Data and Findings, W Sargeant, L Thomas, R Uthaiah, B Valentine

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Content: New York City Audubon Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring Program Data and Findings June 3 ­ August 15, 2004 Prepared for: New York City Audubon E.J. McAdams, Executive Director 71 W. 23rd Street, Room 1529 New York, NY 10010 212-691-7483 www.nycaudubon.org Prepared by: Yigal Gelb New York City Audubon [email protected] Funders: A grant from New York city environmental Fund was administered by the Hudson River Foundation. Partners: Fuji Film and Gateway National Recreation Area. Volunteers: Donna Anderson, Catherine Barron, Andy Bernick, Kate Brash, Roberto Cavalieros, Elaine Chachkin, Gay Gelb, Yehuda Gelb, Peter Greenberg, Joan Haber, Robert Haber, Douglas Kopsco, Michelle Latimer, Regina McCarthy, Maria Olivera, Sandra Paci, Cecelia Rogers, Walter Sargeant, Layla Thomas, Revathy Uthaiah, Bill Valentine, and Neil Walsh.
Abstract: The second year of New York City Audubon's Shore Monitoring Program has increased our understanding of New York Harbor's wading birds with regards to flight lines, foraging areas, and flight behavior. We used flight lines that were charted from the nesting colonies to locate the birds' foraging grounds. The research carried out this season showed Brother Islands birds flying mostly in the direction of NJ Meadowlands, Hoffman island birds flying in the direction of Staten Island and surrounding areas, and Canarsie Pol birds flying mostly to Jamaica Bay. It is important to note that data relating to flight lines is incomplete since the colonies were not observed from all sides. From a policy perspective, the fact that many of these foraging grounds are located outside of New York Harbor reinforces the notion that conservation should focus on the region as a whole rather than on breeding grounds or foraging grounds separately. Regarding the birds' behavior, the data collected this season may point to the existence of significant intercolony differences among Hoffman and Brother Islands colonies with respect to the birds' flight patterns. In explaining these differences, one theory suggests that the high bird density on South Brother Island, coupled with the high presence of cormorants, may have caused adult great egrets and snowy egrets to remain off the islands overnight. Introduction: During the late 1970s and early 1980s herons, egrets and ibis began using New York Harbor's islands for breeding. With these islands transformed into active breeding colonies, these species became the focus of many Research Initiatives, including New York City Audubon's Harbor Herons Project. A more recent program, known as NYC Audubon Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring Program, has been focused on identifying wading bird foraging areas in the efforts of conserve both the breeding sites and the foraging grounds in order to ensure their survival. The NYC Audubon Shore Monitoring Program is citizen-science initiative funded by a generous grant from the NYC Environmental Fund administered by the Hudson River Foundation. This Program attempts to identify the foraging grounds of herons, egrets and ibis by following the birds' flight lines from the breeding colonies to the foraging sites. As a first step, the main flight lines were identified by monitoring the colonies from various opposite shore locations. During the breeding season of 2004, data relating to wading birds' flight activity was collected for three large, active colonies ­ Brother Islands, Hoffman, and Canarsie Pol. Methods: In the second year of the Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring Program, volunteer researchers collected data on wading bird flight activity over a period of 11 weeks, from 3 June-15 August 2004 for three colonies in New York Harbor: Brother Islands, Hoffman, and Canarsie Pol (Fig. 1). Data was collected for the following bird species: Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus), Blackcrowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus).
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The island-colonies were monitored from shore locations opposite the islands. Monitoring sessions consisted of morning and evening sessions, a methodology used in other wading bird studies (Erwin et al. 1991). Sessions were conducted each week with each week alternating between morning and evening sessions, beginning with morning sessions. Morning sessions were held from 7-9:30 am and evening sessions were held from 5:30-8:00 pm. Every colony was monitored at least one time each week1 (Table 1). Binoculars and spotting scopes were used to identify bird species. With numbers falling towards the end of the season, more attention has been given to the possible location of foraging grounds in the form of field trips and field surveys of those areas. The following information was recorded for birds observed leaving or entering the colonies: time of day, whether the bird was leaving or entering the colony, flight direction (one of eight major octants from the center of the colony), and species. The following abiotic conditions were noted during the session and updated hourly: air temperature in the shade, wind direction (one of eight major octants), cloud coverage over the colony, and whether it rained or not. Tide information was added later using NOAA tide tables; wind speeds at each colony were added from the website "weather.com." Monitoring was conducted by a group of volunteers, with Yigal Gelb supervising the data collection process throughout every session.
1 During the last week, only one colony was monitored.
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Table 1. Session Description, including Total Bird Count
Date 3-Jun 4-Jun 5-Jun 6-Jun 10-Jun 11-Jun 12-Jun 13-Jun 17-Jun 18-Jun 19-Jun 20-Jun 24-Jun 25-Jun 26-Jun 27-Jun 1-Jul 2-Jul 3-Jul 4-Jul 8-Jul 9-Jul 10-Jul 11-Jul 15-Jul 16-Jul 18-Jul 22-Jul 23-Jul 24-Jul 25-Jul 29-Jul 30-Jul 31-Jul 1-Aug 5-Aug 7-Aug 8-Aug 15-Aug
Colony Canarsie Hoffman Canarsie Hoffman Brothers Hoffman Brothers Canarsie Brothers Canarsie Hoffman Canarsie Canarsie Hoffman Brothers Hoffman Brothers Hoffman Brothers Canarsie Brothers Canarsie Hoffman Canarsie Brothers Hoffman Canarsie Brothers Hoffman Brothers Canarsie Brothers Hoffman Brothers Canarsie Brothers Brothers Hoffman Brothers
Start 7:20 7:10 7:20 7:25 17:10 17:45 17:45 17:20 7:00 7:00 7:20 7:00 17:50 17:35 17:30 17:40 7:00 7:30 7:00 7:20 17:40 17:30 17:10 17:50 7:00 7:15 7:00 17:40 17:45 17:30 17:50 6:00 7:15 7:00 7:15 17:30 17:30 17:30 17:30
Finish 10:00 10:03 10:00 8:45 19:40 19:45 20:00 19:00 9:00 9:00 9:15 9:00 19:30 19:00 19:30 19:33 9:00 9:10 9:00 9:00 19:40 19:30 19:15 19:00 9:00 9:15 9:00 19:40 19:45 19:50 19:30 8:00 9:15 9:00 8:30 19:30 19:30 19:30 19:00
Birds Counted 37 122 20 3 180 171 139 27 207 27 144 47 9 96 67 125 160 120 199 27 81 24 150 9 118 122 19 64 62 52 25 49 21 36 2 27 20 3 0
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study area: Brother Islands: This colony was situated on two islands, North Brother and South Brother, in New York City's East River near the South Bronx (40° 47'-48'N, 73° 53'W) and included about 500 nesting pairs. The predominant species were black-crowned night-herons followed by great egrets and snowy egrets (Kerlinger 2004). There were no ibis on these islands. Most of the birds nested on the 7acre island of South Brother with a smaller population of black-crowned night-herons nesting on the 20 acre island of North Brother. A large cormorant population was also nesting on South Brother Island. Monitoring took place from a deck located in Castle Oil in the Bronx (140th St. and Locust Ave.) which was WNW of the Islands. This location allowed for a good view of both Islands with North Brother Island 450 meters and South Brother Island 900 meters from the monitoring deck. Since monitoring took place from only this location, flight activity on the other side of the islands was obscured. Hoffman Island: This colony was situated on a dredge-spoil island off the east side of Staten Island in the Lower Bay area of New York Harbor (40° 34'N, 74° 3'W) and included about 500 nesting pairs. The predominant species were black-crowned night-herons followed by great egrets, snowy egrets and glossy ibis (Kerlinger 2004). All the birds nested on the 10 acre island of Hoffman with cormorants present as well. Most of the cormorants, however, nested on the nearby island of Swinburne. Monitoring took place from two locations: The main location was a gazebo on South Beach, corner of Father Capodanno Blvd. and Sand Ln. in Staten Island, located NW of the Island. The second location, also in Staten Island, was a gazebo at the end of the Pier of Seaview Av., located W of the Island. These locations allowed for a good view of both Islands and were about 1,300 meters from Hoffman Island. Since monitoring took place from only these locations, flight activity on the other side of the islands was obscured. Canarsie Pol: This colony was situated on an island in Jamaica Bay and included about 500 nesting pairs. The predominant species were glossy ibis and black-crowned night-herons, followed by great egrets and snowy egrets; cormorants were also present on the Island (Kerlinger 2004). Monitoring took place from the edge of Canarsie Pier in Brooklyn, located NW of the Island. From this monitoring site the Island was about 900 meters away. Since monitoring took place from only this location, flight activity on the other side of the islands was obscured. Analysis: The data collected was analyzed in the following ways (due to insufficient data, Canarsie Pol was dropped from certain sections of this analysis): 1. Morning/Evening Flight Averages: These represent average number of wading birds observed flying during morning and evening sessions at the colonies. The null hypothesis assumes that there are no significant differences between the colonies.
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2. In/Out Flight Averages: These represent average number of birds observed flying in and out of colonies during morning and evening sessions at the colonies. For each colony, numbers are reported by species. The null hypothesis assumes that there are no significant differences between the colonies. 3. Flight Directions at the Colonies: These represent the percentage of birds observed flying in 8 major compass directions (N, NW, W, etc) at the colonies. Percentages are charted for all birds and by species. Compass directions are taken from the center of the colony. Numbers are aggregated across morning and evening sessions. For the concentric circle charts, all bars add up to 100% of the birds charted. Note that since the foraging areas are not necessarily located in the same place relative to each colony, the null hypothesis does not assume that there are no significant differences between the colonies. 4. Flight Lines and Possible Foraging Areas: These represent wading bird flight lines to and from the colonies as well as possible foraging areas. Using the flight directions presented in section 4, as well as other data sources, an attempt was made to chart the wading birds' main flight lines and identify the foraging grounds of each colony. It is assumed here that flights in and out of the colonies were related to foraging (Maccarone and Brzorad 2000; Erwin et al. 1991). Lines in black rely on data from Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring Program from 2003 and 2004 seasons. Lines in red rely on other data, anecdotal information, or inference. For Brother Islands, data collected from the first year (2003) of the Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring by volunteers supervised by Andy Bernick of the college of Staten Island's Biology Dept. was useful in charting flight lines beyond the monitoring location of 2004. Weekly survey data collected by Alison Siegel from Rutgers University's Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution, anecdotal information from Kyle Spendiff, a wetlands specialist at NJ Meadowlands Commission, and surveys conducted by the Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring Program during 2004 were helpful in documenting the birds' foraging areas in NJ Meadowlands. For Hoffman, data collected by New York City's Dept. of Parks & Recreation's natural resources Group, anecdotal information from Andy Bernick of the College of Staten Island's Biology Dept. and surveys conducted by the Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring Program during 2004 were helpful in documenting the birds' foraging areas in and around Staten Island. 5. species composition: These represent the total and relative abundance of birds for the beginning and middle periods of the monitoring season based on the counts of birds flying in and out of the colony (i.e., not nesting counts). For each colony, numbers are reported by species and are calculated by aggregating one morning and one evening session from the beginning period (week 2 and 3) and one morning and one evening session from the middle period (week 6 and 7).
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Results: Over the course of 11 weeks 2,811 wading birds were counted leaving and entering the three colonies in New York Harbor. After the data was truncated to ensure that all sessions started and ended at the same time across all colonies for both morning and evening sessions, the following numbers were recorded at each colony: Brothers 909 (8 sessions), Hoffman 721 (6 sessions), and Canarsie 154 (8 sessions).
1. Morning/Evening Averages: Average number of wading birds observed flying during morning and evening sessions at the colonies.
Number of Birds
Average Number of Birds by Colony for Morning and Evening Sessons
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Brothers
Evening Morning
Hoffman
Canarsie
2. In/Out Flight Averages: Average number of birds observed flying in and out of colonies during morning and evening sessions at Brother Islands and Hoffman colonies. During evening sessions at Brother Islands, more black-crowned night-herons were observed leaving the colony than entering it; the same was true for Hoffman colony. During morning sessions at Brother Islands, about equal numbers of birds were entering and leaving the colony, while at Hoffman more birds were leaving the colony than entering it. These numbers differ significantly between the two colonies (Chi 2 = 8.8, P = 0.031).
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Number of Birds
BCNH, Average In/Out
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 evening
evening
morning
Brothers Hoffman morning
in
out
in
out
During evening sessions at Brother Islands, more great egrets were observed entering the colony than leaving it, while at Hoffman the opposite was true with more birds observed leaving the colony than entering it. During morning sessions at Brother Islands, about equal numbers of birds were entering and leaving the colony, while at Hoffman more birds were leaving the colony than entering it. These numbers differ significantly between the two colonies (Chi 2 = 29.4, P < 0.001).
Number of Birds
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 evening in
GREG, Average In/Out
Brothers Hoffman
evening out
morning in
morning out
During evening sessions at Brother Islands, more snowy egrets were observed entering the colony than leaving it, while at Hoffman equal numbers of birds were observed leaving and entering the colony. During morning sessions at Brother Islands, more birds were observed leaving the colony than entering it; the same was true for Hoffman colony. These numbers differ significantly between the two colonies (Chi 2 = 8.4, P = 0.038).
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Number of Birds
SNEG, Average In/Out Brothers
25
Hoffman
20
15
10
5
0 evening in
evening out
morning in
morning out
At Hoffman, about equal numbers of glossy ibis were observed leaving and entering the colony during morning and evening sessions. Higher numbers of ibis were observed during morning sessions.
Number of Birds
GLIB, Hoffman, Average In/Out
25 20 15 10 5 0 evening in
evening out
morning in
morning out
3. Flight Directions at the Colonies: Percentage of birds observed flying in 8 major compass directions at Brother Islands and Hoffman colonies. Percentages are charted for all birds and for black-crowned night-herons and great egrets separately.
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At Brother Islands, 82% of all birds were observed flying South West. At Hoffman, 69% (including ibis) were observed flying west. Hoffman seems to have somewhat more dispersion in its flight lines. But when ibis are not included, Hoffman seems to have noticeably more dispersion compared with Brother Islands. Brother Islands, Flight Directions for All Birds (all birds = 100%) N 100 80 60 40 20
W
100 80 60 40 20
20 40 60 80 100
E
20 40 60 80 100 S
Hoffman Island, Flight Directions for All Birds (all birds = 100%) N 100 80 60 40 20
W
100 80 60 40 20
20 40 60 80 100
E
20 40 60 80 100 S
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At Brother Islands, 67% of black-crowned night-herons were observed flying south west. At Hoffman, 53% were observed flying west. Hoffman seems to have more dispersion in its flight lines. Brother Islands, Flight Directions, BCNH (BCNH = 100%) N 100 80 60 40 20
W
100 80 60 40 20
20 40 60 80 100
E
20 40 60 80 100 S
Hoffman Island, Flight Directions, BCNH (BCNH = 100%) N 100 80 60 40 20
W
100 80 60 40 20
20 40 60 80 100
E
20 40 60 80 100 S
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At Brother Islands, 85% of great egrets were observed flying south west. At Hoffman, 66% were observed flying west. Hoffman seems to have noticeably more dispersion in great egrets' flight lines. This finding is even more pronounced for snowy egrets. Brother Islands, Flight Directions, GREG (GREG = 100%) N 100 80 60 40 20
W
100 80 60 40 20
20 40 60 80 100
E
20 40 60 80 100 S
Hoffman Island, Flight Directions, GREG (GREG = 100%) N 100 80 60 40 20
W
100 80 60 40 20
20 40 60 80 100
E
20 40 60 80 100 S
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4. Flight Lines and Possible Foraging Areas:
Image: http://www.rpa.org/projects/openspace/maps/draft_todaysestuary.jpg Special thanks to Jeff Frezoco for drawing in the flight lines. Lines in solid black represent the major flight lines observed during the course of the first and second year of Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring (summer of 2004 and 2003). Dashed lines represent projected flight lines. All three major wading bird colonies in New York Harbor are
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represented in this map with Brother Islands at the top, Hoffman in the bottom left and Canarsie Pol in the bottom right. Specifically for Brother Islands colony, data gathered during the 2003 Shore Monitoring Program showed birds flying over Mill Rock Island on an East West path, which is why the black line (which turns red) bends sharply at that point. The map above seems to suggest that birds from each colony mostly forage in locations unique to their colony: Flight lines for Brothers colony show most birds flying south west and then west towards NJ Meadowlands (opposite directions on the return flight). Flight lines for Hoffman colony show most birds flying West and South west towards Staten Island and surrounding areas. Flight lines for Canarsie Pol suggest that most birds fly east into Jamaica Bay.2 The data from the foraging grounds also suggests that birds from other colonies do not forage outside their unique areas, for instance, no ibis have been observed in the NJ Meadowlands, suggesting that ibis from Hoffman Island do not fly up to the foraging areas of Brother Islands (glossy ibis were breeding at Hoffman Island but not at Brother Islands during 2004).
5. Species Composition: Total and relative bird abundance at beginning (1) and midpoint (2) periods for each colony (based on the counts of birds flying in and out of the colony and not nesting counts).
Bird Counts, Mid June (1) and Mid July (2), and Relative Abundance, by Island
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
59
21
25
5
1
54
131
138
99
36
25
74
170
57
82
6
17
43
53
45
15
Brother Brother Hoffman Hoffman Canarsie Canarsie
1
2
1
2
1
2
SNEG GREG GLIB BCNH
Glossy ibis were only present at the Hoffman and Canarsie Pol colonies. Excluding Canarsie Pol, this species significantly increased in numbers from Period 1 to Period 2, while all other species decreased in numbers or increased only slightly.
2 Anecdotal data as well as the following inference process were used to arrive at this conclusion: given that the numbers seen during monitoring (from the location to the West of the colony) were very small, it is very likely that most of the birds flew in the opposite direction, into the Bay.
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Discussion: As presented in the results section, Morning/Evening averages, In/Out flight averages, flight directions at the colonies all point to significant differences in wading bird flight activity among Brother Islands and Hoffman colonies. Why such differences should exist in wading bird flight activity among colonies located in the same harbor is not obvious. Some possible hypotheses are considered below: 1. Asynchronous breeding phases among colonies: It is possible that the breeding cycle started earlier on one colony compared with the other. The data doesn't seem to support this theory, though. First, the differences in In/Out flight patterns were noticed on both islands already in the first week when both were monitored (week 2). Second, the breeding season seemed to come to an end at about the same time at both colonies. 2. Differences in abiotic conditions at colonies: Since both colonies were monitored a day apart during the same time of day each week (during either morning or evening sessions), general abiotic conditions, such as cloud coverage, precipitation, wind speeds and wind directions, air temperature, and tide patterns, would have been somewhat similar for both colonies. However, as shown in the regression section, cloudiness was found to be a condition associated more with Brother Islands. Despite this, the data clearly suggests that differences identified earlier cannot be explained by this abiotic condition alone. 3. Tides were analyzed more in depth, with tide patterns at both colonies and possible foraging grounds examined. In both cases, tides were not found to be an important factor in explaining inter-colony differences. 4. The location of foraging areas is useful in explaining some of the differences among the colonies, mainly those relating to the relative dispersion of flight directions across species in each colony. The reason that Hoffman seems to have a relatively higher dispersion in flight directions is probably due to the fact that the foraging grounds associated with Hoffman are more dispersed relative to those of Brother Islands (Map in section 4). However, the distance from these foraging grounds to each colony are roughly the same, and given the speed in which the birds fly, any differences in distance don't seem to be sufficient to explain the other differences among the colonies. An additional hypothesis has to do with the colonies' species composition and geography: Cormorants: This species was present at both colonies, though its spatial distribution and absolute numbers differed among colonies. In Brother Islands, this species was located entirely on South Brother and numbered 350 nesting pairs (Kerlinger 2004). South Brother also included an additional 381 nesting pairs of wading birds (Kerlinger 2004). At Hoffman colony, on the other hand, only 35 nesting pairs of cormorants were present on Hoffman (which included 500 nesting pairs of wading birds) with most of the cormorants nesting on the nearby Island of Swinburne (Kerlinger 2004). Dividing South Brother and Hoffman's total bird populations (including cormorants) by the area of each island in order to find each island's bird-density shows the density at South Brother to be twice that of Hoffman's with 100 birds/acre and 50 birds/acre, respectively.
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The crowded conditions on South Brother coupled with the fact that cormorants were the abundant species on that island, could have caused other day birds (i.e. great egrets and snowy egrets) to stay off the Island in larger numbers compared to Hoffman. In this case, it is likely that many of the wading birds would not return to the colony until later in the morning of the following day in order to replace the parent bird which remained on the Island. This could explain why Morning/Evening flight averages were higher in the evening at Hoffman compared to Brothers ­ at Hoffman, the activity was more spread-out throughout the day, while at Brothers it was more heavily concentrated in the late morning. More birds roosting at the foraging grounds would also explain why evening In/Out flight averages were relatively low. Since morning outward-bound flights where now delayed at South Brother (since the birds were arriving from their off-island roost, as well as allowing cormorants to leave the Island first) this could also explain why morning In/Out flight averages at Brother Islands were about equal, while at Hoffman they were mostly outward-bound. Finally, if cormorants had a precedence-inentry in the evening as well, at this could explain why In/Out flight activity increased at Brothers as the evening sessions progressed but decreased at Hoffman. Acknowledgements I am deeply grateful to all the wonderful volunteers who helped make this season a success: Donna Anderson, Catherine Barron, Andy Bernick, Kate Brash, Roberto Cavalieros, Elaine Chachkin, Gay Gelb, Yehuda Gelb, Peter Greenberg, Joan Haber, Robert Haber, Douglas Kopsco, Michelle Latimer, Regina McCarthy, Maria Olivera, Sandra Paci, Cecelia Rogers, Walter Sargeant, Layla Thomas, Revathy Uthaiah, Bill Valentine, and Neil Walsh. Special thanks goes to Catherine Barron, Andy Bernick, Robert Haber, Peter Greenberg, Regina McCarthy, Sandra Paci, Bill Valentine, and Neil Walsh. I would like to thank the NYC Environmental Fund for funding this Program as well as the Hudson River Foundation for administering the grant. I would like to thank Fuji Film for making their blimp available for this Program as well as Kim Tripp from Gateway National Recreation Area for making this possible. Literature Cited Maccarone, A. D. and K. C. Parsons. 1994. Factors affecting the use of freshwater and estuarine foraging habitats by breeding wading birds in New York City. Colonial Waterbirds 17: 60-68. Erwin, M. R., J. S. Hatfield, and W. A. Link. 1991. Social foraging and feeding environment of the Black-crowned Night-Heron in an industrialized estuary. Bird Behavior 9: 94-101. Maccarone, A. D. and J. N. Brzorad. 2000. Wading bird foraging: Response and recovery from an oil spill. Waterbirds 23: 246-257. Netherton, J. 1994. North American wading birds. Voyageur Press, Stillwater, MN.
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Kerlinger, P. 2004. New York City Audubon Society's Harbor Herons Project: 2004 nesting survey. Curry & Kerlinger, L.L.C.
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W Sargeant, L Thomas, R Uthaiah, B Valentine

File: data-and-findings.pdf
Title: Harbor Herons Shore Monitoring Program, 2004
Author: W Sargeant, L Thomas, R Uthaiah, B Valentine
Author: yigal gelb
Published: Wed Nov 17 14:00:29 2004
Pages: 17
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