Preparing preservice teachers to teach in a culturally responsive way, CJ Barnes

Tags: field experience, Preservice Teachers, preservice teacher, New York, State University of New York Press, teacher education, Teachers College Press, Teaching, Reading Association, Promising practices for urban reading instruction, Spring/Summer, Newark, DE, teaching and learning, culturally responsive teaching, International Reading Association, Intemational Reading Association, student achievement, multicultural education, Teaching White, Reading, Althouse Press, Harvard University Press, public school system, mini lesson, self-assessment, Esme Raji Codell, assessments, self assessments, children's literature, experience, Vivian Paley, Madame Esme, University Tutor, Michie, reading assessments, Diane Parker, Preservice Teachers Michie, young children learning, teachers
Content: Preparing Preservice Teachers to Teach in a Culturally Responsive Way Charline J. Barnes' Andrevi's University
Abstract A teacher education program designed to adequately prepare preservice teachers to instruct culturally and linguistically diverse students in their classrooms is described. Under the supervision of a professor and a graduate assistant in a required methods course at a private midwestern Christian university, 24 preservice teachers, who use a culturally responsive teaching framework to teach reading to urban elementary children who scored between low and intermediate levels on their state reading examination, participated in this study. Data were collected from the preservice teachers' class and field experiences in the areas of (a) autobiographical poem and cultural artifact, (b) cultural diversity awareness inventory, (c) book discussion groups, (d) inquiry project, and (e) structured field experience. These data were discussed and used to enhance their preparation for instructing culturally and linguistically diverse students. Implications regarding how teacher education programs can create a learning environment where future teachers can learn to welcome and support all students, specifically those from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, are discussed. Introduction As public schools become increasingly more culturally diverse among their student populations, the teaching force remains homogeneous--predominately White, female, and middle-class (Swartz, 2003; Howard, 1999). Yet, many teacher education programs are still struggling to adequately prepare preservice teachers to successfully deal with the challenge of teaching a diverse student population. This is generally due to interrelated factors such as limited cultural knowledge bases of teacher educators and students, disconnection of theory to practice, and curricula historically grounded in Eurocentric traditional styles of pedagogy (Au, 1998; Ladson-Billings, 2000; Smith, 1998). Irvine's (2003) research found that "preservice teachers have negative beliefs and low expectations of success for ... [non White] students even after some course work in multicultural education" (p. xvi); she called this "cultural discontinuity." This cultural discontinuity produces negative interactions between teachers and students, thus reinforcing stereotypes and prejudices on both sides, trvine argues that cultural discontinuity can cause teachers to "ignore their students' ethnic identities and their unique Cultural Beliefs, perceptions, values and worldviews" (Irvine, 2003, p. xvii), thus devaluing students' contributions to the classroom environment. Furthermore, it can affect teachers' attitudes and expectations, thus impacting students' academic performance (Delpit, 1996; Howard & del Rosario, 2000). As a result, these preservice teachers could begin to affirm the notion that what is different is inferior (Freire, 1998).
' Address correspondence to Charline J. Barnes, Department of Teaching, Learning & Curriculum, Andre\ys University, School of Education - Bell Hall, Berrien Springs, MI 49104-0114 or cbames @ andrews.edu.
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Preparing Preservice Teachers Researchers have repeatedly confirmed that teachers need to know more about the world of the children with whom they work in order to better offer opportunities for learning success (Graybill, 1997; Pransky & Bailey, 2002/2003). One way to deal with this challenge is through the use of culturally responsive teaching (CRT) (Gay, 2000). Culturally responsive teaching facilitates and supports the achievement of all students. It requires teachers to create a learning environment where all students are welcomed, supported, and provided with the best opportunities to learn regardless of their cultural and linguistic backgrounds. To effectively do so, teachers need to utilize the three dimensions within the culturally responsive teaching framework: (a) academic achievement--make learning rigorous, exciting, challenging, and equitable with high standards; (b) cultural competence-- know and facilitate in the learning process the various range of students' cultural and linguistic groups; and (c) sociopolitical consciousness--^recognize and assist students in the understanding that education and schooling do not occur in a vacuum (Gay, 2000). The interaction of all three dimensions can help teachers to significantly meet the needs of a diverse student population. Through these dimensions, educators not only learn to be sensitive to the needs, interests and abilities of students, parents and communities, but also validate the whole person by putting it into practice (Nieto, 1996). However, many preservice and inservice teachers view CRT as an abstract and theoretical process in the teaching-effectiveness research literature (Villegas & Lucas, 2002). This disconnection of theory and practice has caused many teacher education program faculty to reexamine their curriculum--content, materials, and methods--when it comes to preparing culturally responsive pedagogists. What can result is not a hierarchical order of the curriculum, but a cohesive and interrelated one. This curriculum redesign can lead to more culturally responsive teaching (Delpit, 1996; Irvine, 2003). An example of this is the following study that was conducted at a private Christian university in the Midwest. The main question was: How do selected preservice teachers teach in a culturally responsive manner? The purpose of this study was to scaffold multiple structured courses and field experiences so that preservice teachers, in a reading methods class, could have a more integrative, connected learning experience in their teacher education program while working with a culturally and linguistically diverse student population. Data were collected from five areas: (a) autobiographical poem and cultural artifact, (b) cultural diversity awareness inventory, (c) book discussion groups, (d) inquiry project, and (e) structured field experience. Descriptive results of the preservice teachers in this course experiences provide the basis for the study. Participants Came from Diverse Backgrounds University Participants Twenty-one females and three males were the elementary preservice teacher participants in this study. They came from diverse backgrounds: five were from racial minority groups; seven were international students; and nine were fiuent in languages other than English with Spanish being the dominant one. All were junior and senior students enrolled in a National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) accredited elementary education program at a private Christian university in the Midwest that nationally ranks sixth for percentage of international students. They were enrolled in the required course. Methods for Teaching Beginning Reading, to learn the application of principles of effective instruction for early reading acquisition. This was their first methods course in how to teach reading at the elementary level. This semester-long course focused on balanced and explicit instructional approaches. Prior to taking this course, all preservice teachers had previously taken courses in multicultural education and children's literature.
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Preparing Preservice Teachers These preservice teachers were jointly supervised by one Btack female professor and her female bilingual graduate assistant of Japanese heritage. The professor had previously taught culturally and linguistically diverse K-12 students in urban, suburban, and rural public schools on the east coast and in the Midwest of the United States. The graduate assistant had mainly taught English language learners (ELLs) in an urban public school district in the Midwest. Thus, the total teaching experience was 25 years--20 years for the professor and 5 years for the graduate assistant. Elementary School Participants The selected elementary school was a public school located in Harbortown School District (a pseudonym) in southwestern Michigan. With an enrollment of over 5,000 students, most of these children were of Black American heritage. This urban school district was surrounded by several rural school districts. With a preschool to fifth grade program, Waterville Elementary (a pseudonym), a Reading First and Title One School, was housed in a former middle school building. It had a five-year partnership with the university, mainly serving as a field site for education majors. The 302 students enrolled in Waterville Elementary were primarily Black, with the majority of these students coming from low-income families and qualifying for free lunch status (only two children had the reduced lunch status at this school). The school curriculum was aligned with state and National Standards, specifically in the areas of reading, writing, social studies, and science. Both art and music were included in the curriculum. Waterville Elementary used Houghton Mifflin's basal reading program, other trade books, and print resources (such as atlases, dictionaries, magazines) to support the English language arts curriculum. This school also had an English as Second Language (ESL) paraprofessional and four Special Education teachers to meet some of the needs of its diverse learners. Furthermore, there were monthly staff meetings, biweekly collaborative instructional planning (by grade level), and monthly parent meetings. Along with the structured field experience, there were two after-school programs that provided academic and recreational assistance as well as evening meals to students. Social service was offered through the ChildNet Program which helped to maintain the health and wellness for children by focusing on nutrition, anger management, and confiict resolution. Overall, Waterville Elementary had the traits of a high-performing, high-poverty school (Carter, 2000; Edmonds, 1979). Approximately 48 students from Waterville Elementary in grades 1 through 5 were selected by their teachers to participate in the field experience because they tested between low and intermediate levels on their state reading exam. Structured Field Experience Offers Opportunity for Culturally Responsive Teaching Initially, preservice teachers met in their reading methods class three days per week. Later, two of those days were used to fulfill the structured field experience requirement. Preservice teachers traveled from the university, located in a rural community, to Waterville Elementary; it was 12 miles away (one way). Transportation was provided by the university. My objective for this structured field experience was to have preservice teachers utilize the three dimensions of the CRT framework while teaching reading to elementary students.
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Pre Field: Academic Preparation Knowledge and Self Assessments The preservice teachers were involved in a four-week intensive preparation and planning course before their field experience. They used Teaching Children to Read by Reutzel and Cooter (2004) as their primary textbook for learning how to teach reading. Each week, the preservice teachers were expected to read and complete an online self-assessment for each assigned chapter. These self-assessments, in multiple choice and short answer format, were graded online. They printed and brought their results to class for discussion. Later, they submitted their self assessments for credit. Halfway through the semester, a multiple-choice test on the textbook was given. In addition to the textbook, the instructor also addressed culturally and linguistically diverse issues by having the preservice teachers complete two major in-class activities. The first one, autobiographical poem and cultural artifact, asked them to use various poetic forms to write about their reading and cultural experiences. Class discussion focused on defining culture, reading, and culturally responsive teaching. This assignment enabled them to comprehend the educational and cultural forces that impact one's personal identity and literacy development (Boutte, 2002; Schmidt, 2003). The second assignment was for preservice teachers to use the Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory (CDAI) and self report their own multicultural competency (Milner, Flowers, Moore, Moore III, & Flowers, 2003). Here is where they dealt with their own attitudes and beliefs as they related to cultural awareness and sensitivity.
Lesson Plans, Reading Assessments, and Mutticutturat Children's Literature The preservice teachers spent considerable time on designing lesson plans, learning to use reading assessments, and incorporating multicultural children's literature into their field experience. First, the preservice teachers followed a format (see Appendix A) that incorporated the four key elements to a successful reading and writing program: reading aloud (to, with, and by), comprehension, word works, and writing (Au, 1998; Bartoli, 1995; Opitz, 1998). Second, they learned to implement and interpret some reading assessments such as Dolch Word Lists (Dolch, 1948), 6+1 Trait Writing (Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, 2001), Letter Identification, Running Record (Clay, 1993), and Retelling Rubric (Hansen, 2004). Third, the professor taught them how to select and use multicultural children's literature in their lessons (Harris, 1992; Kruse, Homing & Schliesman, 1997; Steiner, 2001). Mini Lesson Opportunities The preservice teachers were also expected to participate in micro teaching by their peers (Lazar, 2004). Both professor and graduate assistant modeled mini lessons by using researchbased instructional strategies for the four reading elements. Then each preservice teacher signed up for one micro teaching slot, an in-class practice teaching opportunity where each person was responsible for developing and implementing a mini lesson that incorporates one or more of the four reading elements. From each mini lesson taught, preservice teachers provided handouts to be saved in their teaching resource files. During this pre field time, the future teachers also discussed teaching and learning styles (Ladson-Billings, 2000).
During Field: Cultural Competence After four weeks of pre field preparation, the preservice teachers began their 15-visit structured field experience at Waterville Elementary. The university provided transportation and some teaching materials for this field experience. To better prepare the teacher candidates as classroom teachers of reading, each of them worked with two elementary children who were
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Preparing Preservice Teachers close in academic levels, but preferably from different teachers. Each session, thirty-five minutes long, occurred twice a week outside of the classroom. The sessions were held in several available rooms that were designated by the principal; the computer laboratory was available upon request. The preservice teachers also participated in peer-led book discussion groups that met biweekly during university class time (Commeyras, Bisplinghoff, & Olson, 2003). After the instructor did book talks on five professional books that were primarily written by teachers in urban schools (see Appendix B), the preservice teachers voted for their top three selections. They were placed into groups based on their first or second choice. Each of the books, written in personal narrative style, focused on teachers dealing with reading instruction for a diverse student population. From these readings, the preservice teachers became more sociopolitically conscious as they read, refiected and responded to diversity issues (in the context of teaching and learning) presented by the book authors (Birchak, 1998; Freedman, 1999). Contact with Parents and Teachers The preservice teachers were required to send each of their students' parents or guardians a letter or newsletter which introduced the preservice teachers and structured field experience. A release form, on university stationery, was also attached to this letter. All parents/guardians returned the release forms. Furthermore, the preservice teachers also included in the letter a brief reading activity that parents and their children could do together at home. Some preservice teachers also communicated through notes and phone calls with parents on a regular basis. Edwards (2003) noted, "we learned from researchers that literacy is not lacking in [the homes] of poor, minority, and immigrant families" (p. 314). As a result, the preservice teachers learned to value the impact of parental involvement and the home materials in their children's lives (Morrow & Young, 1997). Furthermore, the preservice teachers met informally (in hallway conversations) with the inservice teachers to discuss students' progress on a regular basis. Because the teacher candidates were doing their Inquiry Project at this time, some decided to use the teachers at Waterville Elementary. The Inquiry Project required the preservice elementary teachers to do two observations, in different grades, during reading/language arts time at either public, private or parochial schools. Then they were to select one teacher from the observations who had five or more years of classroom experience to interview about literacy teaching and learning in diverse school settings. Refiection papers were written and later shared during in-class discussions. Furthermore, many of the preservice teachers used in their lessons some of the cultural and literacy activities obtained from the Inquiry Project, thus developing a professional identity and network system (Connelly & Clandinin, 1999; Freedman, 1999). "Real" Teaching and Learning The first few sessions involved several reading assessments (i.e., interest inventory, reading and writing attitude surveys, 6+1 Trait Writing, and Dolch Word Lists). Once the preservice teachers gained some knowledge of their students' academic levels, interests and attitudes, they provided differentiated instruction (Cole, 1995; Tomlinson, 2003) for each child through various reading and writing strategies. On-going assessments (i.e., running records, retelling rubrics) were also administered throughout the structured field experience, thus allowing the preservice teachers to think about and use multiple forms of literacy assessments while discussing testing bias (Rueda & Garcia, 2003) as discovered by this preservice teacher:
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Preparing Preservice Teachers Reflection #5: From this experience I gather that I should never simply count on the formalized test to reveal the thoughts and feelings, or attentiveness of a child. (CM) Although the lessons were diverse because of the academic levels and interests of the elementary students, the preservice teachers had to teach the four literacy elements in every lesson as well as include children's literature. A lesson reflection was written and submitted via email attachment within 24 hours of each lesson (see Appendix A). Each of the guided refiection questions enabled the prospective teachers to use critical analysis to comment on their lessons as a whole and to prepare for the next lesson (Lazar, 2004; Schon, 1983). Over the entire field experience, the lesson reflections ranged from struggling to overcoming: Reflection #2: This is significant because I have to limit the amount of questions I ask: Quality over quantity. I learned the level and type of books that interest both girls, I also learned the speed of their writing. (EV) Refiection #4:1 am having to change my original views on the students' abilities. I was quite impressed with , since at first I thought she couldn 't read that well. She actually read very well for me today. Now I am thinking that needs more help in reading, even though he writes quite well. He skipped a lot of words, even whole pages, opting to look at the pictures instead of the words. (EF) Refiection #8:1 have learned that some students are not familiar with certain words that I may expect them to know. (DD) Refiection #9: Today I had both of the kids writing; wrote her dolch word list and wrote some letters from the alphabet. I can see improvement! When I did part of the letter recognition test for he is getting better! I was encouraged. (KM) Refiection #11: Overall today my lesson went pretty smooth and I believe it's a result of me having my lesson plan right next to me to follow each step. Even though I wasn't able to complete my lesson I realized that I was able to cover all the topics I mentioned in my plan and was able to do the various elements and complete the oral retelling rubric. Today's session was important because I was able to finally see the value of using the lesson plan as a guide to finish my tasks and I helped my student learn the elements of a story which she will need to be a better reader and writer. (CA) Pre and post assessments were used to document student progress during the field experience along with student work samples and teacher observations. Refiection #14:1 have learned as a teacher that having a positive attitude and a passion for learning will have a great impact on students' lives. My lesson plan was geared towards strengthening the four areas of learning, reading, word-works, writing and comprehensive, both and have worked hard and I have seen the improvement. With love, nurture and attention, these students can turn out to be successful children of tomorrow, because they have the potential. (EC) Preservice teachers wrote and submitted through e-mail attachments a Student Profile Summary (SPS) (see Appendix C) for each student. The instructor provided feedback to the SPS drafts for each student. The SPS finals were signed by both preservice teacher and instructor and then delivered to the principal. Although these preservice teachers had knowledge of assessments from other educational courses, they had not written an assessment report. Therefore,
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Preparing Preservice Teachers this experience enabled them to analyze and document student achievement in a professional written report (Reutzel & Cooter, 2004; Rueda & Garcia, 2003). Debriefing Sessions Prior to leaving the elementary school on field experience days, all of the preservice teachers met in the School Library for a debriefing session that was led by the professor and graduate assistant. This was a 15-minute meeting that allowed preservice teachers to consciously move from knowledge to action by addressing specific aspects of the tutoring sessions such as using multicultural children's literature (i.e., reader response theory and selecting and analyzing children's books for bias), dealing with student and paper management (i.e., student attendance and available materials), evaluating lesson objectives (i.e.. Bloom's Taxonomy and state educational standards), and dealing with a multicultural school environment (i.e., cross-cultural communication and transient student population). It was also an opportunity to highlight various activities that preservice teachers were doing in their lessons as in the case of this preservice teacher: Refiection #11: I've learned that a small amount ofpositive reinforcement goes a long way, especially when it is specific. Instead of simply saying, "Good job," it is more helpful to make comments such as " , you are doing a wonderful job at bringing the words to life by reading with expression in your voice!" (LT) These debriefing sessions enabled the preservice teachers to connect, on the spot, theory to practice, thus integrating the classroom and field experience for better reflections and appropriate use of teaching practices (Lazar, 2004; Opitz, 1998). Literacy Assembly One form of informal assessment of student achievement was the literacy assembly. The objective here was to demonstrate to the preservice teachers how to provide opportunities for the elementary students to showcase their reading skills (Freedman, 1999). While the assembly was originally planned for a small audience, the principal decided to invite the entire school so the preservice teachers, in small groups and with guidance from the instructor, learned to coordinate a school-wide event, but this teacher candidate still wanted a more organized event: Refiection #15: In the future I think it would be helpful to have more transparent organization (i.e. communication with participants, a printed program). Practice beforehand (such as pretending to hold the mike and speak clearly, etc.) would be wonderful! An emcee could help the program progress more smoothly. Tutors might help their students adjust the mike or hold it close enough so that they can be understood. I think I will choose a more active, creative presentation next time, rather than have students display their work. (JC) The assembly performances of original written work included choral reading, shared reading, storytelling, and individual oral reading. One preservice teacher summed up this event: Refiection #15: Just as much as I want my students to work hard and have commitment toward their goals, in the same turn, I need to have that same commitment toward making sure that my students excel. (LS) Refreshments were provided for the participating elementary students, preservice teachers, school staff and parents.
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Post Field: Sociopolitical Consciousness Rethinking the CRT Experience During the final class session we discussed all three dimensions of CRT by returning to two earlier assignments (autobiographical poem and the CDAI). The poems written by the preservice teachers had been bound into a class book; each one received a copy during this class discussion. Additionally they responded to the CDAI again. As a way to synthesize our multicultural literacy moments in this course, the class and I also looked at strategies to support culturally responsive teaching. Jackson (1993/1994) highlighted seven: (a) build trust, (b) become culturally literate, (c) build a repertoire of instructional strategies, (d) use effective questioning techniques, (e) apply effective feedback with a degree of sensitivity, (f) analyze instructional materials for bias, and (g) establish positive home-school relations. This rethinking discussion enabled the preservice teachers to dialogue their connection (or lack of it) of theory to practice, especially based on the structured field experience (Lazar, 2004). final exam The final exam enabled the preservice teachers to integrate theory and practice into a three-to-five page paper called "My Literacy Program Paper" (see Appendix D). They had to use content knowledge and pedagogical teaching gained from their textbook, in-class activities, Book Discussions. Inquiry Project, and structured field experience to complete this written exam. This allowed these preservice teachers to synthesize their application of content in a culturally responsive way (Mezirow & Associates, 2000; Willis, Garcia, Barrera, & Harris, 2003). Concluding Thoughts Utilizing the three dimensions of the culturally responsive teaching framework in the teacher preparation program at this Christian university came with a price (Zeichner, Melnick, & Gomez, 1996). At times, all--preservice teachers, professor and graduate assistant--were frustrated. First, most of the preservice teachers' prior field experiences had been in private, parochial or rural public schools; many of them also were former students in similar school settings. Second, preservice teachers "quietly" expressed their desire to gain content knowledge and pedagogy without dealing with diversity issues; they originally focused on the title and description of the course, not on this structured field experience. Third, the instructor had an explicit, practical teaching style that used problem-solving techniques in an open communication manner; some preservice teachers had difficulty being fiexible, dealing with their own dispositions and considering learners' backgrounds. Yet in refiecting on the data, several points were noted throughout this urban field experience: a. Preservice teachers learned to focus on their own attitudes and beliefs about diversity to better understand that their views of the world are not the only views. Understanding this perspective can better enhance their ability to become culturally competent. b. Preservice teachers learned to use culturally responsive teaching approaches in their Content Areas. Furthermore, they learned to refiect on their actions and interactions as they try to discern the personal motivations that govern their behaviors. Understanding the factors that contribute to certain behaviors is the first step in the change process. c. Preservice teachers learned to understand that students are connected to a complex social and cultural network that has infiuence on the educational growth of the students. Recognizing and capitalizing on students' backgrounds can positively impact the learning and teaching processes.
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Preparing Preservice Teachers d. Preservice teachers leamed to use various pedagogical practices to support the academic and social achievement of their students. Creating safe spaces outside the classroom for students to showcase their works is one authentic account of such teaching approach, e, Preservice teachers leamed to explore their participation in the educational system that can positively or negatively impact student leaming. Having opportunities to discuss issues, in an open and honest way, with other educators can enlighten and shape their values and instmctional practices. Implications Teacher quality is still the most powerful school-related influence on children's academic performance. As teacher education programs continue with their reform efforts to prepare highly qualified prospective teachers, these programs need to focus on developing a systematic, cohesive cultural responsive pedagogy throughout the entire curriculum (Smith, 1998; Yost, ForlenzaBailey, & Shaw, 1999), This is a difficult job when it comes to changing current attitudes and teaching practices, especially those who have had limited interaction with culturally and linguistically diverse student populations. However, the responsibility lies with teacher preparation programs, Howard and Del Rosario (2000) wrote that it is essential that "teacher educators must model a dialogue in which all participants have the opportunity to obtain the knowledge, skills, competencies, and attitudes necessary to engage in dialogue that seeks equity and excellence in education for all students in our increasingly global society" (p, 135), To do so, this curriculum reform cannot be limited to one course or field experience (Larkin & Sleeter, 1995; Osajima, 1995), This curriculum reform cannot be limited to methods courses and student teaching (Villegas & Lucas, 2002), This curriculum reform cannot only be for teacher educators who are proponents of multicultural education (Lazar, 2004; Nieto, 1996), Therefore, the teacher education programs must scaffold the teaching and learning moments within each course by moving from an assignment driven to an objective driven approach (Zeichner, Melnick, & Gomez, 1996), The objective is to prepare future teachers to integrate content in a culturally responsive way by focusing on academic achievement, cultural competence and sociopolitical consciousness. It is essential that preservice teachers understand their role in the global education system by learning to create successful opportunities for all learners. What a difference this would make for children if the preservice teachers acted upon this knowledge! References Au, K, H, (1998), Social Constructivism and the school literacy leaming of students of diverse backgrounds. Journal of Literacy Research, 30, 297-319, Bartoli, J, S, (1995), Unequal opportunity: Learning to read in the U.S.A. New York: Teachers College Press, Birchak, B, (1998), Teacher study groups: Building community through dialogue and reflection. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, Boutte, G, S, (2002), Resounding voices: School experiences ofpeople from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, Carter, S, C, (2000), No excuses: Lessons from 21 high performing high poverty schools. Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation, Clay, M, M, (1993), An observation survey of early literacy achievement. Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann, Cole, R, (1995), Educating everybody's children: Diverse teaching strategies for diverse learners: Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,
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Commeyras, M,, Bisplinghoff, B, S,, & Olson, J, (Eds,) (2003), Teachers as readers: Perspectives on the importance of reading in teachers' classrooms and lives. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Connelly, F, M,, & Clandinin, D, J, (1999), Shaping a professional identity: Stories of educational practice. London, Ontario: The Althouse Press, Delpit, L, (1996), Other people's children. Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York: New Press, Doleh, E,W, (1948), Problems in reading. Champaign IL: Garrard Press, Edmonds, R, (1979) Effective Schools for the Urban Poor, Educational Leadership, 37, 15-27 Edwards, P A, (2003), Introduction (Right #7), In P A, Mason & J, S, Sehumm (Eds,), Promising practices for urban reading instruction (pp, 308-318), Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Freedman, S, W, (1999), Inside city schools: Investigating literacy in multicultural classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press, Freire, P (1998), Teachers as cultural workers: Letters to those who dare teach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Gay, G, (2000), Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press, Graybill, S, W, (1997), Questions of race and culture: How they relate to the classroom for African American students. The Clearing House, 70, 311-319, Hansen, J, (2004), "Tell me a story": Developmentally appropriate retelling strategies. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Harris, V, J, (Ed,), (1992), Teaching multicultural literature in grades K-8. Norwood, MA: ChristopherGordon, Howard, G, R, (1999), We can't teach what we don't know: White teachers, multiracial schools. New York: Teachers College Press, Howard, T, C , & Del Rosario, C, D, (2000), Talking race in teacher education: The need for racial dialogue in teacher education. Action in Teacher Education, 21, 127-137, Irvine, J, J, (2003), Educating teachers for diversity: Seeing with a cultural eye. New York: Teachers College Press, Jackson, F, R, (1993 December/1994 January), Seven strategies to support a culturally responsive pedagogy. Journal of Reading, 37, 298-303, Kruse, G, M,, Homing, K, T, & Schliesman, M, (1997), Multicultural literature for children andyoung adults: A selected listing of books by and about people of color. Volume Two: 1991-1996. Madison, WI: Cooprative Children's Book Center, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Ladson-Billings, G, (2000), Reading between the lines and beyond the pages: A cultural relevant approach to literacy teaching. In M,A, Gallego & S, Hollingsworth (Eds,), What counts as literacy: Challenging the school standard (pp, 139-152), New York: Teachers College Press, Larkin, J, M,, & Sleeter, C, E, (1995), Developing multicultural teacher education curricula. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, Lazar, A, M, (2004), Learning to be literacy teachers in urban schools: Stories of growth and change. Newark, DE: Intemational Reading Association, Mezirow, J,, & Associates, (2000), Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Milner, H, R,, Flowers, L, A,, Moore, E,, Moore III, J, L,, & Flowers, T, A, (2003, Oct/Nov), Preservice teachers' awareness of multiculturalism and diversity. The High School Journal, 87, 63-70, Morrow, L, M,, & Young, J, (1997), A family literacy program connecting school and home: Effects on attitude, motivation, and literacy achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 736-742, Nieto, S, (1996), Affirming diversity: Sociopolitical context of multicultural education. New York: Longman,
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Preparing Preservice Teachers Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, (2001), 6+1 trait writing assessment Available: www,nwrel,org/assessment Opitz, M, F, (Ed,), (1998), Literacy instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse students: A collection of articles and commentaries. Newark, DE: Intemational Reading Association, Osajima, K, (1995), Creating classroom environments for change. In R, J, Martin (Ed,), Practicing what we teach: Confronting diversity in teacher education (pp, 131- 143), Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, Pransky, K,, & Bailey, F, (2002/2003), To meet your students where they are, first you have to find them: Working with culturally and linguistically diverse at-risk students. The Reading Teacher, 56, 370-383, Reutzel, D, Ray, & Cooter, R, B, (2004), Teaching children to read: Putting the pieces together (4'* edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Person Merrill Prentice-Hall, Rueda, R,, & Garcia, E, (2003), Assessing and assisting performance of diverse leamers: A view of responsive teaching in action. In Willis, A, I,, Garcia, G, E,, Barrera, R,, & Harris, V, J, (Eds,), Multicultural issues in literacy research and practice (pp, 203-222), Mahwah, NJ: L, Eribaum Associates, Schmidt, P R, (2003), Know thyself and understand others. In P, A, Mason & J, S, Sehumm (Eds,), Promising practices for urban reading instruction (pp, 134-151), Delaware, NJ: Intemational Reading Association, Schon, D, A, (1983), The reflective practitioner: New York: Basic Books, Smith, G, P (1998), Common sense about uncommon knowledge: The knowledge bases for diversity. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE) Publications, Steiner, S, F, (2001), Promoting a global community through multicultural children's literature. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Swartz, E, (2003, May), Teaching White preservice teachers: Pedagogy for change. Urban Education, 38, 255-278, Tomlinson, C, (2003), Fulfilling the promise of the differentiated classroom: Strategies and tools for responsive teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Villegas, A, M,, & Lucas, T, (2002), Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, Willis, A, I,, Garcia, G, E,, Barrera, R,, & Harris, V, J, (Eds,), (2003), Multicultural issues in literacy research and practice. Mahwah, NJ: L, Eribaum Associates, Yost, D, S,, Forlenza-Bailey, A,, & Shaw, S,F, (1999), The teachers who embrace diversity: The role of reflection, discourse, and field experience in education. The Professional Educator, 21, 1-14, Zeichner, K,, Melnick, S,, & Gomez, M, L, (1996), Currents of reform in preservice teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press,
Author's Note I express my appreciation to the Camegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in support of this study, my undergraduate research scholar Sarah Matus, and all of the Fall 2005 participants for allowing me to restructure one of the reform issues in teacher preparation, especially if it means giving hope to oppressed culturally and linguistically different students in public schools.
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Appendix A
Name:
Lesson Plan #
Date:
Instructional Area: Grade/Age Level: Time Needed for This Lesson:
Number of Students:
Standards: (List at least TWO of the twelve Michigan State Standards addressed by this lesson.) Objectives: (List ONE objective for each area--Read Aloud; Word Works; Comprehension; Writing. Write in your own words, or you may refer to the State Framework.) Read Aloud (TOAVITH/BY children) · Word Works (phonemic awareness/phonics; vocabulary development) · Writing (writing process and mechanics) · Comprehension (text structures/connections, story elements, questioning techniques, and literature response) Materials Needed: Procedure Introduction: Development: Conclusion: Evaluation: Reinforcement Activities (Home-School Connections): Reflection (due within 24 hours of teaching lesson): 1) What happened? a. How did your students perform academically, socially, emotionally, etc? b. What went well as planned? What didn't go as planned? 2) Why do I think things happened that way (cause-effect issues)? a. What were the student-related ones (i,e,, prior knowledge; background)? b. Teacher-related ones (i.e., planning; modeling/demonstration)? c. Situation-related ones (i.e., time and space limitations)? 3) So what (consider multiple perspectives)? a. Why was it significant to me? b. What have I learned? c. What questions remain? 4) Now what? a. What are the implications for action (short and long term goals for both student and teacher)?
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Appendix B
Purpose
Professional/Popular Readings and Peer-led Discussion Groups
· Learn to keep current in profession · Focus on literacy teaching and learning from a practical understanding (not highly theoretical) · Focus on culturally responsive teaching
Criteria for Selection of Books · Written by classroom teachers from urban, suburban and rural school districts · Written about literacy teaching and learning in diverse school settings · Focused on inspiring, bringing insight and challenging reader's thinking · Used an autobiographical/biographical style (narrative) · Under 300 pages · Published in the last ten (10) years · Available in paperback
Discussion Sessions EACH student is to take turn doing these: 1. Introduce yourself, the title of your book and number of pages that you read by date. 2. Select one topic area (based on Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory) and tell what you learned so far from your book about: · Cultural Awareness · Culturally Diverse Family · Cross Cultural Communication · Regarding Assessment · Creating a Multicultural Environment in the Classroom · Other Diversity Issues
3. Be prepared for others to ask questions, make comments, etc.
Selected Book Annotations Cordell, E.R. (2001). Education Esme: Diary of a teacher's first year. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books. This is the autobiographical diary of a gutsy fifth-grade teacher, Esme Raji Codell, who is so full of a lust for teaching and a love of children, that no crumbling public school system or stagnant bureaucracy can get in her way. Her inner-city Chicago students face intimidating odds -- poverty, violence, gangs, miseducation, and a long line of adults who don't believe "these children" can ever amount to anything. Madame Esme, however, is undaunted as she is determined to be herself and to educate her children with every last drop of energy.
Kane, P.R. (1991). The first year of teaching: Real wortd stories from America's teachers. New York: Walker & Company. A collection of the best essays by educators asked to describe the trials and rewards of their first year as teachers.
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Preparing Preservice Teachers Michie, G. (1999). Hotter if you hear me: The education of a teacher and his students. New York: Teachers College Press. Michie moved to Chicago and became a teacher in an inner city school, where he basically found another world--not a foreign world, as many comfortable suburbanites may think of it, but one different in its innate toughness. There he met and was "educated" by his students as much as he helped educate them. Michie's book is full of passionate writing about transforming a classroom of knuckleheads into high achievers. Paley, V.G. (1998). The girt with the brown crayon. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Once again Vivian Paley takes us into the inquiring minds and dramatic worlds of young children learning in the kindergarten classroom. This simple, personal tale tells a story of self-discovery--through the thoughts and blossoming spirit of Reeny, a little girl with a fondness for the color brown and an astonishing sense of herself. Paley, in her final year of teaching, interweaves the themes of race, identity, gender, and the essential human needs to create and to belong. Parker, D. (1997). Jamie: A literacy story. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Jamie, a child with spinal muscular atrophy, was Diane Parker's student from kindergarten through second grade in Hawaii. In those three years Jamie's school experiences and her family's growing involvement with her learning supported the developing literacy that helped her cope with her increasingly critical handicap. Jamie's story touches on a host of critical educational issues that include parent involvement, inclusion, assessment, curriculum reform, equity, and justice for all learners.
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Appendix C
Student Profile Summary
Child's Name:
Age:
School Name & Address:
University Tutor's Name: ^
· Description of Learner (Who is this child?)
· Results of Initial Assessments (Weeks 1 & 2)
· Results of Ongoing Assessments (Weeks 3-8)
· Results of Final Assessments (Week 9)
· Overall Results and Recommendations
years Grade:. Date_
This profile has been compiled and reviewed under the supervision of course instructor.
University Tutor's Signature:
Date_
Instructor's Signature:
Date_
Logistics · Use Times New Roman (12 pt.) · Have a team member review SPS before submitting to instructor · Drafts (double spaced) are due to instructors: October 14 & November 11 · Final (single spaced) is due to instructor: December 5
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Appendix D
Name
RUBRIC My Literacy Program Paper
Date.
Required Elements Beliefs & values (your set of values related to life & learning)
Points
Weight Rating** Earned Possible
2
10
Literacy learning principles
2
10
Balanced development of physical, mental, spiritual and social
aspects of each person
2
10
Ways children acquire literacy
2
10
Children's ability to become literate
2
10
How children should or do use literacy
1
5
Creating a respectful classroom environment for literacy
2
10
Methods, materials, grouping, scheduling, and management of
behavior and classroom setup
2
10
Involving parents and community in a literacy program.
2
10
Your plan to communicate stands on literacy issues.
1
5
Match between stated beliefs and values and the practical
application described in your program.
2
10
TOTALS
20
100
Percent
**Rating Scale 4-5 = Proficient - Integrates task's parts or synthesizes knowledge. Integrates multiple aspects of professional practice. Consistently appropriate application of skill. 3 = Progressing - Pulls together several aspects of task, not integrated 2 = Emerging - Limited or rote level Focuses on one element of task or concept
1 = Unsatisfactory attempt 0 = Not addressed
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