WRMA, TRAINING PROGRAM, Water Resources Management Administration, workers, WASTEWATER TREATMENT, ORGANIZATIONS, Blue Plains, Sewer Services, WATER RESOURCES, WATER QUALITY, Pilot Program, Charles County Community College, Worker, WASTEWATER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY, Working Conditions, Washington, Geological Survey, certification program, U.S. Geological Survey, WATER POLLUTION, WASTEWATER ENGINEERING, classroom hours, National Training and Operational Technology Center, D.C. Apprenticeship Council, PROGRAM, Electrical Equipment, operation and maintenance, pumping stations, water distribution system, Electrical Equipment Helper Meter Installer, Industrial Equipment, Bureau of Sewer Services, Solid Waste Management Administration, Industrial equipment Operator, water services, water meters, environmental engineering systems, Transmission Hydraulics, Statistical Analysis, Department of Environmental Services, Metcalf And Eddy, wastewater treatment facility, Library Research, Water Resources Research Center, Department of Environment, Training Programs, Environmental Services, General Electric, Wallace White, Washington, D.C., Blue Plains Plant, compound sentences, complex sentences, WASTEWATER PLANT OPERATORS, Electrical Maintenance, Training Program Organization, Board members, certification programs, M. H. Watt Timothy J. Rarikari H. Arthur Bunyan, Management Sludge Management Water Treatment Biology Physics Chemistry Basic Electricity Basic Electronics Industrial Electronics Industrial Electricity, Wastewater Collection Systems, CERTIFICATION, Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission
D.C. WRRC No. 56 DESIGN OF A WATER RESOURCES TRAINING PROGRAM FOR OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT By Dr. M. H. Watt Timothy J. Rarikari H. Arthur Bunyan The work upon which this report is based was supported by the D.C. Water Resources Research Center with funds provided in part by the Water Resources Management Administration (WRMA), the Department of Environment services, Washington, D.C.
The D.C. Water Resources Research Center Dr. M.H. Watt, Director
The Water Resources Management Administration Mr. Wallace White, Administrator
PREFACE Rapid scientific and technological advances
such as automation, computerization and improved techniques in operating water and wastewater systems have increased the need to train new workers and retrain existing employees so that they may perform their duties efficiently. In addition to water and sewer services, the D.C. Department of Environmental Services
(DES) also operates the wastewater treatment facility
at Blue Plains, which is one of the largest and most sophisticated in the world. Training of operating staff who man these environmental systems should include the most up to date technical information and methods in order to complement the huge dollar investment in equipment provided, and to assure optimum performance and meet compliance requirements. This training project consisted of the analysis of the agency structure, a survey of the employees, a survey of job and task requirements, a survey of needs for training from both the workers and supervisors points of view, the analysis of job and performance functions, the development and design of the curriculum, and finally a pilot program. Contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the DES nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute their endorsement or recommendation for use by the DES.
PREFACE...............................................................................................................i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.....................................................................................viii CHAPTER 1...............................................................................................1 BACKGROUND RESEARCH 1. HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS CONDUCTED FOR THE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION (WRMA)...............................1
1.1.1 Programs Prior to Year 1977 (Blue Plains) ..................................................3
1.1.2 Program Year 1977 to 1979, University Of D.C...............................................................................3
Program year 1979, training by, Metcalf And Eddy, Inc.........................................................................3 Program Year 1979, training by, General Electric Co.............................................................................4
1.2 Outlook for the future training programs....................................................4
1.3 Synopses of Training Programs in Water Quality Offered in Colleges and Institutions in
the Washington, D.C. Area..................................................................... 5
2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION..........................................................6 2.1 Information Gathering ........................................................................... 6 2.2 Library Research ...................................................................................7 2.3 Interview Summaries.............................................................................9 2.4 New Project Emphasis .........................................................................14 2.5 General Remarks..................................................................................16
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES (DES): ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS END DUTIES ...........................................18
1. 1.1 1.1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4
The Department of Environmental Services ...........................................18 Introduction .........................................................................................18 Water Resources Management Administration (WRMA)...................................................................... 21 Bureau of Water Services .....................................................................23 Bureau of Sewer Services .....................................................................27 Bureau of Wastewater Treatment ..........................................................30 Bureau of Maintenance Services ...........................................................33
CHAPTER III............. ............................................................................................36 JOB ANALYSIS AND training needs
1. JOB ANALYSIS
1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3
General Description of the Need-To-Know (NTK) Objectives From the Analysis of Work Requirements...............................................................................36 Detailed Analysis of Work Requirements ...............................................38 Bureau of Water Services ......................................................................38 Bureau of Wastewater Treatment ...........................................................39 Bureau of Sewer Services................................................................41
2. TYPES AND PROCESSES/METHODS OF TRAINING
2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3
Training Delivery Mechanisms ................................................................45 On-The-Job Training (OJT)......................................................................45 Correspondence Courses ........................................................................45 Seminars and Workshops ................ .......................................................47
2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.5.7 2.5.8 2.5.9
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)......................................47 Self Instruction ....................................................................47 Evening Adult Education Courses....................................... 47 Televised Instruction.......................................................48 Basic Preparatory/ Classroom Courses..................................48 Materials and methods.....................................................49 Matching Training To Needs..............................................50 Training Requirements.....................................................52 Program Management.......................................................53 Program Coordination ............................................................53 Admission .......................................................................... 54 Attendance ...................................................................54 Grading System ....................................................................54 Academic Records .........................................................55 Gradation Requirements....................................................55 Employment..................................................................55 Library Facilities............................................................56 Quality Assurance...........................................................56
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM
THE PILOT PROGRAM ......................................................58
Objective of the pilot program.....................................59
Implementation of the pilot program..............................60
1.3.2 Selection of Teachers, Instructional Methods, and Teacher-Made achievement test
s ............................................................................61 220.127.116.11 Selection of Teachers ....................................................................61 18.104.22.168 Instructional Methods ................................................................62 22.214.171.124 Teacher-Made Achievement Tests ................................................64 126.96.36.199 Instructional Schedule ...................................................................64 188.8.131.52 Questionnaires ...........................................................................65 184.108.40.206 classroom instruction
Equipment and Other Facilities ....................................................................................68 1.4 Analysis of the Tests ..................................................................72 1.4.1 Design of Statistical Analysis .......................................................72 1.4.2 Method of Data Collection .................................................................73 1.5 Analysis of Questionnaires ....................................................... 75 1.6 Evaluation of the Pilot Program ................................................. 76
Pilot Program Recommendations ..................................... 85
Recommended Long-Term Program ................................. 87
REFERENCES..............................................................................R-1 APPENDICES..............................................................................A-1 Appendix A DES Training Facilities Appendix B Contacts and Training Centers Appendix C Program Participants Appendix D Pilot Program Field Trips Appendix E Pre-Test and Post-Test Appendix F Sample Award Certificate Appendix G Samples of Questionnaires Appendix H Apprenticeship Guidelines Appendix I Certification Guidelines Appendix J Course Outlines - vi -
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4
LIST OF TABLES page Sample Task Analysis for a Solids Processing Operator.............................................................................43 Sample task Analysis for A sewer Services Work...........................44 Course Schedule For Team A...................................................66 Course Schedule for Team B....................................................67
Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8
Results of "Student Interest Evaluation Questionnaire.......................69 Results of "Mid-Course Evaluation" Questionnaire ..........................70 Results of "Overall Evaluation" Questionnaire .............................. 71 Statistical Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-Test .............................. 78
Table 9 Table 10
Statistical Analysis of Pre-Test and Post-Test in Hydrology ..............79 Statistical Analysis Pre-Test and Post-Test in Math ................................................................................................. 81
Proposed Four-Year Curriculum ......................................................91
Course Sequences for the Three Bureaus ..........................................92
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
LIST OF FIGURES DES organization ....................................................................... 19 WRMA organization ...................................................................... 22 Training Mechanisms ......................................................................46 Long-Term Program .................................................................... 89
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are grateful for the support and counsel provided by Mr. William Johnson, Director of the D.C. Department of Environmental Services, Mr. Wallace White, Administrator of the WRMA, and Dr. Annye C. Buck, Dean of the College of Life Sciences, University of the District of Columbia. Several local agencies provided us with valuable information during the project. We are thankful to Dr. Elizabeth Sarpy, director, D.C Apprenticeship Council; Mr. Cleveland Randall; Department of labor; Mr. John Samson, Environmental Protection Agency
; Messrs. William Marlow and Bob Duddley of the Washington suburban Sanitary Commission; Mr. Gary Wagner, Back River Waste water treatment plant, Baltimore We are deeply appreciative of the contributions of the following persons, particularly members of the project advisory committee, Mr. Santo P. Marzullo, Dr. James Preer, and Dr. James H. Johnson, Jr.; the WRMA staff, Mr. Sonnie Mason, Mrs. Hope Etienne, Messrs. James E. Dennis, Otto James, Kazys Vasaitis,. William Warren, Carl Johnson, H.I. Acar, Jim Hagan; Cheryl frC_ Stewart and Ms. Particia Staten; the staff comprisin, amts 01Connor, Messrs Willie Marks, Mansour Mahbanoozadeh and'Ms. Cora Griffiths; the UDC (CISC) Staff, Dr. Georgette Hardy, Mr. Myles Johnson and Miss Joyce Groves; the WRRC staff, Mrs. Peggy EdlerMack and Mr. Willie Mitchell; and Mr. Don Henshaw of Office Doctor, Inc. - viii -
CHAPTER I BACKGROUND 1. HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS CONDUCTED FOR THE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION (WRMA) 1.1 Introduction The performance of the functions of a municipal organization such as the D.C. DES requires workers who are proficient at their duties and tasks. Although many factors contribute to job performance, it is true to say that the levels of training and motivation are basic to workers proficiency which may be improved through a training program adequately sequenced for experienced and new workers where natural turn-over causes a continuous flow of personnel. Furthermore the technology of water resources and wastewater treatment is changing at a very rapid rate. This increases the need for training which is not seen any more as a secondary objective but one of the primary objectives for increasing the efficiency of managing water systems. The forgoing observation led to consideration of inputs to the design and implementation of a long-term training program for the D.C. DES employees. Design strategies necessitated, among other tasks, the undertaking of a pilot program aimed at providing information about the training level of workers, trainees and supervisors acceptance, selections of training methods,
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS facilities and other factors relating to a long-term training program. Prior to getting into the details of this project, it is worthwhile to consider the WRMA'S past training experiences. Over the years various departments at the WRMA have attempted to develop training programs. For instance, the Bureau of Sewer Services developed a training program geared mainly towards their crew chiefs. This program was at a fairly high engineering level. Mention was also made of attempts to develop management and safety programs, but due to lack of participation these mo programs were discontinued. However, there have not been, long term consistent and sustained training programs for any of the WRMA bureaus. Employees recruited are normally trained on the job to perform their functions. Management, however, has realized the need for long-term training and in the case of the Bureau of Wastewater Treatment (Blue Plains), acquired a large number of training materials for this purpose. The primary building at Blue Plains houses two classrooms, an electrical maintenance lab and a storage room. A number of training materials (i.e., books and audiovisual aids) can be found in the media resource center. The strength of the center is in video programs development. A few of their short-term training programs are videotaped. A detailed description of the Blue Plains training facility is provided in Appendix A. 2
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS
1.1.1 Program Prior to Ye r ],927, Blue Plains A two-year training program was conducted by the Blue Plains Training Office. The courses taught were basic mathematics and basic wastewater treatment. Mr. Bill Faw, a staff member at Blue Plains, was in charge of the program.
1.1.2 Program Years 1977 to 1979. University of D.C,. A two-year training program was conducted by the University of D.C. comprising courses in wastewater treatment, associated mathematics, electrical and mechanical maintenance taught by Messrs. Howard Davis, Bill Faw and Ted Poliakoff, respectively. Approximately 120 students were-enrolled in the program; 60 students in wastewater treatment, and 60 in the electrical and mechanical maintenance course. The program which was scheduled for 20 hours a week of classroom instruction and an equal period of on the job training was to train operators and mechanics. The duration of the program was approximately 800 hours, and grants for its funding were provided by the Environmental Protection Agency under Title 109(B).
Program in Year 1979, Training Metcalf and Eddy Inc.
The program comprised start-up courses for the nitrification and multimedia filtration
process and was conducted by Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. The program was designed for the training
of operators and maintenance personnel. About 50 to 60 persons
participated. The instruction focused on teaching the operation rather than the repair of equipment.
Program Year 1979. Training by General Electric Co.
A six-week training program was conducted by the General Electric Co. for electricians at
Blue Plains. Staff members of the General Electric Company served as instructors. About 30 to
40 trainees were enrolled in the program which cost about $90 000
1.2 OUTLOOK FOR FUTURE TRAINING PROGRAMS
The Department of Environmental Services is currently assessing its Training Objectives
for the next five years. The training needs, during that period, include past start-up training for the Multimedia Filtration facilities at the Blue Plains Wastewater Treatment Plant, refresher courses in secondary process control, and. courses for maintenance personnel. However, emphasis needs to be placed on training workers in the bureaus of water and sewer services also.
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS
1.3 SYNOPSIS OF TRAINING PROGRAMS IN WATER QUALITY OFFERED IN COLLEGES AND INSTITUTIONS IN THE WASHINGTON AREA
Description of Program In- house on-the job training, start-up training by facilities contractors or consultants; mechanics, electricians and industrial electronics courses; three credit hours of a college course in mathematics, chemistry, microbiology, physics and wastewater operations. Objective: Virginia Operator's License
College of Institution Arlington County Water Pollution Control Plant, Virginia
Three-year apprenticeship program; 450 hours of classroom training, 6,000 hours of on-the-job training Objective: To recruit and develop personnel
Back River Waste Water Treatment Plant, Maryland
One year pollution abatement technology certificate; 30 class credit hours and 4 credit hours of on-the-job training; special topic courses in process control, safety, electrical and mechanical maintenance Objective: Maryland State Operator's Certificate
Maryland State Water Quality Training Center, Charles County Community College
Two-year Water Quality Program, A.A.S. Degree; 76 credit hours of technology lecture lab courses comprising of: chemical analysis of water quality, wastewater technology, wastewater systems and design, general chemistry and physics. Objective: Technician training
University of D.C.
B.S. and M.S. degree programs in Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Objective: Professional trainingHoward University Washington, DC
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS
The Task I Background Research and Information Gathering states that "Background research would be conducted into available training programs through library research and personnel interviews with people involved in training programs with EPA and other agencies. The information obtained would be compiled, analyzed and incorporated into the program as it developed." Because of start-up difficulties this task was delayed and was started about one and a half months late. This caused the interviews to be scheduled towards the end of the calendar year. Most of the agencies were functioning at a slower pace and some of the key people were already on vacation. However, it was possible to obtain a few interviews with relevant agencies and to start an intensive literature review. There already exist a large number of publications on training programs. Both for academic and in-plant training. The Literature survey
was conducted in libraries in the Washington Metropolitan area, i.e., EPA Library, Washington Water Pollution Control Federation Library, Library of Congress, Department of the Interior Library, Water Resources Research Center Library and others. The findings on the literature survey are given below.
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS
Interviews were conducted with agencies of various interests with respect to water
resources training programs. Overall the cooperation of the agencies was positive and
informative to the development of the program. The agencies interviewed were the EPA
Headquarters at M Street, S.W., the Arlington Water Pollution Division of the Arlington County
Department of Public Works in Alexandria, the Fairfax Water Authority, the
Suburban Sanitary commission, and some training specialists at the University of D.C. and
elsewhere. It was felt that the first agencies to be interviewed besides EPA were to be agencies
similar to the Department of Environmental Services. The summaries of the interviews
conducted with these agencies and excerpts are given in the following paragraphs.
2.2 Library Research Regarding the library research, a large number of articles, magazines, books, scientific and technical reports were reviewed. These reference documents were found mainly at the Library of Congress, the UDC Library, the Water Pollution Control Federation Library, the EPA Library, the Howard University Library and other related libraries. The Library of Congress has a large number of reports on vocational, technical and occupational education. Of the 180 references examined, 25 documents were found to contain material directly relevant to the project. EPA has published a large number of documents (including ERIC/ IRIS material) on
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS training programs relating to water and wastewater. The University of Ohio serves as a clearinghouse for the ERIC-IRIS material. The Water Resources Research Center Library as well as the University of D.C. have few documents on training programs. However, the University of D.C.'s training books are on general science and technology with little focus on water resources or wastewater problems. The WRRC Report No. 23 already contains a list of the documents and audio-visual materials available at the University of D.C. Library. The first result from the library search provided a tabulation of relevant documents to the program and an in-depth review of the literature concerning training programs. However,-a secondary benefit derived from the documents was the identification of further contacts that became useful as the project progressed. The literature survey was not exhausted. Periodic reviews and visits were made as needed. Most of the material found were on the planning and designing of training programs. Some actually addressed curriculum materials for training programs. However, there were very few concerned with remedial training programs in the water resources field. There are such programs as remedial math and remedial English, but they are mostly located in the respective departments. 8
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS 2.3 Interview Summaries About half a dozen agencies were interviewed during the course of the background information acquisition. The agencies interviewed were as mentioned earlier, the U.S. EPA, the Arlington Public Works, the Fairfax Water Authority, the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission and some individuals with expertise in water resources and in technical training. All the interviews have been summarized and the contact summaries contain the basic information on the organizations, the individuals contacted, the date of contact, the telephone number, and a summary of the comments and recommendations or actions suggested. Appendix B provides names and addresses of contacts. EPA is the lead agency in developing training programs. Through the University of Ohio and with ERIC/IRIS programs, EPA has developed numerous training programs on all facets of water and wastewater treatment. These materials are available through the ERIC System or can be purchased directly through the University of Ohio which acts as a clearinghouse. Key recommendations from EPA included, a) to condier certification as a goal because it does not necessarily determine an operator's skill, and b) to consider the Dave Sullivan (Berkeley, California) computer simulation programs for operator training, as well as the Detroit Offices of Camp, Dresser and McKee for remedial training in basic math and English. 9
HISTORY OR TRAINING PROGRAMS The contact at the Arlington Public Works was David Timbie. Mr Timbie started working at the Arlington Public Works in 1978. He passed from the rank of training officer to training coordinator. Mr Timbie talked about several valuable observations in his experience in developing a training program. First, the commitment of top management to have a training program and to maintain it throughout the years was considered as the most important factor for the success of any training program. Second, once the commitment is made, a training coordinator is needed and he/she must devote at least 50% of his/her time to the training program itself. The training coordinator must be interested in the training and must have good oral and written skills as well as strong influencing skills. His/her role would involve data collection analysis, designing, planning, scheduling, supervising, evaluating, etc. He/she can build up his/her skills through "train the trainer" courses available everywhere. The third need is a plan. After an in-depth analysis of the needs of the organization, a plan must be developed, coordinated and have support of the management. Evaluation must be built into the plan and taken seriously. Anywhere up to 5% of the personnel budget should be devoted to the training program. There are two kinds of in-house training at the Arlington Public Works. There is contract training, which is training done by the contractors 10
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS at the end of the installation of new equipment or a new facility, and the other is regular training of new recruits. The attrition rate is between 20 to 25%. Usually it takes six months for a new recruit to decide if he/she wants to stay at the plant or not. The new operators go through a two to three month training program which includes both on the job and classroom training. All the new trainees must take the Water Pollution Control Federation beginner's course. The plant trains between two to twelve people at any one time. The Northern Virginia and the Charles County Community Colleges are the two institutions through which training activities are coordinated. There is also an opportunity to take a state examination towards certification, but promotion is based more on performance on the job because the state exams tend to be too general and do not determine the actual on the job skill. As water distribution, wastewater treatment, sewer collection and maintenance techniques increase in sophistication, the emphasis on training would become more essential. New recruits might therefore be required to go through a two to four-year program to be able to function efficiently on the job. The increasing tendency to automate and computerize water and wastewater systems implies that operators who would be working with these systems must be able to read graphs, charts, and interpret output data and the like. Such 11
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS activities would require recruits with a higher level of technical competency. The Fairfax Water Authority training program comprises on the job training for eight hours a day for fifty-two weeks for new employees where they spend the first six months with the senior operators. There is also a training program taken at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute which consists of a course, and a second program which consists of an advance course (one week) at the Virginia Military Institute. When recruiting for new employees, emphasis is placed on the willingness to work on shift hours and good aptitude in basic math. The Fairfax Water Authority encourages its employees to upgrade their background by taking the State Certification Examinations. The WSSC training program includes an instructor, homestudy slides, video tapes, etc. To build up the employees' basic skills in math the modumath series developed by the New York state University is also used. Video tapes are highly recommended because they provide consistency and are transferable to all plants. However, the video tapes or any other media material should be complemented by a qualified instructor who can relate very well to the trainees. A positive environment conductive to learning must be created and incentives provided through a certificate of competion. The courses offered by the WSSC are 12
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS divided into three levels: entry, intermediate, and advanced. Refresher courses are also offered and courses for veterans have been designed. Initially the length of the courses was two weeks for eight hours, but was reduced to one week for eight hours. Attendance ranged from ten to twelve people per class. Training was done once a month, but the shift hours did create some problems at the agency. The Comprehensive Instructional Support Center (CISC) of the University of D.C. is an academic support unit for beginners, freshmen and sophomores in the University College. Through its comprehensive instructional support services, the system provides reinforcement to UDC students enrolled in freshmen level courses. The CISC program comprises tutorial, workshop and seminars that encompass a broad spectrum of subject matter including English grammar, writing skills development, various levels of mathematical computation and analysis, reading comprehension, study skills comprehension, and so forth. The center's activities include the use of computer-assisted instruction of the Control Data Plato System. The Plato system is versatile, can be used individually, and has been proven to be an effective learning tool. The software contains comprehensive programs in basic math, English, sciences, etc. The rationale 13
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS for the background information gathering was to examine agencies similar at least in training needs to the WRMA in order to learn about their experience, difficulties and the successes they had in developing their programs. The literature survey provided additional information about training programs. From this background information gathering a clearer picture began to emerge, i..e., the need for management commitment, the need for effective coordination, and of great importance, the need for both short- and long-term plans to carry out the training programs. 2.4 New Project Emphasis Following the meeting with Mr Sonnie Mason, Training Officer (DES) and subsequent acknowledgement of a letter from Messrs. Wallace White and Sonnie Mason, it appeared necessary to address different objectives. It was suggested that the training efforts should be focused only on water distribution and sewer collection systems. From that point of view, meetings were scheduled between the bureau chiefs of the Water Distribution and Sewer Services. The following sections describe the results of the meeting with Messrs Carl Johnson, Bureau Chief of the Water Services, Jim Dennis, Chief of the Meter Division, and Otto James, Chief (Investigation Branch) of the Bureau of Sewer Services. From the meeting the training needs were expressed as basic English, basic science and math, and basic hydrology. 14
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS worker's schedule posed a problem, the best time available for employees to take classes was considered to be either at the beginning or towards the end of shift hours. The supervisors stated that an English course would assist workers in writing their reports after the FIELD ASSIGNMENTS
; the basic science and math would enable them to acquire a better understanding of the scientific principles and processes involved in water resources and the hydrology course would increase the technicians' understanding of the basic principles of hydrology and some basic fluid mechanics. Therefore the recommended new project directions were to provide an experimental program based on the following courses: basic English, basic math/science, and basic hydrology. All employees, both regular and lead workers, would be required to take basic math and English but the basic course in hydrology would be specifically targeted to the technicians, crew and foremen, although other interested workers would be encouraged to sit in on the course. The courses would be made short (two weeks duration) and the methods of teaching
would include the use of audio-visual aids, computer-assisted instruction, etc. It would be important to evaluate the experimental courses so that adequate recommendations could be made towards the end of this program. The final recommendations of the course content would depend on the analy- 15
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAM
sis of the tasks and functions 'performed at the two bureaus and also the identification of the level of the workers. The preparation of the class course content, schedule, and selection of teachers would be done prior to May.
The new objectives were to:
0 Select courses for the experimental program. 0 Select instructors. 0 Select and prepare course materials and location. 0 Perform job analyses and identification of long-term training needs. 0 Prepare program schedule. 0 Organize the experimental program. - Orientation and Pre Test - Evaluation - Post test and recommendations 0 Design a long-term program - Selection of courses and curriculum development - Program management. - Proposals for Certification and Apprenticeship
0 Prepare General Remarks
Many of the agencies contacted have developed experience in designing training programs. Although the WRMA is bigger than most of these agencies, the information obtained was pertinent 16
HISTORY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS because water resource training programs are fairly similar regardless of the size of the plant. It is recommended that strong contacts be maintained with these agencies for further advice on program development. All the departments interviewed at the University of D.C. responded very positively. The Departments of Environmental Sciences, Mathematics, English and the CISC expressed their willingness to cooperate and participate in such a program. For these departments, an opportunity to participate and assist in this training project meant fulfilling one of the major functions of the University, which is, reaching out and using their knowledge, expertise and other resources to improve and upgrade the standards of the community in general. While it is not recommended to integrate the DES workers into the University system at this moment, it is advisable to use the University's resources to the greatest extent and to rely on the experience developed to strengthen the WRMA training program. 17
CHAPTER II THE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES
1.DEPARTMENT OF ENVIORNMENTAL SEARVICES 1.1 INTRODUCTION
The Department of Environmental Services is the primary agency within the District
government with responsibility and oversight functions for water supply, sewer collection and
waste water treatment. The Department was established to provide for "more timely response and
cost effective utilization of existing resources directed to improving the environment of the
Nation's Capital" (Ref: 6A).
Prior to the establishment of the DES, environmental management in the District was
shared by a number of agencies including:
Department of Sanitary Engineering (water and sewer systems and solid
Department of Human Resources (environmental health
programs, air and
water quality programs, industrial hygiene and noise abatement)
Department of Transportation (beautification program)
Department of Licenses, Inspections and Investigations (issuance of licenses
and permits and enforcement actions)
Figure 1 presents an organization chart for the DES. DES has four programmatic
operating agencies as shown: the Office
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES of Environmental Standards and Quality Assurance; the Solid Waste Management Administration; the Office of Facility Planning; Engineering and Construction, and the Water Resources Management Administration. There are two primary staff offices which assist the Director of DES; they are the office of Fleet Management and the office of Budget and Finance and Material Management. The functions of these organizations are outlined below:
Office of Budget and Finance and Material Management is responsible for
providing an appropriate level of financial resources, insofar as possible, to support
the responsibilities of the Department and to insure that such funds are expended in
a fiscally responsible manner.
o Office of Fleet Management insures that mobile equipment essential to support the functional responsibilities of the Department is available when needed and that it is operated, maintained and repaired in an efficient and cost effective manner. o . Office of Environmental Standards and Quality Assurance Services represents a major part of the District's efforts to promote health, comfort, convenience and esthetics for residents and visitors through programs in consumer health, occupational and institutional hygiene, community hygiene, and air and water quality control. o Solid Waste Management Administration collects all residential refuse from residential buildings having three dwellings units or less, disposes of-all refuse generated in the District and maintains the public areas.
Water Resources Management Administration is responsible for the
operation and maintenance of systems and facilities for the distribution of water, the
control and disposal of stormwater and collection, treatment and disposal of sewage.
o Offices of Facilities Planning, Engineering and Construction is responsible for all matters relating to environmental engineering systems and facility planning, design and construction. 1.2 Water Resources Management Administration This project dealt with the Water Resources Management Administration (WRMA). The WRMA is the major organization in the District government with responsibility for water supply, sewer collection and wastewater treatment. Figure 2 shows the organizational chart for the WRMA. The WRMA has a broad responsibility which includes operation and maintenance of: o The District's water distribution system consisting of 1,400 miles (2240 km) of water mains, 130,000 water service connections, 30,000 water meters, 10,000 fire hydrants, 27,500 valves, 8 water reservoirs and elevated storage tanks; o The district's sanitary, storm water and combined system consisting of 1,800 miles (2880 km) of sewers, 28,000 catch basins and 100,000 manholes; o The Potomac Interceptor Sewer consisting of 45 miles (72 km)of sewer located in Maryland and Virginia; o The D.C. Regional Wastewater Treatment plant with an average treatment capacity of 309 MGD. o 26 water and sewage dumping stations, and 25 support buildings. 21
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES The District has three open raw water reservoirs to handle water supplies; these facilities have a combined capacity of 200 mgd (0.7 million cu. meters). The reservois are Dalecarlia-50 mgd (0.19 million cu meters), Georgetown-50 mgd (0.19 million cu meters), and McMillan-100 mgd (0.38 million cu meters). The WRMA employs approximately 800 workers in four main bureaus: the bureau of water services, the bureau of sewer services, the bureau of wastewater tr.eatment and the bureau of maintenance services. 1.2.1 Bureau of Water Services The bureau of water services is responsible for the water distribution facilities including pumping stations, reservoirs, tanks,-truck mains and service mains. It is also responsible for the efficient functioning of the thousands of valves and fire hydrants in the city, in addition to the servicing of connections and meters. The bureau employs 200 workers in its divisions as follows: 86 workers in the division of water distribution; 87 in the meter division; and 25 in the pumping division. Types of Positions Some of the typical positions identified in the three divisions are listed as follows: 23
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES Distribution Division Water Services General Foreman Supervisory Consumer Services Representative Laborer Consumer Services Respresentative Water Services Worker (Field Engineering Section-Valve Unit) Water Services Worker (Hydrants, Chlorination and Test Unit) Water Services Worker (Investigation Unit) Water Services Worker (Service Repair Section-Tap Removal Unit) Water and Sewer Services Worker (Field Engineering-Main Repair Unit) Meter Division Plumber Electrical Equipment Helper Meter Installer Helper Instrument Mechanic Worker Instrument Mechanic Tapping Machine Operator Laborer Meter Installer Meter Repairer and Tester Pumping Division Boiler Plant Operators Fixed Industrial Equipment Operators Fixed Industrial equipment Operator Foreman Buildings and Grounds Maintenance Personnel Buildings and Grounds Maintenance Foreman Duties and working condition
s Samples of typical duties and working conditions in the distribution, meter and pumping divisions are given as follows: 24
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES Water Services Worker 8 Duties: Incumbent, under supervision of Crew Chief, serves as member of an emergency crew involved in the investigation of consumer complaints concerning water and sewer service; assists in the location of water leaks on watermains and service lines; assists in determining whether a leak on a service is on public space or on private property; assists in the emergency repair of broken watermains; in the absence of the Crew Chief, the incumbent may have to act in his capacity; assists in shutting off watermains; assists in the excavation of ditches and the erection of proper shoring and the blocking of other exposed utility lines
; during inclement weather, assists in relieving obstructed catch basins; assists in determining whether an obstruction is in the private plumbing system or in the public sewer line; operates a 21,000 GVW special body truck and/or light truck equipped with a two-way radio; makes sure that the compressor assigned to the crew is kept clean and maintained with gasoline, oil & water, if applicable; maintains the tools and small equipment. Notifies crew chief when tools or equipment needed to be repaired or replaced; in the absence of the crew chief, incumbent is required to submit a daily report for each job; performs other related duties as assigned. 25
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES Working Conditions Works outside in all kinds of weather. Works in open trenches which are usually muddy or filled with slush. In emergency situations (e.g. broken mains) must work at top speed under handicap of crowds and traffic. In using handtools is subject to cuts, bruises and abrasions. Repairs valves below ground in manholes 26" in diameter requiring increased physical stamina and manual dexterity. Subject to acrid fumes and burns when handling burning equipment. When using tapping or cutting machine, is subject to the dangers inherent in the sudden release of watermain pressure to tapping or cutting machine. Subject to 24-hour emergency call and may be required to work overtime during emergencies. Requires D.C. Employees Motor Vehicle Operator's Permit to operate light trucks up to 3-tons. List of Equipment Some of the general equipment used by workers in the bureau include such items as:
Air concrete breakers Backhoes Dump trucks Pick-up trucks Shovels Hammers Wrenches Pliers Gauges
Meter testing Equipment Radios Computers Pumps Valves Pressure reducers and regulators Flow meters Steam Boilers Vans
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES
1.2.2 Bureau of Sewer Services
The Sewer Collection System-consists of two separate collection systems. The older
parts of the city are served by combined sewer systems and the newer sections by separate lines
which carry sanitary and storm sewage. The sewage system is basically a gravity flow system
but due to topographic conditions there are pumping stations at a few points of the city to boost
The bureau has 127 employees working in four main divisions as follows:
Maintenance and Inspection Division
Potomac Interceptor Division
The remaining employees work in the Consumer Services branch and in the administration,
Types of Positions
Typical positions identified in the bureau are as follows:
Tools and Parts Attendant Oiler Plumber Helper Sewer Services Worker Sewer Services Worker Leader Foreman (Minor Repair Unit) Fixed Industrial Equipment Operator Foreman Sewer Maintenance General Foreman Laborer Masonry Worker Masonry Helper Plumbing Worker
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES Motor Vehicle Operator Garage Taps Inspector Electrical Equipment Repairer Crane Operator Plumber Utilities Systems Operator Duties, Working Conditions, and Equipment Sewer Services Foreman - 10 Typical duties and working conditions include the following: Serves as head of minor repair branch which is responsible for inspecting, maintaining and repairing sanitary, stormwater and combined sewers; constructing and repairing catch basins; installing manhole frames, covers, etc. Coordinates work of crews, truck drivers, and special equipment throughout the day. Inspects work for safety and adequacy. Review field note reports for accuracy and clarity. Responsible for training of subordinates. Explains purpose and use of tool's, equipment and safety devices. Requires a complete knowledge of map and plat interpretations; the sewerage system; the interaction of other utility systems and the vehicles, tools, equipment processes and procedures used in the branch's operation, etc. Working Conditions Spends approximately 75% of time outside or in sewers. Subject to gas collection, lack of oxygen, falling, infections, 28
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES etc., while working. Climbs manhole ladders as much as 65-feet. Subject to rats, roaches and other vermin. Subject to 24-hour emergency call; required to work overtime during emergencies and must drive a light truck. List of Equipment Generally attempts to obtain brochures or detailed inventories of equipment used by workers in the various bureaus was difficult. However, documentation on some of the equipment used was compiled based on interviews with the workers. Most of the equipment falls into the category of hand tools and mobile equipment. The list of hand tools and other equipment includes items such as: Wrenches Pick forks Shovels 3 ft. connecting rods Bucket Vise grips Screw drivers Hammers Socket Pliers, etc. Trl. Pump Trk Swr. Cleaner Bucket Machines Trk. Jet Cleaners Trk. Vacs Trl. Sewer Rodders Loader Fe. Bhoe Pickup - 3/4 ton, etc. 29
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES 1.2.3. Bureau of Wastewater Treatment The Blue Plains Wastewater Treatment Facility is based on a modified aeration activated sludge process for secondary treatment followed by biological nitrification. The processes involved in the waste-water treatment plant at Blue Plains include: screening, pumping, grit removal, primary treatment, secondary treatment, chemical additions, secondary sedimentation, biological nitrification, mixed media filtration, disinfection, sludge thickening, sludge digestion, sludge "washing," vacuum filtration and composting. At the end of these processes, 95 to 98% removal of BOD and suspended solids is attained.
The bureau of wastewater treatment has two divisions, namely the wastewater and solids processing divisions, respectively. The bureau employs approximately 200 people working in the following branches as follows: Management and Supervisors - 37 Operators - 133 Clerical Staff - 5 Maintenance Crew (buildings and grounds) - 12 Other plant workers - 33.
Typical positions identified in the bureau include the following:
Laborer Sewage Disposal Plant Operator Sewage Disposal Plant Operator Sewage Disposal Plant Operator
(Wastewater Division) (Secondary Treatment Section) (Solids Processing Division - Thickening and Digestion)
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES Sewage Disposal Plant Operator (Solids Processing Division Dewatering Branch) Sewage Disposal Plant Operator (Wastewater Division - Primary Treatment) Fixed Industrial Equipment Operator Utilities Systems Repairer/Operator Sewage Disposal Plant Operator Helper (Sludge Processing and Disposal Branch) Sewage Disposal Plant Operator - 05 (Primary Treatment) Duties: Performs a series of supporting operations related to the operation of a primary treatment process; insures compliance with correct procedures through operation of equipment within area as directed; assists in removing bar screenings, grit, sand and sludge by manual methods; assists in connecting. chlorine tank cars to chlorination equipment; performs general cleaning and painting in work areas; lubricates or assists in lubricating and adjusting equipment. Working Conditions: Works both indoors and outdoors in all weather conditions. There is danger from falls into open tanks and channels, particularly at night, :and from infection when in contact with sewage. Facilities are poorly heated in winter and hot and humid in the summer. Dangerous foul odors are always present. Hours and days of work are varied according to a rotating shift schedule. 31
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES List of Typical Equipment Some of the typical equipment used in the bureau include the following: Screening and Grinding Equipment Metal bars (screens) Cleaning mechanisms (automated) - scrapper Dumping mechanism Hopper Grinder (Comminutors) Grit Removal Grit chambers Conveyor system Hopper Air compressors Pressure indicators Blow-off valves Check valves Pumping Equipment Pumps (Centrifugal) Electric motors (for driving pumps) Flow measuring devices (meters) Primary Sedimentation Primary sedimentation tanks Sludge scrapers Scum remover Hopper Activated Sludge Aeration and Sedimentation Flow measuring devices Parshall Flume Flow meters Orifice Plates 32
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES Valve controls for air flow Diffusers Center-feed clarifiers with skimming device, hydraulic sludge collectors and V-notch overflow weirs Centrifugal varispeed pump; control panel for return activated sludge, wasting and blower control; etc. 1.2.4 Bureau of Maintenance Services The bureau of maintenance services maintains and repairs both fixed and mobile equipment for the D.E.S. The bureau is divided into the Mechanical and Electrical Maintenance Divisions respectively. About 143 people work for the bureau as follows: Office Crew - 5 Production control group
- 3 Metal Section - 7 Process Mechanical Branch (Blue Plains) - 36 Process Mechanical Branch (Uptown, SE) - 22 Facilities Maintenance Branch - 1 Carpentry - 5 Utilities - 11 Paint Section - 3 Scheduled Electrical Section - 13 Unscheduled Electrical Section - 14 Uptown - 12
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTII Switchgear - 1 Instrumentation and Telemetering - 8 Mechanical Maintenance Typical Positions include the following: Mechanics Welders Machinists Duties General duties include the maintenance and repair of the following equipment: pumps, cranes, rigs, tanks, bore springs, valves, clarifiers, vacuum filters, sludge collection equipment, etc. Working Conditions Working conditions depend on the type of equipment used and its location. Equipment Used General equipment used include hand tools and items such as: 16 inch vertical bore mills Lathes Impact Wrenches Grinders Presses 34
DES: ORGANIZATIONS, FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES Welding Machines Saws Drills 30 ton Mobile crane Mobile Pumps Electrical Maintenance Typical positions include the following: Electrical Mechanics Duties Typical duties include: Maintenance of switch gear, cleaning, calibration, adjusting, checking and repair of electrical equipment, installation of pumps, motors and controls; station service as well as sending and receiving signals by the telemetering branch. Equipment Equipment used include basic hand tools and items such as: welding equipment, electrical test equipment, vibration meters, bearing test instruments, alignment tools, etc.
CHAPTER III JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS 1. JOB ANALYSIS 1.1 General Description of the Need-To-Know (NTK) Objectives from the Analysis of Work Requirements The design of an effective training program requires a thorough job analysis. The purpose of the job analysis is to identify and analyze the duties required for job performance, such as operations, maintenance, construction, installation, start-up and shut-down procedures, work conditions and safety, etc., thereby serving as a basis for designing a comprehensive training program. The job analysis allows to clearly address the needs of the three WRMA bureaus (namely the bureaus of Water Services, Sewer Services and Wastewater Treatment) for making the training more relevant to the needs of the administration. Since this analysis focuses only on what the employee needs to know to perform his/her job, it helps eliminate irrelevant curriculum objectives. The training objectives are related to the need-toknow tasks. The need-to-know tasks for all the bureaus involved are addressed to the extent possible. Classroom curriculum and on the job training are then designed to address these objectives. 36
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS Furthermore, the training objectives relating to the need-to-know tasks provide a valid basis for preparing a test or a certification program and for evaluating employee performance. It is important to note that the NTK job analysis is intended to give an idea of the relationship between the job performance requirements
and the training objectives. It is there fore not a comprehensive set of job requirements of any one plant. It is for an average plant. The objectives address the equipment, tools and operations required in the three bureaus; therefore, the analysis is not as exhaustive because it does not address some of the routine tasks such as responding to emergencies or doing other intermediary tasks. However, it is comprehensive enough and each task statement considers factors already stated (i.e., operating and maintenance procedures, etc.). For the WRMAI, bureaus under consideration, the job analysis addresses the general knowledge and skills required, the support systems, the unit and system control, as well as the technical management and supervision functions. The duties or tasks needed to know for the three bureaus mentioned above are discussed in this section. However, the tasks needed to know for the bureau of maintenance services are included in the three other bureaus. There is therefore no section for the bureau of maintenance services. 37
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING 1.2 Detailed Analysis of Work Requirements 1.2.1 Bureau of Water Services - Develop Skills and knowledge in water sources; water characteristics; water distributing processes; basic and applied math; safety; common parameters; and hydraulics. - Perform operations and corrective maintenance procedures in switch gears; transformers; battery banks; pipes; joints; fittings; cathode protection devices; signal generators; signal transmitters; signal receivers; meters; alarms; HVAC (heating/ ventilation/air conditioning). - Perform operating procedures in traffic control. - Perform operations and preventive and corrective maintenance procedures in: motors; drives, pumps, blowers and compressors; generators; engines; valves, hydrants; and chemical feeders. - Perform operations, construction and installation procedures in cross connection control devices; metering; leak detection and repair; visual leak detection; etc. - Perform operations, start-up/shut-down, construction and installation procedures in: valves; service connections; hydrants; booster pumps; regulators and gauges; storage tanks; flushing systems; well operation; disinfection; water sampling/ monitoring. 38
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS
Perform management/supervision functions to develop a master plan to include:
objectives; strategies; financial support and presentation to key personnel; prepare detailed
management systems to implement the objectives and strategies; implement the systems to
accomplish master plan objectives to organize, coordinate, direct and control; and to evaluate the
effectiveness of the master plan-and management systems.
1.2.2 Bureau of Wastewater Treatment
Develop skills and knowledge in sources of wastewater; wastewater characteristics;
wastewater treatment processes; basic and applied math; safety; laboratory skills; common parameters; basic electrical concepts; and. basic hydraulic concepts.
Perform the following tasks (where most applicable): (a) operating procedures associated with normal and abnormal conditions; (b) preventive and corrective maintenance procedures; and (c) start-up/shut-down procedures regarding the following support systems: battery banks; motors; drives; pumps; blowers and compressors; generators; engines; piping; pipe joints; valves; pipe fittings; signal generators; signal transmitters; signal receivers; meters; alarms; Control Systems
; chemical feeders; and heating/ventilation/air conditioning.
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING
Perform operating and start-up/shut down procedures (where applicable) in the
following unit process/process-control operations: Flow Equalization; Screening; Grinding;
Grit Removal; Preparation; Primary Clarifiers; Activated Sludge and Secondary Clarifiers;
Rotating Biological Contactors; Disinfection; Tertiary Filtration; Microscreens; Ammonia
Stripping; Phosphorus Removal; Dechlorination; Effluent Discharge; Chemical Sludge
Conditioning; Elutriation of Sludge; Sludge Thickening; Aerobic Sludge Digestion; Anaerobic
Sludge Digestion; Sludge Drying Bed; Sludge Vacuum Filters; Sludge Filter Press; Sludge
Centrifuges; Composting of Sludge; Flow Measurement.
Perform sampling procedures; testing procedures and analysis (where applicable)
in: Alkalinity; Ammonia; Arsenic; BOD; Cadmium; Calcium;. Centrifuge; Chlorinated
organics; Chloride; Chlorine; Chromium (+3); Chromium (+6); COD; Color; Conductance;
Copper; Cyanide; D.O.; Fecal Coliform; Iron; Kjeldahl Nitrogen; Manganese; Mercury;
Microexam; Nickel; Oil and Grease; Orthophosphorus; Pesticides; pH; Phenol; Potassium;
Selenium; Settleable Solids; Settleability; Silver; Sodium; Sulfate; Sulfide; Sulfite; Surfactants;
Suspended Solids; Temperature; Total Coliform; Total Dissolved Solids; Total Organic
Carbon; Total Phosphorus; Total Solids; Turbidity; Volatile Acids; Volatile Suspended Solids;
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEED:
Perform technical management/supervision (see bureau of water services page
1.2.3. Bureau of Sewer Services
Develop skills and knowledge in: wastewater sources, characteristics and
collection processes; basic and applied math; safety; chemical skills; laboratory skills;
common parameters; basic electrical concepts; basic hydraulic concepts; public health; maps
Perform operating, preventive and corrective maintenance procedures in:
sewer equipment components; pump station structure; service vehicles; personal protection
gear; safety equipment (blowers); traffic control/public safety; hazard detection equipment;
safety equipment (first aid/hygiene); chemical feeders; telemetry; measurement devices;
sampling and recording devices.
Perform preventive and corrective maintenance in: sewer maintenance
equipment; portable pumps; generators.
Perform operating procedures associated with collection (including gravity
'sewers, pressure sewers, etc.); perform operating procedures to correct abnormal conditions;
perform construction and installation tasks.
Perform operating procedures associated with normal conditions as well as
procedures to correct abnormal conditions
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING
in the following: flow measurement; other monitoring tasks such as power consumption;
equipment efficiency; equipment run time; visual observations to detect violations of sewer
Perform operating procedures associated with normal conditions in chemical
addition/aeration (including chlorination corrosion control, rodent control; etc.)
Perform operating procedures to correct abnormal conditions in
Perform the following tasks with regard to lift station operating procedures
associated with normal conditions; operating procedures to correct abnormal conditions; start-
up/shut-down procedures; construction and installation.
Perform quality control/surveillance for: physical/ chemical/biological
characteristics such as temperature, suspend solids (grease, flammable solvents, floating oil),
pH, qualitative tests of hydrogen sulfide, and inspection for vermin in manholes and pump
Perform technical management/supervision (see bureau of water services page -
In addition to the above analysis, field observations of typical work performance were
conducted in the bureaus of wastewater treatment and sewer services respectively.
The analysis of these observations are presented in tables
TABLE 1 ANALYSIS #1 BUREAU OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT, SOLIDS PROCESSOR WG9 OPERATOR
Process: Slugde to thickened sludge (digesters) thickened sludge (secondary) thickened sludge (raw tank)
TASKS - 3 HOURS
Purpose: Rag removal
OPERATIONS Set Control Switch to Hand/Off Auto Measure Sludge with Ruler Position Equipment & Set Control Nozzel Adjust Controls for Air in Vessels
2 XX 1X
Adjust Controls for Effluent
Rank Order: Order of importance of operation in the tasks of the position 43
ANALYSIS #1 BUREAU OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT, SOLIDS PROCESSOR WG9 OPERATOR Adjust Flowmeter & Settings Measure Height of Liquid in Tank with Chain & Float 43a
TABLE 2 ANALYSIS #2 BUREAU OF SEWER SERVICES, SEWER SERVICES WORKER GRADE 7 TASKS - 3 HOURS Process: Dragging crew Purpose: Clear roots & debris from sewer lines OPERATIONS Drive Truck Position Truck To Manhole Set Up Sewer Bucket Machine Set Up Safety Cones Guide Cable Through Sewer Connect Rod To Cable Attach U-Bolt Install Rod Base Guard Rank Order: Order of importance of operation in the tasks of the position
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEED 2. Types and Processes/Methods of Training Any training program is supported by an appropriate selection of delivery mechanisms and methods with adequate training materials. Numerous training systems are available and have been tried in various water and wastewater operating programs. Various institutions including universities, community colleges, training-centers, etc., have used, evaluated and testified to the effectiveness of a number of these methods and materials.. (Figure 3.) A brief description of these methods is given as follows: 2.1 Training Delivery Mechanisms 2.1.1 On the Job Training (OJT) OJT is probably one of the oldest training methods. OJT 'is usually conducted under the supervision of a skilled and seasoned worker who trains the student to learn a craft and adjust to technological changes
and work environment. Usually the trainee earns a living while learning a craft. This form of training is predominant in apprenticeship programs
and in reality completes all the other forms of instruction. 2.1.2 Correspondence Courses Under this program courses are designed for individual study. The courses, together with tests and other evaluation forms, are mailed regularly to the trainee. This type of 45
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS training does not need any specific delivery techniques except studying the brochures and books and passing the exam. It is most suitable for people who cannot attend other forms of training because 'of distance or other impediments. 2.1.3 Seminars and Workshops 1-5 day short courses or seminars on special subjects are offered during a given day to a limited number of participants, usually with a paid fee. 2.1.4 Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is a new and fast growing field especially with the introduction of microprocessors. The courses are programmed in a software to be used with a given computer system. Tests are also programmed along with the courses. Students interact with a video terminal to learn the objectives presented. The CAI system is especially suited for basic courses such as English, writing, and reading, math and sciences, etc. 2.1.5 Self Instruction These are programmed to be used individually at the learner's pace with built-in progress tests. 2.1.6 Evening Adult Education Courses The evening programs are offered through community colleges, universities, and other teaching organizations. The programs can be a part of a curriculum or instruction and cover specific 47
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS subject areas. Evening programs are most suitable for trainees on regular (9 A.M. to 5 P.M.) jobs but might not be suitable for shift workers. These programs have built in credit units that are accepted by the college or the training organization offering the program. 2.1.7 Televised Instruction This is a relatively new but a fast growing type of training method. Training objectives are developed and produced by specialists and delivered through a local TV network. This type of instruction can reach a broad segment of the population and can be programmed on any hour of the day or weekend. However, there might be high start-up costs associated with writing the script, finding an actor and producing the Teaching materials
. 2.1.8 Basic Preparatory/Classroom Courses This is provided through universities, private educational institutions, community colleges, etc. It is designed for entry level personnel. It can be adapted to build up the learning and educational skills of employees who have been out of school for a long time or who did not complete basic high school requirements. This basic program is to prepare the worker towards a higher level of training. In the basic program items proposed for the WRMA, such as learning techniques, orientation, English, math and water resources are provided as initial courses. 48
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS 2. 2 Materials and Methods A number of methods are available and have been used in the field of water resources. However, in introducing a method or materials in a new environment it is essential to first try them and then evaluate their usefulness in the framework of the agency that needs the training. The list of training methods and materials is provided below: - Textbook and manuals - Audiovisual systems (film strips, video cassettes, motion pictures, video tapes, TV monitors, slides, overhead transparencies, etc.) - Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) - Lecture provided by instructor - Laboratory demonstrations/experiments - Field Trips - Self-paced instructions - Tutoring by peer or a more qualified person All the different aspects involved in preparing a training program such as job analysis, training needs analysis, delivery systems, training methods and materials, require proper coordi nation to provide for effective implementation. Coordination is also required in order to control, evaluate and establish criteria for training programs, manage the classroom and courses, 49
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS select the best instructors available, evaluate the training methods and delivery systems, acquire the equipment needed for the training facility, maintain and organize the facilities for the training, and provide for the monitoring of student progress toward meeting the program goals. An advisory committee must be formed to advise the coordinating team/committee regularly on the training program developments. 2.3 Matching Training to Needs 2.3.1 The Nature of the Trainees The potential trainees can be divided into two categories the existing employees and newly hired personnel. Of the approximately 800 WRMA employees it is estimated that less than 50% have a high school education. Generally people are recruited at varying degrees of experience and training. The experience of employees already on the job may vary from a few months to several years. Although such employees are well versed in their day to day operations, their upward mobility is very limited due to lack of training. Interviews with the supervisors overwhelmingly pointed to the need to first train their employees in basic skills such as English, report-writing, elementary math, good working habits and an understanding of the work environment. Messrs. Carl Johnson, Otto James (chiefs of the bureaus of 50
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS water and sewer services, respectively) and James Dennis (chiefmeter division of the water services bureau) indicated that good penmanship, grammar and composition were needed by some of the employees to enable them to perform more effectively. Mr. Otto James further indicated the need for training in courses such as measurements, metric system, blue print and map reading, etc. Thus the development and introduction of any training program for these bureaus must have as a prerequisite the building and upgrading of workers' basic skills to a level that would enable them to effectively tackle the courses proposed for the long-term program. In the case of new employees who have been away from school for many years or did not complete high school, the preparatory/basic courses are necessary to prepare them to participate more effectively in a long-term training program and ultimately in their jobs. Such preliminary training instills confidence and self respect. As adults who have probably been away from the classroom environment for years, traditional teaching methods must be carefully examined and made adaptable to their needs. For instance self paced or individualized instruction can be started in addition to the utilization of computers to provide the discretion and the effectiveness required in having employees truly master basic skills. 51
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS 2.4 T r a i n i n g R e q u i r e m e n t s The following approximations provide the number of workers who may benefit from training. These assessments were based on interviews with bureau/division chiefs during the early phase of the project.
Title of Bureau Sewer Services Water Services Wastewater Treatment
Number of Workers Employed 127 200 200
Number of Workers To Be Trained 30-40 60 60
In addition to the preliminary/basic water resources program that strengthens their English, writing abilities, math skills and general science knowledge, the workers are required to participate in an OJT program. The OJT must supplement the classroom training. As part of the overall program all trainees must undergo some counseling to prepare and orient them to the appropriate level. Their progress should be monitored throughout the program and the goal should be the award of a certificate which would attest to their mastering of the skills required for the particular job. Because of the different bureaus involved the training paths would not be the same. Items such as enrollment procedures, registration, attendance, credits, grading system, records management, scheduling,
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS etc. would come under the control of the coordinating team. Care must be taken to ensure that the trainees accomplish the goals of the program. There should be built-in flexibility to take into account time constraints such as rotating shift hours. The location of classrooms, instruction sites and equipment involve problems that must be carefully addressed. 2.5 Program Management 2.5.1 Program Coordination One of the most difficult aspects in developing a sound training program is management and coordination. Even though a plan can be thorough and comprehensive, there must be effective coordination, implementation, and supervision in order for the program to survive over a long period. Coordination between the WRMA, its personnel office and supervisors, is absolutely necessary to ensure that both new and existing employees can be channeled through the program without unnecessary impediments and have their work and credits recognized by the agency. Details involving the purchasing and installation of equipment, classroom and library organization, development of record forms and other logistical support should be handled by the coordination team. Proper coordination is also needed in developing relationships with other training centers to learn and exchange ideas 53
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS about developments. The coordination of the program should be scheduled very carefully to take into account workers' needs, their availability, etc. 2.5.2 Admission The enrollment procedures would be as follows: 1. Schedule a counseling interview with the employee and his/her supervisor; 2. Submit a complete application for admission; 3. Take a test in basic English, grammar, reading, math, and basic sciences (for new employees); for existing employees, in addition to the math and English, a more advanced test could be administered to place them at the appropriate level; 4. Determine the beginning date and set program limits; 5. Provide the training program schedule (including the sequence of courses to be taken); 6. Provide text books
and materials. 2.5.3 Attendance Emphasis on regular class attendance is necessary because attending classes should not be used as an excuse to miss work. Absence and tardiness should be recorded and placed on a student's record. 2.5.4 Grading System Grading should be based on either the pass/fail system, the 54
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS A, B, C, D, F system or any other system that would not hamper the student's self confidence and desire to pursue their studies. However, the level of learning must be evaluated throughout the program. 2.5.5 Academic Records The coordinating office maintains a permanent record of the progress of all students regarding courses taken, credits and grades obtained. Due recognition of trainees accomplishments is made at the end of the program. 2.5.6 Graduation Requirements
New and continuing employees who are properly enrolled in the training program would after successful completion of the required courses receive: 1) A certificate, and 2) A letter of attendance citing the courses taken and the grades obtained. 2.5.7 Employment In programs such as apprenticeship where a student is employed, class schedules should be made flexible to accommodate work hours. It is therefore suggested that in the proposed apprenticeship program, the first six months be taken as a probationary period during which a student would learn the basic 55
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS skills, in addition to driver-- education (if a student does not possess a driver's license) and basic safety techniques. This probationary period would still be useful even if a student were to drop out of the program. 2.5.8 Library Facilities A library where technical books, magazines, audio cassettes, computer learning systems, reference books, video systems, etc., are accessible should be made available to students at all times. In the case of workers on evening shift hours, such a library would be very useful in enhancing their learning capabilities. Trainees should also be encouraged to use the UDC library, other university libraries as well as the public libraries=located in or close to their neighborhoods. 2.5.9 Quality Assurance All courses must be-taught by qualified instructors. Instructors must not only be proficient in their respective specialities but must also be experienced in teaching adults and in the utilization of various instructional methods. The selected instructors should periodically be evaluated by the coordinating team as well as by the students. The selection of the instructors must also be based on their personal qualities such as perseveareance, enthusiasm, dedication, interest, and the ability to relate to the workers. 56
JOB ANALYSIS AND TRAINING NEEDS Management support, in terms of funds, personnel, release time, respect and recognition, is cruical for the success of such a program. Incentives must be provided to trainees as an encouragement to learn and progress. It is recommended that periodically, other training centers (for example, the Maryland State Water Quality Training Center in Charles County) be consulted for an exchange of ideas. Additionally, to keep abreast of new developments, membership in national related professional associations such as the National Environmental Training Association (NETA) is advised. Finally, the establishment of a local chapter of the Association of Water and Wastewater Plant Operators (if not already present in the area) would give the workers a professional status and enhance their image. After completing important phases of the project, such as background information gathering, agency structure, and training needs, it was important to conduct a pilot program to try out a few of the ideas mentioned earlier. Furthermore, the response of the trainees to various types of instruction, different schedules, and instructional materials, was an essential input to the final recommendations in the design of the long-term program. The next chapter deals with these aspects. 57Chapter IV
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM 1. THE PILOT P R O G R A M 1.1 Introduction The pilot program was conducted from June 1st to June 15th for a group of workers from THE WRMA. Participation in the pilot program was on a voluntary basis (see Appendix C). The workers who volunteered to participate had a diversity of backgrounds and came from three bureaus within the WRMA. These were the bureaus of Water Services, Sewer Services and Wastewater Treatment respectively. Their ages ranged from 29-59 years. The number of years they had spent o n the job varied from a minimum of 11 months to a maximum of 25 years. The highest level of education attained by the group ranged from the 7th grade to the 12th grade with one worker having completed one year of college studies. The training program activities were held at three locations; these being the UDC campus, the media resource center in the primary building at DES (Blue Plains) and specially selected sites within the District, primarily on the east and west sides (for field trips). difference of the content learned by the students between the pre and post tests administered during the program, 58
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM Proceedings, tasks and other activities which were conducted during the pilot program as well as the findings and recommendations are presented in this chapter. 1.2 Objectives of The Pilot Program The program which consisted of pilot courses in basic water resources was the fourth phase of this training project. The selection of the courses to be implemented in the pilot program was based on input from the employees and supervisors. As mentioned earlier, the purpose of the pilot program was to provide information which could be used in designing and forecasting the outcomes of a long-term training program. To achieve this purpose, the following tasks were performed: (1) Design courses of study in English, Math and Basic Hydrology, (2) Utilize research design in conducting the performance and analysis of the pilot program, analyze the test data and statistically determine the significance of the difference of the content learned by the students between the pre and post tests administered during the program, (3) Schedule the class activities at Blue Plains, UDC, and in various sites selected in the city for the field trips, 59
(4) Obtain students evaluation of the course content, training methods, physical arrangements and other aspects of the pilot program, (5) obtain any additional information which could affect the proposed long-term program, (6) Integrate the findings and recommendations of the pilot program in the main report. 1.3 Implementation of the Pilot Program 1.3.1 Preliminary Preparations: Initial preparations for the implementation of the pilot program included the following: (1) Selection of the three main courses to be taught, which were basic English, math and hydrology, (2) Selection of the teaching methods to be used, which included the following: video systems, computer assisted instruction (CAI), classroom teaching by instructors, tutorials, laboratory experiments and demonstrations, field trips, etc; (3) Selection of instructors (4) Preparation of course outlines and class schedules (5) Arrangements for the installation of the CAI/PLATO system; (6) Selection of students by the WRMA; 60
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM (7) Inventory and organization of past WRMA training materials and preparation of classrooms; (8) Transportation arrangements; (9) Organization of courses and other teaching materials; (10) Preparation of certificates of completion; (11) Preparation of evaluation forms, pre test and post test materials; (12) Organization and provision of refreshments at the beginning and at the end of the program.
Selection of Teachers, Instructional Methods and Teacher-Made Achievements Tests 220.127.116.11 Selection of Teachers:
The selection of the teachers to implement the pilot program was a crucial factor. For the success of the program it was felt that teachers experienced in teaching adults, utilizing new methods of teaching, and dedicated to the project were essential. The selection of the teachers was therefore based on the following criteria: experience in teaching adults, ability to use multiple teaching methods on a competency-based approach (including self paced instruction, CAI and video systems) salaries and other factors such as availability, usefulness, enthusiasm and good teacher-student relationships. The teachers prepared the
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM
lecture notes, composed the achievement tests for each course, and overall accomplished the goals set for the program.
While the traditional methods of teaching which comprised lecture-discussion and exercises in class and at home served as the instructional core of the pilot program, they were augmented by the use of other teaching methods. These were CAI, individual conferences between teachers and students, audio visual methods and field trips to various water resource sites within the District of Columbia. The CAI which is a new method of teaching basic math and science enhanced psychological effects because it provided opportunities for the students to monitor their progress privately. The system used was PLATO from the Control Data Corporation. The system is very flexible, interactive and easy for a beginner to use. The PLATO system was used for instruction in math and English only. The system had no course software in basic hydrology. During the visits to UDC, the program was scheduled in such a way that while one group used the CAI, the other group used the water quality lab to perform various experiments and also view demonstrations in hydrology. The hands-on experience as well' as the demonstrations in the lab helped to reinforce previous theoretical concepts learned in class. Individual conferences also
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERN TRAINING PROGRAM served as tutoring periods for teachers to instruct trainees in difficult questions and problems. The field trips, although difficult to organize and manage did provide a welcome supplement to the classroom instruction. Sites selected covered both the east and west sides of Washing ton, D.C. The itineraries are given in Appendix D. Both field trips were heavily oriented towards hydrology because of the practical nature of the course. Major activites included measurement of river flows, locating and measuring sewer pipe diameters, lectures on the history of sewer development in Washington, D.C., demonstration of infiltration rate, and introduction of the concept of storm water runoff and its relationship to design capacity of sewer systems. However, math and English were programmed into the schedule in such a way that the students were able to utilize math concepts they had learned in class to perform simple calculations using data collected on the field trips. Similarly, they were also given the opportunity to reinforce concepts they had studied in the English class by writing short reports of their observations on the trips. Apart from helping the students to relate theory to practice and thereby reinforce basic concepts in the various subjects, these trips helped to break the monotony in the classroom. 63
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERN TRAINING PROGRAM 18.104.22.168. Teacher-made Achievement Tests: In each course the teacher-made achievement tests were composed by the teacher from the contents of the course syllabi. In English, the questions on the pre test and the post test were based on the following topics; grammar, subject, verbs, direct and indirect objects, prepositional phrases, spelling, dependent and independent clauses. The pre test and post test in hydrology each consisted of two parts, a true/false section and a multiple choice section. Both tests featured questions on items such as river mechanisms, runoff, erosion and sediment transport, landforms and drainage patterns
, ground water hydrology, precipitation patterns, etc. In math the pre test and post test covered the following topics; digits, whole numbers, addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, fractions, decimals, square and cube roots, graphing, algebraic manipulations and some simple geometry involving area and volume calculations. The pre test and post test for each course are given in Appendix E. The duration for a student to complete a test was one hour. 1 . 3 . 2 . 4 Instructional Schedule: A period-of two weeks was selected to implement the pilot program. The decision to conduct the program over the two-week 64
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM period instead of a three-week period was made by the advisory committee which felt that a three-week period was too long for the employees who had been away from the classroom for many years. The students were divided into two teams, Team A and Team B (comprising 8 students in each team) respectively. Although they had similar schedules, the activities at any given moment were different for both teams. English and math courses were taught in the morning while hydrology including the lab were taught in the afternoon and vice versa. Tables 3 and 4 show the class schedules. The beginning and the end of the pilot program were reserved for the pretest and post test respectively. In addition during the program, pre evaluation, mid point evaluation and a final evaluation were administered. Furthermore, all students were awarded certificates of completion (see appendix F). 22.214.171.124 Questionnaires: Three sets of evaluation questionnaires were prepared. These served as the most important tools for evaluating the pilot program. At the beginning of the program the students were informed that the emphasis on the evaluations would be placed on items such as the teaching methods, the course material, and other aspects related to it rather than on their performance in the tests. The questionnaires were therefore designed to reflect those basic needs. The first questionnaire form, called the 65
TABLE 3 WRRC PILOT PROGRAM 6/1-6/15/83
CLASS SCHEDULE TEAM A
10:30-12:00 pm Math
12:00-1:00 pm L/B
-------------- Weekend -----------
-----Field Trip and Evaluation-----
Testing and Evaluation
1:00-3:00 pm Hydrology Hydrology Hydrology 2:00-3:30 pm Math Math
TABLE 4 WRRC PILOT PROGRAM 6/1-6/15/83 CLASS SCHEDULE TEAM B
11:30-12:30 pm Lunch
12:30-2:00 pm English
------ Field Trip and Evaluation-----
---------- CAI/Hydrology Lab---------
---------CAI/Hydrology Lab ---------
-------------Field Trip-------------------Testing and Evaluation-------
2:00-3:30 pm Math Math Math 1:00-3:00 pm Hydrology Hydrology
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM "student-interest evaluation" form, contained statements which sought information about the students' background, job title, educational level and expectations about the program. The midcourse evaluation was designed specifically to guide the teachers on the improvement of their courses for meeting the needs of their students. The last evaluation form, the "overall program evaluation", was more comprehensive and addressed various aspects of the program regarding the course content, teaching methods, instructions, etc. The answers to the questionnaires were tabulated and provided in Tables 5, 6 and 7. Two important aspects of the final evaluation were the provision of an opportunity for the students to express their opinions about the program on such topics as the teaching methods, class and course schedules, teachers, field trips, etc., both in writing and orally. The latter approach was particularly important due to the realization that because of the background of most of the students (age, educational level, etc.) oral expression was easier than writing. 126.96.36.199 Classroom Instruction Equipment and Other Facilities: Two classrooms located in the primary building at DES (Blue Plains) in addition to classrooms at UDC (computer and water quality labs) were used for instruction. The classrooms were generally adequate for the number of students involved in the 68
Information about program
Participation in pilot program
Participation in previous programs
Expectations about program
Time available for homework
RESULTS OF STUDENT INTEREST EVALUATION Response A majority of the participants obtained information about the pilot program through a memorandum To have more education To improve math and English competency To improve job performance A majority had never participated in any program of this nature A majority expected to gain more know ledge A majority indicated an open time schedule
% (Response) 100 69 6 25 62 88 57
TABLE 6 RESULTS OF MID COURSE EVALUATION
Statement Meeting Objectives Classtime Utilization Orientation Teacher Availability Teacher Concern and Empathy Student Comfort Student Participation Adequacy of Course Level Pace of Instruction Adequacy of Class Materials Continuation of Program
Agreement 77 75 94 100 92 92 83 75 63 100 100
TABLE 7 RESULTS OF OVERALL PROGRAM EVALUATION
Statement Course Content Presentation of Material Teacher - Student Interaction Course Organization Class Schedule Usefulness of Class Material Usefulness of CAI Usefulness of Audio Visual Materials Usefulness of Field Trips Usefulness of Lab Classroom Atmosphere Student Participation Class Location Learning Improvement Lecture Presentation
% Agreement A 87 93 100 100 80 100 93 100 100 100 87 73 87 73 97
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERN DINING PROGRAM project. However for a long term program better organization and a more comfortable location should be selected. Because of the diversity of the locations the equipment did not pose much of a problem. The DES (Blue Plains) is well endowed with audio visual cassettes and other teaching aids. Each student was provided with a well organized package at the beginning of the pilot program. This consisted of a folder, a notebook, a pencil, a class schedule and basic course materials arranged in chronological order for easy reference and study. 1.4 ANALYSIS OF THE TESTS 1.4.1 Design of Statistical Analysis: Two aspects were of interest in this project. The first was whether or not learning had taken place during the two weeks of training. The second was whether the overall approach of con ducting the pilot program was feasible and repeatable in the future. If not, what would be the recommendations to make to the implementing agency to design a better or an improved version of a 2-week training program. The first aspect, that is, the testing of the students' progress in math, English and hydrology during those two weeks was analyzed through the pre test and post test grades of the students. The second was analyzed through the questionnaires (evaluation forms) given to the students at the beginning, the mid point, and the end of the program. 72
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM The problem pursued in this project may be stated as follows: What is the effect on the achievement of a group of students in each of the courses in English, hydrology and math? According to research in education this problem led to the null hypothesis
stated as follows: There is no effect on a group of students--in each of the three courses in English, math and hydrology. In order to measure changes in achievement level, the students must be tested with the same test before and after the training period. Kerlinger in his text entitles, "Foundations of Behavioral Research", New York, 1964 identified this example as a one shot case study.
1.4.2 Method of Data Collection
The raw data comprises the test scores in English, math and hydrology obtained from the pre test
and post test administered at the beginning and at the end of the program respectively. The
questions on the pre test were the same questions that were administered on the post test. The
students were however not aware that the two tests were going to be identical. Furthermore the
answers were not provided after the pre test, therefore no biases were induced in the statistical
analysis. The gains and achievements came solely from the learning experience during the two
The pre test and post test scores obtained from the
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM teachers were subjected to statistical analysis. The following statistical parameters, the means, the deviations were computed. The findings learning had taken place, but the level of learning differed from course to course. It was observed that there were noticeable gains in the students' ability in math and hydrology, but very little improvement in the student's ability in English. 74
This phenomenon might be attributed to the following factors: first being technical in orientation the students might have more inclination for technical or mathematical topics rather than for English. Secondly, there is a more direct relationship between hydrology and math especially regarding those aspects where mathematical concepts are needed to compute hydrologic quantities in the classroom and on the field. Thirdly, being used to speaking less formal English, it became evident that the two weeks were certainly not enough time for a noticeable improvement in English. Thus background and work environment might have contributed significantly to this discrepancy in the achievement levels. Fourthly, it was observed that the students with clerical backgrounds scored significantly and consistently higher in English and in spelling than those with a more technical background. Thus in a long term program, emphasis, should be placed on designing a program where English should be given as many or even more hours than the other courses toL really improve students' reading and writing abilities.
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERN TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM 1.5 ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE: The design of the questionnaire was made with the program requirements in mind; mainly the study of the students' background and attitude vis a vis the pilot program and the modification
of the students behavior one week later in the course as well as final views about the program. The final views included the program evaluation and recommendations. The student interest evaluation form was designed using two main ideas. First the working background, that is position, age, bureau, the number of years on the job, and secondly the students' expectations before and after the pilot program. The mid-course questionnaire dealt directly with the course content, teaching methods, and other basic program variables. The final questionnaire dealt with the evaluation of the overall program including the method of teaching, class schedules, the teaching locations and other relevant information. The students completed the questionnaires in the presence of the instructors. Samples of all three questionnaires are to be found in Appendix (G). 1.6 EVALUATION OF THE PILOT PROGRAM This section pertains to the evaluation of various aspects of the pilot program. After a memo was circulated in their respective bureaus some of the workers voluntarily agreed to participate in the 2-week experimental training program. The first questionnaire evaluated their anticipation and expectation about the program. When asked why they decided to participate in the program, the large majority (69%) agreed that it was to have more education, and the others indicated that they volunteered 76
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM with the desire to improve their job performance (25%) and their math and English competencies (6%). The vast majority had never participated in any programs of this nature on or outside their jobs. More than just their desire to improve upon their job performance and hopefully their salaries, the overwhelming majority indicated that they expected to gain more knowledge. It is therefore important to note that the desire to get an education was the overriding factor in their volunteering for the experimental program. Table 8 provides the results of the first evaluation. The mid course evaluation which was designed to obtain the students' input on the possible changes and modification of objectives revolved around the class content, schedule, organization, teaching methods and other program variables. It can be observed from Table 9 that by the end of one week, the students had overcome their early nervousness and had started feeling comfortable with the classroom setting, the schedule; the course objectives, the instructors and the course material presented. Since most of the students have been out of school for many years or did not pursue their education beyond a certain grade level the concern was to make sure that they would be comfortable and be able to keep up with the program. All the students agreed to continue the pilot program to the end except one student who was unable to continue due to health reasons. 77
The overall evaluation of the program was a determining factor in judging the experimental course. This overall program evaluation was given to the students at the end of the program and completed by everybody at the same time. This was followed by an oral evaluation. As indicated in Table 10, the over whelming majority found that they had benefited to a large degree from the experimental program. As indicated in the analysis of the pre test and post test, they had effectively learned or increased their knowledge in English, math and hydrology. The increase varied from individual to individual and depended to some extent on a students' background. All students interviewed agreed to the benefits brought on by the program. The concern about the students getting potentially bored and disinterested was eliminated because the variety of locations used, the variety of course material and of teachers provided a dynamic and constantly changing environment which facilitated their total participation and involvement in every phase of the program. Table 10 also indicates that the variety of teaching approaches such as the use of CAI, video systems, lectures, one-on-one tutorial, team teaching,-audio visuals, field trips and labs were found to be effective learning tools, and theory provided that atmosphere conducive to learning 80
and enthusiastic student participation. In addition, the field trips were a welcome relief from the classroom instructions, and helped to reinforce the course material learned especially in hydrology and math. Being technical and used to field work, most of the students felt quite comfortable with the field trip -- activities. The overall evaluation also addressed the future of the program. The students' input was required in the planning of the long term. program on items such as the course duration, class schedules, course material, teaching location and other variables of importance to the long-term training program. Table 7 clearly indicates the overwhelming positive response to the pilot program. The teacher student interaction, the class organization, the usefulness of the course material presented, the usefulness of the teaching methods and techniques n were all in 100% agreement with what the students expected. The response regarding the classroom atmosphere was very positive. The students felt relatively at ease. The creation of a positive classroom atmosphere was based on a recommendation from the experiences of the training division of the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC) after an interview with their training officer. The planning and organization of the pilot program also utilized the inputs of the surrounding jurisdictions (i.e. Fairfax Water Authority, Arlington Water Pollution Control Plant, 82
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM Charles County Community College, Maryland). Although some degree of flexibility was allowed, the program schedule was strictly adhered to. The second part of the overall program evaluation consisted of questions which sought to obtain the students' opinion about how the long-term program should be conducted. A large majority (73%) indicated that a 2-week period was too short and that classes should be conducted during the day and taught preferably in groups of six to twelve. For a long-term program the majority (73%) indicated that the location at Blue Plains was adequate. There was strong approval of CAI as a learning method for English and math. The majority of students also preferred to have training materials located in their respective divisions. Of interest in the findings was the willingness of the students to further their own careers by improving their educational level. The enthusiasm of the students was evident in their willingness to retake a similar course if it were offered again. The vast majority of the students responded that they would recommend the program to their other colleagues. The analysis of the questionnaires showed that although the students preferred the CAI, they also approved of the other learning methods. It was therefore apparent that they welcomed any type of supportive activities that would enhance the instructor's lectures. 83
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERN TRAINING PROGRAM The three main factors responsible for the success of the experimental program were: 1) the early and detailed planning of the program; 2) management support, and 3) the supervisors' and workers' input. The early programming allowed for the delivery of the long lead items. Because complicated logistics were involved where three facilities were used, proper coordination of all activities was essential. Furthermore the installation and subsequent utilization of the computer system required a lot of planning and hard work. The WRMA management's commitment to the program allowed for the release of the students to participate in the program. During the background interviews the supervisors recommended specific types of elements they would like to see included in the program. . Judging from the statistical analysis some learning took place in all the three courses taught in the pilot program. Such a basic program could be viewed as an introductory course to a more generalized water resources curriculum; or should the WRMA management decide to implement an apprenticeship program this could be viewed as a pre-apprenticeship component that could serve two purposes. First it could be used to upgrade the basic skills of existing employees who desire to improve their education, and second it could be used to reinforce and strengthen certain basic concepts for newly employed apprentices. 84
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM It may also be concluded, based on the diversity of the students and their occupations, that the general worker at WRMA would find this program informative, challenging, interesting, and useful. The diversity of the locations may explain in part why the interest and enthusiasm were sustained throughout the program. For instance, the utilization of the UDC water resources and the CAI/labs in a college setting enhanced the self image of the students and sustained their motivation. 2. RECOMMENDATIONS 2.1 Pilot Program Recommendations The pilot program was conducted to evaluate a few teaching methods and teaching environments. The results were to be used for the overall plan for the long-term training program. There were a number of recommendations. These concerned the courses, the schedules, and program variables. The students' oral recommendations might be summed up as follows: 1) the 2week duration was too short and that in the future a program of this nature should have a duration greater than 2 weeks; 2) they would prefer to have teaching materials located in their own bureaus if possible; 3) some of the students would like to commute to UDC to use the CAI system if time would permit; 4) Those who had difficulty with reading and writing would like to have one-on-one tutorial assistance to 85
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM improve their competency in these two skills. The written recommendations from both students and teachers include the following: 1) creation of different levels of instruction (for English, math and hydrology) which would allow for self-paced instruction; 2) incorporation of an initial reading curriculum in the English portion of the program; 3) encourage the use of CAI, especially for basic math and English; 4) use three or more weeks for basic water resources courses; 5) conduct classes during the day time or evening taking into consideration the constraints of shift work; 6) teach classes in small groups (1 to 4) for slow learners or larger groups of (1-9) for fast learners; 7) teach classes at the WRMA (Blue Plains) with the possibility to take additional classes at UDC; 8) distribute training materials in various divisions; 9) provide diversity of training methods in basic courses - this would include CAI, labs, field trips, audio visual aids and textbooks, all of which would enhance the regular instruction from an instructor; 10) place more emphasis on 4nalysis and synthesis of course material; 11) allocate review time for each course to allow students to work and gain understanding of difficult concepts; 12) careful preparation of course material step by step so that students may quickly overcome past inadequacies, learn basic scientific methods quickly and efficiently, and retain them as a daily 86
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM
routine practice; 13) reinforce the lecture content with visual activities on a 20-20 and 15-
15 minute ratio for best results; 14) allocation of more time to the English program; 15)
use of different locations is very conducive to learning since it breaks down boredom and
provide special tutorial concerning scientific methods, how to be a
good student, note taking, initiation to measurements, practice in interpretation, plotting
graphs, planning, organizing labs, sketching, library research, learning and time
management methods, and taking tests, etc.; 17) early preparation of data tables for the
field trips and the classes in an easy to fill-in form to enable students to practice as much
as possible with basic skills and work out weekly programs for a problem in science and
math; 18) have a course coordinator present at all times and ready to provide
assistance and resolve any particular logistical difficulty; 19) create a very relaxed and
easy atmosphere conducive to learning that allows the students to be relaxed and free to
interact and exchange ideas at all times; and 20) utilize the materials already available at
the WRMA in the most efficient manner and purchase new ones if needed.
2.1 Recommended Long Term Program It has long been recognized that training and retraining oЈ employees of public utilities is an important priority in
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM the management of such facilities. For this reason, the EPA has been mandated by Congress to assist States through Section 109B of the Clean Water Act to develop training centers for water and wastewater treatment operators. More than 20 states and the District of Columbia have been involved in this program. Between 1969 and 1977 more than 15,000 persons were trained. Furthermore, the findings from the background research and the pilot program conducted for this project indicate the need for a continuous and sustained training program for the WRMA. Therefore, it is recommended to institute.a four-year training program for both new and existing employees. As indicated in, figure 4, this program would contain the following components: A preparatory phase; an apprenticeship phase; and certification. This program would: 1) enable a worker to learn his or her craft more thoroughly; 2) provide ample opportunities for a worker to progress along the career ladder; and 3) provide a solid foundation in theoretical and practical knowledge of water and wastewater concepts to employees so that persons interested in.pursuing studies in water and wastewater technology at UDC or elsewhere would be equipped with the requisite background. Appendices H and J describe proposed guidelines for apprenticeship and certif ication. 88
FIGURE 4 RECONMENDED LONG TERM TRAINING PROGRAM APPRENTICESHIP YEAR 1: Probation Period, Courses + OJT YEAR 2: Courses + WT YEAR 3: Courses + OJT Year 4: Courses + OJT CERTIFICATION UDC WATER QUALITY PROGRAM
The preparatory phase includes orientation for new employees and a basic/pre-apprenticeship water resources program. The orientation would consist of a review of career opportunities in water resources, description of the WRMA functions, explanation of the training program and advising, etc. As indicated in Tables 11 and 12, the core courses of the basic program are orientation (101), English (102), with emphasis on reading, math (103), with emphasis on conversions, word problems, hydrology (104) of the District of Columbia, general science study skills (105) to include taking notes and tests, interpretation and synthesis of scientific facts, and finally basic safety (108). After the pre-apprenticeship program, which might coincide with the six-month probationary period, the students would start to specialize. Appendix J provides a comprehensive list of all the courses deemed necessary for this program. The overall program would cover most of the NTK objectives cited earlier. However, all theoretical courses must be supplemented by OJT to enable particularly new employees to acquire hands-on experience. Tables 11 and 12 provide the main courses and their sequencing for the four-year program for the WRMA bureaus considered. 90
During the first year of the program, the three bureaus would generally have some identical courses already mentioned above; however, the wastewater treatment class would include the WPCF Basic Course (106). The first year would total between 186 to 218 classroom hours and 1290 hours of OJT. The second year courses would have 128 to 256 classroom hours and 1700 hours of OJT. The courses would include advanced mathematics (202) English ( 202). Safety (208) and Hydraulics I (227). but students in different bureaus would begin to specialize. The wastewater treatment classes would take the Ken Kerri course (207), the Sewer Services group would take map reading (231), and the water services group would be offered AWWA Intermediate Course II (211). During the third and the fourth years the number of classroom hours would be 144 to 272 and 1700 hours of OJT, respectively. During the third year, computers (313), lab procedures(312), instrumentation (314) as well as advanced math (M 303), English composition (E 303) and Hydraulics II (327) would constitute the common courses; but the wastewater treatment group would be offered the Ken Kerri course Vol II (307), the Sewer Services Group would be offered the Wastewater Collection Systems II (310) course, and the water services group would be offered the AWWA Water Distribution Course III (309).
DESIGN OF THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM Finally, in the fourth year all groups from the three bureaus would be offered mechanical maintenance (415), Electrical Maintenance (416), Management and Supervision (417). These four years would have a total of 600 classroom hours and 6,400 hours of OJT. This number of hours meets the requirements set up by the D.C. Apprenticeship Council. The overall program management is summarized in table 13. Additionally, Appendix J has 500 level courses which include physics, chemistry, biology, electronics, pumps, sludge management, water quality analysis, microbiology, data analysis, etc. These are programmed for special future needs. Upon successful completion of the apprenticeship program, a journeyman's certificate would be awarded. At this point it must be clarified that the journeyman's certificate is different from the type of diploma envisaged for the certification program. 94
REFERENCES 1. A.B.C., July 1976. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR DEVELOPING A STATE WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM. 2. Anderson, Don and Tom Wooters. 1981. MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER PLANT OPERATORS. NETA, 158 S. Napoleon St., P.O. Box 346, Valparaiso, IN 46383. (219) 465-1744 3. Austin, John H. and John Kesler. 1969. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS FOR OPERATORS OF WATER POLLUTION CONTROL FACILITIES.PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA, NOVEMBER 3-5, 1969. U. S. Dept. of the Interior Federal Water Pollution Control Administration in Cooperation with Clemson Univ., Clemson, South Carolina. 4. A.W.W.A. 1978. VOLUME I: INTRODUCTION TO WATER SOURCES AND TRANSMISSION PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICES OF WATER SUPPLY OPERATIONS.
5. Bair, Jake. 1983. OVERVIEW AND STATUS OF MARYLAND STATE WATER QUALITY AND TRAINING CENTER. 6. Bair, Jake. May 1983. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION. 6A. Beard, D. 1982. WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL ASSESSMENT. Water Resources Research Center, University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. 20008.
7.. Carnaris, Stan. February 1981. A NEW APPROACH TO DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMS. IRIS.
8. Center for Humanities, Inc., White Plains, New York 10603. February 8, 1983. PLAN INDIVIDUALIZED COURSE : GRAMMAR EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT USAGE.
Charles County Community College. May 1982. CATALOG 198283.
10. Chisman, James A. August 1976. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION A FOUR-YEAR WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM. E.P.A. 11. Cleary, Maurice F. February 4, 1983. CONCEPTS OF MODERN MATHEMATICS. Universal Education and Visual Arts, Universal City Studios Inc.
12. Coe, Charles A. et al. 1978. A BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM IN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT: COURSE GUIDES. ERIC. 13. Control Data Education Company. 1979. BASIC SKILLS LEARNING SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR'S GUIDE . 14. Coon, Herbert L. and Charles Feldmann. 1981. INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES MONOGRAPH SERIES : SAFETY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS. 15. Crockett, William J. February 1981. MANAGING THE CRITICAL THREE. IRIS. 16. Dept. of the Interior/Geological Survey. 1981. THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE. U. S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402. 17. Dept. of the Interior. RIVER BASINS OF THE UNITED STATES THE POTOMAC. 18. Dept. of the Interior/Geological Survey. 1982. GROUND WATER. U. S. Geological Survey, 604 South Pickett Street, Alexandria, VA. 22304. 19. Dept. of the Navy (1943). February 3, 1983. APPLICATIONS OF PASCAL'S LAW, PART 2. 20. Dept. of the Navy. APPLICATION OF PASCAL'S LAW, PART 1. 21. Dept. of the Navy. February 3, 1983. DERIVATION OF PASCAL'S LAW, PART 1. 22. Dudley, Robert. 1980. AN IN-HOME TRAINING PROGRAM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS OPERATIONS : A CASE HISTORY. Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission. 23. Encyclopedia Britannica Films in Collaboration with Falk S. Johnson Ph.D. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
. February 7, 1983. ORGANIZING YOUR WRITING SERIES. Encyclopedia Britannica Films Corp. 24. Engel, W. T. April 1983. OVERVIEW OF MARYLAND NEED-TO-KNOW VALIDATION WORKSHOP. 25. E.P.A. MARCH 1982. MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE STUDENT MANUAL. R-2
26. E.P.A. March 1978. WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS : COURSE GUIDES FOR INSTRUCTORS. BOOK I GUIDE TO PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION, SUPPORT COURSES, AND RELATIONSHIP WITH TWO YEAR ASSOCIATE PROGRAMS. EPA/IRC, Ohio state
Univ. 1200 Chambers Road, Room 310, Columbus, Ohio. 27. E.P.A. March 1978. WASTEWATER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS : COURSE GUIDES FOR INSTRUCTORS. BOOK 2 - CHEMISTRY. 28. E.P.A. March 1978. WASTEWATER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS : COURSE GUIDES FOR INSTRUCTORS : BOOK 3 - BIOLOGY. 29. E.P.A. March 1978. WASTEWATER ENGINEERING TECH PROGRAMS COURSE GUIDES FOR INSTRUCTORS : BOOK 4 - HYDRAULICS. 30. E.P.A. August 1976. A FOUR-YEAR WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM : CURRICULUM GUIDE. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION. 31. E.P.A. August 1976. A FOUR-YEAR WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM : CURRICULUM GUIDE - VOL. 1. 32. E.P.A. August 1976. A FOUR-YEAR WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM : CURRICULUM GUIDE - VOL. 2. 33. E.P.A. March 1981. DIRECTORY OF TRAINING SOURCES. N.E.T.A. 33a. E.P.A. March 1981. DIRECTORY OF WATER QUALITY OPERATOR TRAINING PERSONNEL. N. E. T. A. 34. E.P.A. September 1981. WATER QUALITY INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS) A COMPLIATION OF ABSTRACTS TO WATER QUALITY AND WATER RESOURCES MATERIALS. SUPPLEMENT VII (1981). September 1981. 35. E.P.A. January 1983. OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAMS. 36. E.P.A. September 1975. VOLUME II PART E PLANT OPERATIONS FOR WASTEWATER FACILITIES WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY : A TWO-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. 37. E.P.A. July 1976. VOLUME III PART D LABORATORY CONTROL FOR WASTEWATER FACILITIES WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY : A TWO-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. 38. E.P.A. November 1976. VOLUME VI ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT WASTEWATER TECHNOLGY : TWO-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. R-3
39. E.P.A. 1973. A GUIDE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD OPERATING JOB PROCEDURES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT UNIT OPERATIONS. S.O.J.P. No. 1, SCREENING AND GRINDING. Charles County Community College.
40. E.P.A. 1973.
STANDARD OPERATING JOB PROCEDURES S.O.J.P. NO.2
GRIT REMOVAL. Charles County Community College.
41. E.P.A. 1973. STANDARD OPERATING JOB PROCEDURES S.O.J.P. NO.3 PUMP STATION. Charles County Community College.
42. E.P.A. 1973. STANDARD OPERATING JOB PROCEDURES S.O.-J.P. N0.4 PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION. Charles County Community College.
43. E.P.A. 1973.
STANDARD OPERATING JOB PROCEDURES S.O.J.P. NO.5
ACTIVATED SLUDGE - AERATION AND SEDIMENTATION. Charles County
44. E.P.A. 1973.
STANDARD OPERATING JOB PROCEDURES S.O.J.P. NO.6
TERTIARY CHEMICAL TREATMENT - LIME PRECIPITATION PROCESS. Charles
County Community College.
45. E.P.A. 1973. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES S.O.J.P. NO.7 TERTIARY MULTIMEDIA FILTRATION. Charles County Community College.
46. E.P.A. May 1979. WATER QUALITY INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS) A COMPILATION OF ABSTRACTS TO WATER QUALITY AND WATER RESOURCES MATERIALS MAY 1979. 47. E.P.A. 1980. OPERATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS VOLUME I CHAPTER 1-10. California State Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering
. 48. E.P.A. 1980. OPERATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS VOLUME II (CHAPTER 11-15) A FIELD STUDY TRAINING, PROGRAM. California State Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering. 49. E.P.A. March 1978. WASTEWATER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS : COURSE GUIDES.FOR INSTRUCTORS : BOOK 5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL.
50. E.P.A. March 1978. WASTEWATER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS : COURSE GUIDES FOR INSTRUCTORS : BOOK '6 - 51. E.P.A. March 1978. WASTEWATER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS : COURSE GUIDES FOR INSTRUCTORS : BOOK 7 - WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN.
52. E.P.A. March 1978. WASTEWATER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS : COURSE GUIDES FOR INSTRUCTORS : BOOK 8 - GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL. 53. E.P.A. , National Training and Operational Technology Center. March 1981. DIRECTORY OF TRAINING SOURCES. 54. E.P.A. , National Training and Operational Technology Center. November 1979. BASIC INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY. STAFF GUIDE. (280.1 COURSE). 55. E.P.A., National Training and Operational Technology Center. April 1980. BACTERIOLOGICAL METHODS IN WATER QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAMS. TRAINING MANUAL. (120.4 COURSE). 56. E.P.A., office of water Program Operations. February 1978. SLUDGE HANDLING AND CONDITIONING - OPERATIONS MANUAL. (MO19). 57. February 7, 1983. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING. Educational Audio Visual, Inc., Pleasantville, N.Y. 10570. 58. Feth, J.H. 1973. WATER FACTS AND FIGURES FOR PLANNERS AND MANAGERS. U.S. Geological Survey. 59. Friedman, A.A. and Charles J. Jennette. December 1980. STUDENT HANDBOOK FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION OPERATORS - GRADE D. IRIS. 60. Froelich, A.J. et al. 1980. GEOLOGIC AND HYDROLOGIC MAP REPORTS FOR LANDUSE PLANNING IN THE BALTIMORE - WASHINGTON URBAN AREA. U.S. Geological Survey, 1200 South Eads Street, Arlington, VA. 22202. 61. Gardiner, James E. 1981. TRAINING INTERVENTIONS IN JOB - SKILL DEVELOPMENT. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass. 62. Guilford, J.P. 1965. FUNDAMENTAL STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION. New York and London:McGraw Hill Book Company. 63. Guy, Harold P. 1970. SEDIMENT PROBLEMS IN URBAN AREAS. U.S. Geological Survey, National Center, Reston, Va. 22092. 64. Harvey, E.B. 1980. BARRIERS TO EMPLOYER SPONSORED TRAINING IN ONTARIO. Ministry of Colleges and Universities, Ontario, Canada. R-5
65. Holyoke Community College. 1982-83. COURSE CATALOG 1982-83 DAY DIVISION. 66. IRIS. April 1981. SOME BASIC SAFETY RULES AND SAFE PRACTICES. 67. IRIS. 1981. PUMPS AND MOTORS. 68. IRIS. 1981. MAINS AND SERVICES. 69. IRIS. 1981. VALVES AND HYDRANTS. 70. IRIS. April 1978. A PROCESS FOR THE EVALUATION OF TRAINING. 71. Jinks, Michael. 1979. TRAINING. Blandford Press Ltd., Link House, West St., Poole, Dorset BH15, Illinois. 72. Joint Training Coordinating Committee/A. W.W.A./A.B.C./ F.A.C.E./W.P.C.F. March 1979. DIRECTORY OF STATE AND PROVICIAL WATER AND WASTEWATER OPERATOR TRAINING COORDINATORS AND COORDINATION PROCEDURES. 73. Joint Training Coordinating Committee/ABC. May 1, 1982. DIRECTORY OF STATE AND PROVINCIAL WATER AND WASTERWATER CERTIFICATION AND TRAINING CONTACTS/COORDINATORS. 74. Kerlinger, F.W. 1964. FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York. 75. Kindig, Ron. February 4, 1983. THE WORLD OF WHOLE NUMBERS: THE MISSING ADDEND. Bailey-Film Associates of California. 76. Kirkpatrick, Joanne. 1973. FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER PLANT OPERATORS, VOL. I. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 77. Kirkpatrick, Joanne. ADVANCED MATHEMATICS FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATOR. Ann Arbor Science. 77A. Kneese, Allen V. 1972. APPROACHES TO REGIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT. Shenkman Publiching Company, Cambridge, Mass. 78. Laird, Dugan and Ruth House. 1983. TRAINING TODAY'S. EMPLOYEES (TO DO THE JOB YOU WANT THEM TO DO). CBI Publishing Co., 51 Sleeper Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02210. R-6
79. Leopold, Luna B. 1968. HYDROLOGY FOR URBAN LAND PLANNING - A GUIDEBOOK ON THE HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF URBAN LAND USE. U.S. Geological Survey, 604 South Pickett Street, Alexandria, Va. 22304. 80. Lineberry, Claude S. and Donald H. Bullock. 1980. JOB AIDS. Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632.
81. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. February 4, 1983. USING MATHEMATCS 7 AND 8 SERIES : OPERATIONS WITH DECIMALS. William P. Gottlieb Co., New York City, N.Y.
82. Meany, Edward F. February 7, 1983. THE COMPOUND SENTENCE. Filmstrip House, New York.
83. Meany, Edward F. February 7, 1983. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE. Filmstrip House, New York (1960).
84. Meany, Edward F. February 7, 1983. ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION.
Filmstrip House, New York (1961).
85. Meany, Edward F. February 7, 1983. SENTENCE STRUCTURE WITH DIAGRAMS. Filmstrip House, New York. 86. Michalak, Donald F. 1979. MAKING THE TRAINING PROCESS WORK. Harper and Row Publishers, New York.
87. MOEHLMANN, STEPHEN. 1982.. ABC 'NEED-TO-KNOW' JOB ANALYSES: WASTEWATER COLLECTION OPERATORS USER'S GUIDE. ABC Administrative Office, P.O. Box 2266, Ames, Iowa 50010. 88. Nadler, Leonard. 1982. DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMS. AddisonWesley'Publishing Co., Reading, mass. 89. N.E.T.A. 1982. WHO'S WHO IN ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING 1982 EDITION.
90. N.E.T.A. August 8-11,1982. FOURTH NATTONAL CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOP IMPLEMENTING N.E.T.A.'S PLAN. 91. N.E.T.A. 1983 WHO'S WHO. IN ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING 1983 EDITION.
92. New York Network, 12th Floor, State Bldg., Albany, N.Y. 12225. February 7, 1983. THE ENGLISH MODULES. Fuji Photo Film Co.,Ltd., 26-30 Mishiazbu 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106, Japan.
93. Office of Education-Division of Vocational and Technical Education. 1968. WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY; A SUGGESTED 2-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM; WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGY. 94. Papdopulos, S.S. et al. 1974. WATER FROM THE COASTAL PLAIN AQUIFERS IN THE WASHINGTOM, D.C., METROPOLITAN AREA. U. S. Geological Survey, National Center, Reston, Va. 22092 95. Paterson, James et al. 1980. OPERATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS VOLUME II (CHAPTER 16-19) A FIELD STUDY PROGRAM. 96. Powell, W.R. and Elroy J Bolduc. 1979. INDICATORS FOR LEARNING AND TEACHER COMPETENCIES IN THE BASIC SKILLS: ERIC Document Reproduction Services. 97. Prokopenko, J. and Lester R. Bittel. February 1981. A MODULAR COURSE-FORMAT FOR SUPERVISORY DEVELOPMENT. IRIS 98. Ribler, Ronald I. 1983. TRAINING DEVELOPMENT GUIDE. Reston Publishing Co., Reston, Va. 99. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-CHEMISTRY/BACTERIOLOGY. ERIC Document Reproduction Services. 100. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-CROSS-CONNECTIONS.
101. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G.' David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-TASTE, ODOR,AND COLOR.
102. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-SPRINGS.
103. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-WELLS.
104. Ross- Harrington,
Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER
105. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-GENERAL PLANT OPERATION.
106. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECH-FLOURIDATION. 107. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-PUMPS. 108. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. 109. Ross-Harrington, Melinda and G. David Kincaid. Dec. 1978. WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY-HYDRAULICS. 110. Roueche, J.E. and R.W. Kirk. 1973. CATCHING UP:REMEDIAL EDUCATION. JosseyBass Publishers. 111. Schneider, William J. 1970. HYDROLOGIC IMPLICATIONS OF SOLID-WASTE DISPOSAL. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 20242. 112. Schneider, W.J. et al. 1973. ROLE OF WATER IN URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 20242. 113. Shepard, Clinton L. and James B. Walasek. 1980. INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES MONOGRAPH SERIES: ACTIVATED SLUDGE. E.P.A. 114. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE. February 7, 1983. 115. Snedecor, G.W. and William G. Cochran. 1980. STATISTICAL METHODS: (7TH EDITION). The Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa. 116. Solley, Wayne B. et al. 1983. ESTIMATED USE OF WATER IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1980. U.S. Geological Survey, 604 South Pickett Street, Alexandria, Va. 22304. 117. Thomas, Harold E. and William J. Schneider. 1970. WATER AS AN URBAN RESOURCE AND NUISANCE. U.S. Geological Survey, 1200 South Eads Street, Arlington, Va. 22202. 118. Timbie, D. 1983. DEVELOPING AND CONDUCTING AN IN-HOUSE TRAINING PROGRAM. Paper Presented at the Virginia WaterPolution Control Association Annual Conference. 119. Wagner, G. April. 1983. APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM AT BACK RIVER WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT. Presentation at the Third Annual Mid Atlantic Environmental Training and Certification Conference. R-9
120. Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission. 1980. VETERANS REFRESHER WASTEWATER TRAINING COURSE. 121. Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission. 1980. BASIC WASTEWATER TRAINING COURSE. 122. Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission. 1980. INTERMEDIATE MATHEMATICS AND FACILTIY OPERATIONS SEMINAR. 123. Watt, M.H. 1982. A CURRICULUM FOR WATER SUPPLY AND WASTEWATER OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT. D.C.W.R.R.C. Report No. 23. Water Resources Research Center, University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. 20008. 124. Williams, Garnett P. 1977. WASHINGTON D.C.'S VANISHING SPRINGS AND WATERWAYS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CIRCULAR #752. U.S. Geological Survey, 1200 South Eads Street, Arlington, Va. 22262. 125. Wooters, Tom. 1981. ELECTRICITY FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER PLANT OPERATORS. N.E.T.A., 158 S. Napoleon St., P.O. Box 346, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383/PH.(219)465-1744. 126. W.P.C.F. 1982. PUBLICATIONS LIST. Water Pollution Control Federation, 2626 Penn. Ave. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037. 127. W.P.C.F. 1982. SIMPLIFIED LABORATORY PROCEDURE FOR WASTEWATER EXAMINATION. 128. W.P.C.F. 1982. TRAINING PROGRAM FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS-BASIC COURSE. 129. W.P.C.F. 1982. TRAINING PROGRAM FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS INTERMEDIATE COURSE. 130. W.P.C.F. 1982. SLUDGE THICKENING-MANUAL OF PRACTICE FACILITIES AND DEVELOPMENT-1. W.P.C.F. (1980). 131. W.P.C.F. 1982. INSTRUMENTATION IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS MANUAL OF PRACTICE #21 (1978). W. P.C. F. 132. W.P.C.F. 1982. CHLORINATION SKILL TRAINING PACKAGE (1979). 133. W.P.C.F. 1982. GLOSSARY: WATER AND WASTEWATER CONTROL ENGINEERING. 134. W.P.C.F. 1982. ACTIVATED SLUDGE SKILLS TRAINING PACKAGE. R-10
135. W.P.C.F. 1982. LABORATORY MANAGEMENT - MANUAL OF PRACTICE SYSTEMS AND MANAGEMENT - 1 (1981).
136. W.P.C.F. 1982. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF WASTEWATER
COLLECTION SYSTEMS ('80) - MANUAL OF PRACTICE NO. 7.
W.P.C.F. 1982. CHLORINATION OF WASTEWATER ('76) - MANUAL OF PRACTICE 4.
W.P.C.F. 1982. SAFETY IN WASTEWATER WORKS ('75) MANUAL OF PRACTICE NO. 1.
W.P.C.F. 1982. ANAEROBIC SLUDGE DIGESTION ('68) MANUAL OF PRACTICE NO. 16.
W.P.C.F. 1982. SLUDGE SEWATERING ('69) - MANUAL OF PRACTICE NO. 20.
APPENDIX A DES TRAINING FACILITIES A-1
APPENDIX A DES TRAINING FACILITIES The DES has a media resource center at Blue Plains. The center is located on the second floor of the Primary building. Mr. Sonie Mason (Training officer) is in charge of the center and its activites. In addition to the center there is a large training room located on the same floor. This room can accommodate up to forty students. By means of a sliding partition or curtain, the room can be divided into two compartments to allow for lectures or demonstrations to take place simultaneously. The media resource center itself consists of a number of rooms, one of which is used as a classroom for instruction. This room can accommodate between fifteen `to twenty students at a time. Two storage rooms located on the first and second floors respectively house a large quantity of training materials ranging from books to glassware. The classrooms are fitted. With facilities such as sinks and side benches. Thus they may also be used for simple lab work. The media resource center also has a video production room with monitors, TV sets and cameras.
The media resource center is endowed with a large quantity of training materials. These include such items as
Sony color video cameras
Slides and slide projectors
Some of the video tapes consist of a set of programmed instructions or modules on basic math. A partial inventory identified the following modumath series:
1) "Naming Whole Numbers":
2) Multiplying Whole Numbers: 3) Exponents
4) Dividing Whole Nos. Part I
Dividing Whole Nos. Part II
6) Introducing Fractions
7) Renaming Fractions
8) Ratio and Proportion 9) Percent
10) Signed Numbers 11) Adding Signed Nos. 12), Subtracting Signed Nos.
13) Multiplying Signed Nos.
Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath Modumath
Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text
1.1 23.05 min. 1.6 1.9 1.10 1.11 2.1 2.2 2.8 4.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4
The slides deal with basic courses in wastewater operations and plant safety. Slides on the following courses are available at the center: Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Basic Course
Unit I Unit II Unit III Unit IV Unit V Unit VI Unit VII Unit VIII
- Introduction - Classes of Sewage - Natural Biological Treatment Process - Wastewater Treatment Methods - Disinfection - Test and Sampling - Record Keeping - Maintenance and Safety
Slides on "Operation Controls" provide instruction on testing procedures for effective routine operational control of an activated sludge system. There are also slides on Anaerobic Digestion, Dissolved Oxygen Analysis, Wastewater Chemistry, Polymer Feed Tanks and Flotation Thickening, Nitrification and Denitrification. The slides on the Wastewater Operator Intermediate Course are on items such as: Clarification Activated Sludge Disinfection Safety Pumping The media resource center has also produced its own tapes in such processes as: Primary Treatment Secondary Treatment Chlorination Sludge Disposal Chemical Laboratory Phosphorus Removal Nitrification Procedure Theory Nitrification Sludge Collection Solids Processing The Center has an assortment of books on skills training in the following areas: plant, power and pollution engineering. Most of the material was ordered around 1977 from the Technical Publishing Company (TPC) Training Systems in -Barrington, Illinois. The Center has very few materials on basic English and sciences. There are also correspondence manuals (mostly from Texas and South Carolina) on wastewater programs geared towards operator certification. Other literature include programmed materials published by the DuPont Company on valves and valve systems. The bureaus of water and sewer services have neither training programs nor the kind of facilities available at Blue Plains. A- 4
APPENDIX B CONTACTS AND TRAINING CENTERS B-1
APPENDIX C PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS AND ADVISORY C-1
APPENDIX C PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS
LIST OF STUDENTS IN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
Team A 1. Knight, Bridgett (Ms.) 2. Dews, Phillip H. 3. Williams, Henry 4. Dunn, Charles Jr. 5. Johnson, James H. 6. Williams, James 7. Butler, William 8. Whitley, Carol (Ms.) 9. Baiers, Paul F. Team B 10. Jennings, Jessie 11. Haynesworth, Carlene 12. Jackson, Abraham 13. Glenn,. Cora (Ms.) 14. Washington, Lucille (Ms.) 15. Mathis Howard 16. Rawl, Henry
Highest Grade Completion
Clerk Instrument Mechg Worker Sewer Services Worker Sewer Services Worker Plumber Sewer Services Worker Plumber's Helper Clerk-Typist Instrument Mechanic
11 10 12 12 12 7 12 Freshman College 8
Bureau BWS BWS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BSS BWS
BWS BWWT BWW BWW BWW BWWT BSS
BWS = Bureau of Water Services BSS = Bureau of Sewer Services Bureau of BWWT = Wastewater Treatment
APPENDIX C (continued) 1. Mr. Wallace White (DES) 2. Mr. Sonnie Mason (DES) 3. Mrs. Hope Etienne (DES) 4. Mr. James Hagen (DES) 5. Dr. James Johnson, Jr. (Howard University) 6. Mr. Santo P. Marzullo (UDC) 7. Dr. Jim Preer (UDC) WRRC Staff 1. Dr. M. H. Watt D. Dr. Arthur Bunyan 3. Dr. J. O'Connor 4. Mr. T.J. Karikari 5. Ms. Cora Griffiths 6. Mr. Mansour Mahbanoozadeh 7. Mr. Willie D. Marks 8. Mrs. Peggy Edler-Mack 9. Mr. W i l l i a m Mitchell C-3
APPENDIX D PILOT PROGRAM FIELD TRIPS D-1
APPENDIX D PILOT PROGRAM FIELD TRIPS
Objective 1: Observe the water regime in the Coastal Plain Province 2: Measure and evaluate flow in the field. 3: Study water behavior in a variety of different environments. Depart Blue Plains: 9 a.m. via I-295 to East Capital View of the Anacostia Valley. Review the times for tides on the Anacostia today.
Watts Branch (East Capital at 61st Street, N.E.)
Site A: which stream is moving faster Sl, or S2? Calculate V1 = V2 Which stream (S1 or S22) has the highest flow? Q1= Q2 = Why are the retaining walls in the location they are? Draw an energy flow diagram for this site.
Site B: Downstream bridge. calculate the discharge at this site? Q3= list
for this site. What
would the total volume of water be for this channel if it were full and flowing
at today's speed.
Site C: Bend in Watts Branch upstream. Calculate v for the beginning, middle and end of curve. Record your observations about material on both banks
Shape 1 2 3 4 5
On the northeast bank: what is the average diameter of 5 pieces of gravel: 1 + w + h = T T/3 = Color Why is the bend in the stream here? * Note the disappearing river as you proceed downstream near Woodson.
Watts Branch at 48th and Foote (old bridge) off Burroughs Avenue.
Task: Measure the flow on the east side and west side of bridge and compare values. Measure the width oЈ the bridge (stream direction) which side of the channel is the river flowing on? What % of the river bed is the river using? Which bank is the high-energy force? Calculate Q for upstream side of bridge and downstream side of bridge: What is the A total for the bridge opening.
Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens (N.P.S.) What is an aquatic garden? Are these gardens: BOGS, swamps or marshes? Measure the temperature and pH (acidity - alkalinity) of the bog waters and the Anacostia waters. What tidal stage is the marsh at (time + stage)? How does the vegetation here differ from Watts Branch? Why are the green houses here an excellent transpiration laboratory?
Lunch and Potty Stop.
Stop 4: Stop 5:
Peace Cross Flood Control Project - Anacostia Interceptor Drive by of the old Bladensburg seaport View of the lever system Confluence of the NE and NW branchs of the Anacostia River Erosion Problems in Construction of Fort Lincoln. View of Coastal Plain material and erosion capabilities Impact of topography and.slope on water run off Observation of water and land use: design of .systems
Benning Road Power Plant (Pepco) - water siphon Sediment sampling and turbidity measurement Calculation of tide cycle for today Temperature and pH Calculation of channel depth and flow direction
Field Exploration Piedmont and Rock Creek in D.C.
Confluence of Rock Creek and Potomac
Q - AV Time:
A=CxW Tide Cycle:
What history of water artifacts are still observable?
Taft Bridge Horse Stable
S.L-. Porter Street or Piney Branch Sewers (check on sewer map)
Pierce Mill (lunch and visit) Calculate Flow over dam. Calculate Q for race to wheel calculate Infiltration Rate
Stop 5: Stop 6: Tools:
Describe how this area of the-stream is different.
Sherrill Drive Gaging Station
How does the U.S. Government monitor rivers?
D.C. Sewer Map, Washington West Topographic Map; stop watch, gold pan, meter sticks
APPENDIX H PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR APPRENTICESHIP
PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR AN APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM 1. Objectives of the Apprenticeship Program Since the future of water and waste water facilities depends to a great degree on the training and development
of their operators, the objectives of the proposed apprenticeship program would be as follows: (a) To provide a mechanism for recruiting and developing personnel, and to retain at all times a pool of skilled personnel to minimize high turn-over rates; (b) To implement a system for training personnel in the theoretical context and hands-on skills necessary for proper and efficient operation of water resource systems; (c) To provide avenues for qualified apprentices and journeymen to pursue certification and ultimately college diplomas in water and waste water technology at U.D.C. or elsewhere. 2. Elements of the Apprenticeship Program a) Entrance Requirements Admission to the proposed apprenticeship program should be based on the following minimum requirements: i) Age bracket (preferably between 17-26 years) with some flexibility for the upper age limits
iv) Possession of a high school diploma, GED, or equivalent diploma; iii) Successfully pass a written aptitude test; iv) Define special criteria to allow for the admission of existing employees into the program. b) Program Duration The duration of the program would be four years. Figure 4 shows the general elements of the program. A detailed list of all the courses including the sequencing is shown in tables 11 and 12. c) Classroom Training It is estimated that total classroom training would require 600 hours with the following breakdown:
1st year: 2nd year: 3rd year: 4th year:
186 128 144 144 -
218 hrs. 256 hrs. 272 hrs. 272 hrs.
The classroom courses would be taught by highly qualified and experienced instructors.
d) OJT Total estimated on the job training (OJT) would be approximately 6400 hours with the breakdown as follows: 1st year: 1290 hours 2nd year: 1700 hours
3rd year: 1700 hours 4th year: 1700 hours On-the-job or hands-on training would be taught by personnel selected by the WRMA in consultation with the WRRC and a duly constituted apprenticeship committee. The apprenticeship committee should include members of the D.C. Apprenticeship Council. The classroom training and on-the-job training would be articulated by the WRMA and WRRC and coordinated by the WRMA. The theoretical courses would be prepared jointly by the WRRC and the selected instructors, while that aspect of the program dealing with on-the-job training would be prepared by personnel of the WRMA. 3. Apprenticeship for Existing Employees All existing employees should be integrated into the program. Special criteria should be developed for employees who have no high school diploma or GED but have accumulated job experience to enter a pre-apprenticeship program. Successfully completing the pre-apprenticeship program would then enable such employees to enter the main apprenticeship program. 4. Benefits, Salary Scales, and Program Funding These items would have to be decided by the WRMA management. However, for new apprentices, salaries and emoluments should perhaps be decided using the D.C. Apprenticeship Council guidelines.
Reciprocity of the certificate of completion with those of other training programs should be
established on the basis of their quality and comprehensiveness. Following are proposed
major topics on which comparisons may be made:
Courses of study (technical, related information content)
Hours of study
Processes of sewer collection, water and wastewater treatment covered
Operational equipment (types, complexity)
6. Pre-apprenticeship Training
The long-term training program would include the training of all employees whose
educational achievement needs to be improved to the level specified for admission to
7. Types of positions
This proposal would recommend the identification of apprenticeable and non-apprenticeable
positions of the bureaus in order to explore possibilities for other forms of training.
8. Apprenticeship Committee
In general, an apprenticeship committee embraces the performance of an apprenticeship
program. Therefore, these guidelines recommend the formation of an apprenticeship committee to
provide non-directive input, serve in the public interest and perform functions to which they may be
9. State Apprenticeship Agencies These guidelines point to the requirement that the State Apprenticeship Agency and Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training be contacted for registration of the apprenticeship training program and to obtain their input. H-6
APPENDIX I PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR CERTIFICATION
PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR CERTIFICATION 1. INTRODUCTION The certification of workers has been pursued in the public interest. In the case for water distribution, wastewater treatment and sewer services, it's importance cannot be over emphasized, because certification tends to ensure adequate and uniform performance of tasks by operating personnel and reliability of products and services. Historic trends in certification in the U.S. show that over the last decade the number of active certification programs in water supply increased from forty-two to fifty-six while the number of certified operators in the same field increased from 30,000 to 68,000. In wastewater the number of active programs increased from 49 to 61 while the number of certified operators increased from 26,000 to 74,000. 2. DEFINITION Certification may be defined as the process of recognizing the abilities of an individual who satisfactorily performs pertinent requirements as laid down by an organization or a body. The process culminates with the award of a certificate or a license of recognition after successful completion of theoretical and practical examinations. I-2
3. CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Suggested requirements for certification may be as follows: i) Proof of a specific term of experience; ii) Demonstration of applicants theoretical knowledge of the relevant processes in water distribution, water treatment, wastewater collection and wastewater treatment systems; iii.) Demonstration of applicant's manipulative skills. The proposed requirements for the DES are also shown. 4. FORMS OF CERTIFICATION Certification of water and wastewater programs may fall in one of two categories: a) Joint programs, where water and wastewater programs are administered jointly; and n b) Separate programs, where each program is administered separately. Joint and separate programs may be administered either on a voluntary or a mandatory basis. A 1980 status report on operators certification in water and wastewater programs by the Association of the Boards of Certification (ABC) indicated that as of 1980 forty-one states had mandatory certification programs in water supply, while six states had voluntary programs. Two states had voluntary programs in water distribution while there I-3
Certification Classification OIT*
REQUIREMENTS No certification required- at entry level, OIT optional
Minimum of 1 year experience at entry level and pass the Class I exam.
Minimum of 1 year experience at intermediate level and pass the Class II
Minimum of two years experience at journeyman level and pass the Class OR Minimum of 2 years experience at leader level or 5 years related experience and pass the Class III exam. OR Associate Degree with 3 years experience, or Associate Degree plus 1 year additional related college level training with 2 years' experience, or Bachelor's Degree with 1 year experience and pass the Class III exam. Bachelors Degree with 2 years experience and pass the Class IV exam. (* = Operator in Training)
DES GRADE STRUCTURE WG-3
CERTIFICATION CLASSIFICATION OIT*
REQUIREMENTS No certification required at entry level, OIT optional.
Minimum of 1 year experience at entry level and pass the Class I exam.
Minimum of 1 year experience at intermediate level and pass the Class II exam.
Minimum of 2 years' experience at journeyman level and pass the Class III exam. OR Minimum of 2 years' experience at leader level or 5 years' related experience and pass the Class III exam. OR Associate Degree with 3 years' experience, or Associate Degree plus one year additional related college level training with 2 years' experience, or Bachelor's Degree with 1 year experience and pass the Class III exam.
GS-12 ( * = Operator in .Training)
Bachelor's Degree with 2 years' experience and pass the Class IV exam.
were no mandatory programs in water distribution. The total number of wastewater programs was 61. Thirty states administered joint programs for water and wastewater while 23 states administered separate programs. 5. AGENCIES Certification programs may be operated: 1) through a certification board whose authority varies widely from an advisory role to active direction of the program; 2) by a State agency without a certification board or committee; and 3) by committees organized within the local American Water Works Association (AWWA) or the Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF) member association. 6. THE PROPOSED DES BOARD OF CERTIFICATION A board of Certification shall be appointed by the Mayor upon recommendations of the Department of Environmental Services. The function of the Board is to administer the certification program. The Board will consist of three members: one member who is currently certified as a wastewater operator-or who is eligible to be certified under this regulation; one member representing the Department of Environmental Services who shall be responsible for maintaining records; and one member-at-large. I-6
Board members will serve three year terms which will be staggered so that the term of not more than one member will expire in any single year. The initial Board appointments will be one member each for one, two and three years respectively. 7. PROPOSED DES CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION GUIDELINES The Board or its authorized designee shall prepare written examinations to be used in determining knowledge, ability and judgment of the operators. Examinations shall be held at places and times set by the Board, with a suitable method of advance announcement made by the Board. Examinations shall be conducted at least semi-annually. Except in such cases as the Board may decide otherwise, all examinations shall be written. All examinations will be graded by the Board, or by others designated by the Board, and the applicant notified of the outcome. Papers will not be returned to the applicant, but means will be provided to review the results with a member of the Board or the Bureau of Wastewater Treatment on request by the applicant. Examinations are to be structured in accordance with operations of the Blue Plains Wastewater Treatment Plant. Examinations are to address equally the wastewater treatment operations and the solids processing operations as practiced at the Blue Plains Plant. The passing grade shall be 70% with a
minimum of 50% being achieved in the section of the exam dealing with the Division in which the applicant is assigned. 8. CLASSES OF CERTIFICATION Generally the certificates or licenses issued range from Grade D through Grade A. For states such as Texas the usual practice has been to make a grade A certificate or license permanent while grades B through D have to be renewed periodically. 9. THE NEED FOR CERTIFICATION In the U.S. the increasing awareness of the public in the environmental movement, passage of more restrictive federal and state legislation, the increasing complexity of facilities and systems, and the desire of operation personnel to professionalize their occupation are among the forces that have driven some and other jurisdictions to establish certification programs. In short, certification is needed for the following reasons; 1) as a mechanism for selecting employees; 2) as a mechanism for promotion; 3) as an educational incentive; 4) as a mechanism to promote employee self confidence; 5) to provide the assurance of public safety by ensuring adequate and uniform performance of tasks, adherence to specifications and procedures, and reliability of products and services. I-8
In an interview, Mr. James Hagen (Special Assistant - Engineering Liaison) of the WRMA at Blue Plains, indicated that DES is interested in certification and plans to that effect are under consideration. He indicated that any certification program by DES would be based on the agency's own special needs and circumstances. Mr. Hagan suggested that certification would provide an objective basis for judging employee promotions in addition to other considerations. It would also help define a number of things, such as the jobs operators and lab technicians or analysts would perform; perhaps the emoluments and salaries they would receive; and provision of a pool of qualified personnel from which leaders could be selected and trained to train other operators on the plant. Information on the proposed certification program regarding aspects such as examinations, the appointment of a certification board, certification requirements and classification was furnished by Mr. Hagan and is incorporated in these guidelines.
10. POSITIONS REQUIRING CERTIFICATION
The ABC Operator Certification 1980 status report indicates that at least the
following personnel should be certified:
The Plant Superintendent or the top technical person on site, usually
identified as the operator in direct responsible charge (DRC);
The head operator or foreman in charge of an operating shift;
The shift foreman;
Operating and maintenance specialists; and
However, lab personnel should not be made to take exams with the same course content as operators. This has been the usual practice in the past.
11. RECIPROCITY OF CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS The increased mobility of operators, new job opportunities specifically requiring certification as a prerequisite, and greater exchange of information between operators and boards in different States and jurisdictions indicate the need for reciprocity in certification among the States. Reciprocity would allow for the transfer of equally/uniformly trained personnel. 12. RENEWAL REQUIREMENTS The ABC status report also indicates that a majority of certification programs require a renewal of the licenses after a specific time period. The renewal may be based on criteria established by the certification body.
B. ADVISORY COMMITTEE The role of advising and overseeing the whole certification program should be the responsibility of the Board of Certification proposed by the DES. I-11
APPENDIX J. PROPOSED COURSES FOR THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM J-1
PROPOSED COURSES FOR THE LONG-TERM TRAINING PROGRAM
101 102,202,E303 103,203,M303 104 105 106 106A, 206, 306 207,307, 407 108,208 309 210,310 211 227,327 231 312 313 314 415 416 417 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 529 530 532
Orientation English (I, II, III) Math (I, II, III) Hydrology Science.Study Skills WPCF Basic Course
WPCF Intermediate Course Vol. A, B, C
KK Vol. I, II, III
Safety (I, II)
Wastewater Collection Systems (I, II)
Water Sources and Transmission
Hydraulics (I, II)
Introduction to Computers
Supervision and Management
Industrial Electricity 528 Pumps
Water Quality Analysis
WPCF = Water Pollution Control Federation KK = Kenneth Kerri
ORIENTATION (101) o Training Program Organization and Goals o The Department of Environmental Services/The Water Resources Management Administration o Careers in Water Resources o Historical Aspects of Water Resources Management in the District of Columbia o Water Related Agencies and Institutions in the District of Columbia
ENGLISH FUNDAMENTALS COURSE OUTLINE Ref. Eps, Mary, Carolyn Kirkpatrick, The Comp-lab exercise
s, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980.
Functional Parts of Sentences
1. Recognize the complete verb and complete subject, including compounds.
2. Recognize direct objects and adjective or noun complements. 3. Write and correctly punctuate simple sentences and compound sentences composed of two simple sentences.
The Structure of Sentences
1. Distinguish dependent from independent clauses in complex sentences.
2. Write and correctly punctuate sentences with adjective and noun clauses.
3. Write and correctly punctuate compound-complex sentences.
4. Recognize and correct fragment or run-on sentences. o Subject-Verb Agreement 1. Distinguish singular nouns and pronouns from plural. 2. Choose correct present tense verb forms to agree with singular and plural subjects (both nouns and pronouns), especially in the third person singular. o Verb Forms 1. Recognize and supply the forms and tenses of regular verbs and the past and past participle forms of common irregular verb. 2. Supply all forms of BE, DO, HAVE.
3. Choose and supply verb forms consistent with tense sequence in complex sentences (If..., then/ When..., then) and in longer prose passages.
o Pronoun Usage 1. Choose and supply correct pronoun forms in sentences, including sentences with comparative adverb clauses. 2. Recognize, choose, and supply correct reflexive and intensive pronoun forms and of who, both as interrogative and as relative. 3. Recognize and correct sentences and longer prose passages with pronoun shifts or with ambiguous and broad reference of pronoun to antecedent.
o Modifiers 1. Choose and supply correct form of adjective and adverb modifiers in sentences.
Recognize, choose, and supply adjective and adverb modifiers of all the
degrees of comparison, especially of irregular and polysyllabic words.
Mechanics and Punctuation
Choose and supply correct capitalization in sentences, longer prose passages,
Supply correct comma and semicolon punctuation for compound or
complex sentences, adjective clauses, introductory phrases or clauses, and
Distinguish between apostrophes of possession and contraction, especially
Recognize the main uses of the colon and quotation marks and supply
these in longer prose passages, especially with pronouns.
Recognize the main uses of the colon and quotation marks and supply
these in longer prose passages, especially lists, summaries, and dialogue.
o Reading J-5
ENGLISH II (202) o Writing and Proofreading 1. Write and correctly punctuate sentences of the type mentioned in objectives IVII above. 2. Distinguish the topic sentence from other sentences in an expository prose paragraph. 3. Practice writing the following paragraph models: d e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , process, example, cause and effect, comparison-contrast 4. Recognize and supply the most logical arrangement for sentences in an expository paragraph. 5. Recognize and supply logical paragraph divisions in a selection of expository prose with several paragraphs. 6. Practice proofreading for errors, both in exercises and. original compositions.
ENGLISH III (E 303)
BASIC MATHEMATICS COURSE OUTLINE MATH I (103) 1. Introduction to whole numbers 2. Whole numbers (subtraction & multiplication) 3. Whole numbers (division, exponents, word problems and solving equation) 4. Fractions (introduction to fractions, renaming fractions and addition of fractions) 5. Fractions (addition of fractions with different denominator and subtraction of fractions) 6'. Fractions (multiplication of fractions, division of fractions and ratio and proportion) 7. Decimal fractions (introduction to decimal fractions; addition and subtraction of decimal fractions) 8. Decimal fractions (rounding numbers and multiplication and division of decimal fractions) 9. Decimal fractions (changing fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions) 10. Percents (introduction to percents and various problems in percents) 11. Signed numbers (introduction to signed numbers and addition and subtraction of signed numbers) 12. Signed numbers (multiplication and division of signed numbers) 13. Negative exponents and measuring techniques 14. Unit conversions and metric system (unit conversions and introduction to the metric system) 15. Basic geometry and graphs 16. Areas (Rectangle, triangle, circle, trapezoid, paralellogram, combined shapes) 17. Perimeter 18. Volumes 19. Averages (arithmetic mean, median, mode, weighted averages) J-7
MATH II (203) (Ref: Johnston and Willis. 2nd Ed. Essential Algebra)
2. General Rules of Exponents 3. Squares
4. Square Roots
Introduction to Algebraic Expressions
Simplifying Algebraic Expressions
10. Solving Simpell Algebraic Equations
11. Introduction to Polynomials
12. Factorization 13. Algebraic Fractions
(Ref: Kirkpatrick, Joanne. "Fundamental Mathematics For Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. 1973. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.) 1. Wastewater Collection 2. Preliminary Treatment 3. Primary Treatment 4. Secondary Treatment 5. Sludge Treatment and Disposal 6. Effluent Treatment and Disposal 7. Laboratory Calculations J-9
BASIC HYDROLOGY (104)
o Precipitation & Climate
USDA-SCS slide-tape on Rainfall-Runoff
analysis of D.C. precipitation: by year, by month, by rank, by season
c). % .of water in the hydrologic cycle
o Runoff = Behavior of Streams - analysis of weather maps for predicting D.C. weather - concepts and processes of streams (overheads) drainage systems and parts; channel systems and parts stream loads. - analysis of the Potomac Drainage Basin Map - math lecture and explanation of Discharge Equation: Q = Av
o Behavior of Ground Water Systems (UDC lab) - measurement of porosity in water-gravel column - briefing on processes and concepts in groundwater (hand-out) - How much does a plant drink? porosity - permeability calculations - evaporation of sea water to salt crystals demonstration lab on artesian wells, springs and head pressure - capturing evapo-transpiration through the greenhouse effect (model using same plants) - experiments with dry and wet landslides and the effects of rain, porosity and permeability
o Coastal Plain Hydrology Field Exploration 1. Measure Q = Av in field at a variety of locations 2. Relate vocabulary to areas in the field (parts of stream) 3. Collect samples and analyze in lab: sediment, temperature, marsh, estuary, river, biology, geology along the Anacostia Basin 4. Relate terrain and local history to disappearing rivers or drainage basins. (field guide)
Fresh Water as Surface Water
- what is 1" of rain? (Handout leaflet) - analysis of Rock Creek Discharge Records (compared to Potomac and Anacostia) - understanding and use of flood recurrence equation (U.S.G.S. Cir 554) R = B±l/m - calculation of rank order and recurrence of peak floods of Rock Creek - reading flood graphs - review of D.C. water works form booklet by Broad Potomac's Shore: The Water and Sewarage Systems of D.C. (DES-WRMA-1979), compared to U.S.G.S. Cir. 752 lost rivers (p7)
The Land and Ocean in D.C. over time
- reading topographic maps for slope and flow information - activity to calculate % porosity from field data (area of a cylinder) - The tidal cycles
The D.C. Water Budget (UDC-Lab)
- orientation to the water balance, concepts, terms - calculation of the water budget - plot the graph of the D.C. water budget (handouts for the rules for calculations)
Basic Hydraulics (UDC-Lab)
- review of water use in D.C. (U.S.G.S. cir. 1001) - how to use graphs and why (demo) - ways to measure and study water use (U.S.G.S. Cir. 601 I) 10-11 - collection of data from film (pg. 24) - calculation of head, discharge, area and velocity (pg. 25)
Piedmont Hydrology Field Exploration
Flow calculations for Potomac and Rock Creek
Measurement of trunk sewer potential flows
History of water at Pierce Mill Complex
Engineering problems along the Rock Creek Channel
Visit gaging stations (field guide)
1. Slide-tape program 2. Physics Film Lecture 3. Overheads (streams) 4. Straight lecture 5. Slide lecture 6. Question - answer lecture 7. Problem solving lectures 8. Demonstrations 9. Team-teaching 10. Peer-group assistance 1. Collection of data - and analysis 2. Interpretation of data and graphs (already prepared) 3. Calculating and graphing from collected raw data 4. Use of basic lab equipment f or reading and note taking of student initiated measurements 5. Drawing and labeling of parts 6. Working individually or in teams 7. Plotting data correctly 8. Calculating conversions and recording proper units of measurements 9. Use of a calculator, equations, and tables to assist in getting the right answer 10. Ideas to know whether the answer is right or within the ball park - know where to look for an error 11. Bringing field samples back to lab for analysis J-12
SCIENCE STUDY SKILLS (105) o Basic First Aid o How to be a good science student o Time Management o Interpretation of Scientific Information · General laboratory instrumentation o Blue Print Reading J-13
BASIC COURSE FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS AUDIOVISUALS (106) o Introduction o Characteristics of Sewage o The Natural Biological Treatment Process o Waste Treatment Methods o Disinfection o Tests and Sampling o Record Keeping o Maintenance and Safety Reference: Water Pollution Control Federation J-14
INTERMEDIATE LEVEL TRAINING PROGRAM FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS AUDIOVISUAL 106A, 206, 206 VOL A o Introduction o The Community Wastewater System o Pre-Treatment o Clarification o Activated Sludge
VOL B Trickling Filter o Single Thickening o Anaerobic Digestion o Aerobic Digestion
o Wastewater Disinfection
Reference: Water Pollution Control Federation
WASTEWATER TREATMENT (207, 307, 407) References: K. Kerri, Sacramento Manual Also see WRRC Report #23 COURSE OUTLINE VOLUME I, SECOND EDITION (207) o The Treatment Plant Operator o Why Treat Wastes? o Wastewater Treatment Facilities o Racks, Screens, Comminutors and Grit Removal o Sedimentation and Flotation o Trickling Filters o Rotating Biological Contactors o Activated Sludge (Package Plants and Oxidation Ditches) o Waste Treatment Ponds o Disinfection and Chlorination
COURSE OUTLINE VOLUME II, SECOND EDITION (307) Topic Sludge Digestion and Solids Handling o Effluent Disposal o Plant Safety and Good Housekeeping o Maintenance o Laboratory Procedures and Chemistry o Basic Arithmetic and Treatment Plant Problems o Analysis and Presentation of Data o Records and Report Writing VOLUME III, SECOND EDITION (407) o Odor Control o Activated Sludge (Pure Oxygen and Operational Control Alternatives) o Solids Handling and Disposal o Solids Removal from Secondary Effluents o Phosphorus Removal o Wastewater Reclamation o Instrumentation o Industrial Waste Monitoring o Industrial Waste Treatment o Support Systems J-17
PLANT SAFETY (108, 208) o Making Safety Work o Work Area Safety o Safe Material Handling o Tool and Equipment Safety o Machinery Safeguards o Electrical Safety o Hazardous Materials and Operations o Fire Prevention o Understanding OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act of1970) Reference: TPC Training Systems Manual J-18
WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEM I (210) 1. The Wastewater Collection System Operator 2. Why Collection System Operation and Maintenance? 3. Wastewater Collection Systems 4. Safe Procedures 5. Inspecting and Testing Collection Systems 6. Pipeline Cleaning and Maintenance Methods WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEM II (310) 7. Underground Repair and New Construction 8. Left Stations 9. Equipment Maintenance 10. Safety Programs For Collection System Operators 11. Administration 12. Organization for System Operation and Maintenance LABORATORY PROCEDURES (312) o Sampling Techniques o Tests and Measurements 1. Measurement of pH 2. Settling Test 3. Measurement of Total Solids 4. Measurement of Total Volatile Solids 5. Measurement of Total Suspended Solids 6. Measurement of Total Volatile Suspended Solids 7. Measurement of Total Dissolved Solids 8. Measurement of Total Residual Chlorine 9. Sampling Mixed Liquor for the Dissolved Oxygen Test 10. Dissolved Oxygen Test J-19
11. BOD determination 12. Alkalinity Determination 13. Measurement of Volatile Acids References: WPCF; D.C. WRRC Report #23 J-20
COURSE OUTLINE WATER SOURCES AND TRANSMISSION (211) o Sources and characteristics 1. The Water Cycle 2. Surface Water 3. Ground Water 4. Characteristics of Water 5. Public Health Significance of Water Quality o WATER USE 1. How Water is Used 2. Variations in Water Use o DEVELOPING THE WATER SUPPLY 1. Surface Water Development 2. Ground-Water Development o THE TRANSMISSION OF WATER 1. Intake Structures 2. Pipelines and Aqueducts 3. Pipes and Couplings 4. Valves 5. Pumps 6. Flow Measurement (Reference: AWWA-A Basic/Intermediate Course for Water System Operators) J-21
BASIC HYDRAULICS HYDRAULICS I (227) o Properties of Fluids o Fluid Statistics o Flow Concepts o Fluid Flow Equations o Dynamic Force in Fluids o Pumps o Closed-Pipe Flow o Open-Channel Flow o Flow Measurement Weirs Venturi Meters Parshall Flumes Flow Meters HYDRAULICS II (327) o Hydraulic Fluids o Strainers and Filters o Reservoirs and Accumulators o Hydraulic Pumps o Piping, Tubing and Fittings o Directional Control Vales o Pressure Control Valves o Cylinders o Hydraulic Motors Ref: WRRC Report #23 TPC Training Systems
MAP READING (231)
o Reading directions on Maps Definition of a Map.
The Four Principal Directions (N, S, E, W)
Using the Compass
Measuring Distances on Maps
Map Scales Representative Fraction Graphic Scale Large Scale Medium Scale Small Scale Coverting Scales
Area Study Through Maps
Parallels Parallels North of the Equator Parallels South of the Equator Meridians Prime Meridian Greenwhich Meridian
Reading Physical Maps
Map Symbols/Legend Lines, Dots, Colors Relief/Land Form Maps Shaded Relief Contour Lines Contour Intervals Choosing a Contour Interval Bench Marks Elevation
Reading Political and Economic Maps
Locating Places on maps
WATER DISTRIBUTION COURSE OUTLINE (309) Reference: American Water Works Association
Operating the Distribution System
o Pipe Installation and Maintenance o Pumps and Pump Stations o Motors o Storage Tanks and Reservoirs
o Valves and Hydrants
Meters and Services.
o Cross Connection Control
o Maps, Drawings and Plans
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS (313)
o Features of a Computer
o What a Program Looks Like
o Data Types o Calculations
o Lists and Arrays
Control Structures o Subroutines
Structured Fortran 77 Programming by Seymour V. Pollack. Boyd and Fraser Publishing Company. San Francisco
INSTRUMENTATION (314) o Sensing Devices o Sampling Devices o Flow Measurement Primary Devices o Head Measuring Devices o Pneumatic Transmission-Systems o Recorders and Indicators o Elementary Calibration Procedures o Electrical and Electronic Transmission Systems o Control Systems For Valves and Motors o Maintenance Records Keeping
MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE (415) or BASICS
Module A: Module B: Module C: Module D:
Hand Tools Measuring Instruments General Shop Practices Mechanical Print Reading
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
Modules 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Rigging and Lifting Mechanical Drives, Couplings, and Alignment Packing and Seals Bearings and Lubrication Centrifugal Pumps Specialized Centrifugal Pumps Piping Valves Air Compressors Boilers and Boiler Equipment Coal and Ash Handling Equipment (Conveyors) Diesel Engines Vibration Analysis Relief Valves Advanced Alignment Hydraulic Equipment Advanced Pipefitting
Mechanical Maintenance for Water and Wastewater Plant Operators (See NETA)
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE (416)
Module A - AC/DC Theory (4 hrs)
Introduction to Electricity
AC/DC Circuits, Simple Print Reading
Magnetism and Electricity
3-Phase Circuits, Motors, Transformers
Module B - Test Instruments (4 hrs)
Module C - Electrical Print Reading (2 hrs)
Module D - Safety Practices (1 hr)
Module E - Electrical Connections (4 hrs)
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE Module 1: Control Equipment (6 hrs) Module 2: Motors (5 hrs) Module 3: Protective Relays Module 4: Switchgear (2 hrs) Module 5: Batteries and D.C. Equipment (2 hrs) Module 6: Large Transformers (1 hr) Module 7: Solid-State Devices ITC = Industrial Training Corporation NETA = National Environmental Training Association
Electricity for Water and Wastewater Plant operators. See NETA or See Electrical Maintenance Program (ITC) Electrical Maintenance Basics
SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT (417) NATURE OF SUPERVISION AND MANAGEMENT 1. Significance of Work and Human Resource 2. Management Origins 3. Human Relations 4. Development and Interaction of Work Groups 5. Organization and Authority RECRUITMENT l. The Function of Personnel Administration 2. Recruitment and Selection Procedures 3. Testing and Interviewing FUNCTIONAL SUPERVISION 1. Employee Induction, Orientation, and Training 2. Absenteeism, Lateness, and Turnover 3. Grievances and Discipline 4. Wage and Salary Administration 5. Administration of Employee Status Changes MANAGEMENT COMPONENTS 1. Elements of Management 2. Communications 3. Management Development 4. Leadership 5. Evaluation and Appraisal of Performance 6. Public and Employee Relations 7. Decision Making PRODUCTION ELEMENTS 1. Techniques of Work Measurement 2. Wage Incentives 3. Health and Safety 4. Productivity 5. Role of Unions and Labor Relations J-29
SLUDGE MANAGEMENT (518) o Occurrence of Sludges and Physical and Chemical Properties Relating to Processability o Sludge Thickening o Sludge Stabilization o Sludge Conditioning o Sludge De-Watering o Sludge Reduction o Final Disposal Processes o Use of Chemicals in Excess Activated Sludge Processing o Sludge Treatment By High Temperature and Pressure Ref: EPA Manual for Sludge Treatment and Disposal EPA 62511-74-006
WATER TREATMENT (519) Student Handbook - Modules 1-10
(Ref: American Water Works Association)
Basic Concepts in Biology
Characteristics of Living Things
Diffusion and Osmosis
How Living Things Reproduce
How Living Things Get Food
How Living Things Breathe
A Taxonomy of Living Things
Genetics Fundamental Principles
The Origin of Live
(Ref: EPA Course Guidelines for Instructors Book 3, Wastewater Technology Program)
o Measurement experimental error Force Properties of force Torque Motion Velocity and accelleration Newton's 2nd Law Systems of Units Energy Work Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Heat and the Conservation of Energy Machines Power and Efficiency Simple Machines Locomotion Fluids The Three States of Matter Pressure Gravitational Effect on Fluids Buoyancy Fluid Flow
o Liquids Head of Vaporization Surface Tension osmosis Capillary Action Negative Pressure o Electricity o Magnetism Magnets Currents and Magnet Ferromagnetism Magnetic Forces magnetic induction
Gases Particle Density Temperature The Ideal Gas The Kinetic Theory of Gases Real Gases
o Basic Terms in Chemistry o The Scientific Method o Properties of Metals
o Chemical Compounds o Organic Compounds o Chemical Equations o States of Matter o Properties of Water and Aqueous Solutions o Chemical Calculations o Basic Laboratory Techniques o Laboratory Experience
Ref: EPA Wastewater Technology Program - Book 2
I. BASIC ELECTRICITY (523)
Unit I. Unit II. Unit III. Unit IV. Unit V.
Nature of Electricity and Direct Current Magnetism and D-C Measuring Instruments Resistance Network Analysis Inductance and Capacitance Alternating Current
BASIC ELECTRICITY LAB EXPERIMENTS Electronic Components and Their Symbols The Schematic diagram
Familiarization With Hand Tools Used in Electronics Soldering Techniques VTVM Familiarization Resistor Color Code and Use of Ohmmeter Dry Cells and Measurement of D-C Voltage Direct-Current Measurement and Control of Current Ohm's Law The Series Circuit Characteristics of a Parallel Circuit Characteristics of Series-Parallel Circuits Kirchoff's Laws For One Generator Voltage-Divider Circuits (Unloaded) Voltage-Divider Circuits (Loaded) Defect Analysis by Voltage, Current, and Resistance Nonlinear Resistors - Thermistors Nonlinear Resistors - Varistors Characteristics of a D-C Meter Movement Voltmeter Multipliers Current-Meter Shunts The Series Ohmmeter Design of a Volt-Ohm Milliammeter Use and Care of the Vom Balanced-Bridge Circuit Thevenin's Theorem Norton's Theorem Maximum Power Transfer Oscilloscope Operation Oscilloscope Voltage Calibration Lissajous Patterns Characteristics of an Inductance Inductances in Series and in Parallel Capacitor Color Code and Testing Capacitors RC Time Constants Characteristics of a Capacitor
Total Capacitance of Capacitors in Series and in Parallel; The Capacitive Voltage Divider Impedance of a Series RL Circuit Characteristics of a Series RL Circuit Impedance of a Series RC Circuit Characteristics of a Series RC Circuit Frequency Response of a Reactive Circuit Characteristics of a Series RLC Circuit Characteristics of Series-Resonant Circuits Impedance of a Parallel RL and of a Parallel RC Circuit Impedance of a Parallel RLC Circuit Characteristics of Parallel Resonant Circuits Transformer Characteristics Phase-Shifting Networks (Ref: Zbar P.B. Instructors Guide For Basic Electricity and Basic Electronics. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co.) J-35
BASIC ELECTRONICS (524)
Rectifiers and Power Supplies
Transistor Triodes and Vacuum Tubes
Tube and Transistor Amplifiers
A-M Detectors, Oscillators and Signal Generators
Other Semiconductor Devices qnd Applications
BASIC ELECTRONICS LAB Semiconductor-Diode Characteristics Zener-Diode Characteristics Tunnel Diodes Solid-State-Diode Logic Circuits Vacuum Tubes: Diode Characteristics The Diode Limiter The Power Transformer Half-Wave and Full-Wave Rectification Transformer Power Supply and Filter Silicon and Selenium Half-Wave-Rectifier Power Supplies The Voltage Doubler The Bridge Rectifier Transistor Familiarization Current Gain in Transistors Transistor Characteristic Curves and Transistor Data Triode-Vacuum-Tube Characteristics The Triode As a D-C Amplifier Characteristics of a Cathode-Ray Tube Tube, Transistor, and Solid-State-Diode Testing The A-C Amplifier Triode-Tube Class A Voltage Amplifier Cathode Bias and the Cathode Bypass Capacitor Common-Emitter Amplifier Common-Base Amplifier Load-Line Analysis of a Transistor Amplifier The Cathode-Follower and the Emitter-Follower (Grounded Collector) Amplifier Cascaded Transistor Amplifiers VacuumTube Power Amplifier The Loudspeaker Vacuum-Tube Phase Inverter Transistor Phase Inverter Push-Pull Power Amplifier Frequency Response of an Audio Amplifier J-37
Resistance and Voltage Analysis of a Vacuum Tube Audio Amplifier Resistance and Voltage Analysis of a Transistor Audio Amplifier The Diode Detector and the T- R-F Receiver The Hartley Oscillator Transistor Phase-Shift Oscillator Transistor Multivibrator Transistor Sawtooth Generator Transistor Voltage-Mode Trigger The Silicon Controlled Rectifier integrated circuit
s: The Linear Amplifier Integrated Circuits: The Audio-Frequency Medium-Power Amplifier Integrated Circuits: Resistor-Translator Logic (RTL) Circuits Integrated Circuits: The Application or NOR logic to Multivibraton Action Integrated Circuits: The One-Shot Multivibrator, Schmitt Trigger and Ramp-Function Generator An Electronic System: A Transistorized cathode-Ray Oscilloscopy (CRO) Ref: Zbar, Paul B. "Instructor's Guide for Basic Electricity and Basic Electronics." 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Co. J-38
INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS (525) Introduction Gaseous and Vapor-filled Tubes Control of Thyrations Phototubes and Photoelectric Devices Relays and-Time-delay Action Semiconductors Magnetic Devices Polyphase Rectifiers and Inverters Light and Heat Control. Motor Control Welding Control R-F Heating Miscellaneous Commercial Devices Computers Synchros, Selsyns, and Servomechanisms Test Equipment Used in Industrial Electronics INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Characteristics of a Gaseous Rectifier Thyratron Characteristics Rectification Characteristics of a Thyratron Phase-shift Bridge Circuit Phase-shift Control of a Thyratron Phase-shift and D-C Amplitude Control of a Thyratron Control of Biphase Half-wave Thyratron Rectifier Characteristics of Phototubes Relays Photoelectric Relay from an A-C Source Timing Circuits Time-delay Relay Electronic Timer Electronic Resistance-sensitive Relay Transistor Time-delay Relay Phototransistor as a Control Device Characteristics of a Saturable Reactor Applicationss of a Saturable Reactor The Peaking Transformer Three-phase Half-wave Rectifier Three-phase Full-wave Bridge Rectifier D-C Shunt-motor Operation Thyratron Control of the Speed of a D-C Motor Automatic Control of Motor Speed A Commercial Electronic Motor Control for Fractional-horsepower D-C Shunt Motors Regulated Electronic Power Supplies The Superheterodyne Receiver-Part I The Superheterodyne Receiver-Part II J-39
o Radio Control System
o Tone Signaling Control System
o Computer Fundamentals
o Logic Inverter
Binary Addition and Computer Adders o Triggers
o Transistor Computer Circuits
o The Synchro Generator and Motor
o Differential Synchro
· The Synchro Control Transformer and Its Use in Servomechani
Ref: Zbar P.B. "Instructors Guide for Industrial Electronics." McGraw-Hill Book Co.
INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICITY (526) Electric Conductors Electric Circuits Electrical drafting House Wiring Magnetism and Electromagnetism Direct-current Motors Armature Winding Commutators and Brushes Direct-current Motor.Control Direct-current Generators Alternating Current and Induction Single-phase Motors Alternating-Current Motor Controls Transformers Making and Testing Electrical Coils Power Wiring Electrical Meters and Testing Bearings and Lubrication Ref: Adams, J.E. (1973), "Electrical Principles & Practice," 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. J-41
PUMPS (528) o Operating Principles and Maintenance of Positive Displacement and Centrifugal Pumps
o Pump Selection
o Propeller and Turbine Pumps o Rotary Pumps o Reciprocating Pumps o Metering Pumps o Special Purpose Pumps o Packing and Seals o Pump Maintenance
Ref: TPC Training Systems Manual
COURSE OUTLINE WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS (529) o drinking water
Standards o Sample Collection, Preservation and Storage o Use of Laboratory Equipment o Microbiological Tests Standard Plate Count Multiple Tube Fermentation Membrane Filter Physical/Chemical Tests Jar Test Chlorine Demand and Residual Turbidity pH Temperature Hardness Alkalinity Color Taste and Odor Algae Identification Aluminum Chloride Copper Fluoride Iron Manganese Phosphate Silica Sodium Free Carbon Dioxide Calcium Carbonate Stability Total Dissolved Solids Dissolved Oxygen Ref: American Water Works Association J-43
DATA ANALYSIS (530)
Variation in Results
Accuracy and Precision
The Median Ascending and Descending Order
Kinds of Graphs Normal-Distribution
Trends Graphical Data Interpretation
Calculating Standard Deviation
Ref : WRRC Report #23
MICROBIOLOGY (532) Ref: EPA Wastewater Engineering Technology Program Course Guides for Instructors - Book 3
Types of Microorganisms
Characteristics of Microorganisms
Nutrition of Microorganisms Autotrophs Heterotrophs Saprophytes
Sources of Microorganisms
Respiration of Microorganisms
Biosynthesis in Microorganisms
Aerobic Oxidation of Glucose Incomplete oxidation of ethyl alcohol
Vectors of Microbiological Infection
Mechanical Vectors Biological Vectors
Use of Equipment The Standard Plate Count Culture of a Bacterium The Gram-Stain Procedure I solation of a Microbe Coliform Tests The Membrane Filtration Technique
TJ Rarikari, A Bunyan