Multicultural Education, pp, distinct perspectives, teacher supply stores, Educational Leadership, ADVENTIST EDUCATION, teacher, bulletin boards, perspectives, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, James A., Daniel Hale Williams, National Educational Service, African American Children, students, curriculum elements, curriculum, multicultural curriculum, classroom knowledge, multicultural themes, National Education Association, National Council of � Math, Cobblehill Books, Cynthia Taylor Warren, Janet Mallery, Southeastern California Conference, Dial Books, Southern Union Conference of Seventhday Adventists, Clarion Books, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Alexandria, James A. Banks, Gender Equality, Northland Publishing, Multicultural Booklist, Carl Mack, Jr., Va., La Sierra University School of Education, Kenneth A., Elijah McCoy
A CURRICULUM FOR EVERY S-ruDEN,.
ow can I add multicultural education to for multicultural education, says "We teach the same areas; we
my schedule? I only have so much time in may reconceptualize them, but it's not something added on.'"
the day, and you are asking me to add an-
Designing a multicultural curriculum reaches beyond knowl-
other subject! What do you want me to edge and skills to attitudes and perspectives. The words, music,
leave out-health, music, math?" Tom, a art, bulletin boards, games, and other curriculum elements the
competent seventh-grade teacher, expresses teacher chooses will be shaped by his or her attitudes about stu-
the attitude of many conscientious educa- dents. The conviction that all are created in God's image leads
tors. Fortunately, he and others like him to acceptance of each child as a member of the family of God.
have been willing to adapt their teaching. Maya Angelou's succinct statement, "We are more alike than
They have followed the steps necessary-not to artificially tack unalike"2 should be the philosophy portrayed to students. Basic
on-but to naturally infuse multicultural education into the cur- commonalities are the foundation for a multicultural curricu-
riculum without adding any classes
to the daily schedule. James Banks, noted author and primary theorist
BY JANET MALLERY
However, limiting oneself to basic commonalities will produce
ADVENTIST EDUCATION. OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1997
a lopsided curriculum. Each subject needs to include distinct perspectives and contributions of people from many backgrounds. Each student has a right to ask, "Who is telling my story?" during history, math, science, music, and other areas of the curriculum. Sonio Nieto provides the bottom line here: "Multicultural education ... is about all people.'" Carl Mack, Jr. believes that if multicultural education is to be successful, it will have to improve students' educational performance: J. Cummins holds that students who "are not alienated from their own culture of values" and feel positive about their own and the majority culture are less likely to experience school failure. s he following suggestions focus on some basic elements that , .teachers can integrate into the existing curriculum. They are not an add-on or additional courses. The goal is to integrate multicultural education in a natural way into the entire school curriculum. Ideas for Integrating Multiculturalism Broaden your own scope. Learn some- thing each day about the people around
Designing a multicul- tural curriculum reaches beyond knowledge and skills to attitudes and perspectives. you. Set a personal goal of becoming multiculturally educated: Take time to visit a variety of ethnic churches, read newspapers and magazines published by various groups, try foods from around the world, read books by and about a variety of cultures, travel to different places, and listen to music from many countries. Your new perspectives will become obvious to your students through the comments and illustrations you use in various subjects. Highlight linguistic similarities. For example, when studying about families in the primary grades or geography at the secondary level
, point out similarities of words such as mother in various languages. In Russian, mother is mati; in Spanish, the word is madre; in Chinese,
mama; and in Persian, mader. Identify origins of words. Information about the origins of words can be introduced in a natural way. Examples of English words that originated in different cultures are tea (China), khaki (India), cocoa (Spain), pretzel (Germany), and ukulele (Hawaii).6 Use primary sources. Reading a child's diary about traveling west in a covered wagon offers a more accurate and interesting portrayal of feelings, perspectives, and experiences than reading the facts from a typical textbook. The National Archives
and the Internet are great resources for primary documents. (See list of Selected Internet Addresses.) Enhance your environment. Messages are conveyed to students through room arrangements, music, art, bulletin boards, stories, and games. Listed below are some ideas to help you prepare young people to live successfully in an increasingly multicultural society: · On bulletin boards, display pictures of people from different cultures involved in various occupations, games, celebrations, etc. Avoid older materials, which are likely to portray stereotypes. Buy greeting cards and wrapping paper with mul-
ADVENTIST EDUCATION. OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1997
Each subject needs to include distinct perspectives and contributions of people from many backgrounds.
WHAT DO I TELL PARENTS? WHERE DO I GET MATERIALS? Change in classroom knowledge, skills, and attitudes will not happen overnight. And change often creates anxiety. Parents need to understand the multicultural education philosophy and approach used in the classroom. Consider making a presentation at an open house, or send a letter home. Share with parents your commitment to educating their children to live in a world of rapid change and diversity. As you talk with parents, let them know that your approach has three components: (1) basic commonalities; (2) respect and appreciation for constructive differences; and (3) discovery of family history, values, and culture. How can you get information and materials? Read widely and consult with other teachers. It may take some time to gather items from many sources. A great deal of information and material will come from regular browsing and studying as you prepare for your lessons in art, reading, math, history, or science. As your awareness level rises, you will notice multicultural themes. Begin small. As you progress, you will see evidence of your efforts in the lives of your students as they come to respect and appreciate others.
ADVENTIST EDUCATION. OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1997
ticultural themes (available at stationery to develop a natural, ongoing way of view- those who hold them. This can help us see
stores) or order current multicultural ma- ing things from other perspectives. Ac- things through different "glasses."
terials from teacher supply stores and cat- cording to Banks, this means planning to
Elementary and secondary social stud-
intentionally incorporate all students' ies are probably the easiest place to in-
· Arrange students' desks or work dreams, struggles, and hopes.?
troduce new ways of looking at things.
areas to encourage interaction.
Take, for example, a study of the "west-
· Include books and magazines about people from a variety of cultures in the classroom library. (See list of Recommended Books for Young People.)
BOw, then, does one truly infuse multicultural education into the curriculum? The teacher must constantly seek to help students
ward" movement in the United States. We usually talk about the pioneers who went west, but how often do we talk about the feelings and situations of the Mexicans
· Feature music from many cultures see situations, history, or literature from and Native Americans
who were already
and countries on classroom tapes and CDs. the point of view of all people who are there? A helpful way to explain this is to
· Order paint, markers, and paper that involved with the topic. As students get draw a circle, putting the topic for con-
represent a variety of skin tones and col- to the junior high and academy level, they sideration inside. Draw rays coming out
need to understand that people have dif- of the circle, printing on them the names
· Label classroom items in students' fering points of view and can experience of some of the many people with differ-
the same event in profoundly divergent ent viewpoints on the topic. Ask, "Who
· Exhibit artifacts from various cul- ways. Examining these different perspec- else would be involved with this topic?
tures in the classroom.
tives is critical to gaining insight into what What were their feelings and perspectives,
· Include traditional and contempo- actually happened.
their hopes and dreams? How are we all
rary clothing from different cultures for
For example, the story of the 1876 Bat- more alike than different?"S
younger students' dress-up play.
tle of the Little Bighorn between the U.S.
What does multicultural instruction
· When planning Physical Education
, cavalry and Sioux and Cheyenne Indian mean for the teacher? He or she must de-
incorporate sports and games from around warriors can be told from two perspec- velop new ways of thinking-a multicul-
tives: that of Chief Crazy Horse or that of tural attitude, if you will-and always try
· Feature a multicultural calendar with General Custer
. In 1988, the Native Amer- to see things through others' eyes.
dates for ethnic holidays and special days. icans erected a monument at the site to tell
San Francisco teacher Judy Levy-
(Contact teacher supply stores or catalogs their story. Their perspective is different Sender quickly discovered her need for
for this item.)
from the traditional one told by white sensitivity to others' perspectives when
Utilize community resource people. Americans. Though discussing the same she taught a spelling lesson to mostly Cam-
Invite parents, church members, and other event, they have distinct points of view. bodian youngsters. She explains, "I wascommunity member
s to share their sto-
We will probably never truly under- using a hangman game. One youngster
ries, foods, music, games, and heritage. stand another's point of view. We can, said to me, 'You know, that is how my
Read works from many different au- however, help our students learn to ap- parents died."'9 What a startling revela-
thors, cultures, and perspectives. Revise preciate different opinions and respect tion that students are not the same as they
older selections as needed.
Provide for multiple intelli-
gences. Students are smart in numerous ways. Capitalize on this
by teaching to all their intelli-
gences. See the October/Novem-
ber 1996 issue of THE JOURNAL
OF ADVENTIST EDUCATION for
The multicultural curriculum
stresses seeing things though oth-
ers' perspectives. Black History
Month, Cinco de Mayo, Chinese New Year, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Day are examples of times set apart for recognition. While this is a good start, just celebrat- ing holidays does not infuse mul-
ticultural education into the class-
room. In most cases, the class goes
back to business as usual after the
celebration. Rather, teachers need
ADVENTIST EDUCATION' OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1997
used to be. These changes require us to re-examine our attitudes, knowledge, and skills.
Celebration Anatural ongoing
erarchy of Reactions to Multiculturism at least to the Tolerance level. 11 Yet, toler-
ance is not a warm fuzzy
that will create an environ-
The teacher must personally model sensitivity about others' perspectives. In formal and in-
Appreciation Let us do
ment of pride, respect, selfesteem, and true success for students. The highest level,
formal ways, students will come
Celebration, reflects the ex-
to see things through others'
ample of Christ.
points of view. You know you have a truly multicultural cur-
Let them do
Some of our students will be future church leaders.
riculum when students naturally ask questions such as, "Well, what about the people who lived there?
Tolerance Let them be
They-and all membersneed to see things from other people's perspectives in a
How did they feel? What did they
way that transcends accep-
do?" When the students see the teacher model this behavior, they
Hierarchy of Reactions to Multiculturalism
tance and appreciation to true celebration of our God-
will begin to see things through
given similarities and differ-
other people's eyes.
ences. Our church, which re-
Other ways to infuse multiculturalism offer a variety of multicultural informa- flects the diversity of the world, can be
naturally into various subjects in the ex- tion and activities in each topical strand. united in Christ only as we appreciate and
isting curriculum could include the fol-
· Literature. Students can be asked to celebrate one another. ctY
analyze each work in terms of basic com-
· History. Every student is a part of monalities of experiences. Rose Reissman RECOMMENDED TEACHER RESOURCES
the history of his or her state and coun- suggests discussing constructive cultural Albyn, Carole L., and Lois S. Webb. The
try. All families have moved or immigrated. characteristics and cultural events found
Multicultural Cookbook for Students.
Use these experiences to make history in the writing. 10 In addition to the nu-
Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 1993.
come alive. Ask parents to help provide merous trade books that reflect multicul- Atwater, Mary M., Kelly Radzik-Marsh,
information that students can use to make tural perspectives, the Life Reading Series and Marilyn Strutchens (eds.). Multi-
a time line of their family history. Discuss (used in Seventh-day Adventist schools
cultural Education: Inclusion of All.
the diversity of the family backgrounds across North America) is one of the best Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia,
within your classroom. Comment on sim- examples of multicultural infusion into
ilarities and commonalities that all fami- reading class. A look at the table of con- Bishop, Rudine S. (ed.). Kaleidoscope: A
lies have when coming to the state or coun- tents for the series reveals stories from all
Multicultural Booklist for Grades K-
parts of the world.
8. Urbana, II.: National Council of
· Math. Many people contributed to
· Science. Be on the lookout in books,
Teachers of English, 1994.
the development of arithmetic: Africans magazines, TV programs, and newspa- Brandt, Ron. "On Educating for Diver-
were the first to use numerals, the Chi- pers for the names of inventors and sci- sity: A Conversation With James A.
nese invented negative number
s, Native entists who came from various cultures.
Banks," educational leaders
Americans were first to use a symbol for Tuck this information away in the ap-
(May 1994), pp. 28-31.
zero, and Egyptians invented unit frac- propriate file or textbook. At the oppor- Brodhead, R. H. "On the Debate Over
tions. The word algebra is Arabic in ori- tune time, bring it into the lessons. For in- Multiculturalism," On Common
gin. The first geometric concepts were de- stance, although the term "the real
Ground (Fall 1996), pp. 18, 19.
veloped in Africa and Asia and used in McCoy" is a familiar one, most people Campbell, Melvin, Janet Mallery, and J.
building of the Egyptian pyramids. Peo- do not know that this comes from the
Singh. You Can Make It Happen:
ple all over the world have contributed to contribution of Elijah McCoy, an African-
Teaching Students With Limited Eng-
the development of geometry: Eskimos American who invented a lubricating cup
lish Proficiency. [Video] (Available
built igloos in the shape of a catenary, and that fed oil to machinery in the late 1800s.
from LR video production
s, 3870 La
Mozambicans built rectangular houses by When studying the heart, you can men-
Sierra Avenue, Department 239, River-
using equal-length ropes as the diagonals. tion that Daniel Hale Williams, an African-
side, CA 92505).
The Mayans analyzed data so they could American doctor, did the first successful Davidman, L., and P. T. Davidman. Teach-
create astronomical tables to predict heart operation in 1898.
ing With a Multicultural Perspective:
eclipses. This type of information can be
These are ways to help students gain
A Practical Guide. New York: Long-
inserted at the appropriate time and in a respect for each other and to answer each
natural manner within the curriculum. one's question, "Who is telling my story?" Diaz, Carlos (ed.). Multicultural Educa-
Most newer editions of math textbooks
Christians must climb the rungs of Hi-
tion for the 21st Century. Washing-
ADVENTIST EDUCATION. OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1997
ton, D.C.: National Education Association
, 1992. Dresser, Norine. Multicultural Manners: New Rules of Etiquette for a Changing Society. New York: John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., 1996. Eirich, Marc. "The Stereotype Within." Educational Leadership 51:8 (May 1994), pp. 12- 15. Flora, S. B. Multicultural Mini-Units. Minneapolis: T. S. Denison & Company, Inc., 1993. Griffiths, Victor S. (ed.). "Multicultural Education," Journal of Adventist Education 51:5 (Summer 1989), whole Issue. Howe, Christopher K. "Improving the Achievement of Hispanic Students." Educational Leadership 51:8 (May 1994), pp. 42-44. Huber-Bowen, Tonya. Teaching in the Diverse Classroom: Learner-Centered Activities That Work. Bloomington, In.: National Educational Service, 1993. Kear, Dennis ]., and Jeri A. Carroll. A Multicultural Guide to LiteratureBased Whole Language Activities for young children
. Carthage, II.: Good Apple, 1993. Ladson-Billings, Gloria. The Dream Keepers: Successful Teachers of African American
Children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1994. _ _ _ _. "What We Can Learn From Multicultural Education Research," Educational Leadership 51:8 (May 1994), pp. 22-26. Lynch, Eleanor W., and Marci ]. Hanson (eds.). Developing Cross-cultural competence
: A Grade for Working With Young Children and Their Families. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 1992. Moore, Jo E. Families Around the World. Monterey, Calif.: Evan-Moor Corp., 1991. National Archives and Research Administration. Teaching With Documents. Washington, D.C.: 1992. Olson, Carol B. (ed.). Reading, Thinking, and Writing About Multicultural Literature: A Publication of the UCI Writing Project. Glenview, II.: Scott Foresman
, 1996. Polon, Linda, and Aileen Cantwell. The Whole Earth Holiday Book. Glenview, II.: Scott Foresman, 1983. Reissman, Rose. The Evolving Multicul-
tural Classroom. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994. Rumble, Beverly.]. (ed.). "Getting Plugged Into multiple intelligences
." The Journal of Adventist Education 59:1 (October/November 1996), whole issue. Southern Union Conference of Seventhday Adventists. A Star Gives Light: Seventh-day Adventist African-American Heritage. Decatur, Ga.: 1989. Takaki, R. "Multiculturism as Common Ground." On Common Ground (Fall 1996), p. 17. Trentacosta, Janet, and Margaret]. Kenney (eds.). Muticultural and gender equality
in the Mathematics Classroom: The Gift of Diversity. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
, 1997 (yearbook). Tye, Kenneth A. (ed.). Global Education: From Thought to Action. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1990. Warren, Joseph W., and Cynthia Taylor Warren. "Multicultural Education: A Spiritual Imperative." The Journal of Adventist Education 56:1 (October/ November 1993), pp. 24-26. Wyman, Sarah L. How to Respond to Your Culturally Diverse Student Population. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993. RECOMMENDED BOOKS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE Begaye, Lisa S. Building a Bridge. Flagstaff, Ariz.: Northland Publishing, 1993. Bunting, Eve. How Many Days to America? A Thanksgiving Story. Burlington, Mass.: Clarion Books, 1988. ____. The Wall. Burlington, Mass.: Clarion Books, 1990. Flournoy, Valerie. The Patchwork Quilt. New York: Dial Books, 1985. Haskins, Jim. Count Your Way Through India. Minneapolis, Minn.: Carolrhoda Books, 1990. Hoffman, Mary. Amazing Grace. Bergenfield, N.].: Dial Books for Young Readers
, 1991. Knight, Margy B. Talking Walls. St. Paul, Minn.: Tilburn House, 1992. ____. Who Lives Here? An American Story. St. Paul, Minn.: Tilburn House, 1993.
Morey, Janet N., and Wendy Dunn. Famous Asian Americans. Bergenfield, N.].: Cobblehill Books, 1992. Stelzer, U. The New Americans: Immigrant Life in Southern California. Troutdale, Ore.: NewSage Press, 1988. SELECTED INTERNET ADDRESSES www.umdl.umich.edu/moa/ "Making of America" project is a data base containing the full text of books and publications from the 19th century. www.classroom.net/Information on a variety of educational topics, search tools, lesson plans
, and subject searches. http://www.ald.bham.wednet.edu/museum/museum.htm Immigration and Ellis Island project. Dr. Janet Mallery is Associate Professor
of Curriculum and Instruction at La Sierra University School of Education
, Riverside, California. Previously, she served as Associate Superintendent ofSchools, Southeastern California Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, and a Supervising Principal and Teacher. Dr. Mallery has chaired the Multicultural Education Curriculum Committee
for the Pacific Union Conference and Southeastern California Conference. REFERENCES 1. James A. Banks, "It's Up to Us," Teaching Tolerance (Fall 1992), p. 22. 2. Maya Angelou, "A Tribute to Mothers," Presentation at California State University
, San Bernardino, May 10,1997. 3. Sonia Nieto, Affirming Diversity: The Sociopolitical Context of Multicultural Education (New York: Longman, 1996). 4. Carl Mack, Jr., "Mistaken Identity and Issues in Multicultural Education," Updating School Board Policies 23:6 (July-August 1992), p. I. 5. Jim Cummins, "Empowering Minority Students," Harvard Educational Review
56:1 (January 1986), pp. 18-36. 6. For more examples, see "Borrowed Words Game" in Immigration, Thematic Unit #234 by Teacher Created Materials, Inc., 1993. 7. Banks, p. 2I. 8. Concept taken from Jawanza Kunjufo, "Lessons From History: A Celebration in Blackness" video. 9. Judy Levy-Sender, personal communication
, May 22, 1997. 10. Rose Reissman, The Evolving Multicultural Classroom (Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994), p.2. 11. Concept taken from Bernardo Garcia, "The Multicultural Classroom: What Does It Look Like?" Presentation at the Annual Conference
for the National Association for elementary school
Principals, Orlando, Florida, March 1994.
ADVENTIST EDUCATION. OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 1997