processes are listed in the PTINV table. Of those, ~16,000 sources were not properly geocoded with appropriate latitude and longitude coordinates. Using the geographic coordinates of other sources at the same facility, latitudes and longitudes were assigned to ~7,000 additional point sources. The emissions from the remaining point sources without geographic coordinates are summarized in shown in Table 3-5. The sources account for less than 10% of the non CEM U.S. point source emissions and only exist in the states of Arkansas,
3-4
Louisiana, and Mississippi. In order to be processed by the SMOKE emissions processor, a point source must have a location in degrees latitude and longitude. The records for the sources without coordinate positions were deleted from the PTINV table and not included in the BRAVO EI.
Table 3-5. Summary of U.S. point sources deleted from BRAVO EI because the location of the sources were unknown. "All Point Sources" refers to all point sources that are reported as annual emissions rather than hourly emissions (See next section).
Points Sources w/o Coordinates All Point Sources Percent of Total
CO 163838 2047371 8.0%
NH3
NOX
478 188043
109336 2057776
0.4%
9.1%
PM10
PM2.5
7504
6108
361857 2.1%
210879 2.9%
SO2 35638 1910434 1.9%
VOC 50990 971422 5.2%
No additional changes were made to the point source database with the exception of modifications to the sources that matched the CEM sources. These modifications are described in the next section.
3.3.2 Continuous Emissions
Hourly emissions data from the Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) program were obtained from the Clean Air Markets division of EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR). These data are reported by the facility managers to OAR as consequence of the Acid Rain Program. Stack emissions are measured directly at the source using automated sampling to provide very accurate point sources emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO2. CEM data reported to the OAR arrive in Electronic Data Reporting (EDR) format. These tables are then read into a mainframe computer where the statistical package SAS performs QA checks and calculate of quarterly emissions for each stack. The CEM data incorporated into the BRAVO EI was obtained from the SAS mainframe tables rather than the raw EDR data.
At the time of writing this report EPA had not reconciled the CEM database with the annual State's point source database from in the NEI. As a result, no common table exists linking the CEM data with the point source data in the NEI. In order to incorporate the CEM data into the BRAVO EI, a direct link between the point sources in both datasets must be established. If this does not exist, the same sources may be double counted in the final database input into the SMOKE emissions processor.
The CEM database indexes sources using both an ORIS number (assigned to each facility by the Department of Energy and a Unit/Stack ID (assigned to each stack by the facility managers). CEM data is generally representative of emissions from an individual stack since the data is produced from monitoring equipment physically mounted on the stack itself.
The NEI database uses a separate set of indexes to define unique sources. Each sources is defined by its processes. For example, a piece of equipment that burns both coal and natural gas may be indexed as two sources (i.e. coal burning source and gas burning source) even though the same piece of equipment is the source. The two methods of indexing sources cause a one to many relationship to exist between the CEM stack data and the NEI point source data. That is multiple processes indexed in the NEI database may share the same stack equipped with CEM equipment. Matters are further complicated in that some facilities may split the emissions of a single process into multiple stacks or pipes. In database terms, this is referred to as a "many to many" relationship since one CEM may relate to one or more processes and one process may
3-5
relate to one or more CEM's. This type of relationship should be avoided in database management since there is no hierarchy to the tables. In order to accurately link the CEM database with the NEI, electric generating sources with external combustion boilers (i.e. SCC of type 101*****) were matched based on the ORIS number. Subsequently individual processes in the NEI and unit-stacks in the CEM database were matched using the POINTID field from the NEI with the UNIT-STACK field of the CEM database. This method left many sources unmatched since the slight misspellings in either of these fields would prevent a match. Additional matches were identified by manually examining all of the unmatched records. Annual NOx and SO2 emissions values were then compared to confirm the match. A match was considered valid if the CEM and NEI NOx emissions agreed to within 10%. If a match could not be found for a particular stack in the CEM database, these records were not used in the hourly emissions inventory database. A comparison of the NEI and CEM NOx and SO2 emissions are shown in Figure 3-1. 3-6
NEI NOx Emissions (tpy)
1000000
100000
10000
1000
100
10
1
0.1 0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000 100000 1000000
CEM NOx Emissions (tpy)
100000
10000
NEI SO2 Emissions (tpy)
1000
100
10
1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
CEM SO2 Emissions (tpy)
Figure 3-1. Comparison of SO2 and NOx emissions from matched sources from the NEI 1999 and CEM 1999 databases.
3-7
There are many sources affected by the Ozone Transport Commission NOx Budget Program that are only required to submit data to the OAR for the ozone season (May-Sep). These sources were not included in the hourly emissions inventory because the annual dataset was incomplete. The emissions from these sources are reported in the annual and ozone season day point source inventory. Matches were found for a total of 1.8 million tons per year of NOx and 3.2 million tons per year of SO2. The matched emissions account for 89% of all SO2 and 86% of all NOx emitted from external combustion power generators in the14 BRAVO states. This also represents 47% of all NOX and 63% of all SO2 from all types of point sources in the same area. A total of 477 unique sources were matched between the two databases. A map showing the location of SO2 sources with CEM monitors is shown in Figure 3-2. Matched records were then aggregated so that one CEM dataset corresponded to a single process from the NEI. Links were established between the two databases based on the fields that determine the sources primary key (i.e. State, County, Plant, Point, Stack, and Segment). Tables were preserved in the processing databases that relate the aggregated process ID to its original processes. To prevent double counting of emissions, the emissions from sources in the BRAVO PTINV table matching the CEM sources were replaced with zeros. Information such as location and stack parameters are preserved in the PTINV file, but all emissions are obtained from the hourly emissions tables PTHOUR. In addition, emissions of species not tracked by the continuous emissions monitoring system (i.e. CO, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC) were estimated on an hourly basis by scaling their annual emissions NEI to the NOx hourly emissions. 3-8
Figure 3-2. Map of CEM sources producing SO2 within the BRAVO EI domain. 3-9
4. MEXICO EMISSIONS This section describes the data sources and methods used to generate the BRAVO EI for the 10 states in Northern Mexico.
4.1 Domain and FIPS Coding
The domain of the BRAVO Northern Mexico Emissions Inventory includes the 10 Mexican states listed below in Table 4-1. The Mexican emissions data is organized with the same state and county FIPS format as the US counties. Since the current IDA text file format used to store the emissions data does not include a country code, emissions from the Gulf of Mexico, the United States, and Mexico are stored is separate files.
Table 4-1. List of States in BRAVO Northern Mexico EI.
State San Luis Potosi Baja California Norte Sonora Chihuahua Coahuila De Zaragoza Nuevo Leon Tamaulipas Sinaloa Durango Zacatecas
MX State ID 24 2 26 8 5 19 28 25 10 32
States in Mexico are subdivided into "municipios". The geographic area of the municipios varies depending on the location of natural borders (i.e. rivers and mountains) and population density. In general municipios are comparable in size to counties in the U.S. The Mexican government refers to municipios using a similar convention to the U.S. FIPS coding. Each state has a unique 2 digit ID and each municipio has a unique 3 digit ID. For the purpose of the BRAVO emissions inventory, each municipio is designated with its 2 digit Mexican state ID and the Mexican 3 digit municipio ID.
4.2 Emissions Data Sources At present, there is no municipio level national emissions inventory for Mexico for area and mobile sources. These emissions must be extrapolated from existing Mexican EI's that are limited to a small number of urban areas. The process is further complicated by regulatory restrictions in Mexico that prevent the reporting of emissions from individual Mexican point source facilities. As a result, estimates of point source emissions cannot be reconciled at the facility level and are therefore are likely to be more uncertain than emissions in the United States. The list of data sources used to assemble the BRAVO EI for Mexico is presented below. 4.2.1 Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (INE) Emissions inventories were produced for a limited number of cities by the National Environmental Protection Agency Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (INE) in Mexico (INE, 2001).
4-1
These inventories were constructed for base years 1994-1996 for the urban areas shown in Table 4-2. Emissions are calculated for PM, SO2, NOx, hydrocarbon (HC), and CO. Table 4-2. INE emissions inventories for 20 major cities in Mexico. Emissions are in U.S. tons per year.
City Cd.Juбrez Tijuana Tula - Vito ­Apaxco Mexicalli Zona Metropolitana de Guadalahara Zona Metropolitana de Monterrey Zona Metropolitana del Valle Mexico Zona Metropolitana del Valle Toluca
Base PM SO2 CO NOx HC Year 1996 51,267 4,561 498,036 28,727 83,745 1998 30,176 35,230 345,798 34,942 91,837 1994 22,405 355,158 2,418 50,937 13,781 1996 93,488 4,177 293,412 20,402 56,552 1996 331,962 8,894 987,845 40,904 158,219 1995 897,191 33,513 998,538 58,603 137,913 1995 496,775 50,015 2,593,955 141,511 1,128,335 1996 135,713 11,574 295,616 23,528 51,129
Emissions from the three municipios Tula, Vito, and Apaxco are the largest grouping of SO2 sources in Mexico. Because of the high emissions at this location, a separate point inventory file was created for this source area. The centroid of the Tula municipio (20.048 deg N, -99.365 deg E) was assigned as the geographic reference of the source. Tula-Vito-Apaxco's emissions are largely due to industrial sources including power generation, oil refining, glass manufacturing, and concrete manufacturing (Ortiz, 1997). Emissions from Mexico City (Zona Metropolitana del Valle Mexico) were also appended as a separate record in this file. Mexico City emissions were geocoded to (19.45 deg N, ­99.18 deg E). Since multiple sources are responsible for the emissions from these areas an artificial SCC of "0000000000" was assigned to represent all emissions.
Emissions inventories categorized by source type are available on the INE webpage for the later four metropolitan areas listed in Table 4-2 (INE, 2001). The emissions inventory for the Zona Metropolitana de Monterrey has a base year of 1995 and covers the entire metropolitan area of Monterrey which includes the six municipios: Apodaca, San Pedro Garza Garcia, General Escobedo, Guadalupe, Monterrey, and San Nicolas de Los Garza.
4.2.2 System Nacional de Informacion de Fuentes Fijas (Manufacturing Emissions)
Emissions factors for Mexican manufacturing sources was downloaded from the World Bank New Ideas in Pollution Regulation web page (World Bank, 2001). This dataset has been produced by DECRG-IE of the World Bank in collaboration with Mexico's Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (INE), using a database they provided, the Sistema Nacional de Informacion de Fuentes Fijas (SNIF). The SNIF database was updated in November 1997 and lists average emissions factors from over 5300 manufactures in Mexico. Emissions factors for CO, NOx, SO2, PM, and hydrocarbons (HC) are aggregated by number of employees employed and business type based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) code. The source data files used to assemble the SNIF database are not publicly available and therefore could not be used to assemble the BRAVO EI.
Activity data on employment in each manufacturing sectors was obtained from the INEGI Economic Census report for base year 1998 (INEGI, 1999). The report lists the number of people employed by Business size in each state based on the top four manufacturing sectors in that state. The report also lists the number of people employed in Industrial parks, cities, and corridors in each of the municipios. These data were used to estimate the number of people
4-2
employed in each of the top four manufacturing sectors for small, medium, and large businesses in each municipio.
The emissions factors were applied to the employment activity data to calculate emissions for each municipio. The mapping of ISIC codes to SCC codes was performed using the transformation shown in Table 4-3.
Table 4-3. Conversion between international standard industrial classification (ISIC) codes and source classification codes (SCC).
ISIC3
Description
311 food products
312 Other food products
313 Beverages
314 Tobacco
321 Textiles
322 Wearing apparel, except footware
SCC Code
SCC Genearal Description
2302000000 Food and Kindred Products: SIC 20
2302000000 Food and Kindred Products: SIC 20
2302000000 Food and Kindred Products: SIC 20
2302000000 Food and Kindred Products: SIC 20
2330000000*
2330000000*
SCC Specific Description All Processes All Processes All Processes All Processes
323 Leather products
2330000000*
324 Footwear, except rubber or plastic
2330000000*
331 Wood Products, except furniture
2307000000 Wood Products: SIC 24
332 Furniture, except metal
2307000000 Wood Products: SIC 24
341 Paper and products
2307000000 Wood Products: SIC 24
342 Printing and publishing
2360000000*
351 Industrial chemicals
2301000000 Chemical Manufacturing: SIC 28
352 Other chemicals
2301000000 Chemical Manufacturing: SIC 28
353 Petroleum refineries
2306000000 Petroleum Refining: SIC 29
354 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 2306000000 Petroleum Refining: SIC 29
355 Rubber products
2308000000 Rubber/Plastics: SIC 30
All Processes All Processes All Processes All Processes All Processes All Processes All Processes All Processes
361 Pottery, china, earthenware
2325040000 Mining and Quarrying: SIC 14
Clay, Ceramic, and Refractory
362 Glass and products 369 Other non-metallic mineral products 371 Iron and steel 372 Non-ferrous metals 381 Fabricated metal products 382 Machinery, except electrical 383 Machinery, electric 384 Transport equipment 385 Professional and scientific equipment 390 Other manufacturing products
2305014010*
2305000000 Mineral Processes: SIC 32
All Processes
2303020000 Primary Metal Production: SIC 33 Iron and Steel Foundries
2304050000 Secondary Metal Production: SIC 33 Nonferrous Foundries (Castings)
2309000000 Fabricated Metals: SIC 34
All Processes
2312000000 Machinery: SIC 35
All Processes
2312000000 Machinery: SIC 35
All Processes
2314999990*
2399000000 Industrial Processes: NEC
Industrial Processes: NEC
2399000000 Industrial Processes: NEC
Industrial Processes: NEC
*Not official SCC Code Because, no detailed process information was available for these sources, assumptions were made about the characterization of the particle size distribution and the ratio of volatile organic carbon to hydrocarbons. Emissions of hydrocarbons were assumed to be identical to those volatile organic carbon (VOC). PM10 was arbitrarily assumed to be 100% of the total particulate emissions while PM2.5 was assumed to be 50% of the total particulate emissions.
4-3
4.2.3 Eastern Research Group (Area, Mobile, and Point Sources) Eastern Research Group (ERG) developed an emissions inventory for the northwestern states of Mexico: Chihuahua, Sonora, and Baja California Norte. The ERG EI was prepared for the Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP) with a base year of 1996 (Wolf and Fields, 2001). The inventory will be used to assess the impact on visual air quality in Class I visibilityprotected areas in the Western United States. Area and mobile source emissions factors were extracted from existing emissions inventories in Tijuana, Mexicalli, and Juarez (GBC et al., 1999; GBC et al., 2000; GCh et al., 1998). Average emissions factors were calculated for major source categories for each of these inventories based on the activity parameters: population, households, total number of registered vehicles, agricultural acreage, and number of cattle. Activity data was acquired from the Mexican Census Agency Instituto Nacional De Estadistica Geografia E Informatica (INEGI, 2000). These factors were then used with the activity data to calculate emissions for areas of the states not represented by the urban emissions inventories. Point emissions were obtained from three separate sources and included emissions from Carbon I/II Power Plants (Yarborough, 2000), Cananea and Nacozari Smelters (P&BE, 1999a; P&BE, 1999b), and 15 SO2 sources in the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamalipas (Watson, 1998). 4.2.3.1 BRAVO EI Mexican Area and Mobile Sources The approach used in the ERG EI to calculate area and mobile emissions was modified slightly for the BRAVO EI. Average emissions factors were calculated using the inventories from Tijuana, Mexicalli, and Juarez. Data from the Monterrey emissions inventory (INE, 2001) was also included in calculating the average emissions factors. The emissions factors for each source are shown in Appendix A. For the Monterrey EI, emissions from trucks were not categorized by fuel type as they were for Tijuana, Mexicali, and Monterrey. The emissions from trucks in Monterrey were therefore not used in the calculation of average emissions factors. Population data for Mexico in 1999 was interpolated using the 1990 and 2000 Mexican census data (INEGI, 2001) for each municipio in the modeling domain. Household data was estimated by reducing the 2000 Census household data by the percent reduction in population between 2000 and 1999. Total vehicle registration data was available for base year 1999 using the INEGI SIMBAD database (INEGI, 2000). The number of agricultural hectares and head of cattle in 1999 were reported at the state level for 1999 by the Mexican Center of Agricultural Statistics (SAGAR, 1999). Agricultural hectares were spatially allocated to the municipio level by multiplying the 1999 state number of hectares by the fraction of state hectares within the municipio based on the 1991 Agricultural Census (INEGI, 1994). Similarly, the number of cattle was allocated to municipios based on their spatial distribution in the 1991 Agricultural Census. Municipio level area and mobile source data were applied to areas not covered by the original emissions inventories in Monterrey, Juarez, Tijuana, and Mexicalli. Emissions for these cities for base year 1999 were calculated using the city specific emissions factors from the original emissions inventories. Activity data for 1999 from these areas was used to grow the emissions in these cities to the BRAVO EI base year. The Metropolitan Area of Monterrey covers 6 municipios. Emissions for non point sources were spatially allocated based on the 1999 activity data from each municipio. Since no 4-4
information was available about individual point sources in Monterrey, all point source data was allocated to the municipio of Monterrey. All truck emissions including Heavy Duty Diesel, Heavy Duty Gas, and Light Duty Diesel in the greater Monterrey area are categorized as Heavy Duty Diesel with the SCC 2230070000.
4.2.3.2 BRAVO EI Mexican Point Sources
An annual estimate of CO, NOx, SO2, and PM10 emissions from the Carbon I and Carbon II coal fired power plants was provided by U.S. E.P.A. Region VI staff (Yarborough, 2000). This estimate was for 1994, but it is assumed that emissions for 1999 are of a similar magnitude. The emissions from these two facilities are listed in the Table 4-4. Wolf and Fields (2001) estimated PM2.5 emissions based on the assumption that 37.5% of PM10 from coal-powered electricity generation is PM2.5 (ARB, 1999). No information is available about the seasonal or diurnal temporal profiles of the Carbon I/II facilities. In addition, there is no information available regarding periods when the plant operation may have been interrupted due to routine maintenance or process upset. Because of their low power costs, most coal-fired power plants are base loaded (i.e. operating a full capacity 24 hours per day).
The Carbon I/II purchases some coal from mines in the western United States however much of the coal burned on site is mined from the lignite belt that runs Northeast-Southwest through the eastern side of Texas and Mexico. The Carbon I/II power plants were assigned an SCC of 10100300 that corresponds to an external combustion boiler burning pulverized lignite coal.
The Cananea copper smelter in the state of Sonora was shut down in April 1999 and is not included in the BRAVO EI since it was not operating during the field study period between July and October 1999. The Cananea smelter operated with no emissions controls. The Nacozari smelter is also located in Sonora, but utilizes emission controls (i.e., double-contact sulfuric acid plants) in order to reduce SO2 emissions. Wolf and Fields (2001) estimated the annual emissions of SO2 from the Nacozari smelter to be 13,600 tons. Emissions of other species were not estimated for this facility. The Nacozari smelter was geocoded to the center of the Nacozari de Garcia municipio in the state of Sonora. The smelter was assigned the SCC of 30300500 for general copper smelting.
An additional set of point source sulfur dioxide information was provided by Watson (2000). A partially complete table from an internal report was obtained from a staff member at PROFEPA in Mexico. The table was dated March 1997. The table lists 34 sources in the states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Chihuahua, and Coahuila. Of these sources, 23 are either power generation facilities whose emissions are estimated in the following subsection, located in a city that has already incorporated their emissions in the emissions inventory, low emitting sources with less than 30 tpy of SO2, or were not listed with a location so they can not be geocoded. The remaining 11 sources are shown in Table 4-4. The location of these sources was geocoded to the centroid of the municipio in which they are located.
Table 4-4. Emissions from major point sources in Northern Mexico.
PLANT State Carbon I Coahuila Carbon II Coahuila
Locality Process
De Nava De Nava
Coal fired power plant Coal fired power plant
SCC
Lat (deg) Lon (deg) CO (tpy) NOx (tpy) PM10 (tpy) PM2.5 (tpy) SO2 (tpy) VOC (tpy)
10100300
28.47
-100.68 2,112 36,786 9,002
3,384 111,942
NA
10100300
28.47
-100.68 2,577 42,919 11,259
4,232 129,341
NA
4-5
Nacozari Smelter
Sonora
Nacozari de Garcia
Copper smelter
2303005000
30.516
-109.457
NA
NA
NA
NA 13,600
NA
Cementos
Chihuahua S.A. de
Chihuahua
Chihuahua
Cement manufacturing
2305000000 28.8728 -106.175 NA
NA
NA
NA
107
NA
C.V.
Papelera de
Chihuahua, S.A. de
Chihuahua
Chihuahua Paper and pulp
2307000000 28.8728 -106.175 NA
NA
NA
NA
212
NA
C.V.
Pemex
Refinerнa, Nuevo Ing. Hйctor Leon
Cadereyta, Petroleum Jimenez refining
2306000000 25.51453 -99.96602 NA
NA
NA
NA 18,269
NA
Lara Sosa
Altos
Hornos de Mйxico, Coahuila S.A. de
Monclova
Iron and steel foundary
2303020000 26.91491 -101.25944 NA
NA
NA
NA 10,986
NA
C.V.
Cementos
Apasco S.A. de
Coahuila
Ramos Arizpe
Cement manufacturing
2305000000 25.88485 -101.08416 NA
NA
NA
NA
933
NA
C.V.
Met-Mex
Peсoles, S.A. de
Coahuila Torreуn
Nonferrous foundry
2304050000 25.23742 -103.34429 NA
NA
NA
NA 7,411
NA
C.V.
Industria
Minera Mйxico, S.A. de
Coahuila
San Juan de Sabinas
Coking
2390009000 28.08954 -101.38134 NA
NA
NA
NA
355
NA
C.V.
Refinerнa de Cd. Madero
Tamaulipas
Cd. Madero
Petroleum refining
2306000000 22.31405 -97.84345 NA
NA
NA
NA 29,621
NA
Dupont S.A. de C.V.
Tamaulipas Altamira
Chemical manufacturing
2301000000 22.51381 -98.09277 NA
NA
NA
NA
712
NA
Quнmica Fluor
Tamaulipas
Matamoros
Chemical manufacturing
2301000000 25.5556 -97.49681 NA
NA
NA
NA 4,527
NA
Polimar S.A. de C.V.
Puerto Tamaulipas Industrial Altamira
Chemical manufacturing
2301000000 22.51381 -98.09277 NA
NA
NA
NA
438
NA
4.2.4 Acosta y Associados (Power Plant Emissions)
Data on power output, fuel use, fuel type, and fuel sulfur content for public Mexican power generation facilities in the BRAVO inventory domain were provided by Acosta y Associados (Acosta, 2001). These data were obtained from PEMEX to produce a mercury emissions inventory for Northern Mexico. The mercury report is being prepared for the Center of Environmental control (CEC) and will be completed later in 2001. The base year of this dataset is 1999.
Data on volume of diesel, natural gas, and heavy fuel oil usage were obtained for 37 sources in the Mexican states of the BRAVO EI domain as well as Baja California Norte and Sonora. Facilities were categorized as "Steam", "Gas Turbine", or "Combined Cycle". Emissions factors for the power generation facilities were obtained from the AP-42 (U.S. E.P.A., 1998; U.S. E.P.A., 2000). Sulfur content of fuels is required to calculate SO2 emissions from diesel and heavy oil combustion. Acosta (2001) indicated that the maximum sulfur content of heavy fuel oil is 2% based on CFE test results. Material Safety Data Sheets for diesel fuel from PEMEX state that sulfur content of diesel fuel is 0.05%. Sulfur contents of 2% and 0.05% were used to calculate emissions from fuel oil and diesel sources, respectively. The default sulfur content of natural gas from AP-42 was use to estimate SO2 emissions. Annual average emissions were calculated based on totals of each type of fuel consumed at each facility. Ozone season day emissions were calculated by dividing the annual emissions by 365 days. Source classification codes were assigned to the process of burning each fuel type in each facility type. Emissions are
4-6
only estimated for the combustions processes and do not include fugitive emissions from fuel handling or spills.
Acosta (2000) also indicated that unconfirmed sources reported the Carbon I power plant also burned between 9-12 million liters of diesel in 1999 in addition to coal. Since this source can not be confirmed at this time, this data was not included in the emissions inventory. The emissions from burning 10 million liters of diesel are quite small (32 tpy of NOX and 10 tpy of SO2) with respect to the emissions from coal combustion at this facility (88,000 tpy of NOx and 265,000 tpy of SO2). The locations of each facility were assigned based on the center of the municipio in which they are located. Total emissions from each facility along with their location are shown in Table 4-5.
Table 4-5. List of criteria pollutant emissions from power generation facilities in Northern Mexico.
PLANT Altamira
State
Locality
Tamaulipas Tampico
Latitude (deg) Longitude (deg) CO (tpy) Nox (tpy) PM10 (tpy) PM2.5 (tpy) SO2 (tpy) VOC (tpy)
25.833
-97.954 968 7,340
2,115
1,548 42,588
122
Arroyo de Coyote Tamaulipas N. Laredo
27.484
-99.518
1
5
0
0
0
0
Benito Juarez Chihuahua C. Juarez
28.632
-106.072 319 2,421
698
511 14,050
40
Caborca Industrial Sonora Caborca
29.099
-110.954
9
31
1
Cd. Obregуn II Sonora
C. Obregуn (Cajeme)
30.716
-112.159
2
8
0
Chavez
Coahuila
Fco. I. Madero
28.421
-100.768
8
27
1
Chihuahua
Chihuahua Chihuahua
17.604
-93.196
6
23
1
1
2
0
0
1
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
Culiacбn
Sinaloa Culiacбn
24.799
-107.384
7
24
1
1
2
0
E. Portes Gil Tamaulipas Rнo Bravo
22.396
-97.937 465 3,525
1,016
744 20,455
59
Esperanzas
Coahuila Mъzquiz
28.280
-101.931
1
3
0
0
0
0
Fco. Villa
Chihuahua Delicias
Fundidora I Gуmez Palacios
Nuevo Leon Durango
Monterrey Gуmez Palacios
GuadalupeVictoria Durango Lerdo
28.186
-105.471 483 3,663
1,056
773 21,257
61
25.785
-100.051
4
14
0
0
1
0
25.536
-103.524 463 1,806
39
39
506
12
25.561
-103.498 458 3,473
1,001
733 20,150
58
Guaymas I
Sonora Guaymas
27.489
-109.935
40
304
88
64 1,765
5
Guaymas II
Sonora Guaymas
29.906
-112.683 560 4,250
1,225
897 24,661
71
Hermosillo Huinalб J. Aceves Pozos La Laguna Leona Los Cipreses
Sonora Nuevo Leon Sinaloa Durango Nuevo Leon BCN
Hermosillo Pesquerнa Mazatlбn Gуmez Palacios Monterrey Ensenada
27.918
-110.899
83
297
9
9
22
4
25.671
-100.308 909 3,545
77
77
993
23
25.630
-109.056 709 5,378
1,549
1,134 31,203
89
25.561
-103.498
49
294
67
50 1,314
5
25.671
-100.308
8
29
1
32.519
-115.385
5
20
1
1
2
0
1
1
0
Mexicali
BCN
Mexicali
32.491
-115.425
4
13
0
0
1
0
Monclova Monterrey P. Ind. Zaragoza (Industrial) P. Ind. Zaragoza (Parque) Pres. Juбrez I
Coahuila Monclova
Nuevo Leon
San Nicolas de los Garza
Chihuahua C. Juarez
Chihuahua Chihuahua
BCN
Rosarito
28.606
-100.640
10
34
1
1
3
0
23.806
-100.427 581 4,404
1,269
929 25,551
73
28.632
-106.072
1
4
0
0
0
0
28.632
-106.072
10
37
1
1
3
1
32.342
-117.056 547 4,148
1,195
875 24,070
69
Pres. Juбrez II BCN
Rosarito
32.663
-115.468
69
248
8
8
18
3
4-7
Pto. Libertad Samalayuca San Jerуnimo Tecnolуgico Topolobampo II Universidad V. de Reyes Total
Sonora
Pto. Libertad (Pitiquito)
Chihuahua Chihuahua
Nuevo Leon Nuevo Leon Sinaloa Nuevo Leon
Monterrey Monterrey Topolobampo (Ahome) Monterrey
SLP
SLP
27.918 31.735 25.671 25.671 23.236 25.671 22.151
-110.899 762 5,782
1,666
1,220 33,550
96
-106.478 1,497 5,843
127
127 1,636
38
-100.308
42
319
92
67 1,851
5
-100.308
2
7
0
0
1
0
-106.415 411 3,116
898
657 18,080
52
-100.308
8
28
1
1
2
0
-100.976 753 5,711
1,646
1,205 33,139
95
10,253 66,176 15,848 11,677 316,881
985
4.2.5 Instituto de Geofisica (Popocatepetl Volcano Emissions)
The Popocatepetl volcano is located 70 km southeast of downtown Mexico City at 19.02 deg N, -98.62 deg E, 5452 m a.s.l. Carbon 14 measurements of pyroclastic deposits near the crater show that over the last 22 thousand years, the volcano has erupted at time intervals ranging from 1000 to 3000 years (Siebe et al., 1996). Historic records indicate that the volcano has remained relatively dormant between 1927 and 1993, however increased seismic activity and fumaroles (emissions of gases and ash) have been observed since late 1993 (Goff et al., 1998). Popocatepetl is currently one of the world's largest emitters of SO2 and other volcanic gases. The proximity of the volcano to urban areas prompted a monitoring program of volcanic activity to provide emergency warnings to nearby residents. The Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED) sponsors routine monitoring of seismic activity and gas emissions from this source.
SO2 emissions from the volcano are measured with a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) two to three times per week. The highest measured SO2 emissions from the crater since 1994 were 50,000 tons per day while typical emissions are approximately 3000-5000 tons per day (Smithsonian Institute, 2000). These emissions are approximately 6 to 75 times greater than the SO2 emissions from the Carbon I/II power facilities. In addition to SO2, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are also emitted from the volcano. Large amounts of ash and dust are also emitted. Galindo et al., (1998) estimated particle emissions rates of 38,000 tpd for total particulate matter and 5000 tpd for SO2 from Popocatepetl for an eruption occurring between December 24 and December 27, 1995. Air borne particle size distribution measurements indicated high variability in the particle size distribution. The PM10 fraction of the total particulate matter ranged from 3 to 80% with a mass weighted average of ~10%.
In the same study, chemical speciation using X-Ray Fluorescence was also performed on filters collected at the Puebla airport 45 km east of the volcano. Most of the particulate mass was crustal material however, major non crustal species of the samples collected include phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, and potassium. This data set may be useful for Chemical Mass Balance source attribution studies.
SO2 missions from the volcano for the base year 1999 had not been completely process at the time of this report. Delgado (2001) estimated annual SO2 emissions from the volcano at 1.7 million tons with daily emissions of 5000 +/- 3000 tons.
A point source emissions record was added to the BRAVO EI. The SCC for volcanic emissions was applied and the annual and daily estimates of SO2 emissions from Delgado (2001) were used. PM10 and PM2.5 emissions were estimated based on the results of the Gilando et al.,
4-8
(1998) study. From that study, the ratio of total particulate matter to SO2 emissions was 7.5 to 1. The fraction of PM10 and PM2.5 to total particulate matter in the volcano emissions were chosen to be 10% and 2%, respectively. The annual emissions for PM10 and PM2.5 from the volcano for 1999 are estimated to be 3750 and 750 tons per day, respectively. Typical plumes from the volcano rise 1 km above the crater. A stack height of 1000 m was assigned to the source. It should be emphasized that the measurement of emissions from volcanoes are highly uncertain due to the logistic difficulties of conducting these tests. In addition, the activity of the volcano is dynamic and changes rapidly from hour to hour. The emissions presented here are rough estimates. For a particular day real emissions from the volcano are likely to differ from these estimates by more than an order of magnitude. 4.3 Mexican Emissions Integration This subsection describes how emissions from the Mexican data sources were combined to create the emissions inventory for the BRAVO states in Mexico. Care was taken to prevent double counting of emissions when integrating data from the multiple sources listed above. 4.3.1 Area and Mobile Sources Although, emissions from manufacturing processes were included in the inventories for Tijuana, Mexicali, Juarez, and Monterrey, these emissions were not allocated to areas outside of the urban areas. As a result, manufacturing emissions (Section 4.2.2) calculated from the SNIF database and economic census data are nearly exclusive from the area and mobile emissions database (Section 4.2.3) calculated using the modified ERG emissions factors. The only exception is food production (i.e. SCC 2302000000). For This category, the SNIF database categorized emissions of "agricultural product milling" and "non-processed food production". The Area and Mobile database allocates emissions from "charbroiling" and "baking" based on population. In general, emissions from these categories are in general quite small (less than 5% of particulate emissions from Heavy Duty Diesel Trucks). In order to prevent double counting, all emissions relating to food production from the SNIF database were removed from the BRAVO EI. Area and mobile source data for Mexico were assembled beginning with municipio level emissions calculated using the modified ERG emissions factors (Section 4.2.3). These emissions were replaced with the 1999 base year urban emissions inventories that also include point source emissions for the cities of Monterrey, Tijuana, Mexicali, and Juarez. Finally, manufacturing emissions from the SNIF data corresponding municipios outside of the inventoried cities were appended to the mobile and area sources database. 4.4 Source Classification Coding (SCC) of Mexican Sources Since the method and source data used to produce the Mexican Emissions inventory differed from the US NEI, in some cases not enough information was available to assign an accurate SCC for each source. Fictitious SCC's were created for these sources. A description of these SCC's is provided in Table 4-6. 4-9
Table 4-6. Description of fictitious SCC's.
SCC 2101000000 2103000000 2104000000 2201001900 2230070900 2305014010 2305090000 2313000000 2314000000 2314999990 2315000000 2330000000 2801700000 2845000000 99999999
Data Source ERG EI ERG EI ERG EI ERG EI ERG EI SNIF ERG EI ERG EI ERG EI SNIF ERG EI SNIF ERG EI ERG EI DRI
Source Description Point Source (Electricity Generation, Fuel Not Specified) Commercial/Institutional Fuel Combustion (unknown fuel type) Residential Fuel Combustion (unknown fuel type) Border Crossings Bus Terminals Glass Manufacturing Brick Manufacturing Point Source (Miscellaneous Consumer Products) Point Source (Printing Products) Transportation Equipment Manufacturing (Not Specified) Point Source (Vegetable and Animal Products) Wearing apparel except footwear Fertilizer Application Domestic Ammonia Emissions Miscellaneous SCC for all emissions from Mexico City and Tula-Vitro-Apaxco
4-10
5. GULF OF MEXICO EMISSIONS The Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Activity Database (MOAD3) inventories emissions for the development of outer continental shelf petroleum resources in the Gulf of Mexico (Steiner et al., 1994; Brown, 1998). The MOAD3 catalogs emissions from the development of petroleum resources in the Gulf of Mexico for base year 1992. Sources are based activities occurring on 1857 platforms. Emissions of CO, SOx, NOx, PM, and VOC's are reported for activities in the gulf. Particles emissions are only reported for diesel engines and boilers. As a result, the inventory may grossly underestimate particulate emissions from flaring. An updated emissions inventory is currently being prepared using a more recent base year. The results of this inventory were not completed in time to be incorporated in the BRAVO EI database (Peuler, 2001). All sources in MOAD3 are treated as point sources representing the location of the platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Figure 5-1 shows the location of the platforms off the coast of Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. Figure 5-1. Map of US counties, Mexican municipios, and offshore platforms in the BRAVO emissions inventory. The MOAD3 EI was reformatted into a point source inventory using all existing data. PM2.5 emissions were calculated as 92% of the PM10 emissions. All sources of emissions on the platforms are based on engines, boilers, storage tank off gassing, or flares. The ratio of PM2.5 to 5-1
PM10 is identical to the ratio used to estimate PM2.5 emissions from Off Highway Diesel Vehicles (OHV) in EPA's NONROAD model. Table 5-1 shows the sum of all emissions from platform activities reported in the Gulf of Mexico.
Table 5-1. Aggregate emissions from offshore platforms from MOAD3.
Pollutant Emissions (tpy)
CO
21,885
NOx
93,235
PM10
1,725
PM2.5
1,587
SO2
182
VOC
278,170
MOAD3 does not include emissions off the coast of Mexico since this is outside of the jurisdiction of the Minerals Management Service. Extensive reserves of oil are being recovered off the east coast of Mexico, but quantitative emissions of these operations are not publicly available at the time of writing this report.
5-2
6. SUMMARY OF RESULTS This section describes the integration of the emissions inventory for each of the three source regions: United States, Mexico, and the Gulf of Mexico.
6.1 Major Source Categories by Region
The entire BRAVO EI is summarized in Table 6-1. Emissions of each species is shown from each source region categorized by area, mobile, and point sources. For all species, emissions from the United States portion of the inventory domain are more than twice as large as the emissions from the BRAVO EI states in Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Offshore emissions are quite small compared to emissions from the United States and Mexico. It should be emphasized that the Offshore inventory only accounts for emissions from platforms under the jurisdiction of the Minerals Management Service and that particulate emissions from flaring is not inventoried.
Table 6-1. Total Emissions from each source region in the BRAVO EI for base year 1999.
Region 14 US BRAVO States
Source Category Area Mobile Point Total
CO (tpy) NH3 (tpy) NOx (tpy) PM10 (tpy) PM2.5 (tpy) SO2 (tpy) VOC (tpy)
10,289,533 16,348,722 2,027,327 28,665,582
1,914,084 78,283 111,632 2,103,999
2,670,048 2,806,990 3,656,641 9,133,679
9,360,206 93,321 413,099 9,866,626
2,118,692 72,904 238,445 2,430,041
659,016 111,357 4,972,738 5,743,111
3,004,166 1,774,397 936,814 5,715,378
10 Mexican BRAVO States
Area & Mobile Point Tula Industrial Park and Mexico City Popocatepetl Volcano Total
7,192,916 15,435 2,596,153 0 9,804,505
317,132 0 0 0 317,132
424,084 154,250 187,817
883,934 38,236 517,143
0
3,750
766,151 1,443,064
310,008 20,072 258,571
221,157 670,671 372,885
1,408,594 985 1,140,863
750 1,701,309
0
589,400 2,966,023 2,550,442
Off Shore
Total
21,885
NA
93,235
1,725
1,587
182 278,170
Entire Study Area
Grand Total 38,491,971 2,421,131 9,993,066 11,311,415 3,021,029 8,709,316 8,543,990
The following subsections describe the locations and majors source types within each of the three emissions inventory regions.
6.1.1 United States
The sum of annual emissions for each of the U.S. BRAVO inventory states are shown in Table 6-2. Texas has the highest emissions of all species while Utah has the lowest emissions.
Table 6-2. Sum of point, mobile, and area emissions from each U.S. State in the BRAVO EI for base year 1999.
State Name Arizona Arkansas Colorado Illinois Kansas Kentucky Louisiana
CO (tpy) 2,163,800 1,176,697 1,467,242 3,163,874 1,107,584 1,507,434 2,111,206
NH3 (tpy) 34,715 151,098 114,216 145,729 239,203 95,932 80,951
NOx (tpy) PM10 (tpy) PM2.5 (tpy)
482,405 366,752 154,728
303,698 446,617 115,648
416,199 420,901 108,986
1,106,981 922,427 241,899
500,616 781,089 171,703
691,337 295,534
95,751
709,755 324,820 126,914
SO2 (tpy) VOC (tpy) 198,463 300,216 160,403 247,198 126,120 281,407 1,035,786 749,663 156,235 228,628 776,752 330,210 432,721 352,323
6-1
Mississippi Missouri New Mexico Oklahoma Tennessee Texas Utah
1,546,322 1,845,597 920,401 1,578,710 2,303,910 6,913,715 859,089
99,654 225,021 49,803 228,148 83,603 518,972 36,955
403,103 533,425 325,266 465,453 738,523 2,163,437 293,483
409,562 1,020,524 813,337 789,907 318,122 2,721,273 235,762
124,028 216,567 153,418 156,934 118,492 581,013 63,961
246,903 432,161 181,921 158,940 684,395 1,066,113 86,198
313,448 368,146 144,485 276,488 548,773 1,429,412 144,981
6.1.1.1 CO Emissions
The major source types of CO emissions for U.S. sources are shown in Table 6-4. CO emissions are largely associated with improperly tuned engines. Gasoline powered vehicles are the dominant emitter of CO (54%).
Table 6-3. Major source types of CO emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States.
Source Category Mobile Area Area
Source Type Gasoline Highway Vehicles 4-Stroke Gasoline Lawn and Garden Equipment Perscribed Burning Forest Management All Other Sources Total
CO (tpy) 15,646,803 2,624,917 1,504,538 8,889,324 28,665,582
Percent of Total Emissions 54% 9% 5% 31% 100%
6.1.1.2 NH3 Emissions
The three largest sources of NH3 emissions in the U.S. are shown in Table 6-5. Emissions from Cattle and Calves urine and excrement account for the largest source of NH3 emissions. Biogenic NH3 emissions are not included here. In the state of Texas, NH3 emissions from plant respiration account for half of the total NH3 emissions from all sources.
Table 6-4. Major source types of NH3 emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States. Biogenic NH3 from plants is not included in this summary.
Source Category Area Area Area
Source Type Cattle and Calves Fertilizer Application Hogs and Pigs All Other Sources Total
NH3 (tpy) 1,217,706 307,727 163,273 415293 2,103,999
Percent of Total Emissions 58% 15% 8% 20% 100%
6.1.1.3 NOx Emissions
Major NOx emission source types are presented in Table 6-5. Unlike CO and NH3, the major sources of NOx are more equally balanced between gasoline and diesel powered highway vehicles (18% and 12%, respectively) and coal fired power plants (15%). Thermal NOx is formed in combustion process when ambient nitrogen and oxygen react with each other at high temperature.
Table 6-5. Major source types of NOX emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States.
Source Category Mobile Point Mobile
Source Type Gasoline Highway Vehicles Electric Generation Coal Combustion (CEM) Diesel Highway Vehicles All Other Sources Total
NOx (tpy) 1,672,502 1,408,938 1,134,487 4,917,752 9,133,679
Percent of Total Emissions 18% 15% 12% 54% 100%
6-2
6.1.1.4 PM10 Emissions
The largest source types of PM10 are shown in Table 6-6. Unpaved and paved roads are the first and third largest sources of PM10 accounting for 47% and 8% of the total emissions. Agricultural tilling is the second largest PM10 source and has a strong seasonal cycle with peaks in the spring fall months. Major PM10 sources are fugitive dust that is composed predominantly coarse particles.
Table 6-6. Major source types of PM10 emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States.
Source Category Area Area Area
Source Type Unpaved Roads Agricultural Production ­ Crop Tilling Paved Roads All Other Sources Total
PM10 (tpy) 4,633,977 1,878,369 826,449 2,547,831 9,866,626
Percent of Total Emissions 47% 18% 8% 27% 100%
6.1.1.5 PM2.5 Emissions
The three major sources of PM2.5 are identical to those of PM10 (Table 6-7). Unpaved roads account for a smaller fraction of the total PM2.5 emissions (28%) when compared to 47% of the total PM10 emissions. Combustion sources emit fine particles that are both PM10 and PM2.5. While the combustion sources are not the dominant source types of PM2.5, they compose a larger fraction of the PM2.5 emissions than the PM10 emissions.
Table 6-7. Major source types of PM2.5 emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States.
Source Category Area Area Area
Source Type Unpaved Roads Agricultural Production ­ Crop Tilling Paved Roads All Other Sources Total
PM2.5 (tpy) 695,097 374,651 206,614 1,153,679 2,430,041
Percent of Total Emissions 28% 16% 8% 48% 100%
6.1.1.6 SO2 Emissions
Table 6-8 shows the three major sources of SO2 in the U.S. region of the BRAVO EI. Various forms of coal combustion are the three individual largest sources of SO2.
Table 6-8. Major source types of SO2 emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States.
Source Category Point Point Point
Source Type Electric Generation Coal Combustion (with CEMs) Electric Generation Coal Combustion (Non CEM Sources) Industrial Coal Comustion All Other Sources Total
SO2 (tpy) 2,743,767 411,942 300,865 2,286,537 5,743,111
Percent of Total Emissions 47% 7% 5% 39% 100%
6.1.1.7 VOC Emissions
The three largest sources of VOC's are shown in Table 6-9. On road gasoline vehicles and solvent utilization emissions are similar in total size and account for 29% and 22% of the total VOC emissions in the BRAVO U.S. region.
Table 6-9. Major source types of VOC emissions in the 14 BRAVO U.S. States.
Source Category Source Type
Mobile
Gasoline Highway Vehicles
Area
Solvent Utilization (Commercial and Consumer)
VOC (tpy) 1,683,512 1,266,133
Percent of Total Emissions 29% 22%
6-3
Area
Gasoline Service Stations
All Other Sources
Total
278,364 2,487,369 5,715,378
5% 43% 100%
6.1.2 Mexico
Total emissions from each of the inventoried Mexican states are shown for each pollutant in Table 6-10. Emissions from the states of Hidalgo, Mexico, and Puebla are only partially complete and represent the emission of the major source in that state. Of the remaining 9 states, emissions from Nuevo Leon are the largest primarily due to the high population in the city of Monterrey.
Table 6-10. Sum of point, mobile, and area emissions from each Mexican State in the BRAVO EI for base year 1999.
State Name Baja California Norte
CO (tpy) NH3 (tpy)
854,944
13,325
Coahuila De Zaragoza
498,744
13,081
Chihuahua
1,177,321
42,588
Durango
336,442
26,793
Hidalgo*
2,198
0
Mexico**
2,593,955
0
Nuevo Leon
1,495,922
17,064
Puebla***
0
0
San Luis Potosi
419,150
20,262
Sinaloa
573,144
53,117
Sonora
514,892
27,166
Tamaulipas
974,120
67,013
Zacatecas
363,672
36,722
*Single source in state: Tula Industrial Park ** Single source in state: Mexico City *** Single source in state: Popocatepetl Volcano
NOx (tpy) PM10 (tpy) PM2.5 (tpy)
73,415 152,723
42,019
119,016
77,590
24,764
77,667 111,965
37,610
23,547
44,047
17,191
46,306
20,368
10,184
141,511 496,775 248,387
91,371 172,437
70,822
0
3,750
750
31,038
51,275
17,811
38,253
77,081
31,519
42,892
64,167
23,114
62,938 122,710
45,571
18,196
48,175
19,659
SO2 (tpy) VOC (tpy) 67,648 185,691
304,306 106,940
56,673 211,723
33,173
72,901
322,871
12,528
50,014 1,128,335
88,199 215,359
1,701,309
0
52,159
97,063
68,658 125,219
90,546 141,935
120,122 178,435
10,345
74,312
The following subsections describe the major source types responsible for the emissions of each chemical species in the Mexican emissions inventory. Emissions from the Tula Industrial Park and Mexico City were not categorized by individual source type in the BRAVO EI. Emissions from these two areas and the Popocatepetl Volcano were not included as part of the following analysis so that the major source types could be identified for the 10 Northern Mexican States.
6.1.2.1 CO Emissions
Major source of CO emissions in Mexican states are shown in Table 6-11. As with U.S. CO emissions, the largest source of CO is Gasoline powered on road vehicles. Crop burning can emit large amounts of both CO and particulate matter during short events throughout the year.
Table 6-11. Major source types of CO emissions in the 10 BRAVO Northern Mexico States.
Source Category Mobile Area Area
Source Type Gasoline Highway Vehicles Crop Burning Diesel Highway Vehicles All Other Sources Total
CO (tpy) 6,264,995 617,991 207,988 117,377 7,208,351
Percent of Total Emissions 87% 9% 3% 1% 100%
6-4
6.1.2.2 NH3 Emissions
Table 6-12 shows the predominant emissions of ammonia in the 10 northern Mexican states. Cattle and Calve emissions are the largest source of ammonia in Mexico.
Table 6-12. Major source types of NH3 emissions in the 10 BRAVO Northern Mexico States.
Source Category Area Area Area
Source Type Cattle and Calves Fertilizer Application Domestic Ammonia All Other Sources Total
NH3 (tpy) 175,082 118,196 20,487 3,367 317,132
Percent of Total Emissions 55% 37% 6% 1% 100%
6.1.2.3 NOx Emissions
Onroad vehicles and power production are the three largest sources of NOx in the 10 northern Mexican states (Table 6-13). Due to plentiful oil reserves, residual oil combustion is the primary source of electric power in Mexico.
Table 6-13. Major source types of NOx emissions in the 10 BRAVO Northern Mexico States.
Source Category Mobile Mobile Point
Source Type Gasoline Highway Vehicles Diesel Highway Vehicles Electric Generation Residual Oil All Other Sources Total
NOx (tpy) 283,632 73,658 46,949 174,095 578,334
Percent of Total Emissions 49% 13% 8% 30% 100%
6.1.2.4 PM10 Emissions
Table 6-14 shows the three largest emitters of PM10. Unpaved and paved roads are the dominant source of PM10. The BRAVO Mexican EI contains emissions from crop burning but not crop tilling while BRAVO EI for the U.S. region contains both. Crop burning is the second largest source of primary PM10 in Mexico.
Table 6-14. Major source types of PM10 emissions in the 10 BRAVO Northern Mexico States.
Source Category Area Area Area
Source Type Unpaved Roads Agricultural Production ­ Crop Burning Paved Roads All Other Sources Total
PM10 (tpy) 538,240 92,451 62,150 229,329 922,170
Percent of Total Emissions 58% 10% 7% 25% 100%
6.1.2.5 PM2.5 Emissions
Major sources of PM2.5 emissions in Mexico are shown in Table 6-15. The top three major sources of PM2.5 are the same as the top three sources of PM10. Crop burning accounts for a larger fraction of the total PM2.5 emissions because it is a combustion source that is composed of fine particles less than 2.5 micron.
Table 6-15. Major source types of PM2.5 emissions in the 10 BRAVO Northern Mexico States.
Source Category Area Area Area
Source Type Unpaved Roads Agricultural Production ­ Crop Burning Paved Roads All Other Sources Total
PM2.5 (tpy) 114,115 88,164 10,494 117,307 330,080
Percent of Total Emissions 35% 27% 3% 36% 100%
6-5
6.1.2.6 SO2 Emissions
The major sources of SO2 in northern Mexico are shown in Table 6-16. As in the U.S. power production is the largest sources of SO2. Since the fuel oil used in the majority of Mexican power plants contains some sulfur, this is the largest source of SO2 in the region. Emissions from coal combustion at the Carbon I/II power plant are the second largest source of SO2.
Table 6-16. Major source types of SO2 emissions in the 10 BRAVO Northern Mexico States.
Source Category Point Point Point
Source Type Electric Generation Residual Oil Electric Generation Coal Combustion Commercial/Institutional Power Production All Other Sources Total
SO2 (tpy) 313,660 266,619 134,265 177,284 891,828
Percent of Total Emissions 35% 30% 15% 20% 100%
6.1.2.7 VOC Emissions
The major sources of VOC emissions in Mexico are identical to those in the U.S. (Table 6-17). The petroleum storage source includes gasoline station emissions. Gasoline highway vehicles account for 50% of the total VOC emissions.
Table 6-17. Major source types of VOC emissions in the 10 BRAVO Northern Mexico States.
Source Category Mobile Area Area
Source Type Gasoline Highway Vehicles Petroleum Storage Solvent Utilization (Consumer) All Other Sources Total
VOC (tpy) 698,929 145,317 112,262 450,071 1,406,579
Percent of Total Emissions 50% 10% 8% 32% 100%
6.1.3 Gulf of Mexico
Major pollution emitting activities in the Gulf of Mexico differ greatly from the dominant sources of pollutants onshore. The primary sources of pollution offshore are associated with oil extraction and platform operations. Emissions of all pollutants from natural gas flares is likely to be underestimated since only VOC emissions were reported for the majority of flares.
6.1.3.1 CO Emissions
The major source of CO in the Gulf of Mexico are the natural gas engines used to power the platform operations (Table 6-18). CO forms when hydrocarbon fuels are incompletely combusted to CO2. Table 6-18. Major source types of CO emissions in the Gulf of Mexico.
Source Category Point Point Point
Source Type Reciprocating Natural Gas Engines Natural Gas Turbines Gas Flares All Other Sources Total
CO (tpy) 17,734 2,720 567 864 21,885
Percent of Total Emissions 81% 12% 3% 4% 100%
6.1.3.2 NOx Emissions
The major sources of offshore NOx emissions are shown in Table 6-19. Natural gas combustion on the platforms is the largest source of inventoried NOx in the Gulf of Mexico.
6-6
Table 6-19. Major source types of NOx emissions in the Gulf of Mexico.
Source Category Point Point Point
Source Type Reciprocating Natural Gas Engines Natural Gas Turbines Natural Gas Boilers All Other Sources Total
NOx (tpy) 81,521 5,394 3,432 2,888 93,235
Percent of Total Emissions 87% 6% 4% 3% 100%
6.1.3.3 PM10 Emissions
Table 6-20 shows the three largest sources of inventoried PM10 in the Gulf of Mexico. Power production for the platforms is the largest source of PM10.
Table 6-20. Major source types of PM10 emissions in the Gulf of Mexico.
Source Category Point Point Point
Source Type Reciprocating Natural Gas Engines Natural Gas Turbines Reciprocating Diesel Engines All Other Sources Total
PM10 (tpy) 1,001 529 156 40 1,725
Percent of Total Emissions 58% 31% 9% 2% 100%
6.1.3.4 PM2.5 Emissions
The largest sources of offshore PM2.5 emissions are shown in Table 6-21. Because emissions from PM10 sources were assumed to be 92% PM2.5, the relative contribution of PM2.5 emissions is identical to PM10.
Table 6-21. Major source types of PM2.5 emissions in the Gulf of Mexico.
Source Category Point Point Point
Source Type Reciprocating Natural Gas Engines Natural Gas Turbines Reciprocating Diesel Engines All Other Sources Total
PM2.5 (tpy) 921 486 143 37 1,587
Percent of Total Emissions 58% 31% 9% 2% 100%
6.1.3.5 SO2 Emissions
Inventoried emissions of SO2 from offshore activities are quite small and associated with power production on the platforms (Table 6-22).
Table 6-22. Major source types of SO2 emissions in the Gulf of Mexico.
Source Category Point Point Point
Source Type Reciprocating Natural Gas Engines Natural Gas Turbines Reciprocating Diesel Engines All Other Sources Total
SO2 (tpy) 145 18 9 11 182
Percent of Total Emissions 79% 10% 5% 6% 100%
6.1.3.6 VOC Emissions
Table 6-23 shows the three largest sources of VOC's emissions in the Gulf of Mexico. Gas vents of uncombusted natural gas are largest sources of VOC's accounting for 82% of the inventoried emissions.
6-7
Table 6-23. Major source types of VOC emissions in the Gulf of Mexico.
Source Category Point Point Point
Source Type Gas Vents Tank Breathing Reciprocating Natural Gas Engines All Other Sources Total
VOC (tpy) 229,121 37,185 10,532 1,332 278,170
Percent of Total Emissions 82% 13% 4% 0% 100%
6.2 Gridded Emissions Visualizations The BRAVO EI was integrated into a single spatial coverage using the ARCGIS program with dynamic linking to the emissions inventory database. Emissions from area and mobile sources were resolved at the county and municipio level only. These data were gridded to 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid cells by weighting the emissions from a county by the fraction of its area within each grid cell. Point sources emissions were linked with the grid cell where they reside. Emissions from point, area, and mobile sources were then summed for each grid cell. The resulting total emissions were mapped using the ARC Scene 3-D map Viewer and are shown in Figure 6-1 through Figure 6-7 below. The figures show the relative strengths of emissions over a large spatial area. This visualization facilitates identification of the largest sources of emissions close to Big Bend National Park (shown as the black area in southwestern Texas). CO emissions are mapped in Figure 6-1. As discussed above, most of the CO emissions in the inventory domain are due to on road mobile sources. The figures shows that most CO emissions are focused in metropolitan areas where vehicle travel is greatest. In contrast, NH3 emissions are primarily associated with cattle production that typically occurs in rural areas. Figure 6-2 shows that ammonia emissions are more uniformly distributed across the region. Areas that receive low rainfall (e.g. West Texas, Northern Arizona, and Northern New Mexico) are not productive graze lands and therefore have low NH3 emissions. Large NH3 emissions in Louisiana and Mississippi are associated with point sources manufacturing ammonia and urea. Figure 6-3 is a map of NOx emissions. NOx is primarily emitted by on road motor vehicles and power plants. The spatial distribution of NOx emissions is similar to that of CO, except for the presence of power plants sited in non-urban locations. The Carbon I/II power facility located ~200 km southeast of Big Bend National Park is an example of a large point source that dominates the emissions from a single grid cell. PM10 and PM2.5 emissions (Figure 6-4 and Figure 6-5, respectively) are predominantly due to paved and unpaved road emissions and agricultural activity. In the U.S., particulate emissions are smoothly distributed across counties with moderate to high population. Areas with low population density may still have substantial PM emissions due to unpaved roads. In Mexico, all road dust emissions are estimated based on the number of registered vehicles within a municipio. As a result, PM emissions are focused around major metropolitan areas. The distribution of PM emissions in Mexico is not as smooth as in the U.S. Figure 6-6 shows the gridded emissions of SO2 in the BRAVO inventory domain. SO2 is emitted primarily from point sources and had a distinctly different spatial distribution than all other species. The largest source of SO2 shown on the map is the Popocatepetl Volcano south east of Mexico City. Other important source areas include: the Tula industrial facility north of
6-8
Mexico City; the Carbon I/II power plants south west of Big Bend; Power plants in north east Texas; and power plants in the Midwestern U.S. VOC emissions are associated the large number of motor vehicles registered in Monterrey and Mexico City (Figure 6-7). In the U.S., VOC emissions are more uniformly distributed across the more densely populated eastern states. 6-9
Figure 6-1. Gridded carbon monoxide emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. Figure 6-2. Gridded ammonia emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. Biogenic emissions from plant respiration are not shown. 6-10
Figure 6-3. Gridded nitrogen oxide emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. Figure 6-4. Gridded PM10 emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. 6-11
Figure 6-5. Gridded PM2.5 emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. Figure 6-6. Gridded sulfur dioxide emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. 6-12
Figure 6-7. Gridded volatile organic carbon emissions for the BRAVO EI base year 1999. Each grid cell is 0.5 degrees by 0.5 degrees. 6-13
7. CONCLUSIONS The BRAVO EI has been assembled from a large number of data sources and covers 14 states in the U.S., 10 states in Mexico, and offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. The emissions inventory for Mexico is the first regional scale inventory for this area. Inventoried species include CO, NH3, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, and VOC. Offshore emissions are less than 1% of the total emissions of all species with the exception of VOC's that account for ~3% of the total emissions. Emissions data from continuous emissions monitors on major power plants in the U.S. were include in the BRAVO EI. Major emissions sources types in Mexico are similar to those in the U.S. On and off road motor vehicles are the largest sources of CO, NOx, and VOC's in both countries. Primary particulate emissions of both PM10 and PM2.5 are due to unpaved road and paved road travel in both countries. Crop tilling is the second largest emitter of PM in the U.S. In Mexico, crop tillng is not inventoried but crop burning is the second largest source of PM. Cattle husbandry is the largest source of NH3 in both countries. Biogenic NH3 emissions from plant respiration were not inventoried although estimates for the state of Texas indicate that ~50% of the total NH3 may be biogenic. Both sources place the majority of NH3 emissions in areas with sufficient rainfall to support forests or graze lands. SO2 emissions are predominantly associated with point sources in both countries. The largest SO2 source in the inventory domain is the Popocatepetl Volcano that emits ~1.4 million tons of SO2 per year (4 times larger than the next largest SO2 source). Other important SO2 sources include: the Tula industrial facility north of Mexico City; the Carbon I/II power plants south west of Big Bend; Power plants in north east Texas; and power plants in the Midwestern U.S. The inventory was integrated in to a common data format to be process using the SMOKE emissions processor. The output of SMOKE will be input into the CMAQ and REMSAD air quality simulation models. In turn, these models will be used to assess the major emissions sources and chemical mechanisms that determine visual air quality in Big Bend National Park. 7-1
8. RECOMMENDATIONS Emissions inventories are living databases. Over time emissions estimates evolve based on (1) real changes in human activities and emissions and (2) improvements in emissions estimation techniques. A list of recommendations is provided here as a basis for the improvement of future emissions inventories in the U.S./Mexico Border Region. · Biogenic ammonia emissions should be calculated for the entire inventory domain based on land used databases. At present, the BRAVO EI does not account for biogenic ammonia emissions and is likely to underestimate the total ammonia emissions by 50%. · Fugitive dust emissions are among the most uncertain sources in the BRAVO EI. Windblown dust emissions are estimated on an annual basis for Mexico, but are not included in the U.S. region of the emissions inventory. Improved methods of estimating large-scale fugitive dust emissions from natural and disturbed lands are needed. Due to the intermittent nature of these emissions, it is recommended that they be modeled with the emissions processor based on land use/soil type data and meteorological conditions including wind speed and time since last rain fall. · Biomass burning emissions estimation is improving throughout the United States as regional fire offices are keeping improved GIS databases of the size, date, and duration of fires. Record keeping in the state of Texas should be improved to account for prescribed and wild fires on both public and private lands. · Improved emissions for Mexico are needed in the following areas: o Agricultural activity. The BRAVO EI accounts for agricultural burning, but does not consider particulate emissions from tilling. Emissions factors based on U.S. activities may not be appropriate for Mexican emissions since the two nations may use different agricultural practices. o Mobile exhaust emissions. The BRAVO EI bases on road mobile emissions from exhaust on the total number of registered vehicles. Errors in the inventory may arise from a large number of unregistered vehicles. Emissions based on fuel sales in the various municipios are likely to be more accurate since fuels sales are taxed and therefore are well documented. o Paved and unpaved road emissions. This is the dominant source of PM10 and PM2.5 emissions. Emissions are calculated from the total number of registered vehicles. This method is prone to error since areas with large numbers of registered vehicles tend to be urbanized and have much less paved roads. Future inventories were benefit if emissions were assigned to roadway segments based on road type, length, and average daily travel. At the time of preparation of this emissions inventory, such a roadway database for all of Mexico was not readily available. o Point source emissions of all species need to be calculated for each facility with emissions greater than 100 tons per year. The current inventory has a limited number of point sources. The relative completeness of this collection of sources 8-1
is unknown. An improved EI based on facility permits is needed for all major point sources in Mexico. o Biomass burning emissions should be inventoried at the national level for both prescribed and wild fires. Given the large resources need to effectively accomplish this task, alternative estimation techniques may be more cost effective. Remote Sensing using satellite imagery should be investigated as a means of improving biomass-burning emissions for all of North America. This technique could be calibrated for regions in the U.S. that have adequate prescribed and wild fire records and then applied to the entire inventory domain. · The major shortcoming of the offshore emissions is the emissions from flaring operations. Improved emissions should be estimated based on the quantity of gas flared and accurate emissions factors for all species from flaring activities. 8-2
9. REFERENCES
Acosta, G. (2001). Personal communication between Gildardo Acosta (Acosta y Asociados, Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico) and Hampden Kuhns (DRI). July 12-July 17, 2001.
ARB, 1999. PM size fractions from the California Emission Inventory Development and
Reporting
System
(CEIDARS).
Internet
address
­
http://arbis.arb.gov/emisinv/speciate/PMSIZEFRList.htm. Last updated March 24, 1999;
accessed November 13, 2000.
Baker, R. (2000) Development of a revised emissions inventory for construction equipment in the Houston-Galveston Ozone Non-attainment Area. Draft report prepared by Eastern Research Group for the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the TNRCC Area and Mobile Source Emissions Assessment Section, March 20, 2000.
Brown, M. (1998) MMS OCS Activity Database, Version 3 (MOAD3), Addendum to "User's Guide: Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Activity Database (MOAD). OCS Study MMS 94-0018." U.S. Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Regional Office, New Orleans.
Corsi, R.; V. Torres; G. Carter; S. Dombrowski; M. Dondelle; S. Fredenberg; S. Takahama; and T. Taylor (2000) Nonpoint Source Ammonia Emissions in Texas: A First Estimate, Draft report prepared for the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission by the University of Texas Austin, February 22, 2000.
Delgado H. (2001) Personal communication between H. Delgado (Instituto del Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico) and Hampden Kuhns (DRI), May 18, 2001.
Environ (1998) User's guide for the National Nonroad Emissions Model. Prepared by Environ International Corporation, Novato, CA 94945. Prepared for U.S. E.P.A. National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48105.
Galindo, I.; L. Ivlev; A. Gonzalez; and R. Ayala (1998) Airborne measurements of particle and gas emissions from the December 1994-January 1995 eruption of Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico). J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 83, 197-217.
GBC et al. (1999) Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire de Mexicali 2000-2005. Gobierno del Estado de Baja California; Gobierno Municipal de Mexicali; Secretarнa de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca; and Secretarнa de Salud. December.
GBC et al. (2000) Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire Tijuana Rosarito 20002005. Gobierno del Estado de Baja California, Gobierno Municipal de Tijuana, Gobierno Municipal de Playas de Rosarito, Gobierno Municipal de Juбrez; Secretarнa de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca; and Secretarнa de Salud. August.
GCh et al., (1998) Programa de Gestiуn de la Calidad del Aire de Ciudad Juбrez 19982002. Gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua; Gobierno Municipal de Juбrez; Secretarнa de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca; and Secretarнa de Salud. May 15.
Goff F.; J. Cathy; H. Delgado; C. Werner; D. Counce; J. Stimac; C. Siebe; S. Love; S. Williams; T. Fischer; and L. Johnson (1998) Geochemical surveillance of magmatic volatiles at Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico. GSA Bulletin 110, 695-710.
9-1
INE
(2001)
Inventarios
por
ciudad.
http://www.ine.gob.mx/dggia/cal_aire/espanol/invent.html
INEGI (1994) Sector Agropecuario. Resultados Definitivos. Censo Agrнcola, Ganadero y Ejidal, 1991. Instituto Nacional de Estadнstica, Geografнa e Informбtica (INEGI). Internet address ­ http://www.inegi.gob.mx/.
INEGI (1999) Cencos Economico 1999. Report prepared by Instituto Nacional de Estadнstica, Geografнa e Informбtica (INEGI). Internet address ­ http://www.inegi.gob.mx/.
INEGI (2000) XII Censo General de Poblaciуn y Vivienda 2000, Circulaciуn, Sistema Municipal de Bases de Datos (SIMBAD). Instituto Nacional de Estadнstica, Geografнa e Informбtica (INEGI). Internet address ­ http://www.inegi.gob.mx/.
Ortiz, E. (1997) Personal communications with Hampden Kuhns (DRI) and Enrique Ortiz (University of Monterrey) October 22, 1997.
P&BE (1999a) Technical Basis for Appendices to Annex IV of the La Paz Agreement. Prepared for the U.S.-Mexico Border Information Center on Air pollution (Centro Informaciуn sobre Contaminaciуn de Aire) (CICA) by Powers Engineering, Escondido, California and Border Ecology Project, Bisbee, Arizona. October 25. Internet address ­ http://www.epa.gov/ttn/ catc/dir2/lapaz_e.pdf.
P&BE (1999b) Technical Basis for Appendices to Annex IV of the La Paz Agreement, Appendices A-J. Prepared for the U.S.-Mexico Border Information Center on Air Pollution (Centro Informaciуn sobre Contaminaciуn de Aire) (CICA) by Powers Engineering, Escondido, California and Border Ecology Project, Bisbee, Arizona. October 25. Internet address ­ http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc/dir2/lapaz_ap.pdf.
Peuler, E. (2000) Personal communications with Hampden Kuhns (DRI) and Elizabeth Peuler (Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, Louisiana) December, 2000.
SAGAR (1999) Anuario Estadнstico de la Producciуn Agrнcola de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, 1999. Internet address ­ http://hda-sagar.sagar.gob.mx/
SAI (1998) User's Guide to the Regulatory Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD). Report prepared by Systems Applications International, San Rafael, CA.
Seaman, N.L. and R.A. Anthes (1981) A mesoscale semi-implicit numerical model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 107, 167-190.
Siebe, C; M. Abrhams, J. Macias; and J. Obenholper (1996) Repeated volcanic disasters in Prehispanic time at Popocatepetl, central Mexico: Past key to the future. Geology 24, 399402.
Smithsonian Institute (2000) Popocatepetl Volcanic Acitivity Report for May 1998 ­ Current. http://www.volcano.si.edu/gvp/volcano/region14/mexico/popo/var_03.htm.
Stauffer, D.R. and N.L. Seaman, (1994) Multiscale four-dimensional data assimilation. J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 416-434.
Steiner, C; M. Causley; and M. Yocke (1994) User's Guide: Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Activity Database (MOAD). OCS Study MMS 94-0000. U.S.
9-2
Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Regional Office, New Orleans (14 pp). Starcrest (2000) Houston-Galveston Area Vessel Emissions Inventory. Report prepared by Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC., Houston, TX. Prepared for Port Authority of Houston and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission. U.S. E.P.A. (1998) AP42 Emissions Factors Report. Section 1.3 External Combustion Sources Fuel Oil Combustion and Section 1.4 External Combustion Sources Natural Gas Combustion. U.S. E.P.A. Emissions Factor Inventory Group, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. U.S. E.P.A. (2000) AP42 Emissions Factors Report. Section 3.1 Internal Combustion Sources Stationary Gas Turbines. U.S. E.P.A. Emissions Factor Inventory Group, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Watson J. (1998) Personal communications between John Watson (DRI) and staff of PROFEPA, Mexico. Map and list of SO2 sources in Northern Mexico. Wolf, M. and P. Fields (2001) Methodology and Results of an Emissions Inventory for Northwestern Mexico. Technical memorandum prepared by Eastern Research Group for Mark Seger (Pacific Environmental Systems), February 5, 2001. World Bank (2001) New Ideas in Pollution Regulation. Internet address: http://www.worldbank.org/nipr/index.htm Yarbrough (2000) Personal communication between Jim Yarbrough (U.S. EPA Region VI) and Paula Fields (ERG). October 23. 9-3
10.APPENDIX A.
Table 10-1. Hydrocarbon emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources
Type Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle
Category Agricultural Burning Architectural Surface Coatings Asphalt Paving Automobile Painting Bakeries Charbroiling Commercial/Institutional Combustion Dry Cleaning Fuel Storage and Distribution Graphic Arts Marketing and Distribution of LPG Municipal Waste Burning Other Non-road Mobile Sources Pesticide Application Residential Combustion Solvent Consumption Structural Fires Traffic Painting Washing and Degreasing Wastewater Treatment Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Heavy-Duty Gas Vehicle Light-Duty Diesel Truck Light-Duty Gas Truck Light-Duty Gas Vehicle Motorcycles
AMS Code 2801500000 2401001000 2461021000 2401005000 2302050000 2302002000 2103000000 2420000000 2501000000 2425000000 2505000000 2601000000 2270000000 2461850000 2104000000 2465000000 2810030000 2401008000 2415000000 2630000000 2230070000 2201070000 2230060000 2201060000 2201001000 2201080000
Overall (1996) HC (per unit) 11.70 2.12 2.75 0.66 0.14 0.05 0.01 0.61 2.13 0.59 22.13 0.30 0.11 3.52 0.08 4.49 0.02 0.04 2.40 0.09 2.39
Method of Calculation Mxcl only Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Mxcl only Mxcl only Mxcl only Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
6.66
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
0.07
CJ only
26.58
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
90.79
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
0.78
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
Overall (w/Monterrey) Method of
HC (per unit)
Calculation
1.92
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
1.86
Avg. Mxcl/Tij/Mon
0.59
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
0.17
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
0.01
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
0.64
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
2.22
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
18.79
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
0.07
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
4.32
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
0.08
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
2.22
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
6.98
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
32.58 90.77 0.70
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon Avg. Mxcl/Tij/Mon
Units kg/hectare kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/household kg/person kg/person kg/hectare kg/household kg/person kg/household kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle
Table 10-2. Nitrogen oxide emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources
Type Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle
Category Commercial/Institutional Combustion Fuel Storage and Distribution Municipal Waste Burning Other Non-road Mobile Sources Residential Combustion Structural Fires Traffic Painting Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Heavy-Duty Gas Vehicle Light-Duty Diesel Truck Light-Duty Gas Truck Light-Duty Gas Vehicle Motorcycles
AMS Code 2103000000 2501000000 2601000000 2270000000 2104000000 2810030000 2401008000 2230070000 2201070000 2230060000 2201060000 2201001000 2201080000
Overall (1996) NOx (per unit) 0.30 0.00 0.06 0.45 1.60 0.01 0.00 14.44
Method of Calculation Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Tij only Mxcl only Mxcl only Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Mxcl only Tij only Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
3.12
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
0.43
CJ only
10.06
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
36.67
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
0.07
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
Overall (w/Monterrey) Method of
NOx (per unit)
Calculation
0.23
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
1.36 12.96
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
12.74 36.82 0.12
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
Units kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/household kg/household kg/person kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle
10-1
Table 10-3. Carbon monoxide emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources
Type Area Area Area Area Area Area Area Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle
Category Agricultural Burning Commercial/Institutional Combustion Fuel Storage and Distribution Municipal Waste Burning Other Non-road Mobile Sources Residential Combustion Structural Fires Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Heavy-Duty Gas Vehicle Light-Duty Diesel Truck Light-Duty Gas Truck Light-Duty Gas Vehicle Motorcycles
AMS Code 2801500000 2103000000 2501000000 2601000000 2270000000 2104000000 2810030000 2230070000 2201070000 2230060000 2201060000 2201001000 2201080000
Overall (1996) CO (per unit) 86.01 0.05 0.00 0.84 0.73 0.39 0.24 9.74
Method of Calculation Mxcl only Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Tij only Mxcl only Mxcl only Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
65.60
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
0.29
CJ only
202.84
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
731.72
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
2.29
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
Overall (w/Monterrey) Method of
CO (per unit)
Calculation
0.29 63.79
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
289.75 795.62 3.52
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon Avg. Mxcl/Tij/Mon
Units kg/hectare kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/person kg/household kg/household kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle kg/vehicle
Table 10-4 Sulfur dioxide emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources
Type Area Area Area Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle Motor Vehicle
Category Commercial/Institutional Combustion Municipal Waste Burning Residential Combustion Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Heavy-Duty Gas Vehicle Light-Duty Diesel Truck Light-Duty Gas Truck Light-Duty Gas Vehicle Motorcycles
AMS Code 2103000000 2601000000 2104000000 2230070000 2201070000 2230060000 2201060000 2201001000 2201080000
Overall (1996) SO2 (per unit) 6.40 0.01 0.14 0.23
Method of Calculation Tij only Mxcl only Avg. CJ/Mxcl Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
0.14
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
0.01
CJ only
0.71
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
2.51
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
0.02
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
Overall (w/Monterrey) Method of
SO2 (per unit)
Calculation
0.52
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon
Units kg/person kg/person kg/household kg/vehicle
kg/vehicle
kg/vehicle
0.84
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon kg/vehicle
2.44
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon kg/vehicle
0.02
Avg. Mxcl/Tij/Mon kg/vehicle
Table 10-5. Ammonia emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources
Type Area Area Area
Category Domestic Ammonia Fertilizer Application (Ammonia) Livestock (Ammonia)
AMS Code 2845000000 2801700000 2805000000
Fictional AMS x x
Overall (1996) NH3 (per unit) 0.79 16.48 24.59
Method of Calculation Avg. Mxcl/Tij Mxcl only Avg. Mxcl/Tij
Units kg/person kg/hectare kg/head
Table 10-6. Particulate Matter emissions factors for Mexican mobile and area sources
Type
Category
AMS Code
Area Agricultural Burning
2801500000
Area Agricultural Tilling
2801000003
Area Charbroiling
2302002000
Area Commercial/Institutional
2103000000
Combustion
Area Construction Activities
2311000000
Area Municipal Waste Burning
2601000000
Area Other Non-road Mobile Sources 2270000000
Area Paved Roads
2294000000
Area Residential Combustion
2104000000
Area Structural Fires
2810030000
Area Unpaved Roads
2296000000
Motor Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle 2230070000
Vehicle
Motor Heavy-Duty Gas Vehicle
2201070000
Vehicle
Motor Light-Duty Diesel Truck
2230060000
Vehicle
Motor Light-Duty Gas Truck
2201060000
Vehicle
Motor Light-Duty Gas Vehicle
2201001000
Vehicle
Motor Motorcycles
2201080000
Vehicle
Overall (1996) PM10 (per unit) 12.87 7.70 0.24 0.09 0.23 0.16 0.08 11.72 0.06 0.02 103.66 1.55 0.02 0.09 0.17 1.00 0.00
Overall (1996) PM2.5 (per unit) 12.27 1.71 0.24 0.09
Method of Calculation Mxcl only Mxcl only Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
0.05 0.15 0.08 1.98 0.06 0.02 21.98 1.48
Tij only Mxcl only Mxcl only Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
0.02
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
0.09
CJ only
0.17
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
0.99
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij
0.00
Avg. Mxcl/Tij
Overall
Overall
(w/Monterrey) (w/Monterrey)
PM10 (per unit) PM2.5 (per unit)
Method of Calculation
Units
kg/hectare
kg/hectare
kg/person
0.07
0.07
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon kg/person
kg/person
kg/person
kg/person
kg/vehicle
0.05
0.05
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon kg/household
kg/household
kg/vehicle
3.31
3.16
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon kg/vehicle
kg/vehicle
kg/vehicle
0.49
0.49
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon kg/vehicle
1.07
1.07
Avg. CJ/Mxcl/Tij/Mon kg/vehicle
0.01
0.01
Avg. Mxcl/Tij/Mon
kg/vehicle
10-2
10-3

H Kuhns, M Green, V Etyemezian, J Watson

File: big-bend-regional-aerosol-and-visibility-observational-bravo.pdf
Title: Microsoft Word - BRAVOEI_Report_d2.doc
Author: H Kuhns, M Green, V Etyemezian, J Watson
Author: hkuhns
Published: Tue Jul 1 13:32:58 2003
Pages: 56
File size: 1.04 Mb


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