E-Manufacturing for 21st Century State-of-The-Art & Future Directions E-Vyrobne Processy pre 21 Storocie Sucasny Stav Technologie, B Vyvoj

Tags: manufacturing, European university, future vision, Darmstadt, TU Darmstadt, industrial partners, Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technologies, Market Environment, automation, DataTelecommunications Technologies, automation systems, Invensys, Industrial Telecommunications Infrastructures, Giga Networks Infrastructures, Cambridge Index of Biographes, academic qualifications, Professional Member, University of Quebec, Professor Babulak, Eduard Babulak, Association of Computer Machinery, Fellow of the British Computer Society, professional engineer, Mathematical Society of America, Dictionary of International Biography, USA, Canada, Engineering Council, Computing Science, Canada, American Mathematical Association
Content: E-Manufacturing for 21st century State-of-The-Art & Future Directions E-Vyrobne Processy pre 21 Storocie Sucasny Stav Technologie a Buduci Vyvoj Professor Eduard Babulak Ph.D., C.Eng., C.ITP., Eur.Ing., Abstract Manufacturing evolution went from heavy engineering plants in UK on 19th Century to 20th century modern manufacturing concepts, while entering completely new dimension in the world of Internet and electronic information interchange world-wide. The manufacturing and automation technologies have cross the frontiers from nanotechnology to Giga Networks Infrastructures that are essential in enabling the information flow between robots, powerful computing centres and man controlled stations. The current merger of current Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technologies and DataTelecommunications Technologies present a new challenge to community of engineers and scientists in both the manufacturing sector as well as, mathematics and computing science and engineering sector. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in the domain of e-manufacturing and discusses the future direction for research and development. Keywords: E-Manufacturing, Invensys, Dynamic Market Environment, Industrial Telecommunications Infrastructures, E-Business Structure for Manufacturing, Education. This paper is structured in seven sections. The first two sections discuss the manufacturing evolution and the dynamic market environment. Sections three presents the e-manufacturing definition and benefits. Section four discusses e-manufacturing hierarchy and capabilities. Sections five discusses the next wave in e-manufacturing and e-business structure in e-manufacturing. Finally, sections six and seven present the emanufacturing in education and conclusions. 1 Manufacturing Evolution from 1970 to 2000 The manufacturing industry since 1970's staring with instrumentation and mass production have been constantly evolving in new directions towards the MRP and MRP II semi-automation systems in 80's. This laid ground for new wave of islands automation systems such ERP and Learn Enterprise in 90's, which prepared the foundation for EManufacturing, know as integrated automation (see Figure 1.) One of the major players in the manufacturing industry such as INVENSYS has been leading the research and development for last few decades in the areas of instrumentation and automation (1). Page 1 of 10
2 Dynamic Market Environment Figure 1. Why commenting on the results, Chief Executive of Invensys, Allen Yurko, commented: "Our heightened focus on cost reductions did limit the damage from the deteriorating trading environment. Cash flow requires further attention and will be a prime focus this year. Longer term, a tough twelve months has not changed our strategy. We continue to build a Group focused on leadership in automation and controls. We therefore remain committed to the full separation of our power systems business, although we have delayed an IPO until market dynamics improve.(1)" The economic prospects for 2005/06 remain particularly hard to predict. Whilst the markets for Control and Power industry proved to be challenge for the companies, the Software and Automation industry have grown, particularly those businesses serving the oil, gas, power generation and auto markets (2). What gives rise to pressures in the market place are company drivers in conjunction with the industry drives as shown in Figure 2. Globalization of the market with accelerating technological changes such as digital revolution and mobile technologies in conjunction with the customer demands represent main industrial drivers (3). On the company site it is the cost efficiency combined with the new lines of products that give rise to business complexity. The major forces in industry today are e-commerce and e-manufacturing (4). Page 2 of 10
Figure 2. 3 E-Manufacturing Definition and Benefits The complete electronic (computer systems) integration of all factory component using industry standards. E-manufacturing extends from the Equipment to the Equipment Automation Systems to the MES (Manufacturing Execution Systems)/YMS (Yield Management System)/EEC (Equipment Engineering Capability) and to the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). Users range from operators to technicians to engineers to managers (see Figure 3.) Figure 4. Page 3 of 10
According to authors Crandel and Masui it is the systems that includes WIP tracking, Machine Tracking, Equipment Control and Monitoring, Scheduling and Dispatching, Automated Material Handling, Fault Detection and Classification, Run to Run Control, Advanced Process Control, Data Warehouses, Decision Support Tools, quality management Systems, e-Diagnostics, Maintenance Systems, Spare Parts Management, Test Systems and many other systems. The main benefits of e-Manufacturing are following: 1) Shorter Technology and Product Ramp Time; 2) Shorter Manufacturing Life Cycles; 3) Improved Yield; 4) Higher OEE; 5) Lower manufacturing cost; 6) All above leading to higher return on investment. 4) E-Manufacturing Hierarchy and Capabilities Figure 4. illustrate e-manufacturing hierarchy starting from the equipment layer up to ecommerce company to company layer while utilizing the e-factory within the factory to factory and intra factory resources (2). Figure 4. How an equipment engineering system (EES) fits into an e-manufacturing hierarchy. (Source: Bill Shade adapted from JEITA, International SEMATECH. Credit to: SEMICONDUCTOR INTERNATIONAL July, 2001 and CAHNERS BUSINESS INFORMATION) Page 4 of 10
The current merger of e-business and e-manufacturing introduces a new structure for manufacturing industry as shown in Figure 5. E-Business brings together e-Manufacturing, Equipment Engineering and e-Diagnostics while driving the efforts to meet the customers' expectations world-wide with shortest possible delay. Figure 5. Credit to: Agile Manufacturing Concepts To illustrate the relevance the following text in italic print is adopted from Department of Defence(6:) The purpose of the Agile Manufacturing Initiative is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the advanced design, manufacturing and business transaction processes needed for an agile manufacturing base that can respond to future DoD needs. Agility in manufacturing is the ability to thrive in an environment of continuous and often unanticipated change and to be fast to market with customized products using enterprise concepts geared toward "reconfigurable everything." agile enterprises will be supported by a networked infrastructure that can link multi-company teams into an integrated virtual corporation. Three types of projects will be selected under this revised BAA: Agile Manufacturing Pilot demonstrations (AMP), Enabling technology development and Demonstration projects (ETDD), and Agile Business Practices demonstration projects (ABP), as defined below. 5) The Next wave in E-Manufacturing and E-Business structure in EManufacturing E-manufacturing has been well adopted in industry overseas and the next wave of the emanufacturing is driven by customers utilizing full capacity of e-commerce (9). Toyota is one of many examples where e-manufacturing has become a major force for their productivity and business success (see extract of article in Figure 6.) Page 5 of 10
Figure 6. The future evolution opens a new avenue for multidisciplinary development and research teams consisting of IT professionals such program developers, telecommunications engineers, production engineers and business managers to work closely with academics and industrial research teams on new e-manufacturing solution (see example shown in Figure 7.)
Figure 7.
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Sales marketing forces combined with the manufacturing and operation teams work together to plan the dynamics for future vision and the current reality, while facilitating supply chain of products in respond to customer chaotic orders. As a result, real-time planning and execution must be well balanced with the plant chaos. Both processes of making order and forecast are reflected well in the domain of vision and the reality while main facilitator for the customer remains to be Internet world-wide. Customers order behaviour with mobility represent very complex, dynamic and non-linear systems (6). 6) E-Manufacturing in Education The e-manufacturing technology represent a very complex filed of study and as a result it requires well qualified teams of experts in Telecommunications and Data Networks, Software Developers, IT Professionals, Production Engineers and Designers as well as strong Professorial leadership team (7). For authenticity purposes the following text in italic print is adopted directly from Darmstadt, Germany (8): ­ The festive event in the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Guesthouse of the Technische Universitдt Darmstadt on February 11, 2003 celebrated the TU Darmstadt as the first European university to be accepted to the worldwide network of PACE (Partners for the Advancement of CAD/CAM/CAE Education). The three core industrial partners of PACE ­ General Motors/Adam Opel AG, EDS and Sun Microsystems ­ will support the TU Darmstadt with software, hardware, automotive manufacturing components as well as training and technical support. This support is a big boost for the TU Darmstadt in its continuous efforts to implement highly qualified computer-aided technology in the education of future engineers and scientists. Professor Johann-Dietrich Wцrner, President of the TU Darmstadt, regards the PACE membership as both a recognition and an incentive. "After being nominated the `Best Practice University 2001' in Germany, we are proud to now receive international recognition as one of the leading universities in the fields of engineering and science through our membership in PACE," said Wцrner. The hardware and software package supplied by the industrial PACE partners will help TU Darmstadt continue its consistent modernization process in research and curriculadevelopment. In the past years, the TUD has introduced computer-based modules, new study programs such as "Computational Engineering" and a broad usage of computer simulation and computer-aided design, setting high standards in education and research ­ a relevant selection criteria for PACE. The PACE Program, developed in the USA in 1999, aims at boosting collaboration between a restricted number of strategically selected universities and industrial partners, establishing an intensive, and profitable exchange of information and know-how for both industry and academia. The university's access to state-of-the-art technology for study programs and research projects will lead to innovative discoveries and proposals for further improvement of industrial systems and products. The PACE partner EDS is a leading supplier of software and services designed to optimise the product lifecycle process for manufacturing enterprises. It will supply TU Darmstadt with site licensing and software for EDS PLM Solutions' Unigraphics® NX, a Teamcenter and complementary services. These software programs can be used in the Department of mechanical engineering as well as in institutes and departments involved in automotive research at the TU Darmstadt. The software portfolio contains the complete and newest software used by General Motors and daughter enterprises, such as Adam Opel AG, in the development and manufacturing of automotive components. Page 7 of 10
"EDS PLM Solutions is providing Unigraphics NX and Teamcenter software enabling students to gain experience using computer-based design and analysis tools. Graduates from TU Darmstadt will be able to 'hit the ground running' when working for future employers in any sector," said Jim Duncan, president for EDS PLM Solutions EMEA. PACE partner Opel is providing the TU Darmstadt with, among other things, 202 workstations, primarily Sun Microsystems Unix-base units, and the appropriate know-how to work with them. In addition, Opel is providing virutal reality equipment, which Opel designers used when developing the innovative Zafira, Meriva and Signum models. This technology makes it possible to view and evaluate the new vehicles in their earlier stages of development, long before elaborate and costly physical models are built. With this award, TU Darmstadt and the students it educates, are receiving state-of-the-art computer technology. "Without the very latest computer technology, the development and production of a modern automobile would be unthinkable. This makes it important for young engineers, during their academic training, to have the opportunity of working with the most advanced computers and software", said Carl-Peter Forster, Chairman and Managing Director of Adam Opel AG. Sun Microsystems is the third PACE-partner and the leading provider of products, technologies and services for network computing. It therefore constitutes the basis of many universities' infrastructure in and outside Germany. Helmut Wilke, General Manager Sun Microsystems GmbH, Vice President Germany/Austria says, "We are pleased that the students of the engineering faculty of the University of Darmstadt will be utilizing Sun technology solutions to advance research in science and engineering based design tools." "Without the very latest computer technology, the development and production of a modern automobile would be unthinkable. This makes it important for young engineers, during their academic training, to have the opportunity of working with the most advanced computers and software", said Carl-Peter Forster, Chairman and Managing Director of Adam Opel AG. The content of the academic program at University of Darmstadt is illustrated in Figure 8. The
Figure 8.
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7) Conclusions and Future Directions Education for the 21st century has entered a new era of innovation and technological advancements. Students are becoming more and more computer literate and are coming to our programs with their own vision for the future world. E-manufacturing while combining Informatics, Engineering, Mathematics as well as Aesthetics and Business is perhaps one the most exiting fields of studies. However, it is essential that the Universities invest in their academic staff and technology park. One will not work without the other and future belong to those who dare to go forward despite of challenges and setbacks caused by temporary lack of resources and motivation. This paper discussed the manufacturing evolution, the basic concepts of dynamic market environment, e-manufacturing definition and benefits, as well as e-manufacturing hierarchy and capabilities. The author further discusses the next wave in e-manufacturing, e-business structure in e-manufacturing in conjunction with current trends in e-manufacturing in education worldwide. The emergence of advanced data and telecommunications technologies combined with convergence of industry standards, as well as the convergence of yield and equipment productivity management prepare a platform for the future strategies for the future developments and research in the manufacturing industry. Diligent work by several industry suppliers and groups has resulted in fundamental developments that are changing the way we manage process equipment productivity (Bill Shade 2001). With increased benefits and improvements in overall information technology, the benefit-to-cost ratio has never been higher. It is essential to continue in the developments of industry standards and application of information technologies in order to increase the automation and ultimate success of e-manufacturing industry. References 1. Invensys: http://www.invensys.com/us/eng/default.htm 2. B. Shade, "Increased Productivity Through E-Manufacturing", © 2001 by CAHNERS BUSINESS INFORMATION 3. H. Wohlwend, "An E-Factory Vision," 2nd European Advanced Equipment Control/Advance Process Control Conf., April 18-20, 2001. 4. Advanced manufacturing Research: http://www.amrresearch.com/ 5. Advanced Manufacturing: http://www.advancedmanufacturing.com/links.htm 6. Agile Manufacturing Concepts: http://www.darpa.mil/mto/solicitations/CBD/cbd_9431A.html 7. Fenn College of Technology: http://www.csuohio.edu/mce/ 8. University of Darmstadt: http://www.tu-darmstadt.de/aktuell/pace/index.en.tud 9. Toyota: http://www.toyota.com/ Page 9 of 10
Professor, Dr., Eur. Ing., Eduard Babulak Ph.D., C.Eng., C.ITP., is currently a Professor of Computing Science at the University of Quebec in Rimouski, in Canada. He was nominated Fellow of the British Computer Society (BCS) and Association of Computer Machinery (ACM); he is a Senior Member of IEEE, a Corporate Member of IEE, a Professional Member of BCS, a Professional Member of ACM, a Member of American Mathematical Association (AMA) and Member of the Mathematical Society of America (AMS). Professor Babulak is an international scholar, researcher, consultant, educator, professional engineer and polyglot with more that twenty two years of teaching experience and industrial experience as a professional engineer in USA, Canada, UK, Germany, Austria, and Czech Republic and Slovakia. Professor Babulak's biography was selected for citation in the Cambridge Blue Book 2005, the Cambridge Index of Biographes 2004-2005, the Dictionary of International Biography 2004, published by the International Biographical Centre de Cambridge, Who's Who in the Science and Engineering 2003, 2002006, Who's is Who in the Industry and Finance 2004-2005 and in the Who's, et Who in the World 2003, 2004. Professor Babulak academic and engineering work was recognized internationally by the Engineering Council in UK and European Federation of Engineers. His academic qualifications have been recognised and credited by the Association of Professional Engineers of Canada in Toronto. Professor Babulak's research interest is in Ubiquitous Computing, E-Manufacturing, QoS provision for Computer and Telecommunications Communications Infrastructures, Differentiated Networks, Health Informatics, Electronic health record, sensor networks, Automation and Applied Mathematics. Page 10 of 10

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