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Superscript Volume3,Issue2 Spring 2013 The Graduate School of Arts & Sciences | Columbia University
Internationalism Evolves: Columbia and the Global Centers Superscript 1
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CONTENTS 1 Message from the Dean 2Internationalism Evolves: Columbia and the Global Centers 10Alumni Profile: Paul LeClerc, Ph.D. '69 14Taking the Classroom Out of the Academy 18Crossing Circuits: Finding Claude McKay in the Archives 28 Alumni News 30Alumni Profile: Maria Konnikova, Ph.D. '13 32Alumni Profile: Leonard Cole, Ph.D. '70 34 On the Shelf: Faculty Publications 36 On the Shelf: Alumni Publications 38 Dissertations 46 Announcements 48 In Memoriam 51 Helpful Links Link back to contents page
GSAS Alumni Association Board of Directors Louis A. Parks, President, M.A. '95, Ancient Studies Lester Wigler, Vice President, M.A. '80, Music Bridget M. Rowan, Secretary, M.A. '80, English and Comparative Literature Tyler Anbinder, M.A. '85, M.Phil. '87, Ph.D. '90, History Jillisa Brittan, Chair of Development Committee, M.A. '86, English and Comparative Literature Gerrard Bushell, M.A. '91, M.Phil. '94, Ph.D. '04, Political Science Robert J. Carow, Chair of Events Committee, M.Phil. '94, Ph.D. '94, Economics and Education Neena Chakrabarti, Student Representative, M.A. '11, Chemistry Kenneth W. Ciriacks, Ph.D. '62, Geological Sciences Annette Clear, M.A. '96, M.Phil. '97, Ph.D. '02, Political Science Leonard A. Cole, Chair of Awards Committee, M.A. '65, Ph.D. '70, Political Science Michael S. Cornfeld, Chair of Nominating Committee, M.A. '73, Political Science Elizabeth Debreu, M.A. '93, art history
and Archaeology Deborah Gill Hilzinger, M.A. '89, M.Phil. '91, Ph.D. '02, History Robert Greenberg, Chair of Student Outreach Committee, M.A. '88, Philosophy David Jackson, Co-chair of Marketing and Research Committee, M.A. '76, M.Phil. '78, Ph.D. '81, English and Comparative Literature Sukhan Kim, M.A. '78, Political Science Les B. Levi, M.A. '76, M.Phil. '78, Ph.D. '82, English and Comparative Literature Komal S. Sri-Kumar, Ph.D. '77, Economics John Waldes, Co-chair of Marketing and Research Committee, M.S. '68, Electrical Engineering, Ph.D. '71, Plasma Physics Harriet Zuckerman, Ph.D. '65, Sociology
Letters to the Editor To share your thoughts about anything you have read in this publication, please email [email protected]
Unless you note otherwise in your message, any correspondence received by the editor will be considered for future publication. Please be sure to include in your message your name and affiliation to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. SUPERSCRIPT is published three times per year by the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences and the GSAS Alumni Association. Dean: Carlos J. Alonso Editor: Robert Ast Associate Director for Alumni Relations: Ambareen Naqvi Design, Editing, and Production: Columbia Creative
From the Dean
The annual academic job market season
has concluded and our doctoral students
have encountered once again a labor
market that, though improved, is still
weak. It is tempting to see the source of
this weakness solely in the financial cri-
sis of 2008--and it is indeed true that all
national professional organizations saw a
marked decline in positions advertised at
that time. But the reality is that the 2008
disaster merely exacerbated a preexisting
situation, namely, the erosion of tenured
and tenure-track positions in the higher
Carlos J. Alonso Dean, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences; Morris A. and Alma Schapiro Professor in the Humanities
education system in the United States. Such jobs account currently for fewer than 30 percent of all instructional posts, and the downward trend is expected to continue until such time as universities
determine singly or collectively that there
is a tipping point of tenure-track faculty below which
they cannot go without affecting irrevocably the quality
of the education received by both undergraduate and
graduate students, and ultimately the reputation of the
Furthermore, the sustained decrease in the number
of academic positions
available to newly minted grad-
uate students has produced a compression of four or
five graduating classes of candidates who are competing
with one another for a decreasing supply of tenure-track
positions. These graduates have to begin their careers in
employment circumstances that are not the ones they
anticipated, and are further forced to postpone yet again
existential decisions related to life in general that the
relatively long duration of graduate studies had already
The persistently difficult academic labor market has
been leading students to explore employment options
outside the academy, or within the university but in
administrative roles. Such students quickly realize that
their faculty mentors have little knowledge to share
outside of the academic job-hunting experience, and
that the curriculum and organization of their graduate
program assumed as a matter of course that they would
be seeking and obtaining an academic position upon
graduation. The acronym "alt-ac" has been devised to signify this new category of employment possibilities that will make it possible for doctoral students throughout the land to put their hard-earned degrees to good use. The truth, though, is that there is nothing new about nonacademic careers for doctoral students. Fewer than 35 percent of earners of Ph.D.s go on to seek academic employment, and that proportion has not been much higher in decades. But academic departments and graduate schools are increasingly realizing that, if such is the case, we should revisit our curricula and the skills that we develop in our students to have them reflect the multiple career paths in which they will embark upon graduation, and not simply assume that the only avenue worth pursuing is the one leading to an academic position. While in graduate school, many students kept to themselves the decision not to pursue an academic career out of a legitimate fear that their standing in their program would be affected were this ambivalence to be known. We all need to move away from that monolithic culture and embrace the myriad career paths available to our students, a variety and breadth that may in the end provide a plausible rationale for the many years spent in the pursuit of the doctorate. To this end, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences has sponsored this year a series of workshops, meetings, and social events in which alumni who have not pursued academic careers are invited to share their professional biographies with current students. These events have been extremely well attended and have inaugurated a close working relationship among the Center for Career Education, the Graduate Student Advisory Council (GSAC), and the GSAS Alumni Association. Also, later this summer GSAS will announce the creation of internships in academic administration that will allow current graduate students to explore their potential interest in that area of employment. These are only first steps, but they have the virtue of sending clear and compelling signals to our two most important constituencies: to our students, that there is a world of possibilities out there that they should feel free to pursue; and to our alumni, that we are immensely proud of what they have achieved in their manifold and fruitful endeavors outside the academic realm.
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Internationalism Evolves: Columbia and the Global Centers By Alexander Gelfand
From his office on the fourteenth floor of the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA), Paul LeClerc, Ph.D. '69 and director of the Columbia Global Center | Europe in Paris, straddles two major periods in the history of Columbia's engagement with the wider world: one of them rooted in a model of internationalism that stretches back to the early days of the 20th century, the other arising from more recent notions of global interconnectedness and interdependency.
The Paris site is part of a network of eight Global Centers that serve as hubs for University activities across a broad geographical swath. (The other seven are located in Amman, Beijing, Istanbul, Mumbai, Nairobi, Rio de Janeiro, and Santiago and represent the Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Latin America.) Mark Wrigley, dean of the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, whose own worldwide network
of Studio-X facilities is closely integrated with the Centers, views each site as a "broadband platform for supporting every possible kind of interaction between Columbia and a region," and as a "highlevel exchange node that accelerates and facilitates new forms of collaboration." That very modern model represents the extension, one might even say evolution, of an earlier approach to
internationalism. SIPA, for example, was one of many University institutions that grew out of the need for foreign intelligence during World War II and the subsequent Cold War demand for regional expertise, phenomena that led to the field of area studies as we know it today. SIPA's offices are just a short walk from Deutsches Haus and the Maison Franзaise--the oldest foreign-language or cultural houses in the United States.
Both were inaugurated in the early 20th century by University President Nicholas Murray Butler, a Nobel Peace Prize winner who advocated for what he called "the international mind": a habit of regarding "the few nations of the civilized world as free and co-operating equals in aiding the progress of civilization, in developing commerce and industry, and in spreading enlightenment and culture throughout the world." Such institutions continue to play a vital role in the life of the University and of many students and faculty. LeClerc himself is chair of the advisory board for the Maison Franзaise, which will celebrate its 100th anniversary in 2013.
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The idea of the university as an actor on the international stage is hardly new. Link back to contents page
Yet as director of one of eight Global Centers located on four continents, LeClerc is also part of a very different kind of international initiative: one that focuses less on exporting knowledge than on accruing it; one that uses area studies to understand the relationships between participants in a larger global system; one that is less interested in bringing the world to Columbia, and more interested in expanding Columbia's presence in the world. Expectations are high. Administrators expect that activity across the network, in the form of communication and collaboration among the Centers, will become at least as important as activity within the Centers themselves, creating what Wrigley calls an "intellectual framework" along which ideas will spread in unexpected ways, like plants along a trellis. Ultimately, he muses, the entire structure may come to resemble a "thinking machine that will begin to think in ways that we can't predict." At the moment, however, Wrigley's vision is just that. First announced in 2008, the network is still in its infancy, and even its staunchest supporters cannot predict with any certainty what the future will hold. The initiative was almost immediately
criticized for a perceived lack of planning and forethought, and there remain concerns over whether the University can maintain its values-- academic freedom
, freedom of expression, freedom from discrimination--in parts of the world that do not necessarily share them. The very existence of the network also raises a number of fundamental questions
. How, for example, will the Centers serve Columbia? Why pursue this particular approach to extending the University's reach? And what exactly does it mean for a place of higher learning to go global, anyhow? Global Myth vs. Global Reality The idea of the university as an actor on the international stage is hardly new. Ben Wildavsky, a senior scholar at the Kauffman Foundation and author of The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities Are Reshaping the World, points out that American research universities were inspired by the nineteenthcentury German model developed by Wilhelm von Humboldt--a model that was copied by the hundreds of American scholars who visited Germany in the years following the Civil War. And one need only visit the website of the Office of Global Programs to appreciate the number
of opportunities already available to Columbia students who wish to study, work, or conduct research abroad. As Kenneth Prewitt, Carnegie Professor for Public Affairs at SIPA and former vice president for Global Centers, puts it, "The University has been international for a very long time." As a result, says Kris Olds, professor of geography at the University of WisconsinMadison and author of the blog GlobalHigherEd, it's "a bit of a myth" to suggest that globalization in higher education, whether at Columbia or elsewhere, "is entirely new and transformative in a way that's never been seen before." "The rhetoric has been ramped up," says Olds. "Everybody and their dog wants to be known as a more globally oriented institution of higher education--in part to keep up with the Joneses, in part because of student demands, in part because of competition." Yet no one disputes that things are not quite as they once were. The number of global initiatives at colleges and universities has increased significantly. Students and faculty have become more mobile, and cross-border research has become more common. Even university rankings
have gotten into the act, with organizations like U.S. News & World Report and The Times Higher Education publishing influential lists of the top universities not only in America but around the world. Such changes are hardly surprising. They reflect the impact on higher education of the same forces that have led to what the New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman famously dubbed a "flat world"; forces that are not exactly new, but which have gathered considerable momentum in recent years. "The world has been interconnected since ancient Rome, at least," says LeClerc, who also serves as a visiting scholar in the Department of French and Romance Philology. "But the dimensions of interconnectedness that we have in the world
today are staggeringly complex, and affect the lives of people around the world on a continual basis--and not in a way we've ever seen before." Consequently, university administrators have come to the realization that while traditional approaches to internationalization (recruiting foreign students, establishing study abroad and exchange programs, promoting area studies) remain valuable, they are no longer sufficient. But what is the best way to apprehend this altered global landscape? And what is the best way for an institution like Columbia to engage with it? Getting It Right For many American universities, the answer is simple: build branch
campuses in other parts of the world. A recent census by the UK-based Observatory on Borderless Higher Education counted 200 such campuses, 78 of them operated by American universities, many of them located in developing countries in Asia and the Middle East. There are many flavors of overseas branch campus: a 2009 survey by the American Council on Education found that some receive full or partial funding from their host governments, while others receive none; some offer only graduate or undergraduate programs, others both; and some partner with foreign universities, while others go it alone. All, however, offer degrees bearing the imprimatur of their parent institutions; all have a significant physical
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"The fundamental idea from the beginning was that there was no such thing as a Global Center." --Kenneth Prewitt Link back to contents page
presence in their host country; and all seek to replicate the educational experience offered back home through various means, such as recreating a core curriculum or flying in faculty to teach classes. High-profile examples include NYU in Abu Dhabi, the cluster of branch campuses (Weill Cornell Medical College, Texas A&M University
) in Qatar's aptly named Education City, and the YaleNational University of Singapore, slated to open in 2013. Universities often embrace branch campuses in order to advance their reputations for internationalism, or because they hope to increase revenue through foreign enrollments. Host countries, meanwhile, welcome such outposts as a means of enhancing their own higher-ed credentials while providing role models for local institutions--what Olds calls the "demonstration effect." Yet Columbia, unlike many of its peer institutions, has resisted this particular approach to expanding its global footprint. At a roundtable discussion held during the World Leaders Forum in September, University President Lee C. Bollinger told a group of undergraduates and graduate students that when asked to explain what the Centers are, he finds it easier to explain what they are not. And what they are not, Bollinger said, are branch campuses.
There are many reasons for this. For one thing, the long-term viability of the branch campus model remains in question. "A lot of branch campuses haven't done that well," Olds says. Many have suffered from underenrollment, and a few, including George Mason University in the United Arab Emirates and Michigan State University
in Dubai, have collapsed entirely. Faculty are often unwilling to uproot themselves and their families for a year or more in order to serve abroad, and it can be difficult to attract the same quality of student at a branch campus--all of which, in turn, can dilute the quality of a university's brand. For another, some academics object to the very notion of exporting an American approach to higher education in order to make money off the backs of students in the developing world--a practice that raises the specter of the dreaded "i" and "n" words. "The whole point of the Global Centers is to follow an approach that is not imperialist and neocolonial," Safwan Masri, director of the Global Center | Middle East in Amman, Jordan, said when he took the floor after Bollinger at the September roundtable. "The branch campus model is really about parachuting in, teaching students, and then getting out,"
Masri, who was named vice president for Global Centers this past summer, later elaborated. "There's nothing about the host country or region benefiting from the experience in a way that is sustainable, in a way that helps it become independent, and thus a net contributor." By contrast, the Centers were never meant to serve as one-way channels for "spreading enlightenment and culture throughout the world," to use Butler's phrase. As an example, Masri points to the Queen Rania Teacher Academy, an independent Jordanian institution housed within the Amman Center that was established in partnership with Teachers College under the patronage of the Queen. With the Center's help, the Academy offers teachertraining programs tailored to the Arab world; thus far, it has reached more than 2,500 educators. "We're helping the Academy, we're helping the country, we're helping the region develop expertise," says Masri. "We want to create organizations that will not only be partners with us in this transfer of knowledge phase, but that will be peers for us in the future." A principal goal of the Centers is to foster new relationships across the various schools and disciplines represented within the University. In keeping with that
aim, the Amman Center has also established an Institute for Sustainable Development Practice in collaboration with the Jordanian Ministry of Planning and the Earth Institute, a Columbiabased organization led by Professor Jeffrey Sachs that joins with local governments, the United Nations, and others to find solutions to pressing global issues such as poverty and climate change. The Center is also helping to advance public health and social work in the region through partnerships with the Mailman School of Public Health and the School of Social Work. Similar cross-disciplinary and capacity-building programs coexist alongside the more traditional research activities undertaken at the other Global Centers. "Our model is about learning. It's about a twoway exchange of knowledge and skills," says Masri, who like his fellow directors alternately describes the Centers as platforms for interdisciplinary research, vehicles for new educational opportunities, and instruments for seeking solutions to global problems. Nonetheless, when the Global Centers first came into being, it wasn't entirely clear what they were supposed to be.
Flexible Roots, Rapid Growth "The fundamental idea from the beginning was that there was no such thing as a Global Center," Prewitt says. In 2005, President Bollinger announced the creation of the Committee on Global Thought, led by Nobel Prize winner and University Professor of Economics Joseph Stiglitz, whose official purpose was to "reconceive, and find new ways to support, the project of making Columbia University a genuinely global university in the century ahead." The committee, itself the product of an earlier Task Force on the University and Globalization, introduced new courses and research initiatives and enabled what
Masri describes as "globally focused conversations" on campus. The Centers comprised the next logical step in Columbia's path toward globalization: a physical and intellectual infrastructure for global studies that would push beyond the boundaries of New York City. And their conception occurred with astonishing rapidity--some might even say haste. "This did not start with a two-year-long planning process, where there was a major faculty committee deliberating and articulating the rationale for [the Centers] and where they ought to be," says Prewitt, who was asked in 2009 to make the network a reality. "Should we have? Sure. Could we have? They wouldn't have been built yet."
Queen Rania of Jordan, right, inaugurates the Queen Rania Teachers Academy at the U.S. Columbia University Global Center in Amman on June 14, 2009. The academy will train professionals in Jordan and the region through a partnership with Columbia University in the United States. Photo credit: KHALIL MAZRAAWI/AFP/ Getty Images
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The essential idea was to establish a web of interconnected facilities in major world regions, as opposed to a clutch of isolated satellite campuses, and to ensure that all of those centers would be accessible to, and in fact used by, the entire University. The rest was largely up for grabs. Locations were selected because the University had an alumni donor base in the area (Istanbul), other potential sources of support (Amman), or an existing presence through the Earth Institute (Mumbai, Nairobi)--considerations that led to choices that Prewitt describes as "idiosyncratic" and "opportunistic," but "not random." Even the numbers were indeterminate: when Bollinger asked Prewitt how many Centers he thought there ought to be, Prewitt's response was, "more than six and less than ten." The lack of a formal planning process, and of clearly delineated guidelines for everything from funding arrangements to conflictof-interest policies--not to mention minor details such as what the Centers ought to look like, or what exactly they ought to do-- led to early concerns that the whole enterprise lacked focus and perhaps even a reason for being. But according to both Prewitt and Masri, at least some of that initial fuzziness was intentional--the reflection of a desire to remain flexible, rather than a sign
of sloppy thinking. "We had some idea of what we wanted," says Masri, "but we left a lot open." "It's not like there's a big design someplace," says Prewitt, who adds that he's "glad we didn't do a blueprint, because we would have gotten it wrong. We're not smart enough to figure out all these questions ahead of time. Universities don't transform themselves through blueprints; they transform themselves through trial and error." The network has grown rapidly, from two Centers in 2009 to eight in 2012, with schools from Mailman to GSAPP engaging in joint projects. "Would any of us have thought we'd have come that far in three years? No. But it happened because it was the right idea," Prewitt says. It is also an idea that continues to evolve. At the September roundtable, which capped a weeklong Columbia Global Centers Directors' Summit, each of the eight directors was seated at a table full of students. Karen Poniachik (M.I.A. '90), the SIPA alumna who directs the Global Center | Latin America in Santiago, pressed her tablemates relentlessly on what might raise interest in, and awareness of, the Centers on campus and how they could be made more accessible to students. Masri
said that he intended to use the feedback gathered at each table to generate new initiatives--"marching orders," as he put it--and hoped to recruit some of the attendees to serve on a student advisory council. Along with such efforts to improve and refine the Centers, attempts are being made to routinize at least some aspects of the network. In his first year as vice president, Masri, who is an expert on operations management, aims to standardize such things as branding and governance-- albeit without hindering innovation or breeding conformity. "How we do things needs to be uniform across the Centers, but what we do should not be," he says. (Other goals include broadening engagement with the various schools within the University; developing a set of global themes, such as health and education, that the Centers can work on together; and designing a standard business model for the Centers, which are currently funded through a mixture of project funds and donations from foreign alumni and friends of the University.) To Each Their Own Given their present level of diversity, there seems little chance that the Centers will become overly homogenized.
The Amman Center, which serves as a model for the others in terms of the range of its programs and partnerships, occupies a 45,000 square-foot building with its own auditorium, conference rooms and classrooms, and offices for 24 full-time staff. An upstairs wing houses the Amman Lab, GSAPP's local Studio-X facility--this past summer, 20 students from the United States, Jordan, and Turkey gathered there and in Istanbul for a two-week workshop on designing public spaces-- and the site has its own teaching annex, information technology office, and communications team. The Paris Center, meanwhile, occupies 23,000 square feet in Reid Hall, a former porcelain factory on the Left Bank that has served as the University's foothold in France for more than half a century. "It has been an extension of Columbia for 60 years," says LeClerc. "It is an academic center, and it's a center of study. You can do an entire M.A. program there. You can do two M.A. programs there. Over a thousand Columbia students have gone and spent a semester or a year there." In August the Center, which employs 14 people, announced that it would be the first in the network to host a group of postdoctoral fellows. In September it was named the home of the Secretariat
of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network, an Earth Instituteaffiliated project that aims to mobilize experts in academia, civil society, and the private sector to help solve global problems. Contrast that with the Santiago Center, which was launched in March 2012, takes up 4,000 square feet of office space, and employs one full-time staffer in New York and a single part-time assistant in Chile. "It's me, the computer, and the coffee machine," Poniachik says. Despite being one of the youngest and leanest of the Centers, however, the Santiago site sees plenty of activity. The Center shares a faculty steering committee with its counterpart in Rio, and a number of committee members have visited over the past year, doing research, teaching at local institutions, and advising the Chilean government. "They have a lot of expertise in the region in different areas--human rights, political science, trade--and they can provide a lot of contacts in Chile and in the region," Poniachik says. Poniachik herself is pretty well connected: a former minister of mining and minister of energy in Chile who also served as the country's special envoy to the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development, she has contacts in government, business, and academia. So far she has helped establish a partnership between the Ministry of Agriculture and the Earth Institute's International Research Institute for Climate and Society to respond to extreme weather such as floods and droughts; assisted in brokering an agreement between Columbia and the Chilean government over scholarships for Chilean graduate students accepted to the University; and facilitated a partnership between SIPA and the School of Economics and Business at Universidad de Chile to offer a summer executive training program on regional and international finance topics. The Center also coordinates field placements in Chilean mining communities for students in the Master of Public Administration and Development Practice program run jointly by SIPA and the Earth Institute. Caroline Ocampo-Mayo, one of two students who traveled to the Andean mining town of Andacollo last summer to identify sustainable development opportunities for Teck, a Canadian company that operates a large copper mine in the area, credits Poniachik and the Center for helping her make the most of the tenweek-long research trip. Ocampo-Mayo says that Paula Pacheco, the Center's
Given their present level of diversity, there seems little chance that the Centers will become overly homogenized. Link back to contents page
assistant in Morningside Heights, arranged meetings with Teck managers in New York, and with officials in Chile, while Poniachik played the role of in-country academic advisor, "helping us to navigate the system, establishing an interesting agenda, and helping us open doors and meet people." Poniachik even provided feedback on the team's final research paper, which included specific recommendations for creating new educational and employment opportunities that would benefit both the mining company and the town. The Africa and South Asia Centers, meanwhile,
coalesced around a clutch of preexisting Earth Institute projects and remain closely associated with them. As Joanna Rubinstein, assistant director for international programs at the Institute, explains, what ultimately became the Nairobi Center in September of 2012 had for some time been the Institute's own beachhead in Africa for advancing the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, which include halving hunger and extreme poverty, ensuring environmental sustainability, and providing universal primary education. Today the MDG Center for East and Southern Africa is formally housed within the Global Center | Africa,
which operates MDG-related projects in 14 different countries. According to Center director Belay Begashaw, a former minister of agriculture for Ethiopia, the Nairobi site focuses on finding technical solutions to local problems, like using bed nets to fight malaria in Malawi, and then helps sell those solutions to national-level policymakers. Three countries have already adopted measures recommended by the Center, and Begashaw believes that the transition from Earth Institute venture to networked Global Center "will really change significantly the programs here, and
Columbia's visibility in Africa." A number of University units, from Mailman to the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology (EEEB), are undertaking programs with Center support: a group of EEEB students will arrive in January for a three-month seminar on tropical biology and sustainability led by faculty from both Columbia and Princeton University, and the latter has shown interest in establishing a joint research program. Global Reach, Global Issues Yet if each Center has a unique personality, each
Paul LeClerc, Ph.D. '69, French and Romance Philology By Alexander Gelfand
If Paul LeClerc's retirement hasn't turned out quite the way he'd planned, he can blame it all on lunch with Nicholas Dirks, executive vice president and dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and chancellor designate of the University of California at Berkeley
. When LeClerc stepped down from his post as president and CEO of the New York Public Library in 2011, he had already enjoyed the equivalent of several successful careers: as a highly respected scholar of French literature (a specialist on Voltaire, he has been awarded the French Legion of Honor and a brace of honorary doctorates); a high-level academic administrator
(provost of Baruch College, president of Hunter College); and head of one of the largest public library systems in the United States (the New York Public Library). He planned to spend his newly found free time writing a book about money, power, and sex in 18th-century France, a project that had already attracted the interest of two publishers. Then came that fateful lunch. When LeClerc told Dirks about his book, Dirks insisted that LeClerc write it at Columbia and offered him a visiting scholar position in the Department of French and Romance Philology. "Then he said, `Would you by any chance consider becoming the director
of the Global Center for Europe?'" LeClerc recalls. "And I said, `My God, I don't know!'" When LeClerc finally accepted the offer, it was for two primary reasons. On the one hand, he liked the idea of a network of small, low-cost centers designed to broaden the educational and cultural experiences of the Columbia community, as opposed to branch campuses that were merely intended to boost foreign enrollments. On the other, he was attracted to the Paris Center's regional focus. "This is a center not just for French studies but for European affairs," LeClerc says. "The problems that Europe faces
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one also presents unique challenges. A month after the Africa Center was launched, Prewitt told the Columbia Spectator that homophobia in East Africa was a matter of concern. "We don't know if we can completely protect you if you went to northern Kenya," he said. When asked, Begashaw said that the Center has yet to see examples of discrimination based on sexual orientation. But, he added, "You can't rule out this kind of thing-- it might come up anytime, anywhere." Which raises the vexing question of how the University will uphold and promote its core values in places that don't necessarily share them.
"I'd be lying if I told you that it's not something I worry about," says Masri, who adds that protecting the University's values without giving offense or appearing high handed can be difficult. "You never want to compromise the principles of academic freedom and the values that we hold dear at Columbia University. But we do have to be sensitive to the fact that we can't impose our values on the rest of the world, and that we have to respect local cultures." The preparations for President Bollinger's visit to the Beijing Center in early November illustrate just how delicate that balance can be.
The Center had been without a permanent director for nearly two years when Joan Kaufman, an expert on public health in China, assumed the reins in September 2012. A former professor at Brandeis who had previously worked in the country for both the UN and the Ford Foundation, Kaufman inherited a site that had been functioning in what she describes as "interim mode": maintaining existing programs like the Summer Palace Dialogue, which brings together economists and policymakers from China and the United States to tackle problems in the global economy; providing a local base for
the China/India Global Scholars Program, which allows undergrads to study urbanization in Beijing, Shanghai, and Mumbai; and supporting Columbia faculty who do research in the region. Kaufman would now like to transform the Center into a think tank that brings together Chinese scholars and members of the Columbia community to address significant global issues. As an example, she points to the Urban China Initiative, a joint effort by the Center, Tsinghua University, and the consulting firm McKinsey and Company that aims to assess the dynamics of rapid
today"--e.g., sovereign debt, the integration of non-European cultures-- "are really big, really interesting, really important," and the Global Center for Europe offers Columbia students and faculty a "great laboratory" in which to explore them. LeClerc's own interests run to the effects of globalization on local cultures. "Oftentimes, when one talks about globalization, there are the standard, very significant topics: migration, integration, environmental sustainability, economic equality," he says. But what about the influence that dominant global cultures exert over indigenous ones? Do they, LeClerc asks, have a liberating effect "in societies where freedom of
expression is neither the norm nor the desired state of affairs?" Or are they more likely to "snuff out local cultures that go back thousands of years?" The line of inquiry might be new, but LeClerc's interest in world affairs is not. Given his personal and professional background, that's hardly surprising. Raised in a Franco-American household--his ancestors emigrated from France to Canada in the middle of the 17th century, and his grandparents migrated from Quebec to New England at the turn of the 20th--LeClerc
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urbanization in the country; in time, Kaufman hopes to use the UCI as a launching pad for a broader "smart cities" initiative. There are limits to just how daring the University and its representatives can be in China, however. Bollinger's November trip coincided with the run-up to the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party, and the country's first change in leadership in ten years. Kaufman stands firm on Columbia's commitment to academic freedom and freedom of speech--"that's who we are, and I don't think we ever compromise on that," she says--but given the circumstances, a certain
degree of diplomacy was required. "Were we going to have a public forum on freedom of speech in China during Bollinger's visit while the Party conference was taking place?" she asks. "No, of course not. But that doesn't mean we won't discuss it behind closed doors." At a cocktail reception at the Peninsula Beijing hotel, Bollinger spoke instead about global education, a subject that Kaufman says was "chosen on the basis of what would be less sensitive politically, but no less valuable to the mission of the University."
Such considerations may necessitate the formulation of new policies and guidelines--something Prewitt sees as part of the process of becoming a global university, a process he likens to the one that long ago transformed Columbia from a small college to a modern research institution. In 1860, Prewitt says, a visitor to Columbia College would have found three principal subjects being taught: natural history, classics, and "some kind of moral philosophy or religion." He continues: "Somewhere between then and a hundred years later, Columbia
became a research university," a change that was characterized by, among other things, the creation of new departments and disciplines, the establishment of "crosscutting centers and institutes," and the decision to grant the Ph.D. Virtually every aspect of Columbia's current institutional identity--"who gets tenured, what courses we teach, what students we take in, what degrees we offer"--can be traced to that metamorphosis. By the same token, Prewitt expects that one day, every aspect of Columbia's identity will derive at least
Paul LeClerc, continued
spoke a distinctive patois of FrenchCanadian French and American English as a child. After attending Catholic school in Queens, he enrolled at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts, where he came under the sway of Father Alfred Desautels, a Jesuit professor who was himself of French Canadian descent. It was Desautels who introduced LeClerc to Voltaire (Candide was on the church's index of prohibited books at the time, and LeClerc had to petition the Bishop of Worcester for permission to read it); who advised him to study at the Sorbonne for a year after graduation, and to do his graduate work in French literature at either Columbia or Yale; and who inspired him to become a French professor at a small liberal
arts college--in LeClerc's case, Union College, in Schenectady, New York. LeClerc went on to a series of academic and administrative posts at the City University of New York-- "I wanted to work for a city university dedicated to providing access to underserved groups," he says-- before taking the reins of the NYPL in 1993, leaving a trail of international programs in his wake: he directed study-abroad programs in France while at Union; established student exchanges between Baruch, Hunter, and various French schools; and helped to create the CUNY-Universitйs de Paris Exchange Program--the first large-scale exchange between an American public university system and
a European one, and one of the few accomplishments in which LeClerc will admit to taking pride, mainly because it gave students of modest means the opportunity to study in Paris at no extra cost. At the NYPL, LeClerc forged special relationships with institutions in Russia and Brazil, and mounted exhibits in New York with help from the British Library in London and the Bibliothиque nationale de France in Paris. He has similar plans for the Global Center | Europe. In addition to maintaining Reid Hall's historic focus on teaching and research, LeClerc would like to create a "whole new generation of programs having to do with European affairs"--programs that need not take
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in part from its status as a global university. "We're about where the University was in 1860 with respect to becoming a research university," he says. Within 25 years, Prewitt believes that Columbia will be one of a half-dozen truly global American universities; within 50, "we will take for granted that our students will have experiences around the world." The Centers represent but one part of that transformation. But they have a crucial role to play, and their potential has yet to be fully realized. Those involved with the Centers typically stress that the
most powerful aspect of the network is that it is, in fact, a network; yet they have only just begun to leverage the system as a whole. Amman and Istanbul might hold a joint workshop; Beijing and Mumbai might both participate in the Global Scholars Program. But these are limited collaborations, whereas Masri and his fellow directors envision much more ambitious exchanges involving multiple Centers. Wrigley, at GSAPP, believes that such exchanges will help turn the University from a place where "brilliant people and ideas come together and are sent off into the
world" into an institution characterized by the kind of "distributed intelligence" that is more relevant to a globalized world. "I think the Global Centers are quietly putting in place the beginnings of what could be an almost explosively rich series of forms of teaching, of exchanging knowledge, of learning, of laboratory work," he says. "Over time, very beautiful things will come out of this."
Prewitt expects that one day, every aspect of Columbia's identity will derive at least in part from its status as a global university.
place in Paris but might instead involve working with archives and institutions across the Continent. For example, students interested in exploring the European financial crisis could, with Center support, gain access to the finance ministries of Germany, Greece, and Spain. LeClerc would also like to mount public programs similar to those he encouraged at NYPL, and to engage in collaborations with other Global Centers. In a move that would scratch both itches at once, he is currently planning a global writers' festival for October 2013. He has already approached the Bibliothиque nationale about cosponsoring the festival and asked the directors of the other seven
Centers to suggest prominent authors, making the event "one of the first products of the entire network."
one that LeClerc, who speaks of his "immense gratitude" to Columbia, felt he couldn't refuse.
In the meantime, LeClerc intends to confer with the Center's faculty steering committee to produce a strategic plan for the latest iteration of Columbia's presence in Europe. "The academic enterprise is owned by the faculty," he says, sounding like the veteran scholar that he is. "I need them to decide what they want to do with this place over the next five years."
"I never would have done this if any other university had asked me," he says.
It sounds like a lot of work, and a hefty commitment, for a man who just a year ago thought that he was retiring in order to write a book. But when Dirks made his lunchtime offer, it was evidently
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Taking the Classroom Out of the Academy By Sadia Latifi
On a chilly evening in late November, 12 students gathered in a Union Square seminar room to consider the works of Franz Kafka in the context of critiques from Max Brod and Walter Benjamin. Cookies, wine, and beer were at the center of the table to stimulate cerebral conversation. The group at the Center for Jewish History
were game for the debate. The twenty-, thirty-, forty-, and fifty-somethings easily spoke one after the other, and the instructor redirected off-topic conversations smoothly and posed new lines of inquiry to the group. For two hours, the group never ran out of subjects to talk about, and there was only one student who dozed off a few times. As far as seminars go, this seemed ideal. Started by a Columbia Ph.D. candidate, the Brooklyn Institute for Social Research is in its second year, offering a rigorous liberal arts curriculum at a fee to anyone in the city. The result? A university-like learning environment without competition among students, who receive no
promise of a grade, degree, or job for taking the classes. "I cannot believe the level of participation," said founder Ajay Chaudhary, M.A. '07, M.Phil. '08, and a Ph.D. candidate at the Institute for Comparative Literature and Society through the Department of Middle East, South Asian, and African Studies. "There is an eagerness to continue the conversation after class is over, and that is the kind of reaction undergrads don't always have the opportunity to give." Chaudhary came up with the idea in November 2011. He was a preceptor for Contemporary Civilization, one of Columbia's Core Curriculum classes for undergraduates. In the class, students read some of the best-known works of Western philosophy. "Undergraduate liberal arts indicates a special phase of a young person's life," he said. "When I told people about teaching the Core, they would often say, `I wish I could take something like that.'"
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Left: Ajay Chaudhary lectures in an early Brooklyn Institute class session. Right: An Institute class discusses Walter Benjamin's The Arcades Project.
He connected with a few other instructors to gauge interest. He found bars in Brooklyn to host classes. Chaudhary taught the Institute's first two courses: Politics of the City, which focused on Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics, and Shocks and Phantasmagoria: Walter Benjamin and The Arcades Project. The Institute rapidly received media attention: writeups in The New York Times, The New Yorker, New York magazine, Inside Higher Ed, and Capital New York all ran during the initial term of courses. Participation in the Institute's classes has grown every semester, and four classes are now being taught on a rolling schedule, including the Institute's first mathematics course and courses taught in partnership with other academic and cultural institutions in the city. "We put together a microcosm of a university without a university," Chaudhary said.
A Counterpoint to Digital The Institute runs as a strong countercurrent to the massive open online course (MOOC) movement, where open education online allows students anywhere in the world to access course material without paying a cent. MOOCs offer a different learning experience, too-- mediated by screens and with little personal interaction with other students. "I don't think what we do is technically feasible online," he said. "I think online education is great for certain kinds of subjects, but I don't think it's a magical panacea for all the problems in the academy. What we're trying to do in our classes is closer to the formalized, rigorous, but engaged and communicative style of an academic seminar." He added: "We try to leverage technology in the opposite direction, to help build in-person classroom and social environments for scholarly conversation and exchange."
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Core Institute faculty member Abby Kluchin, Ph.D. '12, Religion, agreed.
past means the material can take new turns in discussion.
"No one has figured out the humanities online yet. It can't just be a professor lecturing at a video camera, because then you lose the sense of engagement and excitement--and the ability to create a genuine intellectual community," she said. "That's only possible in the context of an in-person classroom experience." Indeed, many MOOC models steer clear of humanities courses because of the difficulty in interpreting material and facilitating meaningful conversation when students can log in and out as they choose. Udacity, Coursera, and EdX seem so far to have refrained from offering courses with heavy reading material and discussion groups. Students attracted to the Institute seem to agree that it offers something online classes can't. "I'm just not convinced that I can get the same intellectual energy from an online course," said Rachel Sugar, 27, a writer who took the Kafka, Brod, and Benjamin course. "I wasn't taking the class to learn a specific skill--I was looking for a sort of highly structured reading group. My goal wasn't to `learn Kafka' but to talk about and think about a bunch of texts and ideas with people who also wanted to do that, and while I can imagine all kinds of possible online discussion boards and email lists to do that, I'm not sure it engenders the same kind of community or rigor." The digital education boom has arrived at a moment when many universities, particularly public institutions funded by state governments, are encountering economic pressures and an emphasis on outcomes--an emphasis that privileges certain courses, especially those in the STEM fields, which teach students "real-world" skills that can advance their careers. "Liberal arts is kind of being dismantled and people are dissuaded from taking those classes and into choosing more `applicable' fields," Chaudhary said. "Liberal arts is not a double for humanities, and it includes sciences and social sciences. What it helps you do is to discern information. If you don't have that, you don't have the skill to qualitatively deal with those issues." Pedagogical Freedom
"You're hard pressed to create a sense of wonder for 35-year-olds," Kluchin said. "At 30, 40, 50, you've read more books, and you've acquired different knowledge sets. A lot of the sessions may include the same questions and conversations, but everyone's approaching it from a different perspective." These are not appreciation classes or free-form discussions, Kluchin said. Classes often push people out of comfort zones, and her job is to help guide this conversation and share key insights. She taught a class on Freud and made it clear to students that they were not attending a six-week therapy session. "People stay on task because they want to," she said. Chaudhary added: "People rise to the occasion. We've had students come without prerequisites or any educational background on the subject, and it's also still fruitful for those who want to add to what they've already learned." It's been a diverse group so far, instructors said, with students from many class, racial, and educational backgrounds, including students who didn't attend college. The Institute also has several repeat students who bring their friends and spread the word about classes. "The Institute has a remarkable feeling of camaraderie," Sugar said. "Everyone's doing it for the pleasure of doing it, because there's no prize at the end--there's no grade, there's no degree, there's no job, etc. There's nothing to compete for." Kluchin mentioned comments from a Columbia graduate student who took a class at the Institute. "She said, `We don't have to perform here,'" Kluchin recalled. "It's less about having to prove your intelligence and more about open discussion and learning."
One significant characteristic of Institute classes is the presence of older students. While the Institute's classes don't require any previous knowledge of the material, knowing that some students may have had exposure in the
The Institute also provides adjunct instructors with the opportunity to design their own course. "You get to be a student again, and it's very freeing,"
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"The Institute has a remarkable feeling of camaraderie. Everyone's doing it for the pleasure of doing it, because there's no prize at the end--there's no grade, there's no degree, there's no job, etc. There's nothing to compete for."--Rachel Sugar
move to control the scope of the project--the Institute's founders believe that having accredited, expert teachers in the room lends credibility to the entire operation.
A meeting of the Institute's Politics of the City class.
"When you work for six or seven years as a Ph.D. student, one of the things we are trained to do is facilitate discussion," Kluchin said. "We think there's a certain skills and knowledge base that we've learned. And we care about teaching."
Kluchin said. "We give TAs and adjuncts this opportunity . . . take a paper and think of how you want to add to it and pitch it as a class. This is not artisanal education, or DIY. This is just a response to the perception that the opportunities for what we all want to do are vanishing." Chaudhary added: "We're presenting ourselves as a selfsustaining alternative place where scholarship can be done."
This year, the Institute is partnering with the GoetheInstitut, the Center for Jewish History, and the Barnard Center for Research on Women to co-host classes. "It seemed like a good way to get feminist theory to a new audience and to bring a new audience to feminist theory," said Janet Jakobsen, chair of the Barnard Center for Research on Women.
There is also the potential for instructors to earn serious side income, an important consideration as traditional, tenure-track opportunities shrink.
She added: "Courses like these are for people who find learning to be life enriching--not just for its product but for its process."
Eighty percent of a course's tuition goes to that instructor, a far greater return than lecturers can make teaching within the University, according to Chaudhary. Most classes last six weeks, cost around $300, and are capped at 20 students. Wayne Proudfoot, professor of religion, praises the model.
And while the course material isn't online, the Institute still takes advantage of technology to spread their mission. They shoot video trailers to promote their classes, record a regular podcast, and are undertaking a huge archiving project to digitize hundreds of hard-to-find, out-of-print texts for others to use.
"It is . . . perhaps a response to questions that good graduate students often have as to how they can do something with their research and teaching in addition to the work they do in the academy," he said. "These questions are becoming a bit more pressing now with fewer job opportunities available, especially in the humanities, but they don't arise only from that." While there's no certificate to receive at the end--a deliberate
"There is a crisis in the academy. What we do is in danger of being lost or unrecognizable," Chaudhary said. "What is an absolute myth is that people, particularly Americans, are anti-intellectual. That's complete BS. That is just a reaction to what we're presented with in the current system." "We wanted to maintain all the good things we like about the academy, and we can help demonstrate that it isn't just crazy-old institutions that can do this," he said.
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Circuits Crossing: Finding Claude McKay in the Archives By Dylan Suher For nearly 70 years, pressed between the covers of a ratty black binder and shunted into a file box in the Samuel Roth papers, sandwiched between legal records, correspondences personal and professional, hastily scribbled half-brained schemes, and vaguely bawdy etchings, the last manuscript of fiction by the great Harlem Renaissance writer Claude McKay lay in dusty repose, untouched and unknown--until a very lucky Columbia graduate student, Jean-Christophe Cloutier, stumbled upon it and recognized it for what it was. It was--to say the least--an unexpected encounter.
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The significance of the find is undeniable: Cloutier struck academic gold. "It just does not happen that great modernist writers have complete texts of novels that are just sitting somewhere," said Brent Hayes Edwards, M.A. '92, Ph.D. '98, and a scholar of African diasporic literature in Columbia's Department of English and Comparative Literature as well as Cloutier's adviser. But beyond the drama, the rediscovery of McKay's novel Amiable with Big Teeth: A Novel of the Love Affair Between the Communists and the Poor Black Sheep of Harlem is a story about the relationships that lie hidden in the papers; as Edwards puts it, the "circuits" of different lives "crossing." It's a story about the existences that dedicated archivists and scholars reconstruct every day, bit by bit. It's a story of the archives. a Jean-Christophe Cloutier (JC for short) converses with a casual puckishness that belies the depth of his knowledge on AfricanAmerican literature. He smiles warmly and is quick to crack a joke; when he is particularly enthusiastic about a point, he is given to making exaggerated gestures, causing his unruly mass of curly black hair to flop over on his forehead.
As a French-speaking native of Quebec, AfricanAmerican literature spoke to Cloutier. "Something about Quebec that people don't realize is that Quebec was a colonized nation," he says. "In that sense, the [AfricanAmerican] voice really spoke to a certain experience, although I didn't realize it until years later." During his time as an undergraduate at Concordia University in Montreal, he became obsessed with a theory that Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man could be read as a superhero comic ("like Batman, or Superman or something . . . Invisible Man!"). Although there were a few references to comic books in Invisible Man, Cloutier had no solid proof linking Ellison to comic books. Motivated to prove the theory, he read up on both Ellison and the history of comics. Cloutier eventually proved, through archival material, that Ellison had worked with and been influenced by the ideas of Dr. Fredric Wertham, a psychiatrist who had studied the effects of comic books on youth. "When I first saw the connection, I got very excited and eventually my first published article was on that," Cloutier recalls. "I ended up in the archive to legitimate my reading. That's the only thing that would let people believe this crazy theory."
Convinced of the power of the archive, Cloutier applied for and received an internship with Columbia's Rare Books and Manuscript Library, as part of an innovative program designed by the library and funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to train graduate students in archival techniques. Graduate students like Cloutier are trained to aid the library in processing collections in which they would have subject-area expertise. The graduate students, in turn, gain a methodological edge for their dissertation research and are prepared (if they're lucky) to make discoveries like the Amiable manuscript. Cloutier was originally slated to process the papers of C. L. R. James, the renowned Afro-Trinidadian historian and theorist, but he was forced to choose another collection when the James papers suddenly became unavailable for processing. Cloutier chose to process the papers of Samuel Roth, the first person to dare to publish James Joyce's Ulysses in the United States. a The enterprising Roth was an independent publisher with a reliable sense for the best of Modernism. His first magazine, Two Worlds, claimed such luminaries as Ezra Pound and Ford
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As a French-speaking native of Quebec, AfricanAmerican literature spoke to Cloutier. "Something about Quebec that people don't realize is that Quebec was a colonized nation," he says. "In that sense, the [African-American] voice really spoke to a certain experience, although I didn't realize it until years later." Link back to contents page
Processing the Roth collection meant sorting through and cataloging a motley set of materials. "It's his prison letters, family photos, publisher notes, manuscripts by other people, little gimmicks (buy this book, get this razor blade), giant posters of scantily clad women, publishing blocks, a lot of hardcore material history of an independent publisher," Cloutier says.
Madox Ford as editors; Ulysses was serialized in its pages. Roth was also a fearless warrior against censorship throughout his life, going to jail twice for publishing Modernist fiction considered obscene by the authorities. The Supreme Court
decision that dramatically limited the scope of what could be considered obscene, Roth v. United States, bears his name. Roth's legacy, however, is far from unalloyed. His right to publish Ulysses was dubious: while recent scholarship suggests that Pound, acting as a proxy for Joyce, granted Roth permission to publish, Roth's belief that such permission remained valid when he finally did serialize the work--three years later--was questionable at best. In any case, Joyce was so enraged by what he considered the unauthorized publication that he immortalized Roth in Finnegans Wake: "Rothim! . . .With his unique hornbook and his prince of aupauper's pride, blundering all over the two world." At the behest of his authorized publisher, Sylvia Beach, he instigated an unprecedented "International Protest," signed by more than 167 writers, which permanently blacklisted Roth among the High Modernists.
Furthermore, not all of Roth's work shared Ulysses' distinguished literary pedigree. Roth was also the proud publisher of such works as Jews Must Live, an anti-Semitic tract penned by the Jewish Roth that was later used as propaganda by the Nazis; a "biography" of Herbert Hoover that implicated the president in slave trading and murder; and an unauthorized sequel to Lady Chatterley's Lover entitled Lady Chatterley's Husbands. "My wife is also in English lit and had done some research on Roth, and we got to talking about Roth and I remembered that Columbia just acquired his papers. She said `You should try to see if they have the papers ready,'" Cloutier explains. "It's pretty ironic, in the end. They wanted me to process something from their backlog of black literature collections; I decided to do Samuel Roth; I ended up working on a black writer." a Processing the Roth collection meant sorting through and cataloging a motley set of materials. "It's his prison letters, family photos, publisher notes, manuscripts by other people, little gimmicks (buy this book, get this razor blade), giant posters of scantily clad women,
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publishing blocks, a lot of hardcore material history of an independent publisher," Cloutier says. Cloutier spent the summer of 2009 and much of the 20092010 academic year on a bench in the Rare Books and Manuscript Library, methodically going through box after box of papers, letters, magazines, and manuscripts. Archival processing is extremely routinized work: Cloutier would remove each artifact from the original boxes, date it, examine it, and write a concise description for the library finding aid. For a large collection like Roth's (54 boxes, measuring 25 feet when lined up end to end), the process can take weeks. Roth had bound most of his manuscripts into paperstaining, store-bought black binders, which was how the Amiable manuscript had remained undiscovered for so long. "It looked like pretty much everything else that was in there," Cloutier says. As part of processing, Cloutier had to take each manuscript out of the binders and transfer it to archival-quality acid-free folders. It was in the midst of this menial task that he came across Amiable. "It was so unexpected. I had been doing this for hours already. I saw the cover and thought, Oh man, this is
amazing. I had done some research on McKay but had never heard of anything like [Amiable]. I thought maybe I hadn't read enough, that my research wasn't good enough," Cloutier recalls. "I turned to my buddy Aaron, who was another archival intern, and said, `Hey, there's a McKay novel in here, man.' He said, `Oh, I didn't read that one.' I said, `Yeah, me neither.' No one admits that you don't know it exists." Cloutier was intrigued, but unsure he had found anything at all. In any case, he didn't have time to read the manuscript; he had to continue processing. He spent the next few weeks trying to find information on the novel and was puzzled when he found nothing: "I thought, Oh, this is a dark period [in McKay's life], maybe there's just not a lot written about it. The title is unusual enough that you'd expect it to pop out. But no, I couldn't find anything." Stumped, he casually brought the manuscript up in conversation with Edwards during office hours
. "He's a McKay scholar, and I figured, if anyone would know, it'd be him," Cloutier explains. "But he was surprised and said, `No, I haven't heard about that, are you sure?'" "From there it quickly
became very exciting," Cloutier says. He had apparently found a manuscript that had been lost to history for half a century. a The Jamaican-born Claude McKay was fortunate enough to be a writer of his time. McKay's work heralded the New Negro Renaissance, better known as the Harlem Renaissance: a literary movement in the 1920s dedicated to producing and promoting works about African Americans
, by African Americans. His 1928 fiction debut, Home to Harlem, was the first bestseller of the movement. His novel Banjo, a picaresque of black dock bums set in Marseilles during the interwar period, was so influential to Aimй Cйsaire and Leopold Senghor, writers of the French black nationalist Nйgritude movement, that they could recite passages by heart. In a letter to McKay in 1925, Langston Hughes called McKay "still the best of the colored poets and [he] probably will be for the next century." While McKay's work is strongly identified with the Harlem Renaissance, he was entirely absent from Harlem during the era. He lived in Harlem for a brief but formative period during World War I but left in 1921
for England. Like many black intellectuals between the wars, McKay was attracted to Communism by its strong professed commitment to racial equality. He traveled to Moscow for the Fourth Congress of the Communist International, and although he was not a member of any official delegation or even a party member, he managed to talk his way into addressing the congress and having a private audience with Leon Trotsky. McKay left the USSR in 1923 and spent the next ten years living in France, Spain, and Morocco, returning to New York only in 1934, well after the heyday of the Renaissance. McKay himself felt apart from the movement. "McKay met most of the major figures of the period in France, and in his autobiography, in 1937, he says, `I'm glad I wasn't there, I didn't really like a lot of those guys, they're elitists, I didn't want to be part of that, I'd rather hang out with the guys on the beach in Marseilles,'" Edwards says. McKay was indeed a difficult personality. He was a contrarian who loved to argue, he could turn viciously on even close friends in an instant, and he often needled his friends for loans to get him through financial straits.
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"He was this demanding, complicated guy," remarks Diana Lachatanere, curator of the Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Books Division at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture at the New York Public Library, who manages the McKay estate on behalf of the heirs. "A very critical mind--not just critical, but critiquing and reading people." McKay struggled to find a home, both geographically and intellectually. He traveled ceaselessly and veered from Anglophilia in his youth to international Communism to a late-inlife conversion to Roman Catholicism
. It was McKay
who described himself best, in the guise of Ray, an urbane black intellectual in his novel Banjo: "A vagabond poet . . . determined, courageous and proud in his swarthy skin, quitting jobs when he wanted to go on a dream wish or a love drunk, without being beholden to anybody." Until Cloutier found the Amiable manuscript, scholars had thought that McKay's last work was "Romance in Marseilles", an unpublished manuscript in the Schomburg Center's McKay collection, written a full fifteen years before McKay's death. For Edwards, the existence of a later work of fiction by
McKay made sense: "I'd always wondered why McKay would have stopped writing fiction. I knew that he had lived in poverty and suffered from health problems in the decade before his death in 1948. But it always struck me as strange that he would have stopped writing fiction entirely. Now we know that he didn't." Amiable with Big Teeth is a satire and conspiracy thriller filled with the swirling eddies of late 1930s Harlem politics: Communist co-option, the Popular Front, the black reaction to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia. It reflects the growing anti-
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"If it had been published, I think--I'd like to think--that people would have realized what he was really trying to say," Cloutier says. "He's matured as a novelist. It's sad that it didn't get published: Langston Hughes always said he was a master prose stylist, and this would have proved it."
Communist sentiments of McKay's later years, as well as the detailed ethnographies of Harlem McKay wrote for the Federal Writers Project. The novel is a veritable missing link: both for black writing and politics during the thirties and for Claude McKay's evolution as a writer. "We know a good deal about black politics in the Depression and Popular Front era, but there aren't many fictional portraits of black intellectual life in New York in the late 1930s; I don't know of anything as rich and multilayered as Amiable with Big Teeth," Edwards writes. "If it had been published, I think--I'd like to think-- that people would have realized what he was really trying to say," Cloutier says. "He's matured as a novelist. It's sad that it didn't get published: Langston
Hughes always said he was a master prose stylist, and this would have proved it." a But before they could comfortably claim Amiable as the last novel by Claude McKay, Edwards and Cloutier would have to prove it. The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, which manages the McKay literary estate, insisted on the authentication of the manuscript. "There was something that Brent said, it was as though he was asking us to write a blurb, that made me realize, wait wait wait--all we have is your statement that this is an authentic manuscript. We need further proof," Lachatanere recalls. And that would entail returning to the archives. Knowing that the manuscript was likely written in the early forties,
Edwards and Cloutier spent two years combing through the papers of McKay and every person and organization with whom he might have corresponded in that time period--papers that were stored in archives scattered across the United States. "There's a kind of detective aspect." Cloutier says of the authentication process, "Especially when you go to an archive where you don't live and you stay at some cheap motel or something, it really feels like you're on a case." But for the scholar, the witnesses are dead, the perp will never confess, and there may not even be a case to crack. Much of the work Edwards and Cloutier did in the archive was interpretive: rather than revealing the already existing truth, they had to find the narrative based solely on scattered materials and isolated hints, reconstructing the life of McKay in the hopes of
understanding the period in which he wrote Amiable. As reconstructed by Cloutier and Edwards, the period in which McKay wrote Amiable was the nadir of his life. After the success of Home to Harlem and Banjo, his short story collection Gingertown and his novel Banana Bottom sold miserably. Out of money, he returned to America from Europe, where he eked out a meager living through the Federal Writers Project, a New Dealera program to support writers during the Depression. At the FWP, he was surrounded by younger radical writers (most notably Richard Wright) who were constantly at odds with the now anti-Communist McKay. At the end of 1941 McKay fell gravely ill, and a friend discovered him in wretched condition in his small basement apartment in Harlem. Cloutier and
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Here's a guy who was misunderstood by his fellow artists, derided and criticized for being an isolationist, for not working with the program, for being old and passй. Among McKay and his friends, there was this great sense of hope around the novel, and knowing that it didn't happen is very sad. I always kind of want to defend him; any detractor, I want to say, `You don't know his story, man.'"
Edwards surmise that the previous summer, publisher E. P. Dutton had rejected Amiable, a novel that they had commissioned, which may have led McKay to submit the manuscript to Roth. After an initial round of highly enthusiastic correspondence with his lifelong friend Max Eastman, the novel is never mentioned again ("Perhaps it was a sore spot," Cloutier speculates). McKay next wrote Eastman only in 1942, asking him to come visit him in the hospital. "I look all right on the outside," McKay wrote Eastman. Through the process of intensively researching his life, Cloutier began to feel personally close to McKay. "I'm very attached to the 1941-and-beyond Claude McKay," Cloutier says, "I'm a sap for this kind of old man story. Here's a guy who was misunderstood by his fellow artists, derided and criticized for being an isolationist, for not working with the program, for being old and passй. Among McKay and his friends, there was this great sense of hope around the novel, and knowing that it didn't happen is very sad. I always kind of want to defend him; any detractor, I want to say, `You don't know his story, man.'" As Cloutier and Edwards combed the archives and
assembled the letters and materials linked to the manuscript, the full story of Amiable began to emerge. Characters and plot points from the novel were echoed by real people and events from the time when McKay would have been writing. Moreover, much of the novel is informed by events documented in the Federal Writers Project archive, files to which only the FWP writers would have had access. The most convincing piece of evidence came in a letter written by Max Eastman, praising the novel that was not to be. Eastman offers much encouragement and proceeds to quote a few sentences that precisely match those in the novel. In the world of scholarship, where there can be frustratingly few definitive answers, this letter was practically a smoking gun. a McKay's authorship of the manuscript is proven, but the work of interpretation is just beginning. Edwards used the experience of authenticating the manuscript, along with 10 years spent tracking down the story of a mysterious photo found in the McKay papers, to write a prolonged meditation on archives for the journal Callaloo. "Part of what the archive teaches you is how much
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you don't know. Nobody even knew that McKay and this guy Roth knew each other, much less that they had any kind of working relationship," Edwards says. He points out that many important relationships-- close friendships, neighbors, office mates-- don't leave the kind of paper trail (letters, memos, or even photos) that end up in the archive. As a result, some stories are simply lost to history. "There are crucial paths, in terms of the lived experience of these historical figures, that the archive doesn't register," Edwards says. "You realize how much of a fiction it is: this idea that you can think about networks, that you can say these people were close collaborators or close friends. You realize how little we know as positive truth." Cloutier is parlaying his experience in the archives into his doctoral dissertation. The dissertation examines the work of McKay, Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Jack Kerouac
, and Patricia Highsmith, arguing that the work of these writers, much of which is strongly associated with improvisation, can actually be characterized as a form of archiving information and experience. The novel, Cloutier believes, completes the historical record found
within the archives. "One reason I love literature is that it's a counter-archive, it's a counter-archive that recuperates figures who would otherwise slip through the cracks of history and there they are, to be remembered and to be thought about," Cloutier says. "By celebrating figures that postwar America would prefer shutting its eyes to, literature, in time, forces these sites of power to realize and acquiesce, to say, `All right, let the weirdo in.'" Through his dissertation, he hopes to clear up misconceptions about archives and about literary scholarship: "I've been on both sides of the desk now--as an archivist, and as the researcher asking for the box. One of the driving forces behind my dissertation is to try and bridge the differences." The archive, Cloutier argues, is neither simply the librarian's "papers in a box" nor the scholar's "romantic repository for all things lost." It's a site of tremendous recuperative historical power--but it will always need the interpretive fictions of scholars and artists to make it come to life. The curators, librarians, and archivists, meanwhile, continue the essential but unassuming routines of keeping history. They are tasked with recognizing collections of importance
to history and scholarship and actively building the historical record. The archivist strikes a difficult intellectual balance: creating order among disparate materials and information without imposing a false narrative. Diana Lachatanere continues to manage the McKay literary estate, along with her other duties as a curator and the assistant director for collections and services at the Schomburg Center. After decades in the profession, she still feels a strong sense of duty. "This nation's story is the individual's story multiplied," she says. "Those of us who choose to work in special collections understand that our duty is to protect those individual stories." While there will always be a need for scholars to understand and interpret what lies in the archive, the papers and artifacts that represent the lives of human beings keep coming in--and they need someone to sort, keep, and protect them. It was thanks to the painstaking work of the curators at Columbia's Rare Books and Manuscript Library--curators who recognized the value of the Samuel Roth collection, who assiduously courted the Roth family during the process of acquiring the papers, and helped to maintain the papers until
they could be processed-- who ensured that the collection was preserved for history. That the Roth papers remained preserved for 70 years verges on the miraculous and is due solely to the hard work and perspicacity of the curators. Librarians and curators are faced with a Herculean task that at times seems Sisyphean: with limited funding and staffing, and new material being produced every day, they must identify, process, and preserve the raw stuff of history. At current staffing levels, it would take about twelve years to process the backlog of unprocessed archival collections; meanwhile, new collections come in every year, in hundred-box increments. The importance of this daily effort cannot be underestimated. The archive remains one of the last places in modern life where the products of the human mind are treated as sacred. Elsewhere the documents are shredded, the library is sold off, the files are deleted. But in the archive, through the daily efforts of archivists, our society pays tribute to the value of the lives that people have led and the traces they have left behind.
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Alumni News | Graduate School of Arts & Sciences 30 Alumni Profile 32 Alumni Profile 34 On the Shelf 38 Dissertations 46 Announcements 48 In Memoriam 51 Helpful Links
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Maria Konnikova M.A. '10, M.Phil. '11, Ph.D. '13, Psychology Interview by Dylan Suher
What got you initially interested in psychology and what drew you to study the subject? I think it was a combination of factors; it's hard to identify one single reason, but part of it certainly had to do with my early fascination with language. I moved to the United States when I was four, and when I started kindergarten, which was just a few months after I arrived, I didn't speak a word of English. I remember kindergarten incredibly well because there was this disconnect between what I was feeling and thinking and my ability to communicate what I was feeling and thinking to everyone else. I think that made me conscious from a very early age of these concepts that you tend to take for granted: language, communication, cognition.
After graduating from Harvard, you enjoyed a successful career as a television producer for Charlie Rose and then as a science journalist, writing weekly columns on psychology for Scientific American, running the "Artful Choice" blog for Big Think, and writing freelance for The Atlantic, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal, among other publications. Why did you feel that it was important to return to school for a graduate degree? I wanted to return to school because I felt that you could learn about psychology at a much deeper level as a graduate student: you can do the research, you can try to get to the bottom of how these things work. I find the academic environment incredibly stimulating intellectually. To be at the forefront of all of this research is just pretty wonderful.
Your debut book, Mastermind: How to Think Like Sherlock Holmes, released by Viking in January, uses the stories of Sherlock Holmes to explore and elucidate contemporary neuroscientific/psychological theories of observation, memory, and attention. In the book, you distill the psychological principles of the Sherlock Holmes investigative method into a "Holmes System" of cognition, as opposed to the "Watson System" of cognition we use every day. What distinguishes "System Holmes" from "System Watson"? I think that the difference between "System Holmes" and "System Watson" is this difference between mindfulness and mindlessness. "System Watson" is much quicker to judge, much more mindless, much more spur-of-the-moment, and doesn't take up nearly as many cognitive resources. "System Holmes" is much
more effortful, much slower, much more mindful, but it also takes up more cognitive resources and it is more effortful, so you have to strike a balance between the two. As someone who is currently engaged in the formal scientific study of psychology, it must be a challenge to try and find the right metaphors to make what you do comprehensible to a popular audience. How do you find the right balance in translating science for the layman? My background isn't just in psychology, it's also in creative writing--as an undergraduate, I also graduated with a fiction portfolio. It's something I've done my whole life and it's something I love doing. The more you write, the easier it becomes to try to find the right words, the right metaphors, and the right images. That said, it is a constant balance: I can't always be telling the full
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story with all the nuance of the research, because then no one would read it--there would be no narrative. I make choices along the way, so that I'm still able to tell an engaging story while remaining relatively fair to the science. I understand that I'm always going to have cranky academics mad at me for "misrepresenting the research," and I'm fine with that; I think it's inevitable.
What are you working on now? My next book is going to be a novel. I had finished the first draft of it before I started Mastermind, and I need to revise it. I'm hoping to do that after I do my Ph.D. dissertation work, on the ties between self-control and the illusion of control. I do have my next nonfiction project lined up as well after that. That's also going to be
psychology related, but not Sherlock Holmes related. Interview has been condensed and edited; read the full interview on the GSAS website.
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Leonard Cole M.A. '65, Ph.D. '70, Political Science Interview by Dylan Suher
How and why did you come to study political science at Columbia? Since my teens I've had a keen interest in both science and public affairs. After receiving a B.A. in political science from the University of California at Berkeley, I returned (for family reasons) to northern New Jersey. Attracted by Columbia's reputation for all-around excellence, I pursued graduate studies in its Department of Political Science (then called the Department of Public Law and Government). You are a pioneer of a relatively new discipline within the United States, "terror medicine." Could you talk a little bit about the origin of the field? What does terror medicine encompass? Terror medicine overlaps with emergency and
disaster medicine, but also bears a singular focus on preparedness, incident management, nature of injuries, and psychological effects. Its emergence as a distinctive field began in Israel about ten years ago during a period of heightened Palestinian terrorism. While developing an earlier book on how Israel has coped with terrorism, I met several Israeli health professionals and have since collaborated with some of them in further developing the field. (I hold a doctorate in dental medicine in addition to my Ph.D. in political science.) Your latest book, Local Planning for Terror and Disaster: From Bioterrorism to Earthquakes, published by Wiley-Blackwell last year, resulted from discussions at a series of symposia for terror medicine that you coordinated at the University of Medicine and
Dentistry of New Jersey, which involved experts in the field from Israel, the United States, and around the globe. Who do you hope to reach with this book and what lessons do you wish to impart? This book (co-edited with Nancy Connell, a colleague at UMDNJ, where I direct the Program on Terror Medicine and Security) should interest both professionals and lay people. Anyone could find him- or herself in a position to help during a terror or disaster event. With that possibility in mind, the book includes chapters on the potential roles of bystanders, survivors, and volunteers, as well as the roles played by physicians, paramedics, police, and other professionals.
How can bystanders aid in the immediate response to a terror or disaster event, and how can government agencies and responder groups make use of bystanders? Bystanders and uninjured survivors could perform a variety of important functions: reporting the event, helping to triage casualties, caring for the walking wounded, assisting in traffic control, strengthening security, and evacuating casualties to medical facilities. Some of these chores could begin prior to the arrival of professional responders, which could take several minutes or much longer. Unfortunately, bystander assistance is not part of disaster planning in some jurisdictions, although it should be.
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Leonard Cole, left, with Larry Bush, M.D.
You recently testified on WMD nonproliferation and terror preparedness before the US House of Representatives
Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence. How did your research and your training in political science and public health inform your testimony before the subcommittee? I have been teaching, researching, and writing about terrorism issues, especially bioterrorism, for more than 25 years. Early last year I was invited to serve on the Aspen Institute's working
group on WMD terrorism. Having helped write and edit the working group's recent report, I was asked to present our findings at a November hearing of the House Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence. An apt observation has been made that biological terrorism is public health in reverse. As I wrote in response to follow-up questions posed by the committee chairman, "It is no more possible to completely eliminate bioterrorism as a threat than to completely eliminate infectious disease. That said,
bio-threats can certainly be reduced and become less appealing to would-be perpetrators." What motivates you to stay involved with the Graduate School of Arts and Science Alumni Association? What are your goals for your time on the board? My board activity is a tacit expression of appreciation for my Columbia education. My fellow board members, an interesting mix with varied academic and professional backgrounds, are a pleasure to work with. My principal goal during my
time on the board has been one that I believe is held as well by the other members: to strengthen Columbia's position as a world-class university. Interview has been condensed and edited; read the full interview on the GSAS website.
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On the Shelf Faculty Publications
Define and Rule: Native as Political Identity Mahmood Mamdani, Anthropology Using the Sudan as a case study, Mahmood Mamdani explores how lines were drawn between settler and native as distinct political identities and between natives according to tribe, delineations that continue to have resonance in present-day Darfur. Animal Encounters: Contacts and Concepts in Medieval Britain Susan Crane, English and Comparative Literature Susan Crane examines cross-species encounters in medieval texts to show how intimate cohabitation with animals influenced medieval thought and practice.
Relire Mayotte Capйcia: Une Femme des Antilles dans l'espace colonial franзais Madeleine Dobie, French and Romance Philology With coauthor Myriam Cottias, Madeleine Dobie provides a critical re-edition of two novels by the Martinican writer Mayotte Capйcia, with an introductory essay that explores the novels' historical context: a convergence of race, gender, colonialism, and the Vichy regime. Go West, Young Women!: The Rise of Early Hollywood Hilary Hallett, History Hilary Hallett explores the women who left their hometowns for Hollywood in its early days, joining the nascent film industry as workers and spectators, a path that presaged later conflicts over modern gender roles.
The Timeline of Presidential Elections: How Campaigns Do (and Do Not) Matter Robert S. Erikson, Political Science Robert S. Erikson and coauthor Christopher Wlezien analyze polling data to illustrate how campaigns help shape voters' preferences and, ultimately, their decisions.
High Price: A Neuroscientist's Journey of SelfDiscovery That Challenges Everything You Know About Drugs and Society Carl Hart, Psychology In this memoir Carl Hart discusses both his own life growing up in Miami in the 1970s and '80s and the commonly held misperceptions about drug addiction that his research calls into question.
Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time Ira Katznelson, Political Science Ira Katznelson examines the New Deal from an international perspective to elucidate how the signature legislation altered the country domestically and internationally.
The Rise of Women: The Growing Gender Gap in Education and What It Means for American Schools Thomas DiPrete, Sociology With coauthor Claudia Buchmann, Thomas DiPrete investigates women's gains in higher education--women now outpace men academically, and obtain college and graduate degrees in greater numbers--and offers strategies to produce better academic outcomes for both boys and girls.
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On the Shelf ALU M NI P u b l i c a t i o n s
Naked Truth: Strip Clubs, Democracy, and a Christian Right Judith Lynne Hanna, M.A. '75, M.Phil '76, Ph.D. '76, Anthropology
When Stars Were in Reach: The Who at Union Catholic High School--November 29, 1967 Michael Rosenbloom, M.A. '77, Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures
Judith Lynne Hanna examines right-wing attacks on strip clubs to argue that such attacks are part of a larger initiative to undermine democracy.
Michael Rosenbloom recounts the true story of a group of students who managed to book The Who--not yet widely known in the United States--to play at their New Jersey high school.
Space Chronicles Neil deGrasse Tyson, M.Phil. '91, Ph.D. '92, Astronomy In the wake of NASA's shuttering of the space-shuttle program, Neil deGrasse Tyson outlines the history of space exploration and its wider relevance in the world at large.
China's Superbank: Debt, Oil and Influence--How China Development Bank Is Rewriting the Rules of Finance Henry Sanderson, M.A. '05, East Asian Languages and Cultures Writing with coauthor Michael Forsythe, Henry Sanderson traces the national and global influence of the China Development Bank, controlled by the Chinese government and now the world's largest development bank.
Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation Michael Pollan, M.A. '81, English and Comparative Literature In this meditation on nature and culture, Michael Pollan apprentices with culinary experts to study the relationship between cooking and the four classical elements: fire, water, air, and earth.
Napalm: An American Biography Robert Neer, M.A. '91, M.Phil. '07, Ph.D. '11, History Robert Neer offers a comprehensive history of napalm, from its creation at Harvard University in 1942 to President Barack Obama's signature in 2009 on the first U.S. treaty to limit its use.
Worldviews of Aspiring Powers: Domestic Foreign Policy Debates in China, India, Iran, Japan, and Russia Deepa N. Ollapally, M.Phil. '89, Ph.D. '91, Political Science Deepa Ollapally and coeditor Henry R. Nau provide a collection of essays written by leading regional scholars that analyze foreign-policy debates within some of the world's rising powers: China, Japan, India, Russia, and Iran.
Fugo Elizabeth Young, PhD. '74, Teachers College In Elizabeth Young's thriller, a group of terrorists try to carry out an updated version of one of Japan's unsuccessful World War II gambits--sending unmanned, bomb-carrying balloons (Fugo) across the Pacific Ocean into the United States.
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Dissertations Deposited Recently Anthropology Sivakumar Vairavanather Arumugam. Governing social bodies: Affect and number in contemporary cricket. Sponsor: Nicholas B. Dirks. Jon Horne Carter. Splendor of ruins: Gangs, state, and crime in Honduras. Sponsor: Michael Taussig. Kaori Hatsumi. War and grief, faith and healing in a Tamil Catholic fishing village in northern Sri Lanka. Sponsor: E. Valentine Daniel. APAM: Applied Physics Jeffrey Peter Levesque. Multimode structure of resistive wall modes near the ideal wall stability unit. Sponsor: Michael E. Mauel. Nikolaus Rath. GPU-based, microsecond latency, hecto-channel MIMO feedback control of magnetically confined plasmas. Sponsor: Michael E. Mauel. APAM: Materials Science and Engineering Monica Chahal. Mixed-phase solidification of thin silicon films on silicon dioxide. Sponsor: James S. Im. Min Hwan Choi. Pulsed-laser-induced melting and solidification of thin metallic films. Sponsor: James S. Im. Gabriel Seth Ganot. Laser crystallization of silicon thin films for three-dimensional integrated circuits. Sponsor: James S. Im. Architecture Patricio del Real. Building a continent: The idea of Latin American architecture in the early postwar. Sponsor: Reinhold Martin. Helen Elizabeth Gyger. The informal as a project: Self-help housing in Peru, 19541986. Sponsor: Reinhold Martin.
Art History and Archaeology Katherine Morris Boivin. Holy blood, holy cross: Architecture and devotion in the parochial complex of Rothenburg ob der Tauber. Sponsor: Stephen Murray. Roberta Casagrande-Kim. The journey to the underworld: Topography, landscape, and divine inhabitants of the Roman Hades. Sponsor: Richard Brilliant. Meredith Fluke. Building across the sacred landscape: The Romanesque churches of Verona in their urban context. Sponsor: Stephen Murray. Susan Elizabeth Kart. From direct carving to rйcupйration: The art of Moustapha Dimй in post-independence Senegal, 19741997. Sponsor: Zoл Strother. Katherine Eaton Kasdorf. Forming Dorasamudra: Temples of the Hoysaa capital in context. Sponsor: Vidya Dehejia. Risha Kim Lee. Constructing community: Tamil merchant temples in India and China, 8501281. Sponsor: Robert E. Harrist Jr. Joseph Faii Loh. When worlds collide: Art, cartography, and Japanese nanban world map screens. Sponsor: Robert E. Harrist Jr. Melissa Jordan Love. On Earth as it is in Heaven?: The creation of the bastide towns of southwest France. Sponsor: Stephen Murray. Astronomy Jana Marie Grcevich. Neutral hydrogen in Local Group dwarf galaxies. Sponsor: Mary E. Putman. Cameron Bryce Hummels. Comparing simulations and observations of galaxy evolution: Methods for constraining the nature of stellar feedback. Sponsor: Greg Bryan. Colin Powell
McNally. A meshless method for magnetohydrodynamics and applications to protoplanetary disks. Sponsor: Mordecai-Mark Mac Low. Kyle Patrick Parfrey. Simulations of dynamic relativistic magnetospheres. Sponsor: Andrei Beloborodov.
Andreas Sven-Olov Svedin. Nonlinear data assimilation: Towards a prediction of the solar cycle. Sponsor: Edward A. Spiegel. Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics Daphne Christina Anastasiades Avgousti. RNAi and Chromatin in Caenorhabditis elegans: A biochemical analysis of the essential chromatin factor zinc finger protein 1 (ZFP-1), and a study of the involvement of RNAi factors in histone processing. Sponsor: Alla Grishok. Peng Liu. Structural determinants of DNA-binding specificity for Hox proteins. Sponsor: Barry Honig. Maira Moura Pires. Basal-like breast cancer: Modeling its initiation and characterizing novel EGFR variants. Sponsor: Ramon E. Parsons. Biological Sciences Xiaoyin Chen. Modulation of touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sponsor: Martin Chalfie. John Chester Dittmar. A novel platform to perform cancer-relevant synthetic dosage lethality screens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sponsor: Rodney Rothstein. Burзe Ergel. The catalytic efficiency and conformational dynamics of Escherichia coli DNA repair enzyme AlkB. Sponsor: John F. Hunt. Smitha Jagadish. Activity-dependent trans-synaptic tracing of neural circuits in Drosophila. Sponsor: Richard Axel. Jinrang Kim. The molecular mechanism of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD-F: Real-time observation of the transporter in motion. Sponsor: John F. Hunt. Eunjee Lee. Dissecting genetic determinants of transcription factor activity. Sponsor: Harmen Bussemaker. Steven Eugene Pierce. Analyzing genomic studies and screening for genes that suppress information loss during DNA damage
repair. Sponsor: Rodney Rothstein. David Alfonso Recinos. The roles and regulation of the redundant phenazine biosynthetic operons
in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Sponsor: Lars Dietrich. Julian Scherer. Role of microtubule motor proteins in adenoviral infections. Sponsor: Richard Vallee. Heidi Kay Smith. Understanding chemotaxis in the nemotode Caenorhabditis elegans: From molecules to behavior. Sponsor: Oliver Hobert. Qinghui Yu. Developmental monoamine signaling impacts adult affective and aggressive behaviors. Sponsor: Jay Gingrich. Neela Zareen. Determining the role of Trib3 in neuronal apoptosis. Sponsor: Lloyd Greene. Biomedical Engineering Iliyana P. Atanasova. Non-contrast magnetic resonance angiography for evaluation of peripheral arterial disease. Sponsor: Andrew F. Laine. Andrew D. Baik. Application of a novel quasi-3D microscopy technique to investigate early osteocyte mechanotransduction events. Sponsor: X. Edward Guo. Sarindr Bhumiratana. Controlling tissue matrix assembly of human mesenchymal stem cells toward engineering native-like bone, cartilage, and osteochondral grafts. Sponsor: Gordana VunjakNovakovic. Brenda R. Chen. Investigating mechanisms of hemodynamic control in the brain. Sponsor: Elizabeth M. C. Hillman. George Eng. Microtechnologies for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Sponsor: Gordana VunjakNovakovic. Nora Theresa Khanarian. Scaffold design and optimization for osteochondral interface tissue engineering. Sponsor: Helen H. Lu. Jean Provost. Electromechanical wave imaging. Sponsor: Elisa E. Konofagou. Yao-Sheng Tung. The physical mechanism of blood-brain barrier opening using focused ultrasound and microbubbles. Sponsor: Elisa E. Konofagou.
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Biomedical Informatics Karthik Natarajan. Analysis of search on clinical narrative within the EHR. Sponsor: Noйmie Elhadad. Jiyang Yu. Integrating functional genomics with systems biology to discover drivers and therapeutic targets of human malignancies. Sponsor: Andrea Califano. Biostatistics Yulei Zhang. Sparse selection in Cox models with functional predictors. Sponsor: Ian W. McKeague. Bingzhi Zhang. On composition data modeling and its biomedical applications. Sponsor: Bin Cheng. Business Matulya Bansal. Modeling customer behavior for revenue management. Sponsor: Costis Maglaras. Aharon Yehuda Cohen Mohliver. Legitimized unethicality: The divergence of norms and laws in financial market
s. Sponsor: Bruce Kogut. Bar Ifrach. Market dynamics with many agents: Applications in social learning and competition. Sponsors: Gabriel Y. Weintraub and Costis Maglaras. Jiao Luo. Firm participation in morally contested markets. Sponsor: Paul Ingram. Margaret Parker Pierson. Price competition and the impact of service attributes: Structural estimation and analytical characterizations of equilibrium behavior. Sponsor: Awi Federgruen. Mehmet Saglam. Dynamic trading strategies in the presence of market frictions. Sponsor: Ciamac C. Moallemi. Shu Zhang. Repeating the follies of the past: A regulatory focus perspective. Sponsor: E. Tory Higgins. Cellular, Molecular, and Biomedical Studies Jayson I. L. Bastien. Endosomal membrane dynamics underlying cell spreading: A role for the small GTPase Arf6. Sponsor: Gilbert Di Paolo.
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s and cognitive dysfunction. Sponsor: Joseph A. Gogos. Joshua Adam Levine. Regulating distinct cell lineages in the pancreatic islet. Sponsor: Lori Sussel. Josй Ricardo McFaline Figueroa. Mitochondrial inheritance and function in the lifespan control of budding yeast. Sponsor: Liza A. Pon. Daniel Matthew Scanfeld. Exploring the Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome using hypergeometric analysis of time series (HATS). Sponsor: David A. Fidock. Sara Siddiqi. The role of Hiwi in stem cell maintenance and sarcomagenesis. Sponsor: Igor Matushansky. Glenn Christopher Tan. The dual role of notch signaling during motor neuron differentiation. Sponsor: Hynek Wichterle. Chemical Engineering Jonathan Joseph Cacciatore. The engineering of Chinese hamster ovary cells to achieve more efficient gene amplification for improving biopharmaceutical development. Sponsor: Edward F. Leonard. Michael D. Clark. Quantitative theories of spherical nanocrystal growth processes. Sponsor: Sanat K. Kumar.
Flуra Felsцvбlyi. Mechanistic study of the adsorption and desorption of proteins on silica. Sponsor: Scott A. Banta. Jameel Adebayo Feshitan. Engineering lipid-stabilized microbubbles for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
guided focused ultrasound surgery. Sponsor: Mark A. Borden. Asli Sahin. Development of electrochemical methods for detection of pesticides and biofuel production. Sponsor: Alan C. West. Allison Nicole Schwier. Surfactant behavior in atmospheric aerosols. Sponsor: V. Faye McNeill. Oren Shur. Engineering the repeats-in-toxin domain for biotechnology applications. Sponsor: Scott A. Banta. Igor Volov. Copper and copper alloys: Studies of additives. Sponsor: Alan C. West. Shuo Zhang. Kinetics of polymer interfacial reactions. Sponsor: Jeffrey T. Koberstein. Chemical Physics Richard Kenneth Darst. Lattice models of glasses and Potts models for community detection. Sponsor: David Reichman. Wenbo Li. Investigation of slow dynamics in proteins: NMR pulse sequence development and application in triosephosphate isomerase. Sponsor: Ann E. McDermott. Elizabeth Simmons Thrall. Spectroscopic studies of abiotic and biological nanomaterials: Silver nanoparticles, rhodamine 6G adsorbed on graphene, and c-type cytochromes and type IV pili in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Sponsor: Louis E. Brus. Chemistry Manasi Prakash Bhate. Mechanistic studies of ion-binding and inactivation in the potassium channel KcsA by solid state NMR. Sponsor: Ann E. McDermott. Adel Mahmoud ElSohly. Strategies and tactics for the synthesis of polycyclic alkaloids. Sponsor: Scott A. Snyder.
John Hartung. Radical cyclizations mediated by transition metal hydrides; Study toward the total synthesis of pluraflavin A; Cytoprotective polyacetylenes inspired by the ginseng-derived natural product, panaxytriol. Sponsors: Jack R. Norton and Samuel J. Danishefsky. Sharon Kim Lee. Enantioselective (formal) aza-Diels-Alder reactions with Danishefsky's diene and non-Danishefsky-type dienes. Sponsor: James L. Leighton. Jeffrey Steven Meisner. Linear conjugated organic materials. Sponsor: Colin P. Nuckolls. Joseph Francis Moll. Polymerparticle nanocomposites: Size and dispersion effects. Sponsor: Nicholas J. Turro. Nili Ostrov. Expanding biological engineering from single enzymes to cellular pathways. Sponsor: Virginia Cornish. Feng Peng. Total synthesis of (±) maoecrystal V. Sponsor: Samuel J. Danishefsky. Samuel Kaye Reznik. Methodological innovations in polyketide synthesis and their application toward the scalable synthesis of anti-tumor agent spongistatin 1. Sponsor: James L. Leighton. Audrey Ross. The development of cyclobutenone, and other work. Sponsor: Samuel J. Danishefsky. Aaron Sattler. Chemistry of highly reactive group 5 and 6 transition metal compounds: Modeling aspects of the industrial hydrotreating process and synthesis of the first transition metal complexes that feature a [CCC] X3-donor pincer ligand. Sponsor: Gerard Parkin. Wesley Sattler. Zinc complexes as synthetic analogues for carbonic anhydrase and as catalysts for H2 production and CO2 functionalization; Application of lithium silylamides in the synthesis of transition metal isocyanide compounds from their carbonyl derivatives; Structural and spectroscopic studies of thimerosal and its derivatives. Sponsor: Gerard Parkin. Daniel Scott Treitler. Reagents and strategies for the total synthesis
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of halogenated natural products. Sponsor: Scott A. Snyder. Christine Marie Vanos. Development of aromatic ions as organocatalysts; development of organocatalytic carbonyl olefin metathesis. Sponsor: Tristan H. Lambert. Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics Emmanouil Chatzis. The dynamics of rigid bodies on moving deformable support media. Sponsor: Andrew W. Smyth. Jiayu Chen. Simulating network structure, layering multi-layer network systems, and developing network block configuration models to understand and improve energy conservation in residential buildings. Sponsor: Patricia J. Culligan. Ching Hung. Enhanced anisotropic bounding surface model: Implementation and simulation of excavation in soft cohesive soils. Sponsor: Hoe I. Ling. Duk Jin Joo. Damage detection and system identification using a wavelet energybased approach. Sponsor: Raimondo Betti. Sergey Kuznetsov. Homogenization methods for problems with multiphysics, temporal, and spatial coupling. Sponsor: Jacob Fish. Xia Liu. A novel discrete damage zone model and enhancement of the extended finite element method for fracture mechanics
problems. Sponsor: Haim Waisman. Xinyi Song. The application of insurance as a risk management tool for alternative dispute resolution (ADR) implementation in construction disputes. Sponsor: Feniosky Peсa-Mora. Classics Susana Isabel Martinez. Socratic ethics in the Protagoras, Gorgias, and Republic. Sponsor: Wolfgang R. Mann. Communication Karina Vladimirovna Alexanyan. The map and the territory: Mapping the Russian blogosphere. Sponsor: Todd Gitlin.
Daniel Lucas Graves. Deciding what's true: Fact-checking journalism and the new ecology of news. Sponsor: Michael Schudson. Hawley M. Johnson. Model interventions: The evolution of media development strategies
in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Macedonia from 2000 to 2007. Sponsor: Michael Schudson. Ruth Ann Palmer. In the funhouse mirror: How news subjects respond to their media. Sponsor: Todd Gitlin. Computer Science Alexander Gusev. Quantifying recent variation and relatedness in human populations. Sponsor: Itsik Pe'er. Maritza Lupe Johnson. Toward usable access control for endusers: A case study of Facebook privacy settings. Sponsor: Steven M. Bellovin. Kristen Patricia Parton. Lost and found in translation: Cross-lingual question answering with result translation. Sponsor: Kathleen R. McKeown. Mariana Petrova Raykova. Secure computation for heterogeneous environments: How to bring multiparty computation closer to practice. Sponsor: Tal G. Malkin. Hang Zhao. Security policy definition and enforcement in distributed systems. Sponsor: Steven M. Bellovin. Changyin Zhou. Point spread function engineering for scene recovery. Sponsor: Shree K. Nayar. Earth and Environmental Engineering McKenzie Primerano Kohn. Catalytic reforming of biogas for syngas production. Sponsor: Marco J. Castaldi. Sathish Ponnurangam. Tailoring the (bio)activity of polymeric and metal oxide nano- and microparticles in biotic and abiotic environments. Sponsor: Ponisseril Somasundaran. Baoxing Xu. Science of nanofluids and energy conversion. Sponsor: Xi Chen.
Earth and Environmental Sciences Katherine Ann Allen. Boron in foraminiferal calcite as an indicator of seawater carbonate chemistry. Sponsor: Bдrbel Hцnisch. Stephen Louis Brusatte. The phylogeny of basal coelurosaurian theropods (Archosauria: Dinosauria) and patterns of morphological evolution during the dinosaur-bird transition. Sponsor: Mark A. Norell. Janelle Marie Homburg. Field and theoretical investigations of strain localization: Effects of mineralogy, shear heating, and grain-size evolution on deformation in the Earth. Sponsor: Peter B. Kelemen. Xinfeng Liang. Influence of mesoscale eddies on the deep ocean dynamics over the East Pacific Rise near 10°N. Sponsor: Andreas M. Thurnherr. Elizabeth Lane Pierce. Antarctica's geologic ice sheet history from isotopic sedimentary provenance studies. Sponsor: Sidney R. Hemming. Kandaga Pujiana. Makassar Strait intraseasonal variability. Sponsor: Arnold L. Gordon. Ashley Elizabeth Shuler. Investigations of anomalous earthquakes at active volcanoes. Sponsor: Gцran Ekstrцm. Sanpisa Sritrairat. Multiproxy analyses of past vegetation, climate, and sediment dynamics in Hudson River wetlands. Sponsor: Dorothy M. Peteet. Emmi Yonekura. Tropical cyclone risk assessment using statistical model
s. Sponsor: Timothy M. Hall. East Asian Languages and Cultures Ramona Handel Bajema. Art across borders: Japanese artists in the United States, 18951955. Sponsor: Carol Gluck. Adam Paul Bronson. Science of Thought and the culture of democracy in postwar Japan
, 19461962. Sponsor: Carol Gluck. Saeko Shibayama. Oe no Masafusa and the convergence of the "Ways": The twilight of early Chi-
nese literary studies and the rise of Waka studies in the long twelfth century in Japan. Sponsor: Haruo Shirane. Nathan Powell Shockey. Literary writing, print media, and urban space in modern Japan, 18951933. Sponsors: Tomi Suzuki and Paul J. Anderer. Dominique Townsend. Materials of Buddhist culture: Aesthetics and cosmopolitanism at Mindroling monastery. Sponsor: Gray Tuttle. Brian Kai Hin Tsui. China's forgotten revolution: Radical conservatism in action, 19271949. Sponsor: Eugenia Y. Lean. Robert James Tuck. The poetry of dialogue: Kanshi, haiku, and media in Meiji Japan, 18701900. Sponsor: Haruo Shirane. Paul Nicholas Vogt. Between kin and king: Social aspects of Western Zhou ritual. Sponsor: Feng Li. Hitomi Yoshio. Imagining `women writers': Gender, writing, and media in early twentieth-century Japan. Sponsor: Tomi Suzuki. Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology Marina Corrкa Cфrtes. Influence of gene dispersal and environmental heterogeneity on spatial and genetic patterns of the understory herb Heliconia acuminata across a fragmented landscape in central Amazon, Brazil. Sponsor: Maria Uriarte. James Lewis Fuller. Diversity of form, content, and function in the vocal signals of adult male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis struhlmanni): An evolutionary approach to understanding a signal repertoire. Sponsor: Marina Cords. Economics Elizabeth Jean Akers. Three essays in applied microeconomics. Sponsor: Till M. von Wachter. Jisun Baek. Industrial organization effects of high-speed rail service introduction in Korea. Sponsor: Michael H. Riordan. Joshua Eliot Greenfield. Quality, variety, and parity: Prices in international trade. Sponsor: David E. Weinstein.
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Jessie Helen Handbury. Essays on prices and product variety across cities. Sponsor: David E. Weinstein. Yaw Asamoah Owusu-Ansah. Essays on structured finance and housing market
s. Sponsor: Bernard Salaniй. L. Luminita Stevens. Essays on price adjustment and imperfect information. Sponsor: Michael Woodford.
English and Comparative Literature Mary Katherine Hurley. Communities in translation: History and identity in medieval England. Sponsor: Patricia A. Dailey. Zarina W. Maiwandi. "We are the thing itself": Embodiment in the Kьnstlerromane of Bennett, Joyce, and Woolf. Sponsor: Edward Mendelson.
Izzet Yildiz. Essays on financial sector inefficiencies. Sponsor: Joseph E. Stiglitz. Electrical Engineering Amin Al Torfi. Fabrication and characterization of optoelectronics devices based on III-V materials for infrared applications by molecular beam epitaxy. Sponsor: Wen Wang.
Lytton Jackson Smith. Projective citizenship: The reimagining of the citizen in postwar American poetry. Sponsor: Michael Golston. Sonali Thakkar. Continental drifters: Holocaust memory, decolonization, and postwar migration to Europe. Sponsor: Marianne Hirsch. Epidemiology
Mandis Sadr Mohammad Beigi. On optimal quantization and its effect on classification applications to anomaly detection in streaming data and image classification. Sponsor: Shih-Fu Chang. Thierry Bertin-Mahieux. Largescale pattern discovery in music. Sponsor: Daniel P. W. Ellis. Daniel Brunina. Optically connected memory: Architectures and experimental characterizations. Sponsor: Keren Bergman. Byung Suk Lee. Noise robust pitch tracking by subband autocorrelation classification. Sponsor: Daniel P. W. Ellis. Vincent Wing-Ho Lee. Advanced integration of devices enabled by laser crystallization of silicon. Sponsor: Ioannis Kymissis. Wei Liu. Large-scale machine learning for classification and search. Sponsor: Shih-Fu Chang. Jacob Karl Rosenstein. Noise optimization for high-bandwidth ion channel recordings. Sponsor: Kenneth L. Shepard. Noah Andrew Sturcken. Integrated voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Sponsor: Kenneth L. Shepard. Kshitij Yadav. Ultrasound data communications for ultra-low-power wake-up in sensor modes. Sponsor: Peter Kinget.
Bianca L. Malcolm. The spatial and temporal dynamics of seasonal influenza in the United States, 19682008. Sponsor: Stephen S. Morse. French and Romance Philology Jason Willis Earle. Conspiracies and secret societies in interwar French literature. Sponsor: Elisabeth Ladenson. Kirsten Britt Ellicson. Collecting as self-exploration in late nineteenth-century French literature. Sponsor: Antoine Compagnon. Mehammed Amadeus Mack. Immigration and sexual citizenship: Gender, sexuality, and ethnicity in contemporary France. Sponsor: Madeleine Dobie. Genetics and Development Roy Louis Maute. A functional role for transfer RNAderived micro RNAs in human B cells. Sponsor: Riccardo Dalla-Favera. Vikram Ranade. The role of ultrabithorax negative autoregulation in Drosophila. Sponsor: Richard S. Mann. Paul Nicholas Riccio. The fate and behavior of Ret-expressing tip cells in kidney development. Sponsor: Frank Costantini. Marcus Lee Vargas. Studies of a site-specific recombination system and analysis of new modulators of
Notch signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sponsor: Iva Greenwald. Tiffany Zee. Non-autonomous regulation of bone-mass accrual and the role of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase in the bone regulation of insulin sensitivity. Sponsor: Gerard Karsenty. Germanic Languages Jennifer Susan Cameron. In the shadow of the family tree: Narrating family history in Vдterliteratur and the Generationenromane. Sponsor: Mark Anderson. Samuel Jacob Spinner. Jews behind glass: The ethnographic impulse in German-Jewish and Yiddish literature, 19001948. Sponsor: Mark Anderson. Ulrike Wagner. The transatlantic renewal of textual practices: Philology, religion, and classicism in Madame de Staлl, Herder, and
Emerson. Sponsor: Dorothea von Mьcke. History Jenna Feltey Alden. Bottom-up management: Participative philosophy and humanistic psychology in American organizational culture, 19301970. Sponsor: Elizabeth Blackmar. James Gregory Chappel. Slaying the Leviathan: Catholicism and the rebirth of European conservatism, 19201950. Sponsor: Susan Pedersen. Michal Rose Friedman. Recovering Jewish Spain: Politics, historiography, and institutionalization of the Jewish past in Spain, 18451935. Sponsor: Elisheva Carlebach. Elizabeth Kai Hinton. From social welfare to social control: Federal war in American cities, 1968 1988. Sponsor: Eric Foner.
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Thai Stein Jones. More powerful than dynamite: Radicals, plutocrats, progressives, and New York's year of anarchy. Sponsor: Alice Kessler-Harris. Alexander Lewis Kaye. The legal philosophies of religious Zionism, 19371967. Sponsor: Michael Stanislawski. Samir Adam Meghelli. Between New York and Paris: Hip hop and the transnational politics of race, culture, and citizenship. Sponsor: Eric Foner. Kevin Charles Murphy. Uphill all the way: The fortunes of progressivism, 19191929. Sponsor: Alan Brinkley. Amy C. Offner. Anti-poverty programs, social conflict, and economic thought in Colombia and the United States, 19481980. Sponsor: Eric Foner. Eileen Ryan. Italy and the Sanusiyya: Negotiating authority in colonial Libya, 19111931. Sponsor: Victoria de Grazia. Jennifer Elise Tammi. Minding our own business: Community, consumers, and cooperation. Sponsor: Alice Kessler-Harris. Benno Ryan Weiner. The Chinese revolution on the Tibetan frontier: State building, national integration, and socialist transformation, Zeku (Tsйkhok) county, 1953 1958. Sponsor: Madeleine Zelin. Mason Brendan Williams. City of ambition: Franklin Roosevelt, Fiorello La Guardia, and the making of New Deal New York. Sponsor: Alan Brinkley.
Michael Woodsworth. The forgotten fight: Waging war on poverty in New York City, 19451980. Sponsor: Kenneth T. Jackson. IEOR: Operations Research Nur Зavdaroglu. Three essays on dynamic pricing and resource allocation. Sponsor: Soulaymane Kachani. Behzad Nouri. Contingent capital: Valuation and risk implications under alternative conversion mechanisms. Sponsor: Paul Glasserman. Yixi Shi. Rare events in stochastic systems: Modeling, simulation design, and algorithm analysis. Sponsor: Jose H. Blanchet. Italian Julie Georges Marie Christine Van Peteghem. Italian readers of Ovid: From the origins to Dante. Sponsor: Teodolinda Barolini. Mechanical Engineering Changyao Chen. Graphene nanoelectrical mechanical systems. Sponsor: James C. Hone. Michael Brandon Grad. The integration of active silicon components in polymer microfluidic devices. Sponsor: Qiao Lin. John Paul Hilton. Microfluidic selection and applications of aptamers. Sponsor: Qiao Lin. Bhavik Bharat Nathwani. Structural characterization of primary cilia using accelerated piezoelectrically driven STED nanoscopy. Sponsor: Jung-Chi Liao.
Oya Okman. Nanoporous gold: Mechanics of fabrication and actuation. Sponsor: Jeffrey W. Kysar. Yuyao Shan. Synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotube arrays and their application in single molecular electronics. Sponsor: James C. Hone. Yunde Shi. Robustification in repetitive and iterative learning control. Sponsor: Richard W. Longman. Bin Wang. MEMS-based temperature-dependent characterization of biomolecular interactions. Sponsor: Qiao Lin. Mehmet Yilmaz. Batch-compatible integration of nanowires with uniaxial micro tensile testing platforms. Sponsor: Jeffrey W. Kysar. Yao Zhou. Microfluidic devices for cell manipulation and interrogation in drug discovery applications. Sponsor: Qiao Lin. Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection Brie Whitney Falkard. Investigations into the metabolic requirements for lipoic acid and lipid species during the life cycle of the malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei. Sponsor: David A. Fidock. Christal Lourdes Vitiello. Mechanism of transcription arrest by the Nun protein of bacteriophage HK022. Sponsor: Maxwell E. Gottesman. Middle East, South Asian, and African Studies
Music Corbett Bazler. The comedies of opera seria: Handel's post-Academy operas, 17381741. Sponsor: Karen Henson. Daniel Maurice Callahan. The dancer from the music: Choreomusicalities in twentieth-century American modern dance. Sponsor: Karen Henson. Simуn Calle. Reinterpreting the global, rearticulating the local: Nueva mъsica colombiana, networks, circulation, and affect. Sponsor: Ana Marнa Ochoa. Timothy Roark Mangin. Mbalax: Cosmopolitanism in Senegalese urban popular music. Sponsor: George E. Lewis. Amber Lynne Youell. The contest of virtue and pleasure: Opera and reform in Gluck's Vienna. Sponsor: Elaine Sisman. Music (D.M.A.) Oscar Bianchi. Formal and structural issues in Thanks to My Eyes, chamber opera. Sponsor: Alfred W. Lerdahl. Sampo Elias Haapamдki. Order in Dйsordre: Rhythmic and melodic structure in Gyцrgy Ligeti's Piano Etude no. 1; Velinikka: Concerto for quarter-tone accordion and chamber orchestra. Sponsor: Alfred W. Lerdahl. Stephen Hart Lehman. Liminality as a framework for composition: Rhythmic thresholds, spectral harmonies, and Afrological improvisation. Sponsor: George E. Lewis.
Shira Hadad. "A thousand names they called Him": Naming and proper names in the work of S. Y. Agnon. Sponsor: Dan Miron. Mohamad Khan. The broken spell: The romance genre in late Mughal India. Sponsor: Frances W. Pritchett. Yasmine Aly Ramadan. Shifting ground: Spatial representations in the literature of the sixties generation in Egypt. Sponsor: Muhsin Jassim al-Musawi.
Neurobiology and Behavior Lily Chau. Modeling Alzheimer's disease using cellular reprogramming technologies. Sponsor: Asa Abeliovich. Neil Allen Gray. The role of the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the development and treatment of affective disorders. Sponsor: Jay Gingrich. William H. Hinkle. Neural mechanisms mediating the effects of food cues and acute exercise: A functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional connectivity investigation. Sponsor: Joy Hirsch.
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Burcin Ikiz. Unraveling the molecular mechanism underlying ALS-linked astrocyte toxicity for motor neurons. Sponsor: Serge Przedborski. Bethany L. Johnson-Kerner. The role of gigaxonin in the regulation of intermediate filaments: A study using giant axonal neuropathy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell-motor neurons. Sponsor: Hynek Wichterle. Linda Hua Lee. Amyloid-beta signaling in physiology and pathology: From astrocytes to SUMO. Sponsor: Ottavio Arancio. Rebecca Jeannette Levy. Exploring the role of Rapgef6 in neuropsychiatric disorders. Sponsor: Joseph A. Gogos. Derek Hayden Oakley. Human stem cells for modeling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease mechanisms and modifiers. Sponsor: Christopher E. Henderson. Catherine Jensen Peсa. Variation in postpartum maternal care programs: The development of neuroendocrine and mesolimbic dopamine pathways in female offspring. Sponsor: Frances A. Champagne. Alexandro D. Ramirez. Methods for solving the neural code in high dimensions. Sponsor: Liam Paninski. Rebecca Allyson Saez. Representations of relative value coding in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. Sponsor: C. Daniel Salzman. David Michael Schneider. Neural mechanisms for sparse, informative, and background-invariant coding of vocalizations. Sponsor: Sarah M. N. Woolley. Michelle Udarbe Umali. Neural correlates of emotional and cognitive influences on visual search. Sponsor: Joy Hirsch. Florence Prabha Varodayan. Alcohol alters the expression of soluble n-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and spontaneous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release via activation of the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Sponsor: Neil L. Harrison.
Nursing Shanelle Nelson. Exploring the organizational climate as perceived by infection preventionists: A national study. Sponsor: Patricia W. Stone. Andrew Bartlett Phillips. An intergrative review of the literature on technology transformation in healthcare. Sponsor: Jacqueline Merrill. Nutritional and Metabolic Biology Devangini Vinod Gandhi. Distinct roles of retinoid signaling in the lower urinary tract. Sponsor: Cathy Mendelsohn. James Papizan. Structure-function analysis of the essential islet regulatory factor Nkx2.2. Sponsor: Lori Sussel. Pathobiology and Molecular Medicine Nsikan Enekan Akpan. The intrinsic caspase death pathway in stroke neurodegeneration. Sponsor: Carol Troy. Pharmacology and Molecular Signaling Tahilia Jay Rebello. Serotonin modulates the maturation of the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus: Relevance to the etiology of emotional and cognitive behaviors. Sponsor: Jay Gingrich. Hideaki Yano. Deconstructing G proteincoupled receptor dimer pharmacology: Case studies in dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Sponsor: Jonathan A. Javitch. Philosophy Michael Brent. The power of agency. Sponsor: Akeel Bilgrami. Brian Hyun Kim. The context-sensitivity of rationality and knowledge. Sponsor: John D. Collins. Felix Koch. Voluntarism and reflection. Sponsor: Frederick Neuhouser. Alexander Maron Madva. The hidden mechanisms of prejudice: Implicit bias and interpersonal fluency. Sponsor: Christia Mercer.
Marco Jacob Nathan. Causation and explanation in molecular developmental biology. Sponsor: Philip Kitcher. Andreja Novakovic. Second nature and ethical life: Habit, culture, and critique in Hegel's science of right. Sponsor: Frederick Neuhouser. Katherine Rickus. Anatomies of affect: An examination of emotions as processes. Sponsor: Lydia Goehr. Beau Carmel Shaw. Authenticity and death in Being and Time. Sponsor: Taylor Carman. Physics Stein Pontus Ahlqvist. Exploring the string landscape: The dynamics, statistics, and cosmology of parallel worlds. Sponsor: Brian Greene. Aaron Richard Angerami. Jet quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the LHC. Sponsor: Brian A. Cole. Tsuguo Aramaki. An accelerator measurement of atomic X-ray yields in exotic atoms and implications for an antideuteron-based dark matter search. Sponsor: Charles J. Hailey. Imre Bartos. Gravitation and multi-messenger astrophysics. Sponsor: Szabolcs Mбrka. Arthur James Frank
e. Searching for reactor antineutrino flavor oscillations with the Double Chooz far detector. Sponsor: Michael H. Shaevitz. Kyungeun Lim. XENON100 dark matter search: Scintillation response of liquid xenon to electronic recoils. Sponsor: Elena Aprile. Nan Lin. Cluster dynamical mean-field theory
: Applications to high-Tc cuprates and to quantum chemistry. Sponsor: Andrew J. Millis. Oleksandra Victorovna Lyulko. Simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry. Sponsor: Robert D. Mawhinney. Matthew Henry Toups. A search for electron antineutrino disappearance with the Double Chooz far detector. Sponsor: Michael H. Shaevitz.
Eric Lloyd Williams. Search for excited Randall-Sundrum gravitons with semi-leptonic diboson final states in 4.7 fb-1 of pp collisions using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Sponsor: Michael Tuts. Political Science Axel Domeyer. Toward a European Bund: The constitutionalism deficit of integration and how to fix it. Sponsor: Jean L. Cohen. Sinem Gьrbey. Rethinking popular sovereignty and secularism in Turkey and beyond. Sponsor: Jean L. Cohen. Patrice Zakia Howard. Economic empowerment and political participation: The political impact of microfinance in Senegal. Sponsor: Macartan Humphreys. Carlo Emanuele Invernizzi Accetti. Relativism in democracy: Response to a new form of political theology. Sponsor: Nadia Urbinati. Jeffrey Adam Lenowitz. Why ratification? Questioning the unexamined constitution-making procedure. Sponsors: Jon Elster and Melissa Schwartzberg. Thomas Kenneth Ogorzalek. Cities on the Hill: Urban politics in national institutions. Sponsor: Ira Katznelson. Robert Martin Scott. Prospective balance: Loss aversion and consistency in international relations
. Sponsor: Robert Jervis. Dessislava Pencheva Zagorcheva. Statesmen, soldiers, and strategy: The influence of civil-military relations on national-security decision-making. Sponsor: Robert Jervis. Psychology Dobromir Asenov Rahnev. On the conservative influence of attention on subjective perceptual decision-making. Sponsor: Hak-wan Lau. George Elliott Wimmer. Learning and memory systems supporting decision making in the human brain. Sponsor: Daphna Shohamy.
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Religion Patton Burchett. Bhakti religion and tantric magic in Mughal India: Kacchvahas, Ramamandis, and Naths, circa 15001750. Sponsor: Rachel McDermott. Ehud Halperin. Had.imba becoming herself: A Himalayan goddess in change. Sponsor: John Stratton Hawley. Daniel Vaca. Book people: Evangelical books and the making of contemporary evangelicalism. Sponsor: Randall Balmer. Slavic Languages Anna Dvigubski. The figured author: Authorial cameos in post-Romantic Russian literature. Sponsor: Irina Reyfman. Maria Magdalena Dzieduszycka. The Romantic other: Adam Mickiewicz in Russia, 18241829. Sponsor: Boris Gasparov. Elizabeth Irene Kosakowska. On the crossroads of science, philosophy, and literature: Andrey Bely's Petersburg. Sponsor: Boris Gasparov. Social Work Liana Elizabeth Fox. Three papers on the black-white mobility gap in the United States. Sponsor: Jane Waldfogel. David Brooks Harris. The child tax credit: How the United States underinvests in its youngest children in cash assistance and how changes to the child tax credit could help. Sponsor: Irwin Garfinkel. Nathan David Hutto. The relationship between proximity to homicide and birth outcomes. Sponsor: Julien O. Teitler. Lydia Peckham Ogden. "My life as it is has value": A narrative approach to understanding life course experiences of older adults with schizophrenia. Sponsor: Denise Burnette. Frederica P. Perera. The health and well-being of children from the perspective of social and environmental health policy. Sponsor: Julien O. Teitler. Natasha Vanessa Pilkauskas. Three-generation family house-
holds and child well-being. Sponsor: Jane Waldfogel. Bright Eli Sarfo. Relationship dependencies and autonomy as mediation pathways of incarceration and HIV risk outcomes among low-income drug-involved adults. Sponsor: Nabila El-Bassel. Afshin Zilanawala. Women's time poverty: Differences by family structure, employment, and gender ideology. Sponsor: Julien O. Teitler. Sociology Larissa Buchholz. The global rules of art. Sponsor: Gil Eyal. Ho-Dae Chong. Controlling and organizing the network structure of Korean business groups, 19972003. Sponsor: Peter S. Bearman. Aurora Fredriksen. Making humanitarian spaces global: Coordinating crisis response through the Cluster Approach. Sponsor: Saskia Sassen. Natacha Stevanovic. Remittances and moral economies of Bangladeshi New York immigrants in light of the economic crisis. Sponsor: Karen Barkey. Matthias Thiemann. Out of the shadow? Accounting for special purpose entities in European banking systems. Sponsor: Thomas A. DiPrete. Sociomedical Sciences Le Minh Giang. Governing masculinity: How structures shape the lives and health of dislocated men in postDoi Moi Vietnam. Sponsor: Richard Parker. Destiny Quiana Simone Ramjohn. A qualitative examination of HIV-positive identity and vocational identity development among female adolescents and young adults living with HIV in New York City. Sponsor: Helen-Maria Lekas. Statistics Ivor John Cribben. Detecting dependence change points in multivariate time series with applications in neuroscience and finance. Sponsor: Martin A. Lindquist.
Heng Liu. Some models for time series of counts. Sponsor: Richard A. Davis. Emilio Francisco Seijo Solis. Statistical inference in two nonstandard regression problems. Sponsor: Bodhisattva Sen. Tony Sit. Contributions to semiparametric inference to biased-sampled and financial data. Sponsor: Zhiliang Ying. Pengfei Zang. Modeling strategies for large dimensional vector autoregressions. Sponsors: Tian Zheng and Richard A. Davis. Sustainable Development Geoffrey Louis Chi-Johnston. Mathematical modeling of malaria: Theories of malaria elimination. Sponsor: David A. Fidock. Aly D. W. Sanoh. Essays on infrastructure development and public finance. Sponsor: Vijay Modi. Teachers College: Anthropology and Education Juliette Lynn de Wolfe. Parents speak: An ethnographic study of autism parents. Sponsor: Hervй H. Varenne. Teachers College: Applied Anthropology Kirsten Erin Hunt. The social economy of buying, selling, trading, and consuming drugs: A comparison of individual and subcultural strategies among methamphetamine users and dealers in two cities. Sponsor: Lambros Comitas. Teachers College: Applied Behavioral Analysis Victoria Lynn Sterkin. The effects of the social listener reinforcement protocol on the audience control of stereotypy and social operants for students with developmental delays. Sponsor: R. Douglas Greer. Teachers College: Behavioral Nutrition Dalia Majumdar. Evaluation of Creature101: Can a curriculum-based "serious health game" promote healthy eating and physical activity
among middle school children? Sponsor: Isobel R. Contento.
Teachers College: Clinical Psychology Ashley Brown Bullock. The expression and regulation of sadness in complicated grief. Sponsor: George A. Bonanno. Sarah Evans Feldman. The impact of outness and lesbian, gay, and bisexual identity formation on mental health. Sponsor: Barry A. Farber. Joseph Connor McGowan. Religious affiliation and gender: Differences in the association between religiousness and psychological distress. Sponsor: Elizabeth Midlarsky. George Coolidge Nitzburg. Effects of exposure to parental divorce on the sibling relationship in emerging adults. Sponsor: Barry A. Farber. Erica Roizen. Neuropsychological test performance and other predictors of adult outcome in a prospective follow-up study of children with ADHD. Sponsor: Helen Verdeli. Brian John Sherman. The temperament-psychopathology link: How does difficult temperament affect risk for and presentation of major depression among offspring at high and low risk for depression? Sponsor: Helen Verdeli. Teachers College: Cognitive Studies in Education Eliza Jane Bobek. Visualizing the invisible: Generating explanations of scientific phenomena. Sponsor: Barbara Tversky. Chaille Maddox. An electroencephalogram investigation of two modes of reasoning. Sponsor: Karen Froud. David Lee Mason. Use of external representations in reasoning about causality. Sponsor: James E. Corter. Wendy Nicole Moore. The use of evidence in young adolescents' argumentation. Sponsor: Deanna Kuhn. Teachers College: Comparative and International Education Elizabeth Beaubrun. Distance learner ecologies of the University
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of the West Indies Open Campus program. Sponsor: Hope Jensen Leichter. Maham Abbas Mela. How public-private partnerships and Islam are related to student achievement
: A case study of Pakistan. Sponsor: Henry M. Levin. Rattana Sae-Lao. The logic of the Thai higher education sector on quality assessment policy. Sponsor: Gita Steiner-Khamsi. Teachers College: Counseling Psychology Lucinda Bratini. "It depends on where you go!" The transnational racial consciousness of Dominican immigrants. Sponsor: Marie L. Miville. Melissa J. Halasan Corpus. Out of sight, out of mind: Exploring the mental health of Asian American
lesbians. Sponsor: Marie L. Miville. Lauren Dyan Fisher. Antecedents and outcomes of sexual orientation disclosure in the workplace among lesbians. Sponsor: George V. Gushue. Yi-Jung Lee. Exploring the impact of Asian stereotype endorsement, multicultural counseling competence, and motivation to respond without prejudice on white therapists' clinical judgment
. Sponsor: George V. Gushue. David Paul Rivera. Microaggressions and health outcomes for Latina/o Americans: Understanding the influences of external characteristics and psychological resources. Sponsor: Derald Wing Sue. Roshnee Vбzquez. Examining the relationship between gender roles and attitudes toward rape victims among Latino/as in the United States. Sponsor: Robert T. Carter. Nicole L. Watkins. Disarming microaggressions: How black college students self-regulate racial stressors within predominantly white institutions. Sponsor: Derald Wing Sue. Teachers College: Developmental Psychology Erin Kathleen Bumgarner. Latino American children and school
readiness: The role of early care arrangements and caregiver language. Sponsor: Jeanne BrooksGunn. Jondou Chase Chen. No crime left behind: Exposure to neighborhood violence and school performance in New York City. Sponsor: Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. Teachers College: Economics and Education Ximena Duenas. Internal displacement and the education of school-aged children in Colombia. Sponsor: Francisco Rivera-Batiz. Douglas E. Lynch. Does diversity matter? Evidence from the relationship between an institution's diversity and the salaries of its graduates. Sponsor: Thomas R. Bailey. You You. Evaluating the effect of new-teacher induction programs on teacher turnover. Sponsor: Mun C. Tsang. Teachers College: Educational Leadership
Nancy J. Koh. Validation of a theoretical model of diagnostic classroom assessment: A mixed methods study. Sponsor: Madhabi Chatterji. Megan Reilly Silander. School closure in New York City. Sponsor: Douglas David Ready. Katharine Bartlett Stevens. Opening the black box: Government teacher workforce policy in New York City. Sponsor: Jeffrey Henig. Teachers College: Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Abrar M. Al-Jazzaf. Expectations and aspirations of Kuwaiti fathers and mothers towards transition outcomes of their child with a disability in Kuwait. Sponsor: Linda Hickson. Teachers College: Mathematics Education Inbar Aricha-Metzer. The history of Hebrew secondary mathematics education in Palestine during the first half of the twentieth century. Sponsor: Alexander P. Karp. Hoyun Cho. The use of cartoons as a teaching tool in middle school
mathematics. Sponsor: Bruce R. Vogeli. Philip Charles Dituri. Proof and reasoning in Secondary school
algebra textbooks. Sponsor: Erica N. Walker. Jennifer Rebecca Shloming. Analysis of mathematical fiction with geometric themes. Sponsor: Alexander P. Karp. Teachers College: Measurement and Evaluation Jie Gao. Factors affecting probability matching behavior. Sponsor: James E. Corter. Teachers College: Philosophy and Education Guillermo Jorge Marini. Illuminating art: A philosophical perspective on students' and teachers' work in art education. Sponsor: Megan Laverty. Teachers College: Physical Disabilities Amanda Howerton-Fox. Teacher language awareness in a Swedish bilingual school for the deaf: Two portraits of grammar knowledge in practice. Sponsor: Robert E. Kretschmer. Teachers College: School Psychology Anna Ward Goodearl. The association between violence exposure and aggression and anxiety: The role of peer relationships in adaptation for middle school students. Sponsor: Marla R. Brassard. Jessica Leah Linick. Emotion recognition, emotion regulation, and callous-unemotional traits in incarcerated male youth. Sponsor: Marla R. Brassard. Lisa Reingold Melmed. Cognitive style as a mediator between parental psychological maltreatment and depression in adolescent boys. Sponsor: Marla R. Brassard. Kelly Lynn Sichel. Aggressive mating strategies in young adolescent girls. Sponsor: Marla R. Brassard. Teachers College: Science Education Katemari Diogo da Rosa. Gender, ethnicity, and physics education:
Understanding how black women build their identities as scientists. Sponsor: Felicia Moore Mensah. Teachers College: SocialOrganizational Psychology Francis David Golom. Whistling in the wind: Examining the effects of sexual orientation relational demography on individual perceptions of workgroup process and withdrawal. Sponsor: Elissa L. Perry. Teachers College: Speech and Language Pathology Dorothy Leone. Children's perception of conversational and clear American-English vowels in noise. Sponsor: Erika S. Levy. Theatre Nathaniel Graham Nesmith. Freedom and equality now! Contextualizing the nexus between the civil rights movement and drama. Sponsor: Arnold Aronson. Urban Planning James John Timothy Connolly. Institutional change in urban environmentalism: A case study analysis of state-level land-use legislation in California and New York. Sponsor: Robert A. Beauregard. Shagun Mehrotra. Reinventing infrastructure economics: Theory and empirics. Sponsors: Hans Smit and Elliott Sclar.
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Chinweike Okegbe Deven Estes
Peter Galassi, M.A. '78, M.Phil. '79, Ph.D. '86, Art History and Archaeology, was named a 2012 John Simon Guggenheim Fellow.
Doctoral candidate Ellen Crapster-Pregont, M.A. '12, Earth and Environmental Sciences, received an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.
Sharon Olds, M.A. '65, Ph.D. '72, English and Comparative Literature, received the 2013 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for her book Stag's Leap.
Doctoral candidate Chinweike Okegbe, M.A. '12, Biological Sciences, received a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Fellowship. Doctoral candidate Deven Estes, M.A. '11, Chemistry, received the Department of Energy's Office of Science Graduate Fellowship. Joseph Rubinfeld, M.A. '52, Ph.D. '61, Chemistry, was appointed to the advisory board of Amarantus BioSciences. He is a cofounder of the biotechnology medicine company Amgen and the pharmaceutical company SuperGen, where he served as president and CEO from 1991 to 2003.
Doctoral candidate Robert Muscarella, M.Phil. '12, Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, received an NSF Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant. Doctoral candidate Su-Jen Roberts, M.A. '11, M.Phil. '12, Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, received an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. Doctoral candidate Katherine Meckel, M.A. '11, M.Phil. '12, Economics, received an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and is a research fellow at the Columbia Population Center.
Different Animals, a play by English and Comparative Literature doctoral candidate Margie Abigail Rosebrock, M.A. '09, M.Phil. '11, premiered at the Cherry Lane Studio in April and will run through Sunday, May 26. Walker Murphy & The Heartbreakers, a play by Rochelle Spencer, M.A. candidate in English and Comparative Literature, will be produced by the Last Frontier Theater Conference in May. Benjamin Taylor, M.A. '75, M.Phil. '85, Ph.D. '92, English and Comparative Literature, was named a 2012 John Simon Guggenheim Fellow.
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In 2012 Magda Teter, M.A. '94, M.Phil. '96, Ph.D. '00, History, received both a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship and a Harry Frank Guggenheim Research Grant. Doctoral candidate Vivek Pal, M.A. '13, Mathematics, received an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship as well as a Gates Millennium Scholarship. Huck Hodge, M.A. '04, D.M.A. '08, Music, was named a 2012 John Simon Guggenheim Fellow. Alex Mincek, D.M.A.'12, Music, was named a 2012 John Simon Guggenheim Fellow. Kate Soper, M.A. '07, D.M.A. '11, Music, was named a 2012 John Simon Guggenheim Fellow.
Professor Susan Boynton of the Department of Music received the 2012 Robert M. Stevenson Award from the American Musicological Society for her book Silent Music: Medieval Song and the Construction of History in Eighteenth-Century Spain. Professor Lydia Goehr of the Department of Philosophy received the 2012 H. Colin Slim Award from the American Musicological Society for her article "`--wie ihn uns Meister Dьrer gemalt!': Contest, Myth, and Prophecy in Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nьrnberg." Albert Rigosi, doctoral candidate in Physics, received the Ford Foundation Fellowship and a Natural Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.
Doctoral candidate Kevin Elliott, M.A. '10, M.Phil. '12, Political Science, received a Jacob K. Javits Fellowship from the U.S. Department of Education and the John McDonald, Jr. Ph.D. Fellowship.
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Graduate School of Arts & Sciences In Memoriam
Jacques Barzun, M.A. '28, Ph.D. '32, History Jacques Barzun, a central figure in the intellectual and administrative life of Columbia for much of the 20th century, died in October at 104. Barzun taught at the University for more than four decades and served as dean of the Graduate School from 1955 to 1958 and as provost from 1957 to 1968. Working primarily in the field of cultural history, Barzun wrote a number of books, culminating in From Dawn to Decadence, a survey of Western culture from 1500 to the present published in 2000. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2003 and the National Humanities Medal in 2010. Florence Wolfson Howitt, M.A. '36, English and Comparative Literature Florence Wolfson Howitt died in March 2012 at 96. As a teenager growing up on the Upper East Side in the 1930s, Wolfson Howitt kept a diary that, after being discarded, made its way 70 years later to Lily Koppel, a news assistant at The New York Times. Koppel docu-
mented the diary's journey in an article for the Times and then in the book The Red Leather Diary: Reclaiming a Life Through the Pages of a Lost Journal, which illuminated Wolfson Howitt's life and, as Koppel wrote, a New York "alive with writers, painters, playwrights, and jazz." Asa LaFrance, M.A. '40, Slavic Languages Asa LaFrance, a retired businessman, died in November at 99. As a young boy, he wrote a letter to Mustapha Kemal Atatьrk following the establishment of the Turkish Republic; Atatьrk responded with a letter that constituted his first official correspondence with the West and was covered in Life magazine. In 1998 LaFrance visited Turkey
and donated the letter to the National Atatьrk Museum in Ankara. In addition to his Master's degree in Slavic languages from the Graduate School, LaFrance earned a bachelor's degree in French from Yale and studied at Charles University in Prague. William Knowles, Ph.D. '42, Chemistry Nobel laureate William Knowles died in June at 95. After earning his Ph.D., Knowles worked for the Monsanto Company from 1942 to 1986. He shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work developing processes that produced drugs more efficiently--including L-dopa, which is still used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Frances Levison Low, M.A. '42, History Frances Levison Low, one of the first women to be recognized as a reporter at the Time-Life organization, died in June at 92. After earning her Master's degree in history, she began working for Life magazine as a researcher; by the time she left Time-Life in 1952, she was
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the sole woman reporter at Time's Washington bureau. She later served as a special assistant to Senator Henry M. Jackson and worked with the New York City Partnership, an organization devoted to helping business leaders engage with social and economic problems. Mary Griggs Burke, M.A. '43, Psychology Mary Griggs Burke, a connoisseur who owned the largest private collection of Japanese art outside Japan, died in December at 96. Following a suggestion by Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius, she visited Japan in 1954 and began collecting Japanese art shortly thereafter. The Metropolitan Museum of Art staged exhibitions with selections from her collection in 1975 and 2000; her collection will be divided between the Met and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Walter B. Crawford, M.A. '47, English and Comparative Literature Walter B. Crawford, professor of English literature at California State University,
Long Beach, passed away in May. He is the author of a number of scholarly publications and the editor of a three-volume annotated bibliography of the works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Ashbel Green, M.A. '52, History Ashbel Green, an editor and vice president at Alfred A. Knopf
, died in September at 84. Known for his generosity to younger colleagues, Green served at Knopf for four decades, editing works by Gabriel Garcнa Marquez, Vaзlav Havel, Andrei Sakharov, and Walter Cronkite, among numerous others. He also edited My Columbia, a collection of reminiscences about life at the University from the 1830s to the 1970s. Paul Kurtz, Ph.D. '52, Philosophy Paul Kurtz, one of the leading figures of secular humanism, died in October at 86. A professor emeritus of philosophy at the University of Buffalo, Kurtz founded the publishing house Prometheus Books as well as the Center for Inquiry, which aims "to foster
a secular society based on science, reason, freedom of inquiry, and humanist values," and the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, which examines pseudoscientific claims. In addition to authoring a number of books on humanism, he wrote on pragmatism and edited two anthologies of American philosophy. Janet Goodrich Chapman, Ph.D. '63, Economics Janet Goodrich Chapman, professor emeritus of economics at the University of Pittsburgh and a specialist in the Soviet economic system, died in December at 90. For two decades she consulted for the economics department of the Rand Corporation, with her research culminating in the book Real Wages in
Soviet Russia Since 1928. She later joined the economics faculty of the University of Pittsburgh, where she also directed the Committee and Program on Russian and Eastern European Studies. She is preceded in death by her husband John W. Chapman III, Ph.D. '56, Political Science. Gerda Lerner, M.A. '65, Ph.D. '66, History Gerda Lerner, a pioneering scholar of women's history, passed away in January at 92. Lerner came to academia later in life--though she had previously worked as a writer--earning her bachelor's degree in her 40s at The New School for Social Research before enrolling at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. With the publication of such works as Women in History: The Creation of Patriarchy and The Creation of Feminist Consciousness, Lerner worked to establish women as a subject of historical inquiry; she also founded graduate degree programs in women's history at Sarah Lawrence College and the University of WisconsinMadison. In
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Graduate School of Arts & Sciences In Memoriam
2002 she received the Roy Rosenzweig Distinguished Service Award from the Organization of American Historians; the Lerner-Scott Prize, an annual award given by the organization for the best dissertation in U.S. women's history, is named in her honor. Dan McCall, Ph.D. '66, English and Comparative Literature Dan McCall, a novelist and professor emeritus of English at Cornell, died in June at 72. A specialist in American literature, he taught at Cornell for four decades and wrote a number of novels, including Bluebird Canyon, Queen of Hearts, and Jack the Bear, which was translated into a dozen languages and adapted into a 1993 film starring Danny DeVito. Frank Macchiarola, Ph.D. '70, Political Science Frank Macchiarola, former chancellor of the New York City public schools system and president emeritus of St. Francis College, died in December at 71. After working in a number of academic posts, including as assistant vice president
for academic affairs at Columbia, Macchiarola was appointed chancellor in 1978 by Mayor Ed Koch and served for five years before resigning to become president and CEO of the New York City Partnership. He later served as dean and professor of law at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University and then as president of St. Francis College, his undergraduate Alma Mater
, from 1996 to 2008. Patricia Meilman, M.A. '81, M.Phil. '84, Ph.D. '89, Art History and Archaeology Patricia Meilman, a scholar of art of the Venetian Renaissance, died in October at 65. She received a Fulbright grant to conduct research in Florence and edited The Cambridge Companion to Titian; her book Titian and the Altarpiece in Renaissance Venice was published in 2000. Andrew Sarris, M.A. '98, English and Comparative Literature Influential film critic Andrew Sarris died in June at 83. Known for popularizing auteur theory in the United States, Sarris was a critic at
The Village Voice and The New York Observer, as well as a professor of film in Columbia's School of the Arts. He graduated from Columbia College in 1951 and enrolled at GSAS before dropping out and enlisting in the U.S. Army. A chance meeting with the avantgarde filmmaker Jonas Mekas led to Sarris's first job writing for Mekas's new publication, Film Journal, which was followed by three decades at the Voice and two at the Observer. He is the author of a number of books, including The American Cinema: Directors and Directions, 19291968, a landmark survey of the Hollywood film industry. He earned his Master's degree in 1998. For more information and links to full obituaries, see gsas website.
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