PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM INGLÊS, SCB de Souza

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Content: UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SANTA CATARINA PROGRAMA DE PУS-GRADUAЗГO EM INGLКS Sнlvia Cristina Barros de Souza TEACHER'S REPRESENTATIONS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SANTARЙM, PARБ. Dissertaзгo submetida ao Programa de Pуs Graduaзгo em Inglкs e Literatura Correspondente da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina para a obtenзгo do tнtulo de mestre. Orientador: Prof. Є Dr. Є Gloria Gil Florianуpolis 2012
Catalogaзгo na fonte pela Biblioteca Universitбria da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
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Souza, Sнlvia Cristina Barros de Teacher's representations of the english language in Santarйm, Parб [dissertaзгo] / Sнlvia Cristina Barros de Souza ; orientadora, Gloria Gil. - Florianуpolis, SC, 2012. 96 p.: grafs.
Dissertaзгo (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicaзгo e Expressгo. Programa de Pуs-Graduaзгo em Letras/Inglкs e Literatura Correspondente.
Inclui referкncias
1. Lнngua inglesa - Estudo e ensino. 2. Professores de inglкs. I. Gil, Gloria. II. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Progra.ma de Pуs-Graduaзгo em Letras/Inglкs e Literatura Correspondente. III. Tнtulo. CDU 82
Sнlvia Cristina Barros de Souza TEACHER'S REPRESENTATIONS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SANTARЙM, PARБ Esta Dissertaзгo foi julgada adequada para obtenзгo do Tнtulo de "Mestre em Letras", e aprovada em sua forma final pelo Programa de Pуs-Graduaзгo em Inglкs Florianуpolis, ____ de marзo de 2012. ________________________ Prof.Є, Dr.Є Susana Bornйo Funck Coordenadora do Curso Banca Examinadora: ________________________ Prof. Є, Dr. ЄGloria Gil, Orientadora Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina ________________________ Prof.Є,Dr.Є Gladys Plens de Quevedo Pereira de Camargo, Universidade Estadual de Londrina ________________________ Prof., Dr. Marcos Antonio Morgado de Oliveira, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina ______________________________ Prof.Є , Dr.Є Maria Inкz Probst Lucena Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Aos meus pais, Francisco e Elza, com o maior amor do mundo. Ao meu avф, Antфnio Pereira Barros (in memorian), um homem simples da Amazфnia, mas o mais sбbio que jб conheci. Ao meu afilhado, Matheus Ferreira Verussa, minha maior esperanзa para o futuro.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am pretty sure that this study would not be possible without the support of the following people and it is an honor to me to owe my deepest gratitude: First of all, I am heartily thankful to the Magnificent Holy Father, who gives me strength to go on and pursues me with His love every day. All I have is truly Yours. To my beloved parents, Francisco Pereira de Souza and Elza Barros de Souza, for always supported, encouraged and believed in me every single day of my life. This is the fruit of your unconditional love, dedication and support and I am sure, I could never thank you enough. To all my loving family in Parб and a very special thanks to my aunts, uncles and cousin who live in Florianopolis, for their continuous love, concerning and support. To my advisor, Gloria Gil, who kindly agreed to guide me through this study. I also would like to thank her kindness, encouragement and support since the initial level of my research. To the members of the examining committee, Gladys Plens de Quevedo Pereira de Camargo, Marcos Antonio Morgado de Oliveira and Maria Inкz Probst Lucena. To my precious friends from Santarйm: Aimbere Sena, Gregory Henrique Canhetti Postigo , Itelma Ponte Ferreira , Juliana Correa Tuji, Mary dos Santos Malcher, Regiane Amoedo Silva, Rosiclйia Pereira de Sousa and Rozвngela Fretes Alves for cheered me up and stood by me through the good times and bad, even though miles apart. Thank you all of you for being around! I sincerely thank those who have made this period a very special and unforgettable experience: Lнvia Maria Pinto Paschoal, Marcia Tiemy Morita Kawamoto, Martha Julia Martins de Souza, Marina Farias Martins and Renata Gomes Luis. Definitely, it would be more difficult without you by my side and I do appreciate your friendship and support. To my dear classmates, especially Cleiton Constantino Oliveira, Daniela Brito de Jesus, Marcia Regina Pawlas Carazzai, Mariana Beatriz Perrino and Sarah Sousa Silvestre, for all the good moments we spent together through these two years. To the participants of my research, who kindly agreed to answer the questionnaires and interviews: Ana Coelho, Carina Pereira, Everaldo Gomes, George Cabral, Kйzia Pacheco, Manoel Domingos Oliveira, Mбrcio Pereira, Raquel Lima, Rosiclйia Pereira, Rozвngela Fretes and
Valdinei Evangelista. Thank you all for sharing with me thoughts, achievements, fears and joy. Also, thanks for the trust in me and in my research. To CAPES, for the scholarship. To Fernanda Della Torre and Joгo Carlos da Silva, for their support and kindness since the very beginning of this journey, Marcos Musardo Junior, for helping me with the table, Daniel and Everaldo Gomes for kindly given me all the information I need about the schools and to all those I did not mention here, but who directly or indirectly contributed to the development of this work. You know who you are. Thank you all.
If a doctor, lawyer, or dentist had 40 people in his office at one time, all of whom had different needs, and some of whom didn't want to be there and were causing trouble, and the doctor, lawyer, or dentist, without assistance, had to treat them all with professional excellence for nine months, then he might have some conception of the Classroom teacher's job. (Donald D. Quinn)
ABSTRACT TEACHER'S REPRESENTATIONS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SANTARЙM, PARБ Sнlvia Cristina Barros de Souza UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SANTA CATARINA 2012 Adviser: Gloria Gil Language is never neutral (Carboni & Maestri, 2003) because it is always attached to other movements of economic, social and cultural character. Nowadays, since it is the language of globalization, international communication, business and technology, the English Language has reached the status of "Lнngua Franca" and "International language". With this expansion of the English Language, reflections about how to teach English classes also arose, being the major ones concern the teachers' qualification and fluency, an adequate teacher education and reflections that teachers themselves make of their own pedagogical practices, their values, representations, beliefs and the ongoing process of how their professional identity are built. This study aims at discussing possible representations that a group of EFL teachers from Santarйm, Parб, hold regarding the teaching and learning of English language and regarding themselves as speakers of the language. This study follows Celani and Magalhгes (2002) notion of representation that seeks to encompass social, historical and cultural contexts from where these representations arise, without neglecting political, ideological and theoretical issues. Since the perceptions of these teachers hold of the language in general may influence their pedagogical practice, in this study educational, professional and personal background from the participants were considered relevant. Number of pages: 96 Number of words: 26.662
RESUMO REPRESENTAЗХES DE PROFESSORES SOBRE A LНNGUA INGLESA EM SANTARЙM, PARБ Sнlvia Cristina Barros de Souza UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SANTA CATARINA 2012 Orientadora: Gloria Gil A lнngua nunca й neutra, pois estб diretamente ligada a movimentos de carбter social, econфmico e cultural (Carboni & Maestri (2003). Nos dias de hoje, a Lнngua Inglesa, por ser a lнngua da globalizaзгo, da comunicaзгo internacional, dos negуcios, da tecnologia assumiu o status de "lнngua franca" e "Lнngua Internacional" e com essa expansгo, questхes sobre como ensinб-la surgiram ao longo dos anos, sendo uma das maiores preocupaзхes a fluкncia e formaзгo adequada dos professores e a reflexгo que eles mesmos fazem sobre suas prбticas docentes, seus valores, representaзхes, crenзas e o processo contнnuo de formaзгo de suas identidades profissionais. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo discutir as possнveis representaзхes de um grupo de professores de Inglкs como lнngua estrangeira de Santarйm, Parб com relaзгo ao ensino e aprendizagem da lнngua inglesa e com relaзгo a eles mesmos enquanto falantes e suas possнveis relaзхes com as prбticas dentro de sala de aula. A noзгo de representaзгo usada neste estudo й baseada nas idйias de Celani and Magalhгes (2002), que procura "contemplar os contextos social, histуrico e cultural dos quais as representaзхes emergem, sem negligenciar questхes polнticas, ideolуgicas e teуricas". Uma vez que as percepзхes que os professores tкm da lнngua em geral podem influenciar diretamente suas prбticas pedagуgicas, neste estudo as experiкncias educacionais, profissionais e pessoais dos participantes foram consideradas relevantes na construзгo dessas representaзхes. Nъmero de pбginas: 96 Nъmero de palavras: 26.662
ABBREVIATIONS AND TABLES ABBREVIATIONS EFL: English as a foreign language LDB: Lei das Diretrizes e Bases da Educaзгo Nacional PCN: Parвmetros Curriculares Nacionais SOME: Sistema de Organizaзгo Modular de Ensino TABLES Table 1 Participants' background in English..............................54
TABLES OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 - Introduction 1.1 Statement of the problem................................................ 19 1.2 Objectives of the study....................................................19 1.3 Background of the study..................................................20 1.4 Relevance of the study....................................................22 1.5 Organization of the thesis.................................................22 CHAPTER 2 ­ Review of the Literature 2.1 Initial Remarks............................................................ 23 2.2 The Foreign Language teaching in Brazil: an overview..............23 2.3 Two main myths of the teaching and learning of English in Brazil.............................................................................26 2.3.1 "What is good, comes from abroad"..................................26 2.3.2 "Why do I have to learn English? I'm not going anywhere".....30 2.4 Defining Professional Identity.......................................... 32 2.4.1 Who are the EFL teachers in Brazil..................................34 2.5 Beliefs, Representations and Social Representations: the power of ideas..............................................................................38 2.5.1 Beliefs.................................................................... 38 2.5.2 Representations...........................................................40 2.6 Summary of the chapter...................................................42 CHAPTER 3 ­Research Procedures 3.1 The Study................................................................... 43 3.2 Methodological Background.............................................43 3.3 Context of investigation...................................................44 3.3.1 English learning in Santarйm............... ...........................44 3.3.2 Colйgio Santa Clara........................................................... 46 3.3.3 Escola Estadual de Ensino Fundamental e Mйdio Almirante Soares Dutra.................................................................................................... 47 3.3.4 Escola Estadual de Ensino Fundamental Gonзalves Dias...........47 3.3.5 Serviзo Nacional do Comйrcio ­SENAC..............................47 3.3.6 Sistema de Organizaзгo Modular de Ensino- SOME...............48 3.4 Participants profiles........................................................49 3.5 data collection and Analysis.............................................54 3.5.1 Questionnaires............................................................55 3.5.2 Interviews.................................................................55 3.5.3 Data Analysis.............................................................56 3.6 Summary of the Chapter..................................................56 CHAPTER 4 ­ Data Analysis and Discussion
4.1 Initial Remarks.............................................................57 4.2 Answering the research questions......................................57 4.2.1 What are the representations of the teachers in relation to the English language and themselves as English speakers in their region?.......................................................................................57 4.2.1.1 English is important for personal life and it is seen as a personal accomplishment.................................................................57 4.2.1.2 The English language is professionally important and it is seen as an opportunity of financial improvement...............................60 4.2.1.3The English language is seen as a symbol of status and prestige...........................................................................63 4.2.1.4 English teachers must speak English fluently.....................64 4.2.1.5 Speaking English fluently means to understand a native speaker and being understood by him.................................................67 4.2.1.6 Owning the English language is related to speaking the language.........................................................................70 4.2.1.7 English is seen as a world language............................... 71 4.2.1.8 The native speaker is perfect and the non-native speaker will always be inadequate..........................................................74 4.2.1.9 Living in a country where English is the mother tongue is something very important and primordial to a non-native English teacher...........................................................................75 4.2.2 What are the representations of the teachers of the English language within their pedagogical practice? ...............................77 4.2.2.1 Learning to speak English at public schools is almost impossible due to their structural conditions; English courses are a better option...77 4.2.2.2 The English teacher should be always seeking for improvement.....................................................................81 4.2.2.3 Teaching Culture is important in the English classroom.........84 4.3 Summary of the Representations.........................................89 4.4 Summary of the chapter...................................................90 CHAPTER 5 ­FINAL REMARKS 5.1 Initial Remarks.............................................................91 5.2 Research Question 1.......................................................91 5.3 Research Question 2.......................................................93 5.4 Pedagogical Implications.................................................94 5.5 Limitation of the study and suggestions for further research........95 RERERENCES................................................................................... 97 APPENDIX I.......................................................................................108 APPENDIX II...................................................................................109
19
1 INTRODUCTION
What a teacher writes on the blackboard of life can never be erased (Author Unknown).
1. 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The importance of taking into consideration teacher's background experiences and perceptions arose in some studies undertaken in the mid 1980's (Barcelos, 2003). According to Gimenez (2004), as it is not possible to separate the professional side from the human side of teachers, with their own beliefs and previous experiences, teachers' perceptions cannot be ignored because they are directly connected to teacher's practices inside classroom. Therefore, the last years some Educational Studies have been carried out and they have shown that what teachers do in class is a reflection of what they know and believe (Richards & Lockhart, 1994). Furthermore, according to Freeman & Richards (1996), it is essential to know what sort of conceptions, beliefs and knowledge language teachers hold, in order to better understand language teaching. Therefore, to understand teacher's perceptions about their own teaching could help them to improve their practices (Carazzai, 2002). In this study, in order to investigate some teacher's background experiences and conceptions, I use the construct "representations" rather than "beliefs", to denominate the perceptions identified in the participants investigated about English language as a foreign language in their context. I follow Celani and Magalhгes (2002) notion of representation that seeks to encompass social, historical and cultural contexts from where these representations arise, without neglecting political, ideological and theoretical issues, all of them considered substantial influence on pedagogical practices of teachers.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research aims at discussing the representations that a
group of English teachers from Santarйm- Parб have about English as a
foreign language in their own context, in an attempt to comprehend the
following:
.
1. What are the representations of the teachers in relation to
the English language and themselves as English speakers in their
region?
20 2. What are the representations of the teachers of the English language within their pedagogical practice? It should be clear that this study does not intend to discuss terminology questions, not even establish limitations, being the construct "representation" used rather than "belief", due to a personal choice, since I understand that the construct "representation" includes beliefs, as I follow Celani and Magalhгes' conceptualization, which is going to be explained afterwards. 1.3 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY In this section, I will present the personal reasons that led me to carry out this research. As a teacher from Santarйm, Parб, I thought it would be interesting to find out the representations my colleagues held when it comes to English language and they themselves as English speakers as well. I myself had my strong representations about the English language and the kind of English speaker I was and I wanted to check whether the colleagues had similar representations. My greatest motivation in conducting this study, though, is that I was born in Santarйm, as well as my participants. As an ordinary pattern in the region, I came from a big family. My grandparents had eleven kids; most of them grew up in a farm in a small community around the Amazon River. I grew up in my grandparent's house, surrounded by stories about the Amazon and its mysteries. My grandfather, a fisherman, used to tell the stories. Despite being a simple man and without formal education, he decided that all his eleven kids would move to the city in order to go to school. The result is that all of them went to college. In my grandfather's opinion, education was the only treasure we truly hold. As I am the only child, my parents could afford the best schools in town for me, so I always studied in private schools, because, according to my mother, they were better than the public ones. As my mother is a teacher, when I was a child I wanted to become one, as well. Nevertheless, in High School things started to change, and I decided that I wanted to be a lawyer. I was about to do the vestibular test when I changed my mind, following the representation that Letras Program is an "easy" course. At that time, there was no possibility to enroll a Letras Lнngua Inglesa program in Santarйm, so I applied for Letras- Lнngua Portuguesa. At the University I started to be involved in social causes, mainly regarding the pollution, poverty, violence and deforestation that
21 surround the Amazon region and that time, I started to hold a strong belief that I, as a future teacher, had an important social work, although I did not really realize how to develop it. Only in 2007 a private institution in town started the Letras Lнngua Inglesa program and I enrolled for it, being part of the first class. During the Letras- Lнngua Portuguesa course, I started to study English on my own, because I always liked to listen to music and my favorite songs were in English. Learning by myself created in me a certain inferiority complex regarding pronunciation, mainly when I started to attend English classes in a course. I can say that at that time, I came to have the representation that non-natives pronunciation is always inadequate. My first experience as an English teacher happened in 2004, with ten four- year-old children. During that time, I had to deal with some kind of prejudice for being the youngest teacher and for still being a college student. To make things worse, I refused myself to follow some traditional approaches, since they did not work with me, as a student. So, I can surely say that English, in a way, has helped me to develop my own way of teaching. In Santarйm, I worked at private and public regular schools, English courses and at a private University. At public schools, the place which I appreciated to work the most, the fact that English teachers without minimal knowledge were hired to give classes, caused me considerable frustration, as many of them used to make clear that English was not an "important" subject. Furthermore, the representation that English learning in public schools was considered useless for many students, due to the fact they would never go abroad, was a great concern to me, as well. I used to tell my students that I myself had never gone abroad; nevertheless I was able to learn the language. When I started to work at the local University, a private institution that is the only place that offer Letras Lingua Inglesa undergraduate program, I could perceive other settled representations in my students' speech: native speakers are the only ones who own the language, it is not possible to learn how to speak English at public schools, there is a huge lack of opportunities to practice the English language in our region, owning the language is related to speak the language, giving English classes is only a way of financial improvement, going abroad is the better way of learning English and so forth. In my understanding, the majority of the representations then portrayed a sort of inferiority complex.
22 I therefore decided to investigate the main representations the other teachers from Santarйm held regarding English language and they themselves as English speakers. I chose eleven teachers from different contexts, in an attempt to find out whether they share representations among them. Interestingly, some representations highlighted were widely different from mine when I was a teacher there and from my expectations. For instance, I found very interesting the representation that the majority of them hold, that being an English teacher gives them status and is a symbol of prestige. Furthermore, in my understanding, the teacher training in Santarйm, needs improvement, mainly regarding curriculum, thus I was expecting more critical comments about it. 1.4 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY The aim of a research in teacher training area is, according to Gil (2005), to understand the process language teachers go through to become professionals in the field of language teaching. When teachers have the opportunity to reflect about their own practices, their place and importance within a society, their beliefs and values, they are getting a chance to rethink their attitudes. I intend with this research to encourage and reinforce discussion about local pedagogical practices and local knowledge for EFL teachers. I believe that, for teacher education to be entirely helpful, it is crucial to trigger a discussion on political and pedagogical issues related to teacher development. I then hope to contribute to the social context of teacher education in general and to this group of teachers in a way that can allow them to rethink their own representations and hence, their profession, what can possibly, generate good changes. 1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS This dissertation has five chapters that are organized as the following: In Chapter I, I portray the research problem, the objectives, the background and the relevance of the study. In the Chapter II, I report a discussion of some relevant literature that outlines my study. In Chapter III, I present the method used in this study and I also describe the context of investigation, providing a brief profile of the participants and the procedures I used for collecting and analyzing data. In Chapter IV, I present my data analysis and interpretation and in Chapter V, I report a summary of this study, its findings and my final remarks.
23 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 INITIAL REMARKS The main objective of this chapter is to review some of the relevant literature on Professional Identity and Representations of English as Foreign Language teachers (henceforth EFL). First, I will provide a brief overview of foreign language teaching in Brazil. Second, I will discuss what I call in this study "The two main myths1 about English teaching in Brazil", which are some common representations about English Language teaching and learning in the country. Third, I will review some studies on professional identity focusing on English teachers and their representations about their professional practices. Finally, I will discuss some definitions of "beliefs" and "representations". 2.2 THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN BRAZIL: AN OVERVIEW If we travel back in time and take into consideration the first inhabitants of our country, the Indigenous people, who had to learn Portuguese due to the colonization, it is possible to affirm that even our mother tongue was once a foreign language. Therefore, the culture of learning a foreign language in Brazil is not, necessarily, new. Initially, at colonial times, the focus of interest was on "classic languages", Greek and Latin. Subsequently, during the empire, the focus changed to the "modern languages", French, English, German and Italian (Leffa, 1999). However, it is important to highlight that the modern languages did not reach the same status of the classic languages immediately, and Leffa (1999) points out that this fact happened very slowly, firstly with the arrival of the Royal Family in 1808, secondly with the inauguration of Pedro II School and finally, with the Educational Reform of 1855. During the Empire, the teaching of modern languages had to face the lack of an appropriate methodology, as it followed the Grammar-Translation Method (Leffa, 1999), which focused only on translation of texts and grammatical aspects. Also, during the First Republic period, there was a reduction of the classes per week dedicated to foreign languages. Whereas in 1892, there were seventy-six 1I use the construct "myths" to suggest that these two ideas represent common sense.
24 week/annual classes, in 1925 there were only twenty-nine (Leffa, 1999). Also, Greek and Italian were no longer offered, and students had to choose between English or German as a mandatory foreign language (Leffa, 1999). The status that the English language has reached in Brazil nowadays originally belonged to French (Rajagopalan & Rajagopalan, 2005), mostly during the days of the monarchy when the knowledge of this language meant social status (Rajagopalan & Rajagopalan, 2005) and prestige within society. Even fairly recently, it was possible to notice that the Brazilian elite has continued to look to France as the center of intellectual simulation and cultural refinement (Pinto, 1986). Going back to history, in 1931, there were some important changes regarding methodological aspects of foreign language teaching. For the first time, the Direct Method, the teaching of a language through the own language, was introduced (Leffa, 1999). In 1942, took place the "Capanema Reform", which brought about the "golden years" of foreign language in Brazil, since students had classes of Latin, French, English and Spanish. According to its creator, Minister Capanema, the foreign language classes "must not be focused only on instrumental aspects" (Leffa, 1999). Nevertheless, in 1961, a new educational bill has passed which caused the end of the golden years of foreign language in Brazil. The "Lei das Diretrizes e Bases da Educaзгo" (Bill of Direction and Foundation of Education) reduced to less than 2/3 the foreign language teaching at schools (Leffa, 1999). Still, due to the law, according to Leffa (1999), many schools decided not to offer any foreign language from fifth grade on and, at secondary schools there was, sometimes, just one of a foreign language class per week. This problematic scenario started to change in November 1996, with the new LDB, that reintroduced foreign languages in the national curriculum. Bohn (2003, p.166) points out that the bill established that "the choice of language and pedagogical implementations are the entire responsibility of the local education authority and local school community". To this author, this fact has left the country "without a clear direction or policy". Furthermore, Bohn (2003) points out that "Brazilian educational policy makers are well aware that the new legislation and the new discourses do not necessarily lead to a better quality education or to more efficient learning practices". Thus, in 1997 the Brazilian Ministry of Education started a project to reform the national curriculum and the Parвmetros Curriculares Nacionais- Lнngua Estrangeira, (PCNs: Foreign
25 Language) were launched. The PCN's do not have a regulatory status but "it re-introduces foreign language education as official field of study in the national curriculum" (Bohn, 2003). In accordance to Bohn (2003, p. 167), the PCNs insist on the notion that language is a social practice and that foreign language classes should focus on: 1. A multilingual world of which the learner is part; 2. Global comprehension; 3. Meanings expressed, rather than on correction form; 4. Development of learners' ability to perceive the foreign language as an opportunity for communication and participation; 5. Learners' ability to share the values of a plural world and to comprehend and identify their role in such a world; 6. Recognition that the development of foreign language competence will allow learners to access cultural values and goods and products from different parts of the world; 7. Interconnectedness of foreign language systemic and communicative knowledge and mother tongue knowledge and language practices; 8. Critical awareness of language use and language variation; 9. Development of critical reading ability to enhance learners' professional capacity and their continuous knowledge development; 10. Learners' communicative capacities to prepare them for diverse/ multicommunicative situations. 2 It is important to highlight that, although the focus of the ideal foreign language class suggests that language is a social practice, and the development of critical learners is something primordial, some parts of this document seem to corroborate the prejudice that surrounds public institutions in Brazil, which is going to be explained afterwards. According to Rajagopalan & Rajagopalan (2005) in the last 20 years, the English language has become increasingly prominent in the daily lives of Brazil's citizens. In spite of this increasing growth, the teaching of the English language in Brazil, mainly at public institutions, is still surrounded by many difficulties. The quotation made by Machado (1989, p. 69), in the 80's, that the teaching of English was "going through a difficult phase" , still makes sense nowadays, since 2 Adapted from Ministйrio da Educaзгo e Cultura, 1998: 66-7, by Bohn (2003)
26 teachers have to deal with bad working conditions, low salaries, large class groups, not enough teaching and learning resources, lack of time and fewer English classes per week. In order to give continuation to the topic of English teaching and learning in the country, in the following subsections I will then portray and discuss critically the two main myths about English language in general and the teaching of this language in Brazil. 2.3 TWO MAIN MYTHS OF THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH IN BRAZIL 2.3.1 "What is good, comes from abroad" Aqui a gente toma guaranб, quando nгo tem Coca Cola. Chega das coisas da terra, que o que й bom, vem lб de fora (Belйm-Parб-Brasil- Mosaico de Ravena)3 Moita Lopes (1996) argues, according to a study carried out by him that, in 1982, there was an overvaluation of the English language by English teachers in Brazil, and, hence, of its culture over the national culture. At that time, there was an "overstated positive attitude towards English language and its culture" (p. 37). Moita Lopes (1996) characterizes the English teachers as "colonized", and suggests that they do not seem to be aware of the political role of education. Moita Lopes also emphasizes the great desire teachers have to be like the native speakers, demanding from themselves "a pronunciation as perfect as the native's one and the incorporation of cultural habits" (p. 43). This total identification with the "others" (p. 43), the native speakers, is according to Moita Lopes (1996), the main indication of "alienation" and at the end of his study, the author emphasizes that it is important for English teachers to comprehend better their political, social and historical role. The absence of a critical view of English teachers all over the world started to be questioned by some applied linguists such as 3Popular Song of the State of Parб, written as a protest to the subservience of paraenses to other cultures.
27 Pennycook (1994), mainly with the advent of the communicative approach, where the language is seen as a tool of interaction and the English language expansion is considered as "natural, neutral and beneficial" (Pennycook, 1994). Pennycook does not agree with those who advocate that English is a neutral language as language is always attached to social and economical struggles that English teachers have to shed light inside classrooms. Pennycook (1994) still points out that "a number of writers have pointed to a far broader range of cultural and political effects of the spread of English: Its widespread use threatens other languages; it has become the language of the power and prestige in many countries, thus acting as a crucial gatekeeper to social and economic progress; its use in particular domains, especially professional, may exacerbate different power relationships and may render these domains more inaccessible to many people; its position in the world gives it a role also as an international gatekeeper, regulating the international flow of people; it is closely linked to national and increasingly nonnational forms of culture and knowledge that are dominant in the world; and it is also bound up with aspects of global relations, such as the spread of capitalism, development aid and the dominance particularly of North American media. (Pennycook, 1994, p. 13) Additionally, some authors question the use of the English language for communicative purposes in regular public schools in Brazil. Moita Lopes (1996), for instance, questions the idea of using English as a way to make friends, to know and to interact with another culture, some of the goals of the communicative approach. The communicative approach is called by Moita Lopes as "colonizer", because, according to the author, the students will try to assimilate aspects from another culture. He also asserts that teaching reading is more appropriate in our context, as many students from public schools will not have opportunities to practice this pragmatic competence, but they will face the need to read in English, like in the vestibular test, for instance. Corroborating this idea, Cox and Assis-
28 Peterson (1999) state that "instrumental teaching is seen as a way of escaping from the effects of acculturation, inherent in communicative language teaching". But, as Pennycook (1994) argues, if we consider that this spread of English is not only a linguistic matter, but the expansion of ideas of "development, democracy, capitalism, neoliberalism and modernization", maybe it is possible to deduce that even this instrumental teaching is also "a trap", (Cox & Assis-Peterson, 2001). Cox and Assis-Peterson claim that when learning to read in English, students can use this knowledge for accessing information and technology, or for assimilating another cultural aspects and consume what comes with this huge expansion. Likewise, with the advent of globalization, the need to interact with others has become essential. The new worldwide order (Moita Lopes, 2003) allows people from any part of the world to exchange information at any time or even follow them instantly through the TV or the internet. As Scholhammer (2002, p.267 cited in Moita Lopes, 2003, p.27) states, in recent years, "nothing is completely unknown or unexpected due to the facility that information can reach people". Thompson (1998, p.184 cited in Moita Lopes, 2003, p. 27) also emphasizes this idea pointing out that, "the comprehension of individuals is broader now, being interaction shaped by instantaneous communication network and not only by face to face". As the English language is particularly involved in this new order, due to its status of universal language, some scholars have acknowledged the importance of making English teachers aware of the political role they have, in order to avoid what it is called "the single discourse" (Moita Lopes, 2003). An education that does not take into consideration social, political and historical factors inside classrooms has been widely criticized (Hooks, 1994; Moita Lopes, 2003). This "single discourse", the one that is spread by the media and crosses the borders in real time is dangerous because, according to Moita Lopes (2003), it can manipulate people and here comes the importance of such representation of English teaching in recent years: the notion that English is not only a path for success for those who own it nowadays, but also it can be considered an instrument of exclusion for those who are exposed to the "single discourse" without having any possibility to question it. In accordance to Rajagopalan (2005), it is indispensable to avoid the linguistic imperialism, defined as "a harmful way how people are mentally colonized on behalf of globalization and of the universal access
29 of the English language" (p. 37). To Rajagopalan (2005), English teachers should be aware that when teaching the language, they are not contributing with the linguistic domination of the students, when the foreign language "owns their own way of being and thinking" (p. 37). On the other hand, Bohn (2003) points out that owning the English language still is, most of the times, a luxury for the upper class. In a globalized world, where skills are worth over knowledge, "the elite who hold power, dominate the media, and manage public resources can use the lack of competence in foreign languages to exclude the majority of the population". The author also affirms that the same elite can offer to their children opportunities to become bilingual and multicultural and that "not knowing English is one way to exclude millions of Brazilians". As already suggested, Pennycook (1994; 1995) is another scholar that has emphasized that the expansion of English language is not only a matter of linguistic features but also it is the expansion "of a set of discourses in which ideas of development, democracy, capitalism, neoliberalism and modernization". Likewise, Cox and Assis Peterson (1999) have claimed that "if English is the language through which the forces of neocolonialism operate, then counter discourses need to be obviously articulated in English". Bearing these ideas in mind, Pennycook (1994) also adds that "English teachers cannot reduce their teaching to social-psychological notions of motivation, methodology or linguistic questions" Cox and Assis-Peterson (1999, p. 439) have also added that those teachers who want to try to overcome this dichotomy must: 1. Doubt and be critical of the dominant discourse that represents the internationalization of English as good and as a passport to the first world (p. 439). 2. Consider the relationship of their work to the spread of the language critically evaluating the implications of their practice in the production and reproduction of social inequalities (p. 439) 3. Question whether they are contributing to the perpetuation of domination (p. 439). In the same vein, Pennycook (1995) suggests that the English teacher "should be aware of the implications of the spread of English for the reproduction and production of global inequalities as well as be a political agent engaged in a project of critical pedagogy that helps the student to articulate in English counter discourses to the dominant one" (p. 55).
30 2.3.2 "Why do I have to learn English? I am not going anywhere!" Amor lб no morro й amor pra chuchu. As rimas do samba nгo sгo I loveYou. E esse negуcio de alф, alф boy e alф Johnny, sу pode ser conversa de telefone (Nгo tem traduзгoAssis Valente)4 Another myth widely found in Brazil is that at public schools English is a subject that does not have the same importance than the others. According to Perin (2005) English teachers at public schools in Brazil have to deal sometimes with "contempt, indifference, what most of the times, generates indiscipline" (p. 150). The teacher has to face student's feelings of not seeing the importance of what he is learning (Dias & Assis-Peterson, 2006). Gimenez (2004) and Dutra and Mello (2004) are some Brazilian applied linguists that have also found this myth 5 . In a study in the state of Parana, in the south of Brazil, Gimenez, Mateus, Ortenzi and Reis (2000) identified some representations about the teaching of English at public schools and they have stated that the actual educational context has great importance in the emergence of such perceptions. Teachers' lack of resources, low salaries, short classes and the large groups of students contribute to sustaining and reinforcing the representation that at public schools the English language learning is infeasible (Ortenzi & Reis, 2002). Barci (2006), in her dissertation, has also identified in her data that students from public schools are not motivated to learn English. She states that this representation is mainly due to the fact that, in opposite to the students from private schools, who have a better financial situation and, hence, more reasons to learn the language, the students from public schools most of the times do not see a practical function in learning a foreign language, even a language that is everywhere. Corroborating this idea, Moita Lopes (1996) has pointed out that one of the main problems of our contemporary society is social exclusion, defined as "the "marginalization of those who live on the 4 Popular Brazilian song of the 30's, used by Paiva (1991) to illustrate the representation that poor people must not speak English and that only the elite had the right to own it. 5They use the construct "beliefs" in their respective researches and not "myth".
31 periphery, without access to the discourses of a multicultural world of those living in network societies and with global identities". In the same vein, Leffa (2011, p.25) states that education is the element that discriminates the most in Brazil, since with rare exceptions, there is the settled representation that public schools are for poor people. The ones who can afford a private school for their children do it without thinking twice, in an attempt to avoid all the exclusions that a bad educational background may bring in the future. Still, according to this author, public schools in Brazil are living a permanent state of "carnavalization", where students do not study and nothing happens, teachers do not teach and nothing happens, the government does not follow its own bills and nothing happens (p.25). The only thing that happens is an ongoing and collective mockery, where people make fun of the bad conditions of public institutions, as if it were the only way to portray these problems to society. The prejudice that surrounds public schools is even in the PCN's (Oliveira & Paiva, 2011), for instance, when the document affirms: In Brazil (...) only a small part of the population has the opportunity of using foreign language as a means of oral communication inside the country or abroad. (Brasil, 1998:20) [My translation] According to Oliveira and Paiva (2011), the document does not take into consideration the possibility of social mobility, "assigning an elitist role to English". In another part of the document, it is possible to find the settled representation that only the teaching of reading is feasible at classrooms at public schools: It must be taken into consideration that the conditions of the majority Brazilian classrooms (fewer classes in the week, large classes groups, lack of oral skills of the majority of teachers, reduced material resources) may become the teaching of the four abilities infeasible. Thus, the focus on reading can be justified by the social function of foreign languages in the country and also for the possible objectives, considering the
32 current conditions (Brasil, 1998, 21) [my translation] The lack of education policies, that could make the learning of foreign languages easier, contributes to the representation that it is not possible to learn English in the context of public institutions. Even teachers' education (previously called `training') is precarious, since many future teachers still graduate without a minimal knowledge of English proficiency. Martins (2005) points out that a proficiency test in the last phase of the `Licenciaturas' could be a solution to avoid either the "professors postiзos" (Siqueira, 2011), who do not teach English because they do not own the language, or teachers who do not teach difficult topics because they believe the students are not interested (Coelho, 2005, p. 115) providing only a "basic learning" (Barcelos, 2011). As a result of that the students start to believe in the "ideologia do pouquinho" (Santos, 2005, p. 152), that is, the teaching of small words and fragments of the language. This ideology also helps to corroborate the myth that it is not possible to learn English in public schools (Barcelos, 2011). If it is not possible to learn English at public schools and, according to a common sense, if you own the English language, you are ahead of those who do not own the language of globalization, it is possible to affirm that, nowadays, English can be considered a path for success and, at the same time, a path for exclusion. In a nutshell, in this section I reported and critically discussed on two common myths that are usually found in Brazilian Applied Linguistics discourses related to the English teaching in Brazil. In the following subsection, I present some studies carried out in Brazil about the professional identity of English teachers in the country, and the representations teachers hold about their role in classrooms and as speakers of this language. 2.4 DEFINING PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery. (Mark Van Doren) In the last years, the notion of identity has been put at stake by some post-structuralist, post-colonial theoretical lines in human
33 sciences. Therefore, as values and conceptions of life have been widely questioned (El Kadri, 2010), the construction of identity has become to be seen as an ongoing process, and identity is now characterized as multifaceted, non-fixed and socio-historical-culturally constructed. Every day, inside the place we live, through the language we speak, we are constructing our identity. Therefore, identity needs to be understood as "an ongoing process that is never completely settled, in the sense that it can always be sustained or abandoned" (Hall, 2005, p. 106). We are, as human beings, shaped according to our experiences of life. When we experience different situations and take part in different social contexts we reflect about our own values, confirming them, reformulating them or even creating new ones that are immediately incorporated to our identity (Falcгo, 2005).What we are, our social identities are thus constructed through our discursive practices with the other (Shotter & Gergen, 1989). Being part of this social identity as well, the professional identity of the teacher, therefore, is also built in various discursive practices in which he/she engages and by which he/she interacts with others. In this study, the professional identity of EFL teachers is considered an ongoing process, following the ideas of Rollemberg (2003) who points out that the professional identity of teachers is negotiated in the discursive processes teachers take part and it is in these processes we fragment ourselves to become one (Rollemberg, 2003, p. 251). From this perspective, it is necessary to bear in mind that the teachers do not go to classrooms leaving aside all their multiple social roles (the teacher is also a son/daughter, father/mother, husband/wife, etc) that constitute their identity (Rollemberg, 2003). On the other hand, for Celani and Magalhгes (2002, p. 322), the professional identity of teachers is somehow related to curriculum, in the sense that the curriculum is where the representations about the social, political and pedagogical start to conflict among each other, and, hence, outline choices that are going to be made. To the authors, the curriculum is intimately linked to the other features that form the professional identity. Also, according to Falcгo (2005), the professional identity of teachers represents all their experiences of teaching as well as their experiences as social agents in the environment they live.
34 2.4.1 Who are the EFL teachers in Brazil? Teachers are expected to reach unattainable goals with inadequate tools. The miracle is that at times they accomplish this impossible task. (Haim G. Ginott) In this subsection, I review some studies on Professional Identity of EFL teachers carried out in Brazil. According to QuevedoCamargo and Ramos (2008), the professional identity of EFL teachers in Brazil seems to be in a moment of "crisis", and the teachers do not seem to be aware of what they must do inside classrooms. As a consequence of this insecurity that some EFL teachers show, teachers' education at the Brazilian Universities has started to be questioned, mainly because the student-teachers finish their courses without having the expected or necessary fluency in English. These teachers go to classrooms and show lack of preparation, fear and depreciation feelings (Pow, 2003 p. 79 cited in Sousa Fernandes, 2006). Many authors such as Almeida Filho (1992), Paiva (1997), Celani (2001) and Gimenez (2005) have suggested that in Brazil, many English teachers are not well prepared, either linguistically or pedagogically. This fact can damage their image before society, affecting their identity as professionals and creating in them feelings of unfitness. This feeling of unfitness from the ideal English teacher is reflected in the way many teachers see themselves as teachers and, hence, will influence the construction of their professional identity. Interestingly, the ideal model of their professional identity, most of the times, is a native speaker and, this culture of overvaluing native speakers can cause feelings of exclusion and passivity in teachers (Sousa Fernandes, 2006), and, hence, an inferiority complex. Bearing this context of English teachers' education in Brazil in mind, some studies have been carried out in an attempt to unveil the professional identity of English teachers in the country. Taking into consideration, as already suggested, that "identity" only becomes an issue when it is in crisis (Quevedo-Camargo & Ramos, 2008), it is understandable that, in recent years, the professional identity of English teachers has been highlighted since the educational panorama in Brazil is changing, due to changes of global levels (Quevedo-Camargo & Ramos, 2008). Also, since the future- teachers are treated as students most of the time in their undergraduate courses, they hold difficulties in outlining their identity profiles as teachers (Gimenez, 2004).
35 Teaching English nowadays demands more than just the teaching of grammatical rules or translation of texts. Since this language in recent years has reached the status of "Lнngua Franca", questions as "what the English teachers must know, must do and where they must act" (Quevedo-Camargo & Ramos, 2008) in an increasingly globalized world, have also arisen. In Brazil, some dissertations and articles have presented studies that involve the professional identity of English teachers, in an attempt to unveil what sort of reflections and redefinitions these professionals are doing, in order to understand what to know and what to do inside classrooms (El-Kadri, 2010). In general, the studies acknowledge the construct "identity" as something multifaceted, unstable, non-fixed and socio-historical-culturally constructed. Some studies have specifically addressed the identity of teacher's issue, by trying to find some of these teacher's representations, (even though in some studies they are not considered "representations"). Rossi (2004), for instance, discusses the representations of future English teachers about the construction of their knowledge and the role of these representations in their professional identity formation. The author's findings portray negative representations being the oral skill lack of adequate development the main reason for such negative feelings. Also, the participants of her study hold the following representations: the Letras Program should help in the development of an advanced knowledge of the English language and the few classes of English language in the Universities harm the future teachers education; the native speaker pronunciation is the adequate and a model to be reached and followed; English courses are a better option than regular schools to learn the language; the English teacher should know how to speak the language as well as have some personal features such as: interest, motivation, responsibility, sympathy and patience. Rossi also points out that such representations are clear sign of insecurity in their professional identity construction (Quevedo-Camargo & Ramos 2008). In an interesting study case that aimed at portraying the development of the professional identity of a future EFL teacher, Falcгo (2005) claims that this process of construction happens through discursive practices (Moita Lopes, 2002; Dutra, 2003; Kleiman, 2002) and that the reflexive-critical practice of the teachers allows themselves to reconsider their own representations, concepts and values, what certainly will bring positive changes. Corroborating Bakhtin's ideas (1981) that our discourse is always influenced by the other, in a year and half it is possible to notice that the participant reformulates and even
36 creates new representations about being an EFL teacher, due to his interaction to other students, professors, readings and his new experience as an English teacher. To illustrate, at the beginning of the study, the investigated teacher held the representations that the teacher must know everything; that the good teacher is the one who studies in a Letras Program and follows a model that can be a previous teacher. Nevertheless, in the end of the study, these representations no longer make sense to him, proving that the professional identity is a result of several experiences we live and is always an ongoing process (Moita Lopes, 2002). Tick's article (2005) discusses the identity of pre-service EFL teachers through interviews and narratives. The author highlights that the experiences her participants present contribute to the construction of their beliefs about what means to teach and learn, as well as the roles of the ones involved in these processes. Through the analysis of the data, she finds out that the participants have a relation of affection with the language, what make them believe they had a certain facility in learning English. Also, the participants hold the representation that in regular schools, the teaching of English does not motivate the students in opposite to the private courses that, focusing on the oral skill, promote the real learning of the language. This representation is widely found in researches in Brazil, and, according to Coelho (2006, p. 136), it may be the result of frustrated expectations of teachers in classrooms, at the moment when the developed activities were not well received by the students. Additionally, Sousa Fernandes (2006) studies the representations of English teachers of a private English course, in order to find out their implications on the construction of the participant's professional identities. According to her findings, many teachers still hold the representation that native speakers are the really owners of the English language, what can cause in them and hence in their students, feelings of self-exclusion. Other interesting representations found in her study are: the native speaker is the ideal teacher, being an English teacher is a symbol of status and prestige, to live in a country where English is the mother tongue is indispensable for non-native English speakers and that this profession is seen as a source of financial improvement. Oliveira's study, which investigated in-service teachers of public schools (2006, suggests that the participants of the study hold the representation that the new professional identity of the English teachers is multifaceted and it has the following roles: mediator, partner,
37 motivator and "show-person". According to the author, there is a renegotiation of power relations inside classrooms, where students are now partners and not just listeners. Also, the author emphasizes that there is homogeneity of the role of the teachers and their identities in the contemporaneous discursive practices (El-Kadri, 2010). Ramos (2006) investigates the changes in the professional identities of English teachers due to the globalization process and its influences on education. In the findings, the author observed that the lack of prestige of the profession does not motivate the teachers. Also, external control and the reduction of the teacher autonomy inside classrooms influence their professional identity. Marques' (2007) study aims at analyzing the discourse of four teachers who work at a private English course. Following the ideas of Woodward (2000), to whom the human beings do not have a fixed identity but fragmented and always involved in ongoing changes and transformation, the author tries to find out the representations the participants hold. The findings portray some common representations such as: English teachers must speak English fluently; English is an international language; owning the English language is related to speaking the language; living in a country where English is the mother tongue is something very important and primordial to a non-native English teacher; the native speaker is perfect and the non-native speaker will always be inadequate; learning to speak English at public schools is almost impossible due to their structural conditions; English courses are a better option. According to El-Kadri (2010), the studies on professional identity of English teachers in Brazil have focused on the teacher's own perceptions of themselves as professionals and they seem to portray a widely connection between the linguistic competence and identity. The author emphasizes that this relation between the teachers and the language they teach is the main constituent factor of their professional identity and it is always a relation of "lack of". From this connection, it is perceived a continuous comparison to the "role" model, the native speaker and, therefore, feelings of insecurity and uncertainties (El-Kadri, 2010). Also, the author observes that the researches on professional identities of English teachers in Brazil focus on certain groups at certain times, that there are few studies on the identity of the teachers of public schools and about identity of English teachers at the beginning of their teacher training courses. In a nutshell, the studies on professional identity of English teachers which focus on their representations portray that:
38
(...) the identity of the English teacher is full of uncertainties, insecurities and conflicts and that the teacher education courses contribute to it, and that this identity is, at the same time, constructed and imposed by society and constructed and corroborated by the English teacher. (Quevedo-Camargo & Ramos 2008, p.194) [My translation]
2.5 BELIEFS, REPRESENTATIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS: THE POWER OF IDEAS
SOCIAL
In recent years, some researchers in different areas of knowledge have focused on investigation and conceptualization of "constructs" defined as "complex" (Pajares, 1992 cited in Freire & Lessa, 2003). Depending on the theoretical background that underlies the studies, these constructs can be classified as either beliefs or representations. Therefore, I believe to be pertinent to present the two constructs and their definitions in order to allow a better understanding of the theoretical choice of the concept used in this thesis: "Representations". In the following subsections, I provide a brief overview of some relevant literature regarding beliefs and representations.
2.5.1 Beliefs
Since it is not possible to separate a teacher's life from his/her teacher's practice (Goodson, 1992), in the mid 1980s, researchers started to be concerned to interpret not only teacher's practice inside classrooms but their perceptions as well because "teachers beliefs and values constitute their teaching culture" (Richards & Lockart, 1994) Pajares (1992) proposes to define the term belief as "an individual's judgment of the truth or falsity of a proposition" (p. 316). According to this author, beliefs can be inferred from what people say and do. In addition, Dewey (1933, p. 6 cited in Barcelos, 2003) points out that beliefs are a form of thought that "covers all the matters of which we have no sure knowledge and yet we are sufficiently confident of to act upon and also the matters that we now accept as certainly true, as knowledge, but which nevertheless may be questioned in the future" (p.10).
39 According to Barcelos (2003), the first scholar who highlighted the importance attached to teacher's beliefs in teacher education was Lortie (1975). Lortie argues that teacher's memories of their experiences as students widely influence what they believe to know about teaching (Barci, 2006). In a similar vein, Richards (1994) states that: "Teacher beliefs form a structured set of principles that are derived from experience, school practice, personality, educational theory, reading, and other sources" (p. 2). According to Malatйr (2005) some of the sources of teachers' beliefs can be the multiple social roles that teachers play in different contexts (e.g. daughters/sons, colleagues, neighbors) in combination with many other forces (e.g. family, readings, former teachers). Beliefs are, thus, subjective and come to exist from individual experiences and interpretations, but are also collective and social (Barcelos, 1995; Barcelos, 2003). In addition, Richards (1994) has argued that: "teacher's beliefs form a structured set of principles that are derived from experience, school practice, personality, educational theory, reading and other sources" (p. 2). In the same vein, Richards and Lockart (1994) suggest different sources of teacher's beliefs, such as: 1. Teachers' own experience as language learners. Since before being teachers, they were students, it seems clear to affirm that their beliefs about teaching reflect how they were once taught. (Richards & Lockart, 1994, p.31). 2. Experiences of what works better. Experience is the primary source of beliefs for teaching; it means that some strategies will work better than others. (Richards & Lockart, 1994, p. 31). 3. Established practice. Depending on the institution, (Barci, 2006) certain practices may be preferred (Richards & Lockhart, 1994, p. 31). 4. Personality factor. Some teachers have a personal preference for a particular teaching pattern, arrangement or activity, because they match the teachers' personality (Richards &Lockhart, 1994, p. 31). 5. Educationally based or research-based principles. Teachers may draw on their understanding on a learning principle in psychology, second language acquisition or education and try to apply in the classroom (Richards & Lockhart, 1994, p.31).
40 6. Principles derived from an approach or method. Teachers may believe in the effectiveness of certain methods of teaching and approaches, trying to implement them in the classroom (Richards & Lockhart, 1994, p. 31). Adding to that, Abelson (1979, cited in Gimenez, Reis, & Ortenzi, 2000) defines beliefs as systems that: a) present propositions about the possible existence of entities; b) deal with alternative worlds that have not necessarily been experienced; c) are based on subjective evaluations; d) have their subjective power derived from specific events; e) consist of non-consensual propositions; f) are tenuously connected to one another; and finally g) vary in the degree of certainty in which they present themselves. 2.5.2 Representations Taking into consideration that one of the key aspects of this work is to identify the possible representations that teachers have in relation to the English language, their own performance and what they consider to be the ideal teacher, it requires a discussion on the concept of representation that will be used in this study. I follow Celani and Magalhгes' (2002, p 321) concept of representation as a set of meanings constructed socio-culturally and historically, from negotiations among participants and the significations, expectancies, intentions, values and beliefs. Furthermore, according to these authors, the understanding of a representation thus implies to understand "all the intricate combination of events that serves as its sources and gives it support". Hence, from this conceptualization, which includes "beliefs" without delimitating or explicating it (Freire & Lessa, 2003), it is possible to conclude, according to the authors, that representations reveal a "profound socialhistorical connection, relating to cultural, political and ideological aspects" (p. 133). Likewise, Freire and Lessa (2003), define representation as: socially constructed ways of perceiving, configuring, negotiating meaning, sharing and / or resizing phenomena, mediated by language and transmitted by lexical choices and / or symbolic expressive that enable the recognition of a directory that identifies the
41 individual and their socio-historical relationship with the environment, with the other and with themselves. [My translation] Additionally, Loureiro (2001) asserts that representations are a form of knowledge that originates in everyday life and has, as its criterion of truth, the ability to solve the problems of the daily situations, highlighting that the better the answers of these problems, truest this kind of knowledge becomes (p. 105-116). This knowledge is presented by this author as a way to organize the world so life can be possible in it (p.107). Therefore, Loureiro (2001) points out that representations are a way to insert things and people in a system of relations to become the world with meaning and significance. Moreover, to Moscovici (2003, p 41), representations are reinforced by traditions. He also acknowledges representations as the influence of the media in the way people see things and accept it without making questions or trying to consider alternative representations. The use of the construct "Representation" or, as known in some studies, "Social Representations" can be traced back in Durkhein's studies (1898 cited in Freire & Lessa, 2003). Durkhein makes use of the term Collective Representations, equating to Social Representations, to define "categories of thoughts which are not innate or even universal in conscious and represent the way a society elaborates and express its reality". Moscovici (1961), arguing that in modern societies, there are few representations that are, in their essence, truly collective, due to the pluralism and the continuous economic, political and social changes that occur in their context (Sousa Fernandes, 2006), reformulates the construct, acknowledging it as "Social Representations". The preference of the term social rather than collectives is due to the dynamic character of the representations instead of the fixed and static character of the Durkhein's theory (Sousa Fernandes, 2006) and, according to Freire and Lessa (2003); this is the definition that underlies further studies. Moscovici (2003) also emphasizes that representations are, most of the times, seen as an unquestionable reality. As an example, when English teachers do not consider themselves capable of owning the English language, comparing their linguistic abilities to the native speakers and hence, creating an inferiority complex, it can be noticed a representation that has persisted throughout the years, that the native speaker is always the ideal teacher, and that is a reality that cannot be changed. The author argues that, although these representations seem to
42 be unquestionable, it is necessary to confront them (Moscovici, 2003 p.40). In this study, I also follow the ideas of Wagner (1995, p 172) who claims that "the social conditions in which a group live, delimit the space of experiences of its members" [my translation]. Thus, even members of a same group, for instance, the English teachers investigated in this study, have different personalities and individual perceptions, the Basic Structure of their social experiences, their thoughts and actions are common (p. 172). 2.6 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER In this chapter I presented some relevant literature on Representations and Professional Identity. Specifically, I reflected upon beliefs and representations, as I believe to be pertinent to portray their concepts and particularities, in order to provide a better understanding of my study. I also reported on two common representations that are usually found in Brazilian applied linguistics discourses related to the English teaching in Brazil. The following chapter presents the methodological procedures that I adopted in my research.
43 3 RESEARCH PROCEDURES 3.1 THE STUDY The initial motivation to carry out this research was based in a specific interest: to investigate what it takes to be an English teacher in Santarйm Parб, according to the views of a group of teachers, all of them native from that city. The initial focus was to investigate teachers which work at Sistema de Organizaзгo Modular de Ensino (SOME) from the 5Є Unidade Regional de Ensino (5Є URE), in Santarйm Parб, a project created in 1980 that has as its main goal, to provide high school teaching to communities around the Amazon river far away from the city; mainly about the didactic material used in classroom. The focus was changing due to readings and classes taken during my Master's Course, and as other subjects that I found more interesting and feasible arose. Finally, I decided to investigate the representations of a group of teachers from Santarйm about the English language in their region and about their pedagogical practice inside classrooms. 3.2 METHODOLOGICAL BACKGROUND Studies that involve research regarding social representations are rare both in Brazilian and foreign literature, according to Sб (1998 cited in Dotta, 2006, p. 42). The most common practice to collect data for research in this field of interest combines data collection through individual interviews with a method known as content analysis6 (Dotta, 2006, p. 42). To Sб (1998 cited in Dotta, 2006, p.42), data that is going to be used for extracting representations have to be the most spontaneous as possible, that is why the author suggests interviews as the main method. Spink (1995, p.100) agrees with this idea and states that verbal techniques are the most common forms to access representations since they are results of dialogues and conversations among individuals, and 6According to Sousa Filho (1995, p 122 cited in Dotta, 2006), the content analysis is characterized by the observance of some techniques exposed by Bardin (1988, cited in Dotta, 2006), such as: homogeneity, mutual exclusion, pertinence and objectivity. To Bardin (1988, p 31), the content analysis is intended for the analysis of communications and is used in the majority of studies in representations, since through such approach, it is possible to reach "the aspects, contents or process of representations" (Dotta, 2006, p 46). [My translation]
44 through this interaction, representations are exchanged and complemented (Moscovici, 1984, cited in Spink, 1995, pp. 85-108). Still according to Sб (1998, p. 86), individual interviews and content analysis are the "Romeo and Juliet" of social representations. Among research already carried out in this field, there is a preference for open interviews, giving to the interviewee the opportunity to talk (Dotta, 2006, p. 43). Ludke and Andrй (1986) attach to interviews, as a technique to collect data, a great importance, especially in education research, mainly because of its interactive character. The authors establish three categories of interviews: structured, nonstructured and semi- structured. Structured interview follows a previous schedule; non-structured, the interviewee is free to talk about a theme or proposed question and semi-structured is the junction of the two previous categories. In this study, semi-structured interviews were used: the interviewees were just guided by questions, but they were free to deal with it in a way they feel more comfortable. 3.3 THE CONTEXT OF INVESTIGATION 3.3.1 English Learning in Santarйm This research took place in Santarйm, a city located in Parб, north of Brazil. The city is found at the confluence of the Tapajos and Amazon rivers, two of the largest in the world. Santarйm is appropriately called "Pearl of Tapajos" and tourism there began with the Spanish and the Portuguese explorers in the early 1500's, and before them, indigenous people, who arrived in the region more than ten thousand years ago (Alexander, 2002, p. 6). In 1626, the new inhabitants, the majority Portuguese, arrived in the region. Santarйm became an official Portuguese settlement in 1661, when the Jesuits established a mission at the site, and has this name because of the Jesuits missionaries who came from Portugal used to honor the saint of the day, so when they reached the Tapajos tribe on 24th of October in 1660 was the day of Santa Irene (Alexander, 2002). The Portuguese closed accent contributed so much for this mispronunciation: indigenous people started saying: "Santarйm" instead of "Santa Irene". 7 Within the next century the Indigenous population 7 Data collected in Travel Agencies in Santarйm.
45 was reduced incredibly to a handful of individuals, who eventually resettled to other parts of the region (Alexander, 2002). It is the second biggest city in the State of Parб, with almost 295.000 inhabitants and the third city in north of Brazil in importance and development after Manaus and Belйm. The economy is based on commerce, fishing, agriculture, ranching, lumber, mineral exploration and tourism. Regarding education, Santarйm is marked by a predominance of missionary congregations. Private Institutions as Colйgio Dom Amando and Colйgio Santa Clara are known as the ones with a better quality education while public institutions as Escola Sгo Francisco and Escola Frei Ambrуsio are the ones that concentrate the greatest number of students, being the latter the oldest one, almost 110 years old. For some time, people who wanted to carry on the studies had to move or to Belйm or to Manaus because of the lack of Universities. A change in the state of things can be traced back to the 70's with the implementation of the first local University. Nowadays, five Universities are located in the city, two public and three private ones, but the courses are almost the same in all of them, what means there is no variety of areas. English learning in Santarйm Parб occurs in classrooms of private and public regular schools. In private regular schools, it is possible to find English classes from kindergarten to high school. There are English courses as well, with some variation in price. These courses have different methodologies; some of them focus only on oral skills, and some of them focus on the four abilities. To become an English teacher in public schools in Santarйm is somewhat an easy task. There is plenty of vacancy and the only requirement is to have an English course with 200 hours of classes. There is no proficiency test and due to the lack of well qualified professionals, many Portuguese teachers and even professionals from others areas are allowed to give English classes. To those who are interested in becoming graduate English teachers, it is possible to go to college in the city, because, in 2007 a private institution started the first Letras ­ Habilitaзгo em Lнngua Inglesa Program. There is no proficiency test to enroll in this undergraduate program and many professors find difficulties in teaching because students have different levels of proficiency in English language. Also, for those who already have a degree in LetrasHabilitaзгo em Lingua Portuguesa, it is possible to validate a lot of
46 subjects and spend a shorter time at the University, which sometimes, interferes and damage the formation of the future English teachers, since the contact with the English language is reduced. In addition, classes are all in Portuguese, some professors try to talk to students in English but as some of them are from basic levels, this methodology is now underused. This course lasts four years, but for those who already have a degree in Letras Portuguкs; it lasts two years. The participants of this research work in four different contexts: Colйgio Santa Clara (private regular school), Escola Estadual Julia Gonзalves Passarinho (public regular school), Escola Estadual Almirantes Soares Dutra, Senac English Course and SOME (Sistema de Organizaзгo Modular de Ensino). 3.3.2. Colйgio Santa Clara Colйgio Santa Clara was, originally, a convent and, for a long time after its foundation in 1913, by Dom Amando Bahlmann and Madre Maria Imaculada de Jesus, it only accepted girls. Nowadays, this catholic institution is one of the most traditional private schools of the city. The school offers regular English classes from kindergarten to High School. Based on Christian principles, that guided the teacher's profiles and extra activities, the school follows the Progressive Pedagogy, aiming an "evangelical- liberating education, in which the students built their knowledge". 8 It has a great infrastructure and is well located in a homonymous neighborhood. In an area of 1.500 mІ, it is possible to find 22 classrooms, a library, two multimedia rooms, a chemistry laboratory, an indoors gymnasium, a sports court, a chapel, a dancing classroom, a reading classroom, a children's entertainment classroom, a park, an art gallery, an auditorium, woods, Psychological service and a swimming pool. The participant who works at Colйgio Santa Clarateaches at children education and Junior High School. 3.3.3 Escola Estadual de Ensino Fundamental e Mйdio Almirante Soares Dutra 8From: http://www.nossosantaclara.com.br/linhapedagogica.php.
47 Nowadays, one thousand and three hundred students attend classes in this public institution. With classes in the morning, afternoon and at night, from 5th grade until high school, including EJA (Educaзгo de Jovens e Adultos), the schools has twelve classrooms, one library, one music classroom, one auditorium, kitchen and a large recreation area. The classrooms are equipped with TV, DVD and some of them with Data Show, although sometimes they are useless, due to problems regarding acoustics structures. English teachers use the book "Keep in Mind" in classes that occurred twice a week with an average of forty students in each classroom. Two participants work at this school, in classes from 5th grade until 9th from Junior High School. 3.3.4 Escola Estadual de Ensino Fundamental Gonзalves Dias The school was founded in 1963 and nowadays, three hundred and fifty students attend classes in this public institution. With classes in the morning and afternoon from 1th until 9th of Junior High School, and at night EJA (Educaзгo de Jovens e Adultos), each classroom with an average of thirty five students. The school has seven classrooms and a small library. Two participants work in this institution with classes from 6th until 9th. Last year, for the first time, the government made the use of textbooks available. The book is "Keep in Mind" as well. Other didactic resources as TV, DVD and Data Show can be found at the school, although they are barely used. 3.3.5 Serviзo Nacional do Comйrcio- SENAC In 2000, SENAC started to offer English courses in Santarйm and nowadays they are the most popular in the city. Three of the eleven participants work in this institution which has more other seven English teachers. Due to the huge demand, thirty five English classes were opened in 2011. The classes are divided in levels in an attempt to reach different ages. The levels are: Kid I, Kid II, Basic, Intermediate I and II, Advanced and Pos Advanced. The material used is the Interchange, andin the beginning of each year, the teachers have to attend a training class, in order to make a better use of the whole material (textbook, video book, CD and DVD).
48 SENAC offers good working conditions regarding didactic material, well equipped classrooms, with audio visual resources and teachers have a great support in all senses of the institution. 3.3.6 SOME (Sistema de Organizaзгo Modular de Ensino) In 1940, 69% of Brazilian population lived in rural areas and just 31% in the cities. With the process of industrialization and urbanization that Brazil went through over the next decades, mainly from 1960, the situation reversed: the census of 1991 indicated that about 75% of the population lived in the cities and approximately 25% in rural areas. 9 rural communities in countryside of Brazil, especially in Parб, live basically of agriculture, cattle raising and fishing. Mostly of these communities are located around the Amazon River and people who live in those areas ("ribeirinhos") adapt their entire lives according to the rainy and dry season, as in the Amazon region as a whole. During the dry season, to live in these communities become harder, as the agricultural production is severely limited. Crops like corn, beans and rice, and even citrus fruit are restricted to only one harvest a year. Then, ribeirinhos have to wait for rains, normally in January. The lack of rain during the dry season that goes from August to December not only affects agriculture and ranching activities, but also the very basic of life, for instance, drinking water as the river, in some areas, has a very hard low-water season. In addition, it is quite common that the farmers in some areas lose to the river, several meters of land every year (Alexander, 2002). This difficult scenario and the hope of a better life in the city cause rural depopulation and hence, some social problems. Besides, the Education in those communities was almost inexistent before the 80's. Many students went to school in next communities, by small boats or riding horses, but they quit as soon as they were capable of read or write. In a place where to survive you just need to know how to plant or fish, going to school is somewhat useless to those who do not have another life expectancy. To change this reality, the 5Є Unidade Regional de Ensino (5Є URE), located in Santarйm, Parб, created a project entitled "Sistema de Organizaзгo Modular de Ensino" (SOME). Founded in 1980, SOME 9 Data from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatнstica (IBGE) in 1991.
49 nowadays is located in 88 paraense towns and 827 teachers provide high school teaching to 345 isolated communities far away from the cities and to villages by the river. Providing education up to the rural area of paraense towns, supported by the 5Є URE, the three participants investigated that work at SOME develops a very important social work since it avoids the rural depopulation, keeping the students with their families, and thus, there is not the migration to the city in search of learning, which sometimes brings diverse problems such as prostitution, delinquency and so forth. 3.4 PARTICIPANT'S PROFILES This research had as its object of study, the representations about English language of eleven English teachers of Santarйm from different contexts: private and public regular schools, English courses and SOME. The first contact was made by email and all of them agreed in answering a questionnaire and later, to grant an interview. In accordance with the participants, I did not make use of pseudonymous. From the eleven teachers, seven have a degree in LetrasHabilitaзгo em Lнngua Inglesa, taken in Santarйm. The others have studied English in privatescourses and have degrees in different areas such as Pedagogy and Business and Management. Below, a small profile of each participant: ANA Ana graduated in Pedagogy and Letras Lнngua Inglesa, both in Santarйm. She has been an English teacher for seven years at public schools, after she passed the contest. She also has taken a course to improve her English. She always have admired the English language and her mainly motivation to learn it was her proximity with American missionaries, even working in a school of their congregation. She intends to go to the United States as soon as possible, to improve her knowledge. She seems to be satisfied with her teaching career, although she complains about the lack of structure at public schools and the precarious English teachers training in Santarйm. CARINA Carina has been an English teacher for two years at a private course. She graduated in Business and Management, but, due to her
50 ability with the English language, she was invited, after finishing her course, to give English classes at the same institution. Although she considers herself a skillful speaker of English language, she also holds the belief that she will never reach the native speaker "perfection". She intends to teach at the same place since she is satisfied with the support and structure of the institution. She has plans to continue her studies; also, she has the desire of improving her classes regarding methodologies. DOMINGOS Domingos has a great connection with English language since his brother-in-law is a native speaker. He has studied English in a private course, which was paid by a guest from the hotel he used to work at. He also is very proud of being an English teacher and being recognized by that. He has been an English teacher for more than ten years at public schools and since he graduated in Letras- Lнngua Inglesa, he is working at SOME. Due to this fact, Domingos is very critical regarding structure and lack of working conditions and governmental support that surround this project in some communities. Domingos is very interested in American culture and, although he claims that even native speakers do not own the language, he is quite worried about phonetics of English language, once again ratifying the representation that non-native accent is sort of inadequate. EVERALDO Everaldo considers the possibility of being a university professor in Santarйm. He intends to go abroad and study there for a while, since he considers this the better way of improving his skills as an English teacher. He majored in Letras Lнngua Portuguesa and Letras Lнngua Inglesa and in Tourism as well. He has been always very motivated to learn the language, taking courses to improve his English. He is the participant that most strongly believes that going abroad is utterly important for a non native teacher. Everaldo has been an English teacher since 2009, when he passed a contest. Teaching gives him satisfaction and definitely it is a good experience for him. He also finds interesting to portray to students the culture of native speakers, organizing festivals that celebrate some famous holidays in the United States.
51 GEORGE George has been an English teacher for more than fourteen years. He is also a tour guide in Santarйm and, some years ago, he was the owner of an English course in the same city. Also, he is the only one of the participants who has been abroad. From all the participants, George is the one who does not hold the representation that native speakers of English are better teachers than the non native ones. He asserts that English language is everywhere and everyone can make use of it, corroborating the status of "lнngua franca". Also, he criticizes the grammar-translation approach, method widely used at public schools nowadays. Although he has always worked at private schools and courses, he has the desire of working in public institutions, what would be, in his words, "a different challenge". KЙZIA Kйzia has been an English teacher for six years in private institutions. She majored in Letras Lнngua Portuguesa and in Lнngua Inglesa as well. Nowadays, she is working in a private University as well, and she does not intend to work in another place, since she appreciates the good working conditions. She claims she feels secure when talking in English, although she admits that when she has to talk to a native speaker, she feels a little bit anxious. To her, teaching culture of the English language is extremely important, being culture, in her words, "another skill of the English language besides speaking, listening, Reading and writing". She seems to be satisfied and accomplished in being an English teacher and she is really motivated to continue her studies, in her words, to do "a MA, PHD course". MARCIO Marcio has been an English teacher at SOME for six years. He majored in Letras Lнngua Portuguesa but he has taken courses to improve his English and due to them, he was able to get a job as an English teacher in the project. From all of the participants, Marcio is the one who seems to be the most unsatisfied with the lack of oral practicing of English language in Santarйm. To him, it is quite impossible to own the language in our region and he is also very critical regarding teacher training in the city.
52 Moreover, he is unsatisfied with his own practice inside classroom, since he claims he does not own the language, and due to this fact, he feels as a "blank to be filled". RAQUEL Raquel has been an English teacher for three years and she always worked at public schools. She states that her choice of being an English teacher was based, firstly, on financial issues and job opportunities. But then she "felt in love with English". She emphasizes that on her graduation class, Letras Lнngua Inglesa, she felt a little bit excluded because, according to her, the majority of her colleagues could speak English, and she "did not understand anything". She also strongly believes that one owns the language only when one can communicate with a native speaker. For her, learning English at public schools is a sort of "boring" and that is the reason why she tries to give funny classes. ROSICLЙIA Rosiclйia's first experience as an English teacher was, in her words, "frustrating". This bad experience occurred due to the fact that she had to go to another town, just once a week to teach for a private English course, to a heterogeneous class, with children, young adults and adults together. To her, this "catastrophe" would not work, so she gave up. She has been an English teacher for one year in a well-known private institution and this year, she passed in a contest in a city next to Santarйm, to work at public schools. She majored in Letras Lнngua Portuguesa and she has done some English courses and due to them, she was able to get her first job. Her greatest concern about being an English speaker is whether a native speaker is going to understand her. She also wanted to learn the language to be able to travel and have access to foreign cultures. ROZВNGELA Rozвngela always wanted to be a teacher. She chose to teach English because she liked the language and she has been an English teacher at public schools for ten years. She feels really accomplished in her profession, which she calls "a dream". She majored in Letras Lнngua Portuguesa and Lнngua Inglesa but she also took English courses to improve her knowledge of the language, because she believes that at University "you do not learn".
53 Also, she feels very insecure when she has to talk to a native speaker, because she does not consider herself a fluent speaker. Her greatest desire is to speak fluently, as the oral skill is where she finds more difficulty regarding English language. Teaching is a good experience to her, especially when old students recognize her job and the importance of teachers in general. VALDINEI Valdinei has been an English teacher for six years at SOME. He majored in Letras Lнngua Portuguesa and in Letras Lнngua Inglesa. Interestingly, he did not learn English to be a teacher, but mainly because he wanted to speak the language. He used to work in a pier in Manaus and, due to the widely contact with native speakers, Valdinei realized the possibility of speaking another language. He does not consider himself a fluent speaker pointing out the superiority of native speakers. Nevertheless, he feels accomplished in being an English teacher. Also, he emphasizes the importance of teaching culture in his classrooms, because this would help students to understand the language beyond grammar rules. Table 3.4.1 presents a summary of the participant's background in English. As already stated, I do not make use of pseudonymous, in accordance to the participants.
54
Table 3.4.1- Participant's background in English
Background in English
Participants Ana Carina Domingos Everaldo George Kezia Marcio Raquel Rosiclйia Rozangela Valdinei
Previous English Learning
Experience
Public Private Private
schools schools language
schools
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Have been abroad X
Teaching Experience
Private classes X X X
Private English courses X X X X
Public Schools X X X X X X X X
3.5 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS In this study I follow a qualitative approach in an attempt to "make sense of, or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them" (Denzin & Lincoln, 1998). I also follow Nunan's ideas who suggests that a qualitative study "tries to understand human behavior from the `actor's own frame of reference', showing the insider's perspective" (Nunan, 1992) Moreover, Nunan (1992) emphasizes that "human behavior cannot be understood without incorporating into the research the subjective perceptions and belief systems of those involved in the research, both as researchers and as subjects" (p.54). Yet discussing about qualitative research approach, Rubin & Rubin (1995) point out its importance, since it enables researchers to comprehend how people "understand their worlds and how they create and share meanings about their lives and how they view what happens to them and around them". In this study, data collection were gathered by an open questionnaire and semi-structured interviews.
55 3.5.1 Questionnaires The first stage for collecting data was an open questionnaire with ten questions, sent by email to forty EFL teachers from Santarйm, from different contexts, in the second semester of 2010. The eleven teachers who helped me, through their answers, to develop this study kindly answered the email, some of them tried to answer in English, what filled me with satisfaction, since, in my understanding, this was a way of showing interest and willing in take part in my study. I then asked them to take part in my research and all of the eleven teachers agreed to grant an interview in January, 2011. The questionnaire was adopted as a first technique for general view of the participants' thinking while the interviews will be used as a follow up for a more thorough understanding (Wallace, 1998). The purpose of this first stage was to obtain a general view of this group of teachers' main ideas concerning English language, cultural aspects, motivation, inferiority complex (if any) and how they see themselves as English teachers. The questionnaire can be found in Appendix 1. 3.5.2 Interviews The interview has as its main goal, to verify and clarify the data obtained through the questionnaire. Rubin and Rubin (1995) proposed that the interview must be designed in a way that allows participants' ideas to emerge from their own lives and examples rather than imposes notions of academic literature to the answers. The semi-structured interviews were conducted in Santarйm in the first semester of 2011. The participants were asked fifteen semistructured questions, based on the data already gathered from the first stage. The questions were conducted in Portuguese and the teachers discussed about oral skills, the lack of structure of public schools, native speakers, the precariousness of teacher education in Santarйm, desire of continuing the studies, cultural aspects of the English language and the lack of opportunities of practicing the language in their city. All the interviews were recorded in my computer and transcribed verbatim, after analyzed in a qualitative approach (Barci, 2006). Excerpts of teacher's answers were used as examples in each representation presented in the analysis. The full interviews transcriptions can be found in Appendix 2.
56 3.5.3 Data Analysis Data gathered in this study were analyzed through a qualitative approach, reflecting directly upon the data in an attempt to interpret them (Allwright & Bailey, 1991). The analysis occurred in three stages: reading of the data, identifying common topics and the categorization. I followed Spradley's ideas (1980), making use of a type of analysis proposed by him. Following his ideas, I used the type of analysis called domain analysis. Being domain "any symbolic category that includes other categories" (Spradley, 1980 p.100), this analysis consists of identifying in the data, categories or domains that share the same semantic relationship. 3.6 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER In this chapter I have described the methodological procedures that I used in order to analyze the data collected in the interviews. I also have described the contexts of the investigation and the instruments used for gathering the data. In the next chapter, I then present the data analysis.
57 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 INITIAL REMARKS The objective of this chapter is to present and discuss the results of data analysis in order to answer the questions that guided this research. The methodological procedures adopted in this study were presented in the previous chapter. A closer observation of the data allowed the possibility of schematizing thirteen types of representations of what Teachers of English as second language in Santarйm understand to be their relationship with the subject they teach. The analysis, based in qualitative and interpretative approaches, was carried out in order to answer the two questions, which are: What are the representations of the teachers in relation to the English language and themselves as English speakers in their region? And what are the representations of the teachers of the English language within their pedagogical practice? Excerpts from the interviews of the eleven participants were used to illustrate all the representations highlighted. 4.2 ANSWERING THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4.2.1 What are the representations of the teachers in relation to the English language and themselves as English speakers in their region? 4.2.1.1 English is important for personal life and it is seen as a personal accomplishment Some of the answers given by the participants suggest that, having learnt English and becoming English teachers cause in them feelings of accomplishment. See for example what one teacher, Rozвngela, says: Eu me sinto realizada. й muito gratificante vocк encontrar um aluno e falar assim: "ah, professora, aprendi muito com a senhora, quando eu vejo tal coisa eu sу lembro da senhora, daquela aula que a senhora explicou
58 tanto... ", entгo isso й muito gratificante. Eu me sinto realizada. I feel accomplished [for being an English teacher] It is very rewarding when you meet old students and they say "teacher, I learnt very much with you, when I see something I remember you, that class that you explained"...so this is very rewarding, I feel accomplished. 10 Interestingly, similar to the findings of Ticks (2005), highlighted in the Review of Literature, when her participants portray a relation of affection with the language, what make them believe they had a certain facility in learning English, four of the investigated teachers assert that the English language itself was their first motivation to learn it. The following excerpts illustrate this point: [a importвncia de aprender Inglкs] Й, eu estar satisfeito comigo mesmo aprendendo ...й algo que eu sempre quis. [the importance of learning English was] something I always wanted, I'm pleased withmyself for learning it. (Everaldo) [a motivaзгo para aprender Inglкs] Sempre gostei de Inglкs, й...o que mais me motivou [the motivation to learn English] I always liked English (Rozвngela) [a motivaзгo para aprender Inglкs] Bem, primeiramente eu gosto da lнngua inglesa, nй? [the motivation to learn English] Firstly, I like the English language (Mбrcio) [a motivaзгo para aprender Inglкs] Eu admirava a lнngua. [the motivation to learn English] I admired the English language (Ana) 10 All the translations are mine.
59 On the other hand, the other five teachers assert that their main motivation to learn the language was to communicate with "foreigners". One of the teachers, for instance, states that: ...eu trabalhei num hotel, e no hotel eu me deparei com turistas chegando e via a necessidade de comunicaзгo com eles, eu tinha que interagir I worked in a hotel and there I saw the need to interact with the guests, the need to communicate, I had to interact (Domingos). As our city receives many tourists from all over the world and also, due to the fact that there is this established culture of American missionaries who came to the city in order to found churches, it is possible to get in contact with native English speakers. One of the teachers gives evidence of this: ...eu trabalhei numa escola de filhos de missionбrios americanos, e foi eles que me incentivaram a aprender. I worked in a school of American missionariesandthey encouraged me to learn. (Ana) Finally, just one teacher answered that he wanted to learn the language to speak to his friends who already spoke the language and expressed the following: ...eu escutava muita mъsica em inglкs e meus amigos tambйm falavam inglкs e isso me levou muito a buscar mais entende? Querer, entender, saber o que tava acontecendo. I used to listen to music in Englishand my friends spoke English, too, sothiswas my motivation to learn. (George) This need to communicate corroborates the interactive role of English language (Vygotsky 1934/2003 cited in Sousa Fernandes, 2006)
60 in opposition to the structural view. Vygotsky postulates the social interaction conception that affirms that man is constituted through his interaction in the environment he is inserted in. Thus, language holds the position of a means of social interaction in different situations. See the following example: ...eu fui um tempo pra Manaus, nй e trabalhei numa бrea, aeroportuбria, nй e exigia outra lнngua e fui atrбs, nй, foi o momento que eu me vi como uma pessoa que ...que falasse ...uma oportunidade pra falar uma outra lнngua. I went to Manaus for a while and I worked in a place that demanded that you spoke another language, in this moment I saw myself as a person who could, who had this opportunity to speak another language (Valdinei) 4.2.1.2. The English Language is professionally important and it is seen as an opportunity of financial improvement. Eight of the participants investigated are majored in Letras ­ Habilitaзгo em Lнngua Portuguesa course. This can be seen in some excerpts bellow: [Qual sua formaзгo como professor de Inglкs] Bom, eu fiz Letras, depois eu fiz Inglкs, aн fiz Pуs Graduaзгo no ensino de Lнngua Inglesa tambйm. [What is your academic background?] Well, I majored in Letras, after I majored in Letras- Habilitaзгo em Lнngua Inglesa and then I did a Post Graduate Course in English Language as well (Domingos) [Qual sua formaзгo como professor de Inglкs?] Entгo eu sou formado em Letras Lнngua Portuguesa, Lнngua Inglesa e tenho Gestгo em Turismo tambйm e uma Pуsgraduaзгo que eu estou fazendo agora, Letras, Metodologia.
61 [What is your academic background?] I majored in Letras ­ Lнngua Portuguesa, I am also majored in Letras- Lнngua Inglesa, Tourism and I am doing a Post Graduate Course in Letras. (Everaldo) [Qual sua formaзгo como professor de Inglкs?] Sou graduado em Letras com Habilitaзгo em Lнngua Portuguesa [What is your academic background?] I majored in Letras-Lнngua Portuguesa (Mбrcio) [Qual sua formaзгo como professor de Inglкs?] Minha primeira graduaзгo й Letras - Lнngua Portuguesa [What is your academic background?] My first major is in Letras- Lнngua Portuguesa(Rozвngela) The Letras- Lнngua Portuguesa course is widely sought because of the belief that "it is easier". It is offered by two Universities in the city: one public and one private. Almost fifty graduate Portuguese teachers arrive at a very competitive job market every year. It is not difficult to imagine what happens next: unemployed Portuguese teachers as it is stated in some excerpts below: [Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professora de Inglкs?] A falta de carga horбria de lнngua portuguesa. [What was your motivation to become an English teacher?] The lack of hours/class of Portuguese Language (Raquel) Some of these new professionals are not considered well qualified and, as "unskilled" professionals, they began to work as salespersons in commerce, as secretaries in offices or even as teachers of every subject that is possible, in small schools, without any right guaranteed by law. To change this reality, many of them focus on foreign languages, in order to assure a better job. Due to the lack of
62 professionals in the city, English is always the first choice as it is clear in the excerpts below: Primeiro eu pensei assim, carкncia da disciplina na minha cidade, que й muito carente de profissionais First I thought about the lack of professionals in my city...there is a huge lack of professionals (Ana) ...o que mais me motivou foi atй mesmo a carкncia de professores de lнngua inglesa. What motivated me most was the lack of English teachers. (Rozвngela) Motivated by these unfilled vacancies, many Portuguese teachers and even teachers from other fields, accept the challenge of teaching English. To exemplify, the last contest made by Secretaria de Educaзгo do Estado do Parб (SEDUC), occurred in October, 2009, offered forty four job vacancies for English teachers but only twenty six were considered well qualified. The contest evaluated the teachers by a test with questions about Portuguese grammar, which were the most valuable ones, English grammar and questions about rights of this profession. The other vacancies will be occupied mainly by Portuguese teachers, who have an English course, with more than two hundred hours. Bearing in mind this context, it becomes easier to understand this representation that English is an opportunity to get a better job and to achieve financial stability. The next excerpts demonstrate this idea: Minha famнlia me motivou bastante, a questгo tambйm financeira, nгo vou negar... My family motivated me a lot [to become an English teacher], but I will not deny...the financial issue was an important motivation. (Kйzia) [Qual a importвncia da lнngua Inglesa em geral e na sua vida?] Em geral, a oportunidade nй? Abre caminhos...em
63 geral...abre caminhos com certeza, oportunidades... [What is the importance of the English language in general and in your life?] In general, it was the opportunity. For sure, opportunity" (Valdinei). 4.2.1.3 The English language is seen as a symbol of status and prestige Similar to the findings of Cox and Assis-Peterson (1999) in their research with a group of English teachers in Mato Grosso, the participants of this research assure that they are "respected", "valued", admired within the society they are in, what is clear in the excerpts bellow: Ser professor de inglкs, isso dб atй um respaldo pra gente nй? A gente se sente atй bem com isso. Motivadoratй. Being an English teacher...it gives us status. We feel good about it. It ismotivating". (Everaldo) ...me sinto uma pessoa bem realizada, me sinto uma pessoa de certo valor dentro da sociedade onde eu leciono e gosto muito. I feel like I am a person with a certain value within the society I am inserted in and I like it very much (Kйzia) Another aspect that can be perceived related to this representation is their enjoyment in noticing that some students are successful in life now, what is exemplified in the excerpt below: Hoje eu tenho a honra de dizer que algumas pessoas que passaram comigo estгo fazendo doutorado. TodayI have the honor to say that some people who were my students are doing a doctorate (Domingos).
64 This aspect is possible mainly due to our social context: a city that is growing but that still has provincial features: most successful local people know each other, take part in the same social groups as churches, clubs etc. Two teachers make reference to this idea in the excerpt bellow: Devido а lнngua inglesa, todos na cidade praticamente me conhecem, como professor de inglкs Due to the English language, everybody in town knows meas an English teacher (George) Muita gente me conhece como professor de Inglкs, se tu chegar aqui nesse pedaзo perguntando todo mundo sabeo professor Domingos, professor de Inglкs. E isso como identidade me deu muito espaзo. A gente passa a ser respeitado como profissional. Many people know me as an English teacher. If you come here in this neighborhood asking, everybody knows who the teacher D. is, the English teacher. This identity gave me space. I became to be respected as a professional(Domingos) Those who leave the city in order to carry on the studies, usually come back to Santarйm to act in diverse sectors, enabling the teachers to recognize old students. These so acclaimed feelings of accomplishment in the teachers surprised me, taking into consideration all the difficulties that surround this profession; however, I interpreted the answers as an attempt to mask reality and a way to highlight the importance of the teachers within a society. 4.2.1.4. English teachers must speak English fluently From the lexical choices of the participants, it is possible to realize negative feelings when it comes to the oral ability of the English teacher or, to be more specific, the lack of this skill. Rossi (2004) have also found this representation in her findings, and, in her interpretation,
65 the oral skill is the main reason for negative representations and feelings about being an English teacher in Brazil. Words such as "frustrating", "empty", "blank", "incompetent", "shame", "excluded", "lost" and "insecure", are instances in which the participants expressed this representation that an English teacher who does not speak the language is not considered a good professional: O sentimento que vocк tem й de um espaзo a ser preenchido. Porque pra vocк ser um profissional em qualquer campo, nй, do saber, em qualquer бrea, vocк...teoricamente vocк deve ter um conhecimento mais profundo sobre a бrea. Entгo eu ser um professor e nгo falar, nгo usar a lнngua na melhor performance te deixa um espaзo. Eu sinto um espaзo, um vazio, uma lacuna por conta disso. You feel like you have a blank that needs to be filled. Because to be a professional, in any field, any area, theoretically you must have a deeper knowledge about what you are going to work. Thus, being an English teacher and not knowing how to speak, how to use the language in a good performance, it is empty. I feel empty; it is like a blank because of this. (Mбrcio) Primeiro eu me sinto incompetente, аs vezes, nй. Й porque uma coisa й tu dizer, olha essa pessoa aqui й professora de lнngua inglesa, e aн coloca ela numa situaзгo de lнngua inglesa e ela nгo sabe desenvolver, nй? Й um incompetente nй? First, I feel incompetent, sometimes. It is like: this person here is an English teacher, and then you have a situation, where you have to speak and you do not know how to deal with it. It isincompetence. (Rosiclйia)
66 Бs vezes ele sente vergonha. Vocк observa esse profissional com vergonha, e ao mesmo tempo se sente diminuнdo. Sometimes they [English teachers who do not speak the language] feel ashamed of themselves and at the same time they do not feel valued". (Domingos) Perdido. Com certeza ele se sente perdido porque й...por mais que ele seja formado, falta. Lost.They [English teachers who do not speak the language] surely feel lost...because, sometimes, even when you have a major, yet, there is something missing. (Kйzia) According to Sousa Fernandes (2006), the exclusion of the teacher who does not speak the language goes beyond classroom boundaries. She points out that, when English teachers do not speak the language, the right of voice in their own professional category is denied, what it means to say that they do not have the right to express their opinion, discuss them or transform themselves, their reality. The next finding corroborates this idea of a teacher incapable of express himself linguistically: A pessoa nгo se sente confiante, em primeiro lugar. Nгo repassa um conteъdo adequado, nгo tendo fluкncia a pessoa nгo tem embasamento lingьнstico nenhum. The person does not feel confident. The teacher is not capable of teaching properly the subject. If you do not have fluency, you do not have any linguistic basis (Carina). Other authors also discuss this strong representation that the good English teacher is the one who knows the language. The good teacher, according to Basso's studies (2006) is the one who owns the English grammar, has a good vocabulary and a good pronunciation, in other words, the answer of the participants in her research focused almost exclusively in discursive competence (Basso, 2006, p72).
67 Furthermore, in other excerpts from the participants, the native speaker myth is widely perceived, what seems to mean that, for the participants of her study, English teachers have to know the language as a native speaker, whether they want to be considered good professionals. Other features of a good professional that the author above considers to be relevant, such as pedagogical skills and motivation are not cited for them. As previously mentioned in the Review of Literature, Rossi (2004) and Sousa Fernandes (2006) have also highlighted this representation in their findings, portraying that in Brazil, the myth of the native speaker is still widely spread and that native speakers still are a model to be reached and followed by many English teachers. Although it is undeniable the importance of an English teacher having oral proficiency in the language, the great importance given to this single ability over the others is debatable. Sousa Fernandes (2006) postulates that this can be characterized as a way to reinforce an ideological issue, since the majority English courses in their advertisement nowadays, corroborating this representation, focus almost only in the discursive competence, reducing English language to a merchandise, something made for profit, (Rajagopalan, 2004 cited in Sousa Fernandes, 2006) in a capitalist world, where to speak, it does not matter what or to whom, seems to be indispensable in "the job markets in store windows" (Sousa Fernandes, 2006). 4.2.1.5 Speaking English fluently means to understand a native speaker and being understood by him To the most of the participants, the idea of the native speaker as the only one who owns the English language is very strong. Such view can be observed in the excerpts below: Primeiro porque nгo й sua lнngua, entгo eu fico com medo de falar errado, eu tenho vergonha. First it is not your language. So I have the fear of speaking something wrong. (Ana) [Vocк acha que domina a lнngua] Nгo, nгo..na verdade eu nunca tive experiкncia com estrangeiros assim, pouquнssima...com relaзгo а fala eu posso atй compreender e
68 fazer com que ele me compreenda, mas nгo tenho ainda um controle , uma fluкncia legal [Do youthink you own the language?] No, in fact I have never had the experience with foreigners. I do not have control; I do not have a good fluency. (Everaldo) Apparently, the teachers do not seem to feel confident enough to talk to, or even to listen to a "native" because they have this representation that are not capable of owning English language as two of them state in the following excerpts below: A minha preocupaзгo maior й entender o que o nativo vai responder, entendeu? Essa й a minha preocupaзгo, entender o que ele vai responder My greatest concern is to understand what the native speaker is going to answer...this is my concern...what he is going to answer (Rosiclйia) Eu me sinto muito insegura com medo de nгo entender o que ela precisa saber e eu nгo assim, nгo estar ...nгo souber assim, nгo ...a resposta que ele precisa no momento. Mas tambйm nunca tive assim essa experiкncia assim ,de muito contato com pessoas , com a lнngua mesmo...que fala fluentemente ...que seja de lб mesmo. I feel very insecure, I am afraid of not understanding what he [the native speaker] needs to know and I...am not...do not know the answer he needs to know at the moment. But I have never such an experience like this, being in touch with people from "there", who speak fluently, really from "there". (Rozвngela) As a teacher in the same context, I always heard my colleagues saying that we should talk like natives, trying to "imitate" their accent, the way they speak and so forth, because they were the
69 "owners" of this language. The next excerpt illustrates the idea that, if you are a non native speaker, it is inferred you will not probably be able to understand a native speaker of English: Eu me sinto sу um pouco ansiosa, que eu tenho аs vezes um receio de nгo compreender tudo o que ele fale, porque eu nгo sou nativa entгo, tem essa ansiedade аs vezes de nгo compreender. I feel a little bit anxious [when talking to a native English speaker]...sometimes I am afraid of not understanding everything they speak, because I am not native...so there is this anxiety of not understanding. (Kйzia) Therefore, it is up to us, non-native teachers "to accept" that we will never reach this "ideal" model of speaker, that the way we speak will always be different. Also, as Canagarajah (2006) states, English today is a language that can be used by anyone, since there are more non-native people owning English than the native ones. This culture of over valuating native speakers can cause in teachers feelings of exclusion and passivity (Sousa Fernandes, 2006), sometimes creating in them an inferiority complex, what is clear in the excerpt bellow: Se eu for me comunicar com um estrangeiro, ainda nгo й..ainda nгo to 100%. Eu me sinto...totalmente, como se fosse uma deficiente..deficiente, assim eu precisava gesticular, porque eu nгo consigo ainda me comunicar com estrangeiro. If I communicate with a native speaker it is...it is not 100%. I feel like...totally...as if I were a disabled person, who needs to gesticulate...because I am not capable of communicate with a native yet. (Raquel) Also, as Rajagopalan states (2009), it is no longer possible to say that English language belongs to this or that nation, this or that country (p.41). As Widdowson (cited in Rajagopalan, 2009), argues,
70 English can only be considered an "international language", just because this feature of not being a monopoly of a nation (p.41). In fact, this linguistic phenomenon (English language known and spoken everywhere around the world), which Rajagopalan (2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2009) calls "World English", belongs to everyone who use it in everyday situations, it does not matter if this use is unlimited or restricted (p. 42). This fear of not being "perfect" and "adequate" makes the teachers, most of the times, hide themselves behind grammatical exercises, denying the opportunity to the students and even to themselves, to use the language in a better way (Basso, 2006). It is important to highlight that, as stated in the Review of Literature, English teaching nowadays it is not only a linguistic matter. English teachers have to bear in mind the powerful tool they have in hands, the opportunity to give to their students a potential means of resistance against the "single discourse", the one that is spread by the media and crosses the borders in real time, and, most of the times, is in English, the "language of globalization". When English teachers still portray subservience feelings, believing and, as a consequence, making the students believe that only native speakers have the "right" to own this universal language, they are denying to themselves and to their students, to take part in social and political life and collaborating with their own self exclusion, understanding their role without any social or political implications. 4.2.1.6. Owning the English Language is related to speaking the language The most important concern of the teachers seems to be to speak the language and not to have the possibility of oral practice. Similar to the findings highlighted by Marques (2007) in his data, from some interviews of this study, it can be inferred that you just own the English language if you can communicate, the other skills are seldom cited. See some examples below: [Vocк acha que domina a lнngua? O que isso significa pra vocк?] Nгo. Falar! Falar despreocupadamente, naturalmente, nй? Acho que isso й dominar a lнngua.
71 [Do you think you own the language? What does this mean to you? ] No! To speak, to speak naturally (Rosiclйia) Also, something that I found interesting and even worrying is that they do not consider themselves capable of speaking the language. Their discourse seems to have clear features of self exclusion and, hence, exclusion of the students as well, since, as Basso (2006) states, because teachers still hold the position of authority inside classroom, they may strongly influence student's beliefs with their own and, the more these beliefs are convergent, greater the possibility of success in the learning. Some examples of such discourse of exclusion can be seen in the next excerpts: [Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de inglкs?] Na minha graduaзгo. Na minha graduaзгo eu me senti perdida. Porque a maioria dos meus colegas na minha turma sabiam (sic)falar inglкs I felt myself excluded in my graduate course, because the majority of my colleagues knew how to speak the language (Raquel) Eu jб ouvi falar sim, por pessoas...inclusive uma colega minha porque й...diziam que ela nгo sabia й...inglкs e como ela ia dar aula de lнngua inglesa se ela nгo sabia nem falar direito o portuguкs. Once...I've heard...a friend of mine...they used to say...but she does not speak English, how could she be an English teacher? (Rozвngela) 4.2.1.7 English is seen as a world language From the discourses of the teachers, it is possible to conclude that, for them, English is the possibility to communicate with the world. The following excerpt illustrates this idea:
72 Inglкs й indispensбvel, hoje em dia qualquer pessoa, pelo pouco que ela saiba da lнngua inglesa, ela nгo pode dizer que nгo fala inglкs, porque inglкs a gente encontra em tudo quanto й canto, tudo em quanto й lugar, internet, livros, jornais, televisгo, pessoas falando, entгo, ninguйm pode ficar fora desse universo lingьнstico da lнngua inglesa, nй. English is essential......you cannot say you do not know this language...because English is in everywhere, internet, books, newspapers, television, people talking...nobody can be far from this linguistic universe (George) Lexical choices such as "universal language", "international language", "global language", "most important language in the world" indicate a representation where English is seen as "a tool of communication between non-English cultures" (Cox and AssisPeterson, 1999). This idea is expressed in the excerpt below: Pra qualquer бrea й fundamental o aprendizado de uma lнngua estrangeirae eu acredito que a lнngua inglesa principalmente, й uma lнngua universal, entгo pra mim й muito relevante. To any area, is fundamental the learning of a foreign language and I believe that English language...mainly...it is a universal language. It is very relevant (Carina) A importвncia й que o Inglкs й uma lнngua internacional, comercial, em qualquer lugar que vocк vб vocк vai precisar do Inglкs English is an international language, commercial...anywhere you go, you will need English. (Ana) Inglкs й, lнngua inglesa й...й o global, nй? Й o falar pro mundo, й o mundo.
73 English is...English language is...it is the global. It is to talk to the world...it is the world. (Rosiclйia) A lнngua inglesa hoje й a lнngua mais importante do mundo, й a lнngua do...й a lнngua mundial, nй (...)й muito importante eu conhecer essa lнngua, aprofundar o conhecimento e aprender cada vez mais. English language nowadays is the most important language in the world...is the language...it is the world language. (...) It is very important to know this language and learn it more and more. (Mбrcio) This huge spread of English is considered natural, neutral and beneficial (Pennycook, 1994). Pennycook disagrees over this representation of English being "apolitical" or even a neutral language (Cox & Assis-Peterson, 1999) because, to him: "any knowledge, any language and any pedagogy is neutral or apolitical" (Pennycook, 1994, p.301 cited in Cox & Assis-Peterson, 2001). As previously mentioned in Chapter II, Pennycook (1994) also draws attention to the need to create counterdiscourses against the forces of neocolonialism (Cox & Assis-Peterson, 1999). These counterdiscourses would be a way to struggle against what Moita Lopes (2003) denominates "the single discourse", a global discourse that cross the world, enabling the manipulation of people, imposing ways of living, ideologies, identities, etc (Giroux, 2000 cited in Moita Lopes, 2003). Interestingly, none of the participants portrays this counterdiscourse. Moita Lopes (2003) argues that prevailing discourses that surround the world, due to the supremacy of the north-American capital in every field of social life nowadays, from commerce to university research, are primarily in English (p. 33). Thus, the importance of the counterdiscourses cited before, is to avoid the exclusions that this single discourse may cause, as we can only change what we are aware of. As Santos (2000, cited in Moita Lopes, 2003) states, we live in a world where nothing important is made without discourse. Owning the language that is in charge of the single discourse nowadays, enable whoever to question and even avoid inequalities that surely will arise.
74 4.2.1.8 The native speaker is perfect and the non-native speaker will always be inadequate Similar to the findings of Rossi (2004), Sousa Fernandes (2006) and Marques (2007), there is an overvaluation of native speakers among the participants. The teachers do not seem to feel comfortable when talking to natives and, also, they assume that we, as non-native speakers, will be always "inadequate" speakers, stating a clear inferiority complex, as for instance, in the following excerpts: Quando eu estou perto de um nativo eu nгo falo, procuro aprender, sugar o mбximo dele pra aprender e nгo dizer que eu sei alguma coisa. When I am close to a native I do not speak, I try to learn, and I do not say I know anything about English. (Ana) Nativo sempre vai ter muito mais articulaзгo, mais fluкncialуgico,que uma pessoa que aprende inglкs como segunda lнngua. Native people will always have more articulation...more fluency...than someone who learns English as a Second Language (Carina) It is undeniable the huge spread of English nowadays. Due to several reasons, including technology and communication and many other areas of human knowledge (Chacуn & Girardot, 2006), this language is in everywhere, but although English today is seen as a world language, spoken by many people from different nationalities, many non-native English teachers still are not aware of this feature. Just one teacher does not have the representation that a native speaker will always be a better English teacher as it can be seen in the excerpt bellow: A idйia que as pessoas tem й :eu falo a lнngua, logo eu posso ensinar a lнngua. Mas nгo acontece assim, nй, porque muita gente fala Portuguкs e nem todos sгo professores.
75 The idea people used to have is: I speak the language, I am able to teach the language. But it is not like this, because many people speak Portuguese, but not all are Portuguese teachers". (George) According to Pennycook (1994), this representation of native speakers as role models, is enhanced by some methods and approaches used to teach English, for instance, the direct method (monolingualism), used in some English courses. Some of these English courses in Santarйm prefer native speakers (mostly Americans, because of the massive presence of them due to the churches founded by American missionaries) over non-native ones, even when they are not so well qualified. Still, according to Pennycook (1994): Maintaining the native speaker as the preferred model also has clear implications for the maintenance of language standards derived from the central English-dominant nations. Thus, not only do native speakers tend to be dismissive of other possibilities "labeling expressions that are unfamiliar to them as "not English" (Wu Jing-Yu, 1983, p.115 cited in Pennycook, 1994), but they also stand as representatives of central language norms. (p. 176). Additionally, to Neves (2002), this representation assumes that the native speaker is "the one who holds the authority of speaking naturally, perfectly and completely" (p. 152). 4.2.1.9 Living in a country where English is the mother tongue is something very important and primordial to a non-native English teacher The lexical choices from some of the participants' speech reveal that they believe in the need of living in a place where English is the native language, because this would improve their English and, hence, this would make them real English teachers. See this example below:
76 Hoje eu tф numa fase de aprendizado. Com aquela ansiedade de chegar o momento e eu poder ir fazer o intercвmbio e depois sim, eu vou poder dizer que ....depois eu vou poder ter a oportunidade de dizer como eu vou gostar, como eu vou poder gostar de trabalhar, porque tendo a experiкncia lб fora, aн vocк vai poder fazer algumas modificaзхes legais atй, nй? Pra mim й isso, primeiro a experiкncia lб fora, "puxa, entгo vou trabalhar desse jeito. Today I am in a learning phase. I am looking forward to going abroad and after this I guess I am going to be able to...to have an opportunity to say how I want to work. Because having this experience of being in another country...you can make some good changes. It is like: I am going to work this way (Everaldo) The experience of living in such places can be interpreted as an attempt to approach the natives, and become as valued as them. As Basso (2006) argues, being immerse in language/ culture of the other, is like having the feeling that fears, insecurities and inferiority complexes would be minimized (p. 73). Thus, the foreign country is represented as the ideal place where the effective learning may occur, as well as the place that legitimizes the teacher, the place where the non-native goes to become the "other" (Marques, 2007). This idea of becoming the "other" by learning another language is discussed in Revuz (1998 cited in Marques, 2007). According to this author, learning a new language is always becoming another person (Marques, 2007): "(...) the better you speak a language, the more you develop a feeling of belonging to its culture, to the chosen community, and the more you experience a feeling of displacement in relation to your home community" (Revuz, 1998, p. 227 cited in Marques, 2007) [My translation]
77 As most of the teachers believe that native speakers are the role model non-native teachers have to follow, it is seems natural they want to be inserted in such environment. Interesting to point out is that the teachers did not mention the student's voices about this representation. In English courses and private schools in Santarйm, some students have the opportunity to go abroad, and some of them really feel more comfortable when the English teacher goes to a native speaker country even if just for few days. Another issue that must be highlighted is that is not any "native country" that is mentioned. It is always the United States, and one more time we have evidences of a colonial discourse (Orlandi, 1990 cited in Marques, 2007) and, as mentioned elsewhere, The United States is the main reference maybe due to the presence of many American missionaries and their churches, located in every neighborhood. Ana, who has worked in a school of American missionaries, says: Eu vejo assim, eu penso no futuro, estudar, Estados Unidos, passar uns seis meses, um ano lб, pra viver lб, aprender como eles vivem. I think...for the future...I want to study in the United States, stay there for six months or a year...to live there, to learn how they live" 4.2.2 What are the representations of the teachers of the English language within their pedagogical practice? 4.2.2.1 Learning to speak English at public schools is almost impossible due to their structural conditions; English courses are a better option Similar to the findings of Barcelos (1999), in a research carried out by the author in a Letras Program, about the beliefs and their possible influences in the pedagogical practice of a group of pre-service English teachers and Gimenez, Mateus, Ortenzi and Reis (2000), in a study in the state of Parana, in the south of Brazil, some answers given by the participants corroborate the representation that it is not possible to learn to speak English at regular schools, mainly due to several factors which can be inferred from the excerpt below:
78 Sendo do Estado, as turmas sгo de quarenta, quarenta e quatro, quarenta e dois, entгo a problemбtica й grande numa sala de aula pъblica, nгo tem estrutura nenhuma pra vocк trabalhar, atй material vocк tem que tirar Xerox, atй dinheiro tem que ter pra levar, entгo й problemбtico quanto a isso. The problems at classrooms in a public school are huge... forty, forty four students...There is no structure for you to work, you have to bring your own didactic material, you have to make copies with your own money...it is problematic in these aspects. (Everaldo). The problem of not learning to speak English in public schools, as stated in the Review of Literature, is not new. Many authors who have researched in teaching and learning foreign languages issues in Brazil, still point out some of the reasons that have made the teaching of this subject so controversial. Like in any other area, we found the same typical teaching difficulties; nonetheless, the major ones concern the teachers' qualification and fluency. How to teach a language that you do not deal with and how to acquire this fluency with a tight schedule at the University? Even after four years many students still do not feel confident or ready to face a classroom. Gasparini (2005 cited in Dias & Assis- Peterson, 2006), in his studies, states that the English language teaching is classified as "deficient" and "precarious". From one answer given by one participant, it is possible to perceive she believes that the lack of structure at public schools widely influence her practices inside classrooms. The following excerpts illustrate this point: Eu gostaria de lecionar numa escola que tivesse uma melhor estrutura, nй, no ensino da Lнngua Inglesa, recursos, porque as nossas escolas pъblicas, elas tem muito pouco recurso, o professor se vira, entгo isso facilitaria nosso trabalho. I would like to teach in a school that had a better structure...resources, because in our
79 public schools...they had very little resources...it would facilitate our work (Ana) However, one teacher from SOME states that the structure surely helps, but is not the essential point in an English class: (...) porque a escola que nуs trabalhamos й uma escola as vezes que nгo oferece condiзхes , tб? Vamos dizer, um pouco de insalubridade, poeira, sгo lugares quentes, muito mal preparados para receber o aluno e o docente tambйm. As lousas аs vezes quebradas, аs vezes nem encontramos lousas nessas comunidades, аs vezes atй problema de encontrar giz e apoio do corpo da escola, geralmente й agregado, o modular й agregado а escola do municнpio. Аs vezes nгo tem espaзo, a gente fica embaixo das бrvores, que jб aconteceu comigo. Dar aula embaixo de uma mangueira...Qual escola eu gostaria de ter, entгo? Um espaзo apropriado, pelo menos com o mнnimo de dignidade, para o educando e o educador, para que ele possa executar sua aula com qualidade. Claro que isso coopera, nгo significa que o que manda na aula й o espaзo, mas й a metodologia e a motivaзгo dada pelo profissional, o domнnio do seu conteъdo e mais a sua forma de levar o seu educando a absorver. Mas й claro que se tivermos espaзo adequado isso vamos ser melhor. (...) because the school we work does not offer conditions sometimes [at SOME]...insalubrious places, dust, hot places...they are not prepared to receive students and teachers as well. Broken blackboards, sometimes we do not have blackboards, chalk... and support at the schools...because SOME is added to the schools of the cities...Sometimes we do not have space, we stay under the trees, this
80 already happened to me...teaching under a mango tree... I am not saying that what it takes to give a good class is only the space itself, but surely it cooperates. What it takes to give a good class is the methodology, the motivation that this teacher has, the proficiency and the domain of the subject...but, surely, if we had adequate space we are going to be better professionals" (Domingos) In Brazil, the English teacher occupation is still unstructured due to several reasons, such as bad teachers' qualification, insufficient schedule, lack of human and didactic resources and other adverse social factors regarding the qualification of good professionals (Ferrari, 2002, p.05). This so much acclaimed inefficiency of English in regular classes in schools associated to the need of proficiency in a foreign language in this globalization world shifts its learning to free courses and leads to a proliferation of courses in commercial operating franchise networks in Brazil since 1960's. In addition, according to Gasparini (2005 cited in Dias & AssisPeterson, 2006), English courses, with their benefits of smaller classes, good structure, appropriate human and material resources, are the only places to learn English as a foreign language (p.173). The following excerpts show instances in which the participants expressed this representation: Eu tф tentando me aperfeiзoar,tф fazendo cursinho, nй? Pra ver se eu consigo me alfabetizar na lнngua inglesa, no caso me comunicar. I am trying to improve, so...I am studying in an English course...in order to get a better knowledge...to communicate (Raquel) A minha primeira graduaзгo й Letras em Lнngua Portuguesa, fui atrбs atй conseguir a graduaзгo em lнngua inglesa, mas eu fiz cursinhonй, no curso livre, pra ter maior desempenho e aprender mais e mais
81 I have a major in Letras- Lнngua Portuguesa and Inglesa...but I did an English course...to have a better development and learn more and more (Rozвngela). Taking all these beliefs into consideration, it is possible to realize that English teachers from public regular schools are, most of the times, represented as "incapable" and "inefficient" (p.173), as illustrate in the excerpt below: O ensino de inglкs em escolas pъblicas tradicionais ...sempre ensinaram inglкs pra gente atravйs da gramбtica mas nгo й por aн que a gente vai realmente aprender English teaching at traditional schools...always taught English to us through grammar, but it is not the way to learn" (George) 4.2.2.2 The teacher should be always seeking for improvement When discussing about the sort of English teacher they want to be in the future, the participants emphasize the importance of trying to improve their practices in all senses. Although some of them affirm they are satisfied and even feel accomplished about their professional skills, the need of improvement is widely perceived. See for instance, what one of the teachers says: Porque eu sei que eu preciso cada vez mais aprofundar, eu sei que eu preciso й..melhorar mais, em todos os sentidos, eu acho que o professor hoje, ele nunca pode pensar que ele tб pronto, ele sempre tem que...no momento que ele pense que ele estб pronto, ele nгo й um bom profissional. Eu sempre tenho em mente que eu preciso buscar mais. Em resumo, eu preciso nй, estar em constante busca. I know I need to improve in all senses. I think teachers today, they should not think they are ready. When they think they are
82 ready, they are not good professionals. I cannot say I am a good professional; otherwise I will not seek for improvement, so I try to bear in mind that I need to seek for knowledge. I need to learn more and more" (Mбrcio) To have an attitude of this type is very important and essential because as Medrado (2002) states, this desire to change show the teachers that they can become, definitely, themselves the investigators of their own classrooms, instead of just receptors of previous research. When realizing they can improve their prevailing practices, the teachers create in themselves all the possibilities to change (Medrado, 2002) instead of depending of well known formulas given by specialists and that, sometimes, do not work in their context. The participants seem to bear in mind the importance of being a reflective professional, as exemplified in the excerpts below: Eu me sinto realizada e acredito que eu tenho que melhorar com relaзгo a ...atй mesmo em questгo de conhecimento, coisas novas que todo tempo vai aparecendo, nй? Entгo nуs temos que estar sempre atualizados com relaзгo a tudo isso, essa ...a lнngua inglesa mesmo, nй? I feel accomplishedand I believe I have to improve in...knowledge itself...new things happens all the time...Thus, we have to be always updated with all those changes. (Rozвngela) Eu nгo me sinto assim totalmente satisfeito com o meu desempenho, cada dia mais eu procuro me aperfeiзoar mais, principalmente na questгo de apoio que eu posso usar nas minhas aulas. I am not totally satisfied with my performance, each day I try to improve, mainly in what sort of resources I can use in my classes". (George)
83 Eu me vejo assim como um aluno, um aprendiz. Eu gostaria de aprender muito mais I see myself as a student, a learner. I would like to learn more and more" (Ana) According to Medrado (2002), the reflective professional is the one who is able to build knowledge from an analysis of what they can learn from their own experiences in classrooms and the learning of their students. Furthermore, Kemmis (1987) states that reflection implicates in a self-assessment process that places the practitioner inside the action, in the history of the situation, taking part of the social activity and, above all things, interpreting the process. Pessoa (2003) argues that teachers who regularly review their beliefs and the results of their action are aware that in every situation they can and will learn something new, what can be illustrated in the excerpt below: Eu gostaria sempre de continuar estudando, quem sabe fazer um mestrado como vocк, um doutorado. I would like to carry on my studies, maybe do a Masters course, a PHD... (Kйzia) Moreover, to reflect is to expose yourself and that is why the reflective process is so difficult and, sometimes, too scary. According to Medrado (1998), the most common first reaction, when teachers start to reflect about their own practice, is fear and resistance to the possibility of identifying possible failures. In the following excerpt, one teacher discuss over the possibility that becoming a better teacher depends, mainly, of her desire to change and her own effort: Eu gostaria de ser uma professora de Inglкs excelente. Eu gostaria de ter oportunidade de estudar pra aprender mais. Eu gosto disso, eu gosto de inglкs. Eu vou te dizer que eu nгo tenho tempo, mas eu sei que essa coisa й muito relativa, nй...se eu realmente quisesse , eu nгo dormiria de noite pra estudar...tб, mas eu desejo, melhorar meu inglкs, tб. I would like to be an excellent teacher; I would like to have the opportunity of
84 learning more and more. I like it, I like the English language. I am going to tell you I do not have the time, but if I wanted, I could spend the night studying...but I wish...I want to improve my English". (Rosiclйia) Almeida Filho (1999) defines the reflective process as being the confrontation of the teacher and their image, what causes, most of the times, feelings of strangeness. Although the process of reflection over the own practice is not easy and sometimes even avoided, it is extremely important since enable professionals to hear their own voices (Medrado, 1998) without disapproving it which is, according to this author, a great and necessary step in the process of development and changing of the reflective professional. 4.2.2.3 Teaching culture is important in the English classroom Culture has become an important component of English language teaching in recent times (Baker, 2003). This idea is expressed in the excerpt below: Atravйs da cultura, vocк consegue entender muito do que acontece na lнngua... Nгo dб pra, vamos dizer assim, desvincular, separar a lнngua da cultura. Os aspectos culturais, eu acho que sу pelo fato de ser mencionado ao aluno, jб facilita. Through culture, you can understand what happens to language...it is like, you cannot separate language from culture. Cultural aspects...I guess, Just when you mention them, it can help the students. (George) Due to the widely multicultural use of English nowadays (Baker, 2003), which means, the use of English language in different cultures, English teaching is no longer, or, at least, should not be, the teaching of grammar rules and vocabulary, but a process that involves social and cultural perspectives. The following excerpt points this out: Eu me preocupo porque nуs nгo temos que mostrar sу aquela questгo da
85 gramбtica,temos que mostrar assim como nуs temos a nossa cultura aqui no Brasil, temos tambйm que mostrar a cultura da ...de outros paнses, nй? Geralmente ...jб que estamos falando em lнngua inglesa, com certeza, isso daн faz parte porque nуs temos que trabalhar nesse contexto, a gente nгo vai trabalhar isoladamente . I give special attention to cultural aspects, because we do not have to teach only grammatical aspects. We have to portray that as we have our culture, they have their own...and we have to portray it to them. In general, we have to work in this context, we cannot work them alone (Rozвngela) Such approach is known as Cultural Awareness (Baker, 2003), and involves not only the culture of the language being studied but also the learner's own culture. Many authors have drawn attention to the importance of including the context of culture and socio-pragmatics (Baker, 2003) in English as a foreign language classes. According to Halliday (1979): Social structure is not just an ornamental background to linguistic interaction; it is an essential element in the evolution of semantic processes (p. 114). This idea of cultural awareness is exemplified in the excerpt below: Isso й extremamente necessбrio. Tem que explicar a cultura deles, porque sгo diferentes...eu tenho esse problema na famнlia, meu cunhado...as vezes tenho que explicar que sгo culturas diferentes...certos hбbitos...que a gente nгo adota mas tem que entender. A cultura deles lб a gente tem que passar para os nossos comunitбrios, entender as formas de cada um. [The teaching of culture] is extremely necessary. We have to explain to them,
86 because they are different. I have this kind of problem in my family...my brother in law...sometimes I have to explain they have a different culture...some habits...that we do not embrace, but we have to accept. Their culture...we have to teach to our students...try to understand the ways each one have". (Domingos) Since language reflects values, assumptions and beliefs of the culture they came from (Baker, 2003) the need of this link between language and culture in recent years has increasingly grown. The next excerpt illustrates this idea: Eu procuro estudar, porque assim, nуs pensamos de um jeito,o europeu, o norte americano pensa de outra maneira e vivem de outra maneira nй, e dгo importвncia pra coisas que nуs nгo damos, entгo й importante sim estudar a cultura. I try to study cultural aspects, because as we think in a certain way, the North American, the European, they think in another way, they live in another way...and they give importance to things that we do not, so, in my understanding, it is very important to teach cultural aspects. (Ana) Some authors like Valdйs (1986, 1990), Byram (1991), Byram and Fleming (1998), Kramsch (1993) have stated that it is impossible to teach English without teaching culture. Valdes (1990, cited in Baker, 2003) points out, for instance, that "every lesson is about something and that something is cultural" (p. 20). The examples below illustrate this view: A gente trabalha pra formar cidadгo, formar ele pra ele poder se preparar, nгo sу pra ele falar a lнngua inglesa, a gente tem essa preocupaзгo em poder mostrar pra eles que a lнngua inglesa nгo й sу falar, mas й toda uma cultura, nй?
87 We work to educate citizens, not only to speak another language. We have this concern of portraying them that Englishlanguage is not just to speak, but also a different culture". (Everaldo) Me preocupo, me preocupo porque eu...eu...sempre tento passar , nй, aos meus alunos, nгo sу o conteъdo da lнngua inglesa, e sim tambйm a cultura de um outro povo, nй, em todos os sentidos, como o pensar dele, nй, a visгo de mundo deles, nй, entгo isso й importante , vocк...o professor nгo sу pensar simplesmente em repassar o conteъdo porque o aluno nгo й depуsito de conteъdo, de nada, nй? Ele...simplesmente vocк vai mostrar pra ele,abrir a cabeзa dele pra que ele conheзa nй, mude a visгo dele naquele momento...entгo, a cultura, eu sempre coloco, passo, eu me preocupo sim com repassar a cultura do povo falante da lнngua inglesa. I have this concern because...I try to teach to my students, not only the contents but also, the culture of another people...in all senses, what they think...it is important, you...the teacher...cannot just teach what is in the books, students are not just a warehouse of contents...you have to portray them, try to change his vision of the world at that moment... thus, culture...I have indeed, this concern of try to show them the culture of native English speakers. (Mбrcio) In that respect, Guest (2002, p.160) suggests that "culture is best left to covert, unconscious transmission rather than direct teaching". Such attitude should avoid stereotypes, since the cultural perspective is introduced subtlety. Stereotypes can arise when students start to compare their own culture to the new one presented in their material, in the media and even in the teacher discourse. One teacher discusses about
88 the idea of introducing cultural aspects during regular classes in the excerpt below: [O ensino de cultura da lнngua inglesa] й muito importante. Eu procuro introduzir durante as aulas aspectos culturais ...durante...durante cada unidade eu procuro colocar aos alunos essas questхes [The teaching of culture] is very important. I try to introduce cultural aspects during regular classes... during every unit; I try to make them aware about those issues. (Carina) Another scholar who discuss about language and culture relation is Lado (cited in Valdes, 1986), who states that when we compare two cultures we must be careful in the generalization we make and, also, we must be prepared to revise or even change them, as our understanding of another culture develops. Prodomou (1990), based on his own research in this field, indicates that the highest the level of proficiency in English, the more importance learners felt it was to learn about culture. Again, a clear sign that language and culture cannot be separated as it used to be some time ago, when the teaching of grammar and reading were the focus of EFL classrooms. The lexical choices from the participants, such as, "culture must be inserted" and "extremely necessary", show an increasingly concerning regarding the issue of teaching culture in EFL classroom. According to Baker (2003), when learners are acquiring a new language they are also acquiring a new culture. See the excerpt below: Agora, a cultura jб й vista como uma outra habilidade da lнngua inglesa, entгo , a partir do momento em que vocк trabalha a cultura , vocк tб trabalhando outra habilidade. Nгo existe somente as quatro habilidades que nуs conhecemos, mas a cultura deve estar inserida dentro desse contexto como um todo. Culture in recent years is seen as another ability of English language. Thus, when you work with English language, you are working
89 with another skill. There are no longer the four abilities that we used to know, but the culture must be inserted within this context as a whole. (Kйzia) The foreign language teachers should be aware of this perspective, as Sercu(2002) states, "foreign language teachers are now required to teach intercultural communicative competence". Yet, according to this author, "Foreign language teachers are expected to know how languages and (intercultural) communication work and to be themselves skillful users of the foreign language they teach". This cross-cultural (Berns, 2005) teaching of foreign languages, that is, the teaching of cultural aspects not as a separated subject (Baker, 2003), but within the normal language classroom and, most important of all, respecting and being aware of the student's own culture, is the sort of approach in foreign language classrooms that is demanding in an increasingly globalized world, where intercultural contacts are frequent (Baker, 2003), mainly where foreign language are used. The next excerpt illustrates this point: Ensinar essas culturas de outro paнs, que falam a lнngua inglesa, jб transformaesse aluno, jб coloca a visгo desse aluno mais adiante. Teaching other cultures, from other countries...it can transform the students...it can help them to see beyond the class (Valdinei).
90 4.3.SUMMARY OF THE REPRESENTATIONS The English teachers and the English language in their region English is important for personal life and it is seen as a personal accomplishment The English language is professionally important and it is seen as an opportunity of financial improvement The English language is seen as a symbol of status and prestige English teachers must speak English fluently Speaking English fluently means to understand a native speaker and to be understood by him Owning the English language is related to speaking the language English is seen as a world language The native speaker is perfect and the non-native speaker will always be inadequate Living in a country where English is the mother tongue is something very important and primordial to a non-native English teacher The Santarйm English teachers and their pedagogical practice Learning to speak English at public schools is almost impossible due to their structural conditions; English courses are a better option The English teacher should be always seeking for improvement Teaching Culture is important in the English classroom 4.4 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER This chapter dealt with analysis and discuss of the data collected. Excerpts from the eleven interviews were used to illustrate the representations highlighted in the study. In the following chapter I will present a summary of the study, answering the two research questions, as well as the limitations and implications of the study, and suggestions for further research.
91 5 FINAL REMARKS 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this concluding section, I will present the summary of my study. Firstly, I will answer the research questions. Then, I will discuss the pedagogical implications and the limitations of this study. Finally, I will offer suggestions for further research on the same topic. As mentioned before in Chapter IV, this study has investigated the main representations that eleven ESL teachers from Santarйm- Parб hold regarding English as a second language in their own context. 5.2. RESEARCH QUESTION 1 What are the representations of the teachers in relation to the English language and themselves as English speakers in their region? Similar to the findings of Sousa Fernandes (2006), it is possible, from the answers given by the participants when questioned about their relation to the English language and themselves as English speakers, to see that the teachers assert that the English language is seen as a symbol of status and prestige. Other representations highlighted were that English is important for personal life and it is seen as a personal accomplishment and the English language is professionally important and it is seen as an opportunity of financial improvement. Although some of the participants corroborate Tick's findings (2005), discussed in the review of literature, when they portray a relation of affection with the language, what firstly motivated them to learn English; the main motivation to become an English teacher was the financial improvement. Taking into consideration the economical level of the majority of people in Santarйm, the lack of well remunerated jobs and opportunities to carry on the studies in the city, I do understand this feeling of accomplishment teachers have claimed in the interviews. If we consider the precarious teacher training in Santarйm, it is really a huge accomplishment to become an English teacher. Santarйm is growing, yet there is a huge path to be traced, when it comes to opportunities in general in our city. On the other hand, it really surprised me that teachers have such good representations about English language learning and teaching in Santarйm. My expectations about the answers were almost all wrong as I was expecting them to be more critical about the Teacher Education in
92 our city that is, in my understanding, precarious, and even more discouraged, as many of them used to be when we had the opportunities to discuss about our profession and its mishaps. As previously mentioned, in Santarйm there is just one option for students to enroll a Letras ­ Lнngua Inglesa course, in a private institution, where many of them cannot afford. Some of the participants mentioned their lack of preparation and seemed to make a link between this and the few opportunities of teacher training. In addition, another important representation for the participants is that English teachers must speak English fluently. This need to be proficient in the language (Almeida Filho, 1993, 1999) is a very common representation and was also revealed in the results of Abrahгo's (2004) and Barcelos, Batista, and Andrade's studies (2004). Moreover, the data scrutinized have shown that the participants hold the representation that owning the English language is related to speaking the language, a representation that was also found in the results of Abrahгo's (2004) and Barcelos, Batista, and Andrade's studies (2004). Interestingly, the participants seem not to be aware of the concept of "World English", defined by Rajagopalan (2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2009), related to the fact that nowadays the English language belongs to everyone who use it in everyday situations, it does not matter if this use is unlimited or restricted (p. 42). On the contrary, some of the participants portrayed clear evidences of inferiority complex when they compare themselves to native English speakers. Although some of them do not feel confident to speak the language, affirming that do not own the language, since are non-native speakers, I could perceive some contradictions in their discourses, for instance, when one teacher says that he is satisfied with her oral performance ("I guess my oral speaking...I guess...I have an ease in expressing myself")and at the same time she shows insecurity in the same skill ("Insecure. I am still afraid of starting a conversation"). I believe that the contradictions, in a way, show that maybe they were biased towards the attempt to uncover the reality of our context. The myth of the native speaker and the feeling of unfitness are widely perceived in the investigated teachers' discourse, and other representations also found are that speaking English fluently means to understand a native speaker and being understood by him and the native speaker is perfect and the non-native speaker will always be inadequate. As in other studies in Brazil,such as Rossi (2004), Sousa Fernandes (2006) and Marques (2007), native speaker pronunciation is the adequate, a model to be reached and followed.
93 Also, to the participants, English is seen as a world language, andlexical choices such as "universal language", "international language", "global language", "most important language in the world" were used by most of them. Moreover, in their opinion, to live in a country where English is the mother tongue is something very important and primordial to a non-native English teacher. 5.2.1 RESEARCH QUESTION 2 What are the representations of the teachers of the English language within their pedagogical practice? Through the analysis of the interviews, it can be seen that some participants hold the representation that learning to speak English at public schools is almost impossible due to their structural conditions; Private English courses are a better option. Similar to the findings of Barcelos (1999) Barcelos, Batista, and Andrade's findings (2004), and Gimenez, Mateus, Ortenzi, and Reis' findings (2000), some participants claim that it is not possible to learn English at public schools due to the lack of resources. Also, as found in Barci's data (2006), due to the "bad working conditions and lack of time, public teachers are overloaded and end up not doing much". It is undeniable the difficulties that surround public schools in Brazil, however, I still believe that education is a powerful means of avoiding social exclusion. When affirming that at public schools is infeasible to teach English, we are doing right the opposite, reinforcing the prejudice against these institutions. On the other hand, the participants believe that the teacher should be always seeking for improvement, corroborating Leffa's ideas (2001), to whom teacher education is a continuous and endless process. It is undeniable the importance of a teacher be a reflexive teacher and, hence, re-think their practices. As Medrado (1998) states, when realizing they can improve their prevailing practices, the teachers create in themselves all the possibilities to change. In the same vein, Cavalcanti (1999) suggests that every language teacher should be aware of three fundamental elements for his/her career: linguistic competence, pedagogic-didactic competence and reflective-critical competence, pointing out, again, the importance of the reflection in our profession. Interestingly, I could perceive a certain feeling of frustration regarding oral skills, and I believe that the participants, when citing
94 "improvement", they are referring to the ability to communicate in English. Equally important, the third representation highlighted was that teaching culture is important in the English classroom. The participants are aware that English teaching is no longer, or, at least, should not be, the teaching of grammar rules and vocabulary, but a process that involves social and cultural perspectives. As already stated, the lexical choices from the participants, such as, "culture must be inserted" and "extremely necessary", show anincreasingly concerning regarding the issue of teaching culture in EFL classroom. Since language reflects values, assumptions and beliefs of the culture they came from (Baker, 2003) many questions surround this topic, such as what sort of cultural aspects to use in English as a Foreign Language classroom? Do the teachers have to choose the aspects inherent to the countries which are considered the real owners of the English language, such as the United States or the Great Britain? Moreover, as Baker (2003) states, why focusing exclusively on English speaking culture instead of the learner's own culture? Despite the concern about this topic, none of the teachers explained how they conduct their cross-cultural (Berns, 2005) classes. When questioned about the teaching of culture in their ESL classrooms, the participants seemed to believe that their role as English teachers is "orienting their future students to become independent and critical learners"(Barcelos, 1999). They seem to make a link between culture and social perspectives to help students to develop their own way of thinking critically in an increasingly globalized world, where intercultural contacts are frequent (Baker, 2003), mainly where foreign language are used. Expressions such as: "We work to educate citizens, not only to speak another language" and "Teaching other cultures, from other countries...it can transform the students...it can help them to see beyond the class", were used as a means of illustrating this topic. 5.3 PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS As I have said, I designed this study motivated, firstly, for personal reasons. As a teacher in the same context, I used to hold some of the representations here highlighted and, reflecting about my own pedagogical practice, I perceived that they could highly influence my way of teaching.
95 In Santarйm, as already mentioned in my introduction, I worked at private English courses, regular public schools and at the University, as an English teacher. For this reason, I know all the participants of my study, as well as the conditions of working in our city. Without a doubt, the idea of giving the chance for my colleagues to express themselves and have their voices heard, really fulfilled me with satisfaction. This study has presented findings on representations the participants hold regarding the English language in general and their pedagogical practices in their region. Thus, I believe this study can offer some contributions to the area of teacher education, mainly in Parб state, since few researches have been conducted in this field. In my understanding, the diverse contexts where the eleven participants are involved, SOME, private English courses and public regular schools, influence in their practices inside classrooms and these variants should be taken into consideration. Also, this study has shown, through teacher's voices, the need to rethink our teacher education in Santarйm, enabling the students and future teachers to have "the opportunity to experience new forms of learning, and thus, be able to reshape their beliefs" (Carazzai, 2002). Furthermore, I would like to argue that it is my intention to portray the results of my study to the participants, helping them to become aware of their representations and maybe help "to develop better professionals who are more aware of the choices they make, in ways that could have a positive impact on their practice" (Barci, 2006). 5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Initially, I intended to investigate a larger number of teachers, but, due to time constraints, I could only interview the participants already mentioned. Moreover, only the eleven teachers mentioned agreed in answering the questionnaire and to grant an interview. As suggested in Chapter III, at the end of 2010, I sent more than forty emails to EFL teachers from different contexts in Santarйm, asking them to be participants in my research, but most of them did not answer. I then went to Santarйm in January, 2011, to conduct the investigation with the participants already mentioned. They kindly agreed to answer my questions and then I granted an interview with each of them. Regarding the significance of my study, I believe that, first of all, it may encourage and reinforce discussion about local pedagogical
96 practices and local knowledge for EFL teachers. Also, it may contribute for further research that aims at investigating representations of EFL teachers in North of Brazil, regarding their pedagogical practices and how they see themselves as English speakers. As a suggestion for further research, a study case could be carried out with the students of the only class of Letras- Lнngua Inglesa in Santarйm, in order to shed light on what sort of representations, and expectations these future teachers hold at the beginning of the course and if there is any change at the end throughout the course.
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108 teуrica e conceitual. In: Silva, T. T. Identidade e diferenзa: a perspectiva dos estudos culturais. Petrуpolis, Vozes, pp: 7-72. APPENDIX I ­ Questionnaire 1. Qual a sua formaзгo como professor de Inglкs? 2. Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona Inglкs? 3. Que tipo de escola vocк leciona? Por quк? 4. Que tipo de escola vocк gostaria de lecionar? Por quк? 5. Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professor de Inglкs? 6. De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e se tornado um professor influenciou sua identidade (quem vocк й)? 7. Qual o significado/ importвncia da Lнngua Inglesa? 8. Qual o significado/ importвncia da Lнngua Inglesa na sua vida? Por quк? 9. Vocк se sente totalmente а vontade para falar a Lнngua Inglesa? Por quк? 10. Vocк acha que domina a Lнngua? O que isso significa pra vocк? 11. Como vocк acha que um professor de Inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua Inglesa se sente em diferentes contextos? 12. Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de Inglкs? Se nгo, conhece alguйm? Que situaзгo? 13. Em relaзгo a um falante nativo de Inglкs como vocк se sente? 14. Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeito em relaзгo ao seu desempenho oral? O Que seria? 15. Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da cultura da lнngua Inglesa em suas aulas? Por quк? Quais aspectos? Quais metodologias? Exemplos. 16. Como vocк se vк hoje como professor de Inglкs e como vocк gostaria de ser? Por quк?
109 APPENDIX II - Interviews Ana S: Ana, qual sua formaзгo como professor de Inglкs? A: Eu sou formada em Pedagogia, depois sou formada em Letras, habilitaзгo em Lнngua Inglesa. S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona Inglкs? A: Inglкs, sete anos. S: Que tipo de escola vocк leciona e por quк? A: Rede Pъblica Municipal, porque eu passei no concurso. S: Que tipo de escola vocк gostaria de lecionar e por quк? A: Eu gostaria de lecionar numa escola que tivesse uma melhor estrutura, nй, no ensino da Lнngua Inglesa, recursos, porque as nossas escolas pъblicas, elas tem muito pouco recurso, o professor se vira, entгo isso facilitaria nosso trabalho. S: Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professora de Inglкs? A: Primeiro eu pensei assim, carкncia da disciplina na minha cidade, que й muito carente de profissionais, e tambйm porque eu admirava a lнngua. S: De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado um professor, influenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й? A: Olha, eu trabalhei numa escola de filhos de missionбrios americanos, e foi eles que me incentivaram a aprender. S: Qual o significado da Lнngua Inglesa em geral e na sua vida? A: Em geral, a importвncia porque й uma lнngua internacional, comercial, em qualquer lugar que vocк vб vocк vai precisar do Inglкs, senгo sabe falar outra lнngua nй? E a importвncia pra mim, eu vejo assim, eu penso no futuro, estudar, Estados Unidos, passar uns seis meses, um ano lб, pra viver lб, aprender como eles vivem. S: Vocк se sente totalmente а vontade pra falar inglкs? A: Eu tenho vergonha. S: Por quк? A: Primeiro porque nгo й sua lнngua, entгo eu fico com medo de falar errado, eu tenho vergonha. S: Como vocк acha que um professor de inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua Inglesa se sente em diferentes contextos? A: Eu acho que ele se sente mal e inseguro porque se vocк nгo conhece a lнngua, a estrutura, vocк fica com vergonha, nй? Eu vejo assim atй na sala de aula, aluno que conhece a lнngua intimida professor. S: Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de Inglкs?
110 A: Nгo. Pelo contrбrio, eles acham que nуs, professores de Inglкs, й que queremos ser alguma coisa, nй? S:Em relaзгo a um falante nativo de Inglкs como vocк se sente? A: Quando eu estou perto de um nativo eu nгo falo, eu procuro aprender, sugar o mбximo dele pra aprender e nгo dizer que eu sei alguma coisa. S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeita em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? A: Eu acho que deveria ter pro professor de inglкs aqui em Santarйm assim, uma formaзгo melhor, porque as escolas, o governo, o sistema em si, ele nгo facilita os meios pro professor. S: Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da cultura da Lнngua Inglesa em suas aulas? A: Eu procuro estudar, porque assim, nуs pensamos de um jeito , o europeu, o norte americano pensam de outra maneira e vivem de outra maneira nй, e dгo importвncia pra coisas que nуs nгo damos , entгo й importante sim estudar a cultura. S: Como vocк se vк hoje como professor de Inglкs e como vocк gostaria de ser? A: Olha, eu me vejo assim como um aluno, um aprendiz. Eu gostaria de aprender muito mais. Carina S: Carina, qual a sua formaзгo como professora de Inglкs? C: Й...a minha formaзгo em lнngua inglesa...й...eu me formei pelo Senac, estudei todos os nнveis na isntituiзгo. S: Tб. Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona inglкs? C: Dois anos S: Que tipo de escola vocк leciona? C: Й...particular S: Existe algum tipo de escola que tu gostarias de lecionar sem ser aqui no particular? C: Nгo S: Por quк? C: Nгo, nгo tenho formaзгo para trabalhar no nнvel de escolas pъblicas, nй? Nгo tenho graduaзгo em Letras com habilitaзгo em lнngua inglesa....e tambйm a instituiзгo me dб suporte . S: Certo. Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar um professor de inglкs? C: Ah, eu verifiquei que era uma habilidade que eu possuнa e que eu desenvolvia com o passar do tempo, entгo resolvi trabalhar na бrea.
111 S: Certo. De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado um professor da lнnguainfluenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й? C: Й, influenciou bastante. Atй porque a minha graduaзгo й em Administraзгo. E o fato de eu ter voltado para a бrea de inglкs mudou muito a minha perspectiva com relaзгo ao meu profissionalismo. S: Certo. Qual o significado, a importвncia da lнngua inglesa no geral e pra ti tambйm? C: Pra qualquer profissional, pra qualquer бrea й fundamental o aprendizado de uma lнngua estrangeirae eu acredito que a lнngua inglesa principalmente, й uma lнngua universal, entгo pra mim й muito relevante. S: Vocк se sente totalmente а vontade pra falar inglкs? C: Sim, com certeza. S: Por quк? C: Porqueeu acredito que eu tenho fluкncia, a habilidade. S: Tб. Vocк acha que domina a lнngua entгo? C: Sim S: Como vocк acha que um professor de inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua inglesa se sente em diferentes contextos?Que acontece muito aqui em Santarйm C: Й verdade. Eu acredito que nгo tem ....a pessoa nгo se sente confiante, em primeiro lugar. Nгo repassa um conteъdo adequado, nгo tendo fluкncia a pessoa nгo tem embasamento lingьнstico nenhum. S: Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de inglкs? C: Nгo, acredito que nгo S: Tu conheces alguйm que tenha passado? C: Nгo S: Tб. Em relaзгo ao falante nativo, como vocк se sente? C: Bem, a gente sabe que quando vocк aprende uma lнngua estrangeira, й, vocк, lуgico, nгo й nativoda lнngua inglesa, assim como o estrangeiro que aprende portuguкs tambйm nгo й nativo da lнngua portuguesa. Lуgico, nуs temos as nossas deficiкncias, nossos pontos fracos em relaзгo a isso. Nativo sempre vai ter muito mais articulaзгo, mais fluкncia lуgico,que uma pessoa que aprende inglкs como segunda lнngua. S: Certo. Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeita em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? C: Й...acredito que exista alguns pontos a melhorar, seria a incrementaзгo de vocabulбrio, algumas outras coisas.
112 S: Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da cultura da lнngua inglesa em suas aulas? C: Й muito importante, eu procuro introduzir durante as aulas aspectos culturais ...durante...durante cada unidade eu procuro colocar aos alunos essas questхes S: E como vocк se vк hoje como professor de inglкs e como gostaria de ser? C: Bom, eu acredito que hoje eu tenho me desempenhado bem, mas gostaria muito de melhorar em questхes de metodologia e tambйm me especializar ainda mais. Clйia S: Clйia, qual sua formaзгo como professor de Inglкs? C: Eu tenho curso oferecido pelo Senac, do Bбsico ao Avanзado, nй, que й o que eles organizam lб. S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona Inglкs? C: Bom, na verdade eu tive duas tentativas de lecionar Inglкs, uma pelo Sistema de Ensino Amazon, aqui em Santarйm, nй, que eu tive uma experiкncia atй meio frustrante porque eu fui pra outro municнpio, tinha uma viagem longa, pra dar uma aula por semana e a minha turma era mista, tinha gente tanto adolescente, crianзa, como gente idosa, da terceira idade. Entгo uma aula por semana, foi assim, catбstrofe. Desisti, abandonei porque eu sabia que nгo ia dar certo. S: E a outra experiкncia? C: A outra experiкncia foi recentemente, no segundo semestre de 2010, fui contratada por um dos melhores estabelecimentos de ensino da cidade, Colйgio Santa Clara, fui lecionar a Lнngua Inglesa para o primeiro ano, nй, das sйries iniciais do ensino fundamental. S: Que tipo de escola tu leciona, tu falou nй? C: Particular. S: Por quк? C: Bom, era necessidade da escola, um professor. Na verdade foi assim que aconteceu, eu fui lecionar nгo por ser professora, mas porque estava faltando professor de inglкs, entгo como eu dominava mais ou menos o conteъdo que era necessбrio dar para aquela turma naquele momento, aн entгo fui requisitada e aceitei. E fiz essa experiкncia por seis meses, que era o previsto mesmo, cumpri o que foi solicitado e executei acho que com кxito a tarefa. S: Que tipo de escola tu gostaria de lecionar? Tu tens assim... C: Olha, eu gostei muito de trabalhar com crianзa. Se eu pudesse eu queria continuar trabalhando com crianзa.
113 S: Qual foi tua motivaзгo para se tornar professor de Inglкs? C: Foi o que eu te falei nй, nгo foi na verdade um desejo meu, foi uma necessidade da escola S: Tб, aн isso te levou... C: A lecionar. S: Vou fazer uma pergunta agora bem subjetiva: de que forma ter aprendido inglкs e se tornado um professor influenciou a tua identidade, quem tu йs. Tu achas que teve alguma influкncia? C: Eu acho que sim, conhecimento, cada setor de conhecimento a mais nй, й soma na tua vida nй, e conseqьentemente mexe com o que tu йs, te adiciona, te soma, te melhora como pessoa, como profissional, todos os setores da vida. S: Pra ti, qual й o significado ou a importвncia da Lнngua Inglesa? C: Nossa...inglкs й, lнngua inglesa й...й o global, nй? Й o falar pro mundo, й o mundo. S: E na tua vida? Tem alguma importвncia? C: Como assim?Tem importвncia porque me deu um tнtulo nй, durante seis meses como professora de Inglкs, ah tб teve importвncia porque me colocou na sala de aula, nй, de um estabelecimento respeitado, nй, fez com que vбrias crianзas tivessem um carinho por mim e eu por elas, mudou totalmente minha vida. E me fez perceber que eu gosto de trabalhar com crianзa. Me deu essa oportunidade. S: Tu te sente totalmente a vontade pra falar Inglкs? C: Nгo amada. S: Por quк? C: Por que eu sou muito insegura nй? Assim, nнvel bбsico...nгo tenho prбtica, nгo sou nada fluente, imagina,nunca...mas consigo ler alguma coisa nй, domino o To Be, formulo frases, consigo identificar objetos que era o que o nнvel de ensino tava me exigindo. Entгo o que o nнvel tava me exigindo eu consegui responder. Tб? Mas a partir dali eu jб fico muito insegura, eu nгo consigo. S: Tб, entгo tu acha que tu domina a lнngua? C: Nгo! S: O que dominar a lнngua significa pra ti? C: Falar! Falar despreocupadamente, naturalmente, nй? Acho que isso й dominar a lнngua. S: Entгo isso tu nгo tem? C: Nгo...eu consigo й...eu to me alfabetizando em Inglкs ...й, entender algumas frases, consigo formular alguns pensamentos, entender o que uma pessoa fala, mas tenho muita dificuldade de listening, nй, ouvir... S: Que й a dificuldade da maioria...
114 C: Й, muita dificuldade. Pra me expressar, eu atй tenho mais coragem de me expressar com algum nativo, mas nгo falar, й...a minha preocupaзгo maior й entender o que o nativo vai responder, entendeu? Essa й a minha preocupaзгo, entender o que ele vai responder. Porque aн nгo vou poder fazer o retrucamento , nй? Responder, fazer o feedback dele. S: Como vocк acha que um professor de Inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua se sente em diferentes contextos? C: Primeiro eu me sinto incompetente, аs vezes, nй (risos). Й porque uma coisa й tu dizer, olha essa pessoa aqui й professora de lнngua inglesa, e aн coloca ela numa situaзгo de lнngua inglesa e ela nгo sabe desenvolver, nй? Й um incompetente nй? S: Linguisticamente, nй? C: Й, linguisticamente. Mas aн eu novamente reporto ao que eu tava te falando. No nнvel que tava exigindo para aquele nнvel, lб eu consegui fazer. S: Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de inglкs? C: Excluнdo como professor de Inglкs? Nгo... S: Por nгo falar direito, alguma coisa do tipo? C: Meu caso, por exemplo? Nгo, nгo tive essa situaзгo de exclusгo, nгo. Apesar das pessoassaberem da minha limitaзгo...й porque na verdade teve todo um contexto nй, pra essa minha atividade, era uma necessidade da escola, e eu tava ali a mгo... S: Ok, em relaзгo a um falante nativo de inglкs, como й que tu se sente? C: Insegura. Й isso que eu tava te falando. Assim, nгo tenho muita...ainda tenho muito receio de chegar e puxar alguma conversa. Lуgico, muito receio mesmo. Mas faria , se tivesse necessidade. Tб? Faria. Mas o meu medo й aquilo que eu tava te falando. Nгo entender talvez aquilo que ele viesse me falar. S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeita em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? C: Insatisfeita? S: Й, o que seria? C: Pelo contrбrio! Olha, eu acho que a minha oralidade, meu speaking, eu acho que eu tenho uma facilidade de expressar, entendeu? S: Certo.. C: Tanto й que eu...й isso que me faz, me atraiu pra lнngua estrangeira. Agora, eu gosto muito de inglкs, eu gosto muito do francкs, nй? Eu acredito que eu tenho facilidade em fazer a sonoridade correta das palavras...
115 S: Vocк se preocupa com e ensino da cultura de lнngua inglesa nas tuas aulas? C: Com certeza! S: Por quк? Quais aspectos? Quais metodologias? C: Hum...ensino da cultura...a gente tenta contextualizar, nй? Olha isso aqui й assim porque lб a cultura deles й essa e tal, tudo mais. Mas quando eu to ensinando inglкs, eu trago pra realidade deles, eu digo: "olha й assim, nй"...por exemplo, um dia desse eu tava dando uma aula sobre nature, nй, elementos da natureza, aн tinha o Sun, sol, Lua, moon, essas coisas nй? Aн antes de a aula comeзar eu contextualizei nй? O sol, a gente tem que se proteger do sol, usar protetor solar, porque a gente mora numa regiгo muito quente, nй? Todas essas questхes ...muito...da linguagem do nнvel deles. S: Tб, e a ъltima pergunta: como vocк se vк hoje como professor de inglкs e como vocк gostaria de ser? C: Ah, eu gostaria de ser uma professora de Inglкs excelente que nem vocк (risos). Eu gostaria de melhorar sabia? Eu gostaria de ter oportunidade de estudar pra aprender mais. Eu gosto disso, eu gosto de inglкs...mas aqui nгo tenho oportunidade, eu vou te dizer que eu nгo tenho tempo, mas eu sei que essa coisa й muito relativa , nй? Se eu realmente quisesse , eu nгo dormiria de noite pra estudar, mas nгo vem ao caso isso aн agora...tб, mas eu desejo, melhorar meu inglкs, tб? Talvez nгo sу pra lecionar, mas um desejo particular, uma habilidade a mais, pra enriquecer currнculo...porque aprender Inglкs nгo й sу pra lecionar, nй, й uma necessidade da vida profissional, nй? De alguйm que quer viajar, conhecer o mundo... Domingos S: Domingos, qual a sua formaзгo como professor de inglкs? D: Formaзгo? S: Acadкmica D: Bom, eu fiz Letras, depois eu fiz Inglкs, aн fiz Pуs Graduaзгo no ensino de Lнngua Inglesa tambйm. S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona Inglкs? D: Olha, antes mesmo da minha formaзгo acadкmica eu jб trabalhava com inglкs, jб tem mais de dez anos. Eu tinha o curso avanзado de vбrios locais, como da prуpria UFPA. Entгo a gente jб trabalhava no lugar de outros colegas, entгo quando eu passei pra Universidade eu jб tinha uma bagagem de ensino, nй como vocк pode observar. S: Certo. Que tipo de escola vocк leciona?
116 D: Olha, й o ensino modular. Como vocк constata, o ensino modular aqui, ele й o ensino quase como no campo. Й um sistema de ensino que surgiu em 1980, pra levar o ensino mйdio para localidades de acesso muito difнcil, dificuldades estruturais, por causa da localidade...entгo atualmente o SOME, encontra-se em 88 municнpios, em 345 localidades , com 827 docentes. Й muito profissional...o objetivo disso tudo й uma educaзгo de qualidade pra evitar que essas pessoas do campo , nй, nуs chamamos кxodo rural, vem pra cidade e alguns deles acabam se marginalizando, porque a educaзгo aqui na cidade eles pensam que й melhor.Na realidade, lб no interior as vezes й mais concentrado, porque a gente trabalha compactada, oito aulas de inglкs na semana, ao invйs de duas. Geralmente a gente vai em grupos de dois ou trкs..em decorrкncia da gestгo anterior й que hoje a gente tб com uma defasagem muito grande...acho que vai ser difнcil fazer a lotaзгo. S: Que tipo de escola vocк gostaria de lecionar? D: Eu acho que escola assim, no termo estrutural ...porque a escola que nуs trabalhamos й uma escola as vezes que nгo oferece condiзхes , tб? Vamos dizer, um pouco de insalubridade, poeira, sгo lugares quentes, muito mal preparados para receber o aluno e o docente tambйm. As lousas аs vezes quebradas, аs vezes nem encontramos lousas nessas comunidades, аs vezes atй problema de encontrar giz e apoio do corpo da escola, geralmente й agregado, o modular й agregado а escola do municнpio. Аs vezes nгo tem espaзo, a gente fica embaixo das бrvores, que jб aconteceu comigo. Dar aula embaixo de uma mangueira...Qual escola eu gostaria de ter, entгo? Um espaзo apropriado, pelo menos com o mнnimo de dignidade, para o educando e o educador, para que ele possa executar sua aula com qualidade. Claro que isso coopera, nгo significa que o que manda na aula й o espaзo, mas й a metodologia e a motivaзгo dada pelo profissional, o domнnio do seu conteъdo e mais a sua forma de levar o seu educando a absorver. Mas й claro que se tivermos espaзo adequado isso vamos ser melhor, nуs formaremos ...vai ajudar atй a questгo visual, espaзo adequado, luminosidade suficiente vai ajudar ...evitarб atй futuros problemas na questгo visual. E auditiva tambйm. Entгo, qual escola que nуs gostarнamos? Que o estado, e quando eu falo estado eu digo gestores em geral, dessem mais atenзгo pra essa realidade. Porque nуs trabalhamos no campo, nй? Tem lugares bem difнceis, que pra chegarmos lб nуs temos que ir de barco, depois pegar фnibus superlotados, mas o que й mais importante ali й o prazer de servir e de observar a natureza ao vivo, isso que й mais gostoso. S: Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professor de Inglкs?
117 D: Motivaзгo...a motivaзгo foi ...tem uma longa histуria nй? Mas eu comecei a observar a importвncia, eu trabalheinum hotel, e no hotel eu me deparei com turistas chegando e via a necessidade de comunicaзгo, eu tinha que interagir, as vezes eu sentia dificuldade de interagir. Atй o primeiro curso foi me doado por um fiscal do INSS. "Vocк quer fazer Inglкs? Vou pagar pra vocк seis meses". E de lб comeзou...eu sentia que precisava pra corresponder aquela nossa clientela do hotel. Nгo foi questгo de "ah, o inglкs й bonito", foi questгo de necessidade, de mercado. Hoje, falar inglкs й uma necessidade. S: De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado um professor influenciou a sua identidade, quem vocк й? D: Й, influenciou bastante. Hoje eu tenho a honra de dizer que algumas pessoas que passaram comigo estгo fazendo doutorado. Hoje o que se sente й o retorno, й o prazer. Alйm disso...muita gente me conhece como professor de Inglкs, se tu chegar aqui nesse pedaзo perguntando todo mundo sabe, o professor Domingos, professor de Inglкs. E isso como identidade me deu muito espaзo. A gente passa a ser respeitado como profissional. S: Qual o significadoe a importвncia da Lнngua Inglesa na tua vida? D: Olha, tudo que hoje eu tenho, eu digo sempre assim, por causa do Inglкs. Se hoje a gente tб nessa sala aqui, tб cheio de material de inglкs...hoje tudo que eu tenho, atй a prуpria casa que tu vк , foi resultado do inglкs. Inglкs me trouxe tanta coisa. Tanto que eu fiz letras pensando no inglкs. Pra mim й tudo. S: Vocк se sente totalmente а vontade pra falar Inglкs? D: Ah, me sinto. S: Por quк? D: Porque depois de muito tempo interagindo com turistas, com pessoas que vem da igreja, vocк absorve, acaba tendo uma prбtica, pensar em inglкs. Pensar inglкs й nгo planejar falar, й a mente trabalhar pra que ...flui...й vocк se liberar...entгo essa liberdade pra falar em inglкs...eu me sinto seguro. Com o tempo vocк vai sentindo mais liberdade. S: Vocк acha que domina a lнngua? D: Eu acho que й difнcil vocк dizer que alguйm domina a lнngua. Seria arrogвncia. Primeiro, pela complexidade...o nativo as vezes nгo domina. Й meio difнcil dizer...mas acho que nгo existe alguйm que domine 100%. Nem portuguкs, nem inglкs. A dificuldade do inglкs й mais a pronъncia, nй? Muita gente fala sem sotaque ...na realidade, dominar a lнngua nгo existe. S: Como vocк acha que um professor de Inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua se sente em diferentes contextos?
118 D: Бs vezes ele sente vergonha. Vocк observa esse profissional com vergonha, e ao mesmo tempo se sente diminuнdo. S: Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de Inglкs? D: Aonde, em que local? S: Qualquer situaзгo assim... D: Eu acho...assim como profissional, nгo. Аs vezes a gente observa uma pessoa nativa arrogante, nгo querer falar inglкs. Jб aconteceu isso comigo. Meu cunhado й americano e um dia, numa festa de despedida da minha irmг, que mora nos Estados Unidos, tinha uma moзa que trabalhava com ele. Ela nгo queria conversar, disse que queria falar portuguкs. Nesse caso eu me senti muito pra baixo. Meus irmгos atй criaram um preconceito contra americano por causa disso. Eu disse: "nгo, isso acontece, nгo й todo americano que й assim". Esse tipo de pessoa tu vai encontrar. S: Em relaзгo a um falante nativo de Inglкs, como tu se sente? D: Como te falei, tem nativos que sгo humildes. E ele nгo tem problema de interagir com vocк. Principalmente se vocк mostra a tua necessidade de melhorar o teu inglкs. Entгo ele acaba ajudando. S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeito com relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? D: Acho que nгo. Sempre tenho me policiado, quando eu vejo que alguma coisa...eu tenho material de fonйtica aqui...eu procuro estar sempre olhando...os sons...eu sempre to me policiando, as vezes a gente pode errar...as vezes os alunos reclamam que a gente ensina diferente do outro professor...mas as vezes tu ta ensinando uma coisa que tu jura que tб correto ... S: Sim...Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da lнngua Inglesa em suas aulas? D: Isso й extremamente necessбrio. Tem que explicar a cultura deles, porque sгo diferentes...eu tenho esse problema na famнlia, meu cunhado...as vezes tenho que explicar que sгo culturas diferentes...certos hбbitos...que a gente nгo adota mas tem que entender. A cultura deles lб a gente tem que passar para os nossos comunitбrios, entender as formas de cada um. S: E a ъltima pergunta, como vocк se vк hoje como professor de Inglкs e como gostaria de ser? D: Claro que...eu hoje como professor de Inglкs me sinto muito mais valorizado que antes. Porque depois que vocк vai pra Universidade, vocк pega outro macete, vocк adiciona seu conhecimento e aн vocк tem uma noзгo da dimensгo da realidade que tu tб vivendo. Hoje tu nгo й sу
119 mais um professor de inglкs, tu й tambйm um disseminador de cultura, de informaзгo...hoje eu me sinto responsбvel tambйm por isso tambйm, por dar um aula de inglкs de qualidade, preocupado com a realidade do educando, tanto que to desenvolvendo um material, entendeu? Pra inserir na realidade dele. Everaldo S: Qual a sua formaзгo como professor de Inglкs? E: Minha formaзгo acadкmica, nй? Entгo eu sou formado em Letras Lнngua Portuguesa, Lнngua Inglesa e tenho Gestгo em Turismo tambйm euma pуs graduaзгo que eu estou fazendo agora, Letras, Metodologia. S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona Inglкs? E: Na verdade eu trabalho...eu passei no concurso do estado, tб fazendo um ano agora, que eu trabalho diretamente com ensino mesmo. S: Que tipo de escola vocк leciona? E: Pъblica S: Em que escola vocк gostaria de lecionar ou tu estбs satisfeito? E: Nгo, nгo...eu na verdade..eu tenho um sonho, nй? Й de buscar um mestrado nessa бrea, de lнngua inglesa, intercвmbio...pra eu voltar e trabalhar na universidade local. S: Qual foi sua motivaзгo pra se tornar professor de Inglкs? E: Ah, primeiro por gostar de uma lнngua estrangeira que й o inglкs, jб hб muitos anos isso, desde que eu tinha quinze anos, nй? Eu vinha sempre fazendo cursinho, parava, fazia, parava, fazia...e fui tomando o gosto, nй? Tive uma ligaзгo muito forte onde eu trabalhava, por ter pessoas estrangeiras , eu achava aquilo uma necessidade pra carreira profissional . E mais desejo mesmo, de aprender a lнngua inglesa e com isso eu tomei gosto e a coisa que eu mais quero й poder ser ...utilizar dele pra trazer para os nossos conterrвneos aqui , nй? Ajudar nй? S: Certo. De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado um professor influenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й? E: Ah, acho que por sempre gostar de buscar qualidade de vida nй? E o inglкs, por ser uma lнngua das mais faladas ...isso foi uma motivaзгo pra mim. Acho que atravйs dela eu posso conseguir isso. Nгo й uma ambiзгo financeira...й mais uma satisfaзгo pessoal, assim... S: Tб, e qual a importвncia do Inglкs assim, no geral e na tua vida? E: Primeiro pelo meu prуprio ego, nй? Eu estar satisfeito comigo mesmo aprendendo ...й algo que eu sempre quis. E em conseqькncia, a qualidade de vida que eu vou ter com a minha famнlia, e puxando isso daн nй, aos colegas e aos amigos e aos conterrвneos que vгo ter a
120 oportunidade de eu buscar lб fora o que eles nгo tiveram oportunidade , acho que isso й muito legal, ser uma ferramenta. S: Vocк acha que domina a lнngua? E: Nгo, nгo..na verdade eu nunca tive experiкncia com estrangeiros assim, pouquнssima...com relaзгo а fala eu posso atй compreender e fazer com que ele me compreenda, mas nгo tenho ainda um controle , uma fluкncia legal. Por isso eu quero fazer um intercвmbio . S: E como vocк acha que um professor de Inglкs, que nгo fala a lнngua, se sente em diferentes contextos? Que aqui й bem comum ... E: Й verdade ...inclusive eu senti isso quando eu passei a entrar numa sala de aula pra trabalhar, porque aqui , vocк sabe disso, tinham muitos profissionais de uma outra бrea atuando na lнngua inglesa, nй? S: Sim E: Entгo a pessoa estava acostumada, habituada com isso, aн de repente a gente que й preparado pra isso, embora nгo controle, nгo fale fluentemente, tem uma noзгo, um conhecimento muito maior que os demais , й tudo novo para os alunos, porque eles nгo estгo acostumados com pronъncia...eles ficam assim meio que babando quando vocк pronuncia umas palavras , tenta fazer com que eles falem, entгo isso , isso й a diferenзa entre aquele que й preparado pra dar aula, ensinar , embora nгo tenha aquele domнnio mas estб buscando isso com aqueles que sу vinham pra colocar umas metodologias nй? Gramatical atй . S: Certo. Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de Inglкs? E: Nгo graзas a Deus, eu acho que nenhum momento eu percebi isso nгo, ao contrбrio nй . Eu tenho percebido que a semвntica do inglкs e o professor do inglкs , isso dб atй um respaldo pra gente nй? A gente se sente atй bem com isso. Motivador atй. S: Em relaзгo ao falante nativo de Inglкs, como vocк se sente? E: Ah, com relaзгo аqueles que eu de repente possa ter contato com eles. Eu jб tive...inclusive a Janete, que й minha mulher, й duma religiгo dos mуrmons nй , e eles recebem visitas dos gringos lб dos Estados Unidos aqui. Аs vezes eu aproveito issoe pra tentar melhorar, nй? Mas eu me sinto assim como uma...uma...falta muito grande de poder conviver lб, com eles lб. Isso vai ser fundamental nй? Pra alguйm que busca aprender o estrangeiro e ao mesmo tempo compreender, pra poder repassar isso. S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeito em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? E: Й, existe, eu ...devido a falta de oportunidade de poder...eu leio muito, nй? Todos os dias eu leio , inclusive aquela coleзгo do
121
"Crepъsculo", a Lidiane me emprestou quatro daqueles livrгo (sic), entгo todo dia eu aproveito, trкs, quatro pбginas, em voz alta pra melhorar atй a leitura...sу nгo tenho oportunidade de praticar. S: Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da cultura da lнngua inglesa em suas aulas? E: Ah,com certeza. Muito. Inclusive eu tento usar, porque eu nгo tive...o meu primeiro ano de contato, de experiкncia, to aprendendo muito mas eu tenho uma sede muito grande de colocar o turismo junto..interdisciplinar, nй? Ou outras atй, porque a gente trabalha pra formar cidadгo, formar ele pra ele poder se preparar, nгo sу pra ele falar a lнngua inglesa, a gente tem essa preocupaзгo em poder mostrar pra eles que a lнngua inglesa nгo й sу falar, mas й toda uma cultura , nй? E eu acho que a Literatura atй entraria muito bem aн nй? E eu nгo vejo isso. Tentei, inclusive eu coloquei um halloween lб no Almirante, foi legal atй . S: Legal. Como vocк se vк hoje como professor de Inglкs e como vocк gostaria de ser? E: Hoje eu tф numa fase de aprendizado. Com aquela ansiedade de chegar o momento e eu poder ir fazer o intercвmbio e depois sim, eu vou poder dizer que ....depois eu vou poder ter a oportunidade de dizer como eu vou gostar, como eu vou poder gostar de trabalhar, porque tendo a experiкncia lб fora, aн vocк vai poder fazer algumas modificaзхes legais atй, nй? Pra mim й isso, primeiro a experiкncia lб fora, "puxa, entгo vou trabalhar desse jeito". Por que aqui, sendo do estado as turmas sгo de quarenta, quarenta e quatro, quarenta e dois, entгo a problemбtica й grande numa sala de aula pъblica, nгo tem estrutura nenhuma pra vocк trabalhar, atй material vocк tem que tirar Xerox, atй dinheiro tem que ter pra levar, entгo й problemбtico quanto a isso. Mas depois quando nуs tivermos essa experiкncia lб, a gente tem condiзгo de mudar algumas coisas, nй? Pra todos nгo, mas para aqueles que realmente querem. S: Muito bem, acabou Everaldo. Obrigada! E: Thank you very much.
George Cabral
S: George, qual sua formaзгo como professor de inglкs?
G: Eu tenho й...CELTA, que й
Certificate in
EnglishLanguageTeachingtoAdults , da Universidade de Cambridge,
que й um curso que eu acho que todos deveriam ter porque todos os
professores sгo realmente qualificados para trabalhar com a lнngua
inglesa e suas habilidades.
122 S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona Inglкs? G: Mais de quatorze anos. S: Que tipo de escola vocк leciona? G: Sempre trabalhei com escola privada, cursinhos como se diz, entende?Trabalhei com escolas tradicionais nй? Escolas Municipais, Estaduais, mas mais com particulares mesmo. S: Tem algum tipo de escola que tu gostarias de lecionar ou nгo...ou tu tб satisfeito... G: Hum...pelo fato de ter trabalhado esse tempo todo com o ensino privado , focado sobre certo tipo de pessoas eu teria muita vontade de trabalhar numa escola municipal, escola pъblica, porque acho que seria um desafio diferente, ver qual й realmente a realidade do ensino da lнngua num ambiente diferente do que eu estou acostumado a trabalhar. S: Qual foi a sua motivaзгo para se tornar um professor de Inglкs? G: Minha motivaзгo? No inнcio foi escutar mъsica e ler, entгo ...eu escutava muita mъsica em inglкs e meus amigos tambйm falavam inglкs e isso me levou muito a buscar mais entende? Querer, entender, saber o que tava acontecendo. S: Tб...ah, de que forma ter aprendido inglкs e se tornado um professor dessa lнngua influenciou sua identidade, quem tu й hoje? G: Nossa, pergunta difнcil...porque alйm de dar aulas de inglкs eu trabalho diretamente com o pessoal que vem visitar a cidade , entгo a gente tem um contato diferente nй? A gente conhece tipos de pessoas, sгo pessoas totalmente diferentes, mas isso influenciou muito a minha vida porque ...principalmente na questгo de conhecimento em si da parte da semвntica da lнngua...e, poxa, eu...a identidade que hoje eu tenho da lнngua inglesa de eu como nativo falante de portuguкs , й uma coisa assim meia (sic) estranha...entende? Teve uma grande influкncia de ser o que eu sou hoje em dia, devido а lнngua inglesa, todos na cidade praticamente me conhecem, como professor de inglкs e ... S: A gente vira professor, nй? G: Й! Eles chamam a gente de professor... S: Sim. George, qual a importвncia da lнngua inglesa no geral e pra ti? G: Hum...pelo imperalismo da lнngua inglesa, nуs somos forзados a falar, em termos tanto comercial quanto profissional. Hoje em dia tudo se foca pra lнngua inglesa, й uma lнngua universal, entende? Й conhecida como a lнngua franca, porque apesar de todo mundo olhar sу para os Estados Unidos ou a Inglaterra, mas o mundo hoje em dia fala uma lнngua totalmente ...vamos dizer assim , focada pelo lado mais comunicativo do que pelo lado cultural, entende? Entгo й indispensбvel, hoje em dia qualquer pessoa, pelo pouco que ela saiba da lнngua inglesa,
123 ela nгo pode dizer que nгo fala inglкs, porque inglкs a gente encontra em tudo quanto й canto, tudo em quanto й lugar, internet, livros, jornais, televisгo, pessoas falando, entгo, ninguйm pode ficar fora desse universo lingьнstico da lнngua inglesa, nй? S: Certo, vocк se sente totalmente а vontade pra falar inglкs? G: Sim..por uma questгo de ...nгo diria preconceito mas por pouco conceito de pessoas que tem sobre a lнngua, elas acham que determinadas formas de falar sobressaem sobre outras formas de falar. Isso nгo existe. Isso jб й coisa do passado, existe o que nуs chamamos de inglкs comunicativo, aonde pessoas de outras nacionalidades, nгo falantes de lнngua inglesa tende a falar inglкs, vamos dizer, com melhor, com mais grau de escolaridade que os prуprios donos da lнngua , que nгo se preocupam com isso, jб que eles falam fluentemente. Entгo existe aproximadamente seis nгo falantes da lнngua inglesa para um falante de lнngua inglesa . S: Vocк acha que domina a lнngua? G: Ah...isso depende do ponto de que vocк quer chegar...a lнngua em si, a parte gramatical eu tenho pleno domнnio dela, a parte falar, a fala da lнngua inglesa jб й uma habilidade que eu nгo vou dizer que eu domino assim, 100% entende? Parte de leitura eu tenho uma grande desenvoltura, a parte escrita...eu nгo escrevo tгo bem quanto eu queria mas й uma questгo de prбtica, eu preciso desenvolver mais ...e listening, que й a parte de escuta eu tenho , vamos dizer assim, nгo 100% de aproveitamento ...mas o que eu domino mais й a parte gramatical , mas eu nгo me considero um professor gramatiqueiro, como tem muita gente que й assim, pelo fato de ser os ensinos de escolas pъblicas tradicionais, sempre ensinaram inglкs pra gente atravйs da gramбtica mas nгo й por aн que a gente vai realmente aprender. Eu me sinto confiante...vamos dizer assim, eu confio em mim. O inglкs que eu falo й o inglкs que as pessoas entendem, totalmente inteligнvel, nй (sic)? Tem uma comunicaзгo muito boa. S: Como vocк acha que um professor de inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua inglesa se sente em diferentes contextos? G: Que nгo fala a lнngua inglesa? S: Й...por exemplo aqui em Santarйm tem ... G: Falta de qualificaзгo vocк quer dizer? Eu acredito que, poxa, as pessoas se tornam professor de inglкs porque ...a maioria deles, nй, nгo й por vocaзгo e sim por opзгo profissional. Pra se tornar professor, como a maioria das universidades se dizem formadoras de profissionais, que na verdade a universidade nгo forma ninguйm, nй? Eles terminam a faculdade e , poxa, o emprego que estб aн disponнvel no mercado й
124 esse...qualquer pessoa com o mнnimo de conhecimento de inglкs se apega, vai trabalhar e se torna o que nуs chamamos de missionбrios, mecenas...(risos) S: Mercenбrio G: Isso, mercenбrios! Й isso que acontece. E й muito frustrante...pros alunos ...tanto pros alunos quanto pro professor, nй? Comeзar a fazer uma coisa que nгo sabe. S: Certo. Tu jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que tu se sentiu excluнdo como professor de Inglкs? G: Sim. No curso que eu fiz, do CELTA, eu tive, de inнcio, um impacto muito grande porque ...em relaзгo ao que eu realmente era. Porque , na primeira semana do meu curso , meu tutor me chamou e disse : "Sinto muito, mas vocк nгo й professor de inglкs". S: Nossa... G: E eu tive que parar e pensar e ver o que realmente estava acontecendo porque a idйia que as pessoas tem й : eu falo a lнngua, logo eu posso ensinar a lнngua. Mas nгo acontece assim, nй, porque muita gente fala portuguкs e nem todos sгo professores. Como os native speakers, eles vem pro Brasil e pelo fato de falar inglкs e automaticamente eles vгo ter , vamos dizer assim, condiзхes de conseguir um emprego mais rбpido ...hoje em dia, ninguйm cobra mais isso nгo. E no curso eles fizeram isso, entende? Eles nos colocaram no lugar de alunos , nуs sentimos a dificuldade do aluno receber aquilo que nуs estбvamos passando . Entгo , foi um negуcio muito bom, entende? Que, vamos dizer assim, nos desestruturou profissionalmente pra nos tornar ...facilitadores, nй? Nгo professores, assim como autoridade, que detйm conhecimento, mas uma pessoa que tem a capacidade de passar o conhecimento pros alunos e fazer com que eles usem esse conhecimento de uma forma prбtica, nй? Na vida deles, no dia a dia, e adquirir a lнngua atravйs disso, da experiкncia lingьнstica, da fala... S: Certo, em relaзгo a um falante nativo de Inglкs, como vocк se sente? G: Eu me sinto а vontade. Eu acho atй que muito mais, nгo sei...pessoalmente, eu me sinto muito mais a vontade de falar com um nativo de que falar com pessoas que eu sei que tem inglкs como segunda lнngua. O meu vocabulбrio й muito bom, eles adoram, eu gosto muito de usar palavras ... S: Ah que legal, tu й a primeira pessoa que responde essa pergunta assim, sabia? G: Vamos dizer assim, dб o impacto neles, entende? Principalmente as palavras latinizadas que nуs temos que pra eles sгo sofisticadнssimas,
125 entгo pra mim se torna fбcil falar o inglкs latinizado e eles "Oh, seu inglкs й fantбstico". S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeito em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? G: Se existe? Existe...porque a oralidade й intimidade, entende? Entгo nгo й com qualquer pessoa que vocк pode chegar e conversar o que realmente vocк quer...o inglкs й uma lнngua que, vamos dizer assim, que tende muito pelo lado, pelo aspecto fнsico, entгo pra se falar inglкs, a gente fala o que a gente enxerga, jб a nossa lнngua portuguesa й uma lнngua que nos leva mais pro nosso lado sentimental, nosso lado romвntico, й uma lнngua bonita, entгo, a gente fala o que nуs sentimos, o inglкs nгo, nуs falamos o que nуs vimos, e eu nгo gosto de falar isso, entende? Eu gosto de falar o que eu sinto, e muitas pessoas, entende, nгo gostam disso. Eu realmente falo o que eu preciso falar, entende? Me comunicar...porque se comunicar й falar o que se tem necessidade, nгo se falar o que sabe. Й uma coisa que eu deveria correr mais atrбs , entende? Interagir mais, pra poder fluir melhor . Falar coisas mais simples, simplificar mбximo que eu puder. S: Vocк se preocupa com ensino da cultura da lнngua inglesa em suas aulas? G: Sim, porque atravйs da cultura , vocк consegue entender muito do que acontece na lнngua..nгo dб pra,vamos dizer assim, desvincular, separar a lнngua da cultura. Os aspectos culturais, eu acho que sу pelo fato de ser mencionado ao aluno, jб facilita. S: Verdade, eu concordo. E a ъltima pergunta: como vocк se vк hoje como professor de inglкs e como vocк gostaria de ser? G: Eu nгo me sinto assim totalmente satisfeito com o meu desempenho, cada dia mais eu procuro me aperfeiзoar mais, principalmente na questгo de apoio que eu posso usar nas minhas aulas. S: Metodologias, nй? G: Sim, existem professores que falam muito mais na sala de aula que os alunos, onde poderiam falar menos e deixar os alunos falarem mais. A participaзгo do professor deveria ser mнnima, essa prбtica levaria os alunos a falar muito mais. Eu tento cortar isso nas minhas aulas, ser mais direto na prбtica. E com o aparato que nуs temos nй, tecnolуgico hoje em dia facilita muito e eu queria uma oportunidade de trabalhar mais com isso porque a tendкncia й essa, acho que daqui a um tempo nгo existirб mais o professor, principalmente da lнngua inglesa e sim computadores, mбquinas ensinarгo as pessoas a falar (risos).
126 Kйzia S: Kйzia, qual sua formaзгo como professora de Inglкs? K: Sou graduada em Lнngua Inglesa S: Tem que falar mais alto... K: Ah, jб tб gravando? S: Tб, tб gravando. Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona? K: Hб seis anos S: Que tipo de escola vocк leciona? K: Escola particular S: Tem algum motivo especial? K: Nгo, nгo S: Que tipo de escola vocк gostaria de lecionar? K: Atualmente eu trabalho sу com ensino particular, trabalho tambйm com Graduaзгo, no ensino particular, no IESPES, entгo assim, eu gosto muito de trabalhar com regime particular. S: Muito bem. Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professor de inglкs? K: Eu nгo gostava...e aн ...motivaзгo...Minha famнlia me motivou bastante, a questгo tambйm financeira, nгo vou negar...a questгo financeira e tambйm porque gosto...essa foi uma motivaзгo muito importante, nй , da famнlia e a profissional tambйm, nгo vamos negar, financeira. S: De que forma ter aprendido Inglкs e ter se tornado um professor de inglкs influenciou na tua identidade, vocк acha que tem alguma coisa a ver... K: De que forma ter aprendido inglкs...e ter se tornado um professor...de que forma ter aprendido inglкs? S: Й K: De que forma... S: Tu acha que tu te tornou mais confiante, algo do tipo... K: Й, me sinto uma pessoa bem realizada, me sinto uma pessoa de certo valor dentro da sociedade onde eu leciono e gosto muito. S: Уtimo. Й...qual o significado, a importвncia da lнngua inglesa? K: Poxa, sem ela nй, acho que eu estaria desempregada (risos), porque...й o que surge muito de trabalho pra mim й o de lнngua inglesa, entгo a lнngua inglesa pra mim hoje, eu tenho uma relaзгo assim como de amizade, atй porque ela que me faz ser o que eu sou hoje. S: Уtimo..й, na tua vida tu jб falou nй...que te faz ser uma pessoa realizada e tal K: Certo. S: Vocк se sente totalmente a vontade pra falar inglкs?
127 K: Sim S: Por quк? K: Como eu te falei, eu me sinto segura, eu estudeibastante, eu jб fiz uma graduaзгo, eu jб tenho...eu estudei cinco anos lнngua inglesa em cursos. Entгo eu gosto, eu nгo tenho nenhuma dificuldade, eu me sinto a vontade, talvez as vezes ansiosa assim, quando vou conversar com alguйm, tenho as vezes atй certo receio de nгo compreender alguma coisa nй, porque eu nгo sou nativa da lнngua, mas eu levo tudo numa boa. S: Tб, vocк acha que domina a lнngua?Que dominar a lнngua significa pra ti? K:Com relaзгo as habilidades vocк fala? S: Й K: Creio que sim, tenho algumas dificuldades pouquinhas na compreensгo auditiva, mas as outras creio que domino muito bem. S: Tб. Como vocк acha que um professor de inglкs que nгo domina a lнngua inglesa, oque й muito comum aqui em Santarйm, se sente em diferentes contextos? K: Perdido. Com certeza ele se sente perdido porque й...por mais que ele seja formado, falta. Falta as vezes ele ir atrбs de alguma coisa, de se profissionalizar melhor , entгo isso faz com que ele бs vezes nгo dк uma boa aula, com isso ele nгo vai se sentir a vontade, porque sempre vai surgir questionamentos dos alunos, que muitas vezes ele nгo vai conseguir responder. S: Certo. Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que sentiu excluнdo como professor de Inglкs? K: Nгo. Sempre me senti muito bem e sempre me senti dentro de um contexto й ...positivo, de aceitaзгo muito boa. S: Certo. Tu conheces alguйm que jб passou por isso? K: Nгo. S: Nгo? K: Agora, assim de cabeзa nгo S: Tб. Em relaзгo ao falante nativo de Inglкs, como vocк se sente? K: Como eu te falei sу um pouco ansiosa, que eu tenho аs vezes um receio de nгo compreender tudo o que ele fale, porque eu nгo sou nativa entгo, tem essa ansiedade as vezes de nгo compreender. S: Tб. Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeita em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? K: Nгo, mais o auditivo mesmo. Oral nгo. S: Tб. Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da lнngua inglesa em suas aulas?
128 K: Sim. Atй porque agora, a cultura jб й vista como uma outra habilidade da lнngua inglesa, entгo , a partir do momento em que vocк trabalha a cultura , vocк tб trabalhando outra habilidade. Nгo existe somente as quatro habilidades que nуs conhecemos, mas a cultura deve estar inserida dentro desse contexto como um todo. S: Tб. Como vocк se vк como professora de inglкs hoje e como gostaria de ser? K: Eu me vejo como eu jб falei uma pessoa realizada, eu gosto de fazer o que eu faзo, e eu gostaria sempre de continuar estudando, quem sabe fazer um mestrado como vocк, um doutorado. Mбrcio S: Mбrcio, qual sua formaзгo como professor de inglкs? M: Bem, й..eu tenho cursos livres, com carga horбria й...compatнvel com a exigкncia da SEDUC, sou graduado em Letras com Habilitaзгo em Lнngua Portuguesa e jб atuo no modular como professor de inglкs hб seis anos. S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona inglкs...acabou de falar, nй? Seis anos, nй? Tб, que tipo de escola vocк leciona ? M: Bem, esse ...o modular й um projeto do governo estadual que o objetivo dele й levar o ensino mйdio a comunidades distantes da cidade. S: Tб, que tipo de escola vocк gostaria de lecionar?Ou vocк tб satisfeito? M: Bem...a escola ideal, infelizmente ainda estб em sonhos, nй? Nнvel de sonho, de teoria. S: Tб, qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professor de inglкs? M: Bem, primeiramente eu gosto da lнngua inglesa, nй? E...foi a oportunidade que me apareceu como um desafio e eu aceitei e estou satisfeito em ministrar a disciplina. S: De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado professor influenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й? M: Bem...sempre quando vocк aprende algo novo, nй, desafiador, em suas expectativas, vocк se realiza, nй? Entгo, as realizaзхes do ser humano й justamente й...no que diz respeito ao novo, nй? Acho que dб pra cortar aqui senгo ia aumentar muito (risos) S: Tб, qual o significado da lнngua inglesa pra ti assim, na tua vida e em geral? M: Bem, a lнngua inglesa hoje й a lнngua mais importante do mundo, й a lнngua do...й a lнngua mundial, nй? Entгo, pra minha vida enquanto profissional ou partнcipe da sociedade, й muito importante eu conhecer essa lнngua, sendo que ela й...ela estб em contato, nуs estamos em
129 contato , constantemente, nosso dia a dia com essa lнngua, entгo porque nгo aprofundar o conhecimento e aprender cada vez mais. S: Vocк se sente totalmente а vontade pra falar inglкs? M: Аs vezes...mas nгo falo fluentemente. Essa...esse...essa nгo..esse sentimento de nгo estar a vontade pra falar inglкs й justamente por conta de nгo ter a fluкncia de falar inglкs, nй? S: Vocк acha que domina a lнngua? M: Nгo, nгo domino a lнngua, nй, por falta da prбtica, por falta tambйm de...de...oportunidade na nossa regiгo, pra que vocк tenha, nй, essa, essa oportunidade de dominar a lнngua, nй? Entгo muitos professores, muitos educadores, a maioria na minha, no meu ponto de vista, aqui em Santarйm, se dominam a lнngua, se conhecem bem a lнngua inglesa, a lнngua estrangeira, й por conta do prуprio esforзo. Nгo por conta de uma estrutura que vocк tem, com relaзгo a instituiзхes de ensino de lнngua inglesa. S: Tб, como vocк acha que um professor de inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua inglesa se sente assim em diferentes contextos? M: Bem, o sentimento que vocк tem й de um espaзo a ser preenchido. Porque pra vocк ser um profissional em qualquer campo, nй, do saber, em qualquer бrea, vocк...teoricamente vocк deve ter um conhecimento mais profundo sobre a бrea. Entгo eu ser um professor e nгo falar, nгo usar a lнngua na melhor performance te deixa um espaзo. Eu sinto um espaзo, um vazio, uma lacuna por conta disso. S: Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de inglкs? M: Й...o momento em que vocк se sente dessa forma, esse sentimento que vocк tem й quando vocк, justamente vocк nгo tem esse domнnio, principalmente da comunicaзгo. Aн vocк se sente nessa exclusгo. Nй, porque a comunicaзгo, ela й muito importante pra vocк realizar aquele ato comunicativo efetivamente, de forma qualitativa, nй...produtiva...entгo nesse momento vocк sente excluнdo, nй? S: Tб, em relaзгo a um falante nativo de inglкs, como vocк se sente? M: Deficitбrio. Onde vocк precisa...eu sinto que eu preciso й, estudar mais mas alйm de estudar eu preciso praticar mais , porque a lнngua inglesa, no meu ponto de vista, nas minhas conclusхes, alйm de vocк...nуs...nгo falantes da lнngua inglesa, nуs, nуs precisamos , alйm de estudar, de conhecer a prуpria lнngua, em todos os seus sentidos, em todos os seus aspectos, nуs precisamos tambйm praticar, que sгo dois , duas atividades muito difнceis, conhecer e praticar, senгo vocк acaba deixando й...deixando...й...algo importante, que й justamente a
130 comunicaзгo no teu dia a dia, na escola, em qualquer local onde se esteja falando inglкs, ou praticando inglкs. S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeito em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? M: Bem, o que me deixa insatisfeito ao meu desempenho oral й...eu...insatisfaзгo na verdade eu nгo tenho por conta de eu...o que eu aprendi a falar , o que eu aprendi de comunicaзгo foi atravйs da...do estudo sozinho, nй? Buscando sempre conhecer como eu podia pronunciar, como й a pronъncia, estudando atravйs, й...por conta da lнngua portuguesa, conhecimento da lнngua portuguesa que eu tenho, estudando a comunicaзгo, a oralidade, como se pronuncia, nй? Na verdade eu nгo sinto insatisfaзгo, eu sinto, й...que eu preciso me aprofundar mais, melhorar mais, praticar mais, mas que tudo que eu consegui atй hoje com relaзгo а oralidade , eu me sinto satisfeito, ao contrбrio, eu me sinto satisfeito, por conta que й uma...da forma que eu falo...eu consegui pronunciar, falar, й...dentro dos...do que realmente ocorre na fonologia da lнngua inglesa. S: Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da lнngua inglesa em suas aulas? M: Me preocupo, me preocupo porque eu...eu...sempre tento passar , nй, aos meus alunos, nгo sу o conteъdo da lнngua inglesa, e sim tambйm a cultura de um outro povo, nй, em todos os sentidos, como o pensar dele, nй, a visгo de mundo deles, nй, entгo isso й importante , vocк...o professor nгo sу pensar simplesmente em repassar o conteъdo porque o aluno nгo й depуsito de conteъdo, de nada, nй? Ele...simplesmente vocк vai mostrar pra ele,abrir a cabeзa dele pra que ele conheзa nй, mude a visгo dele naquele momento...entгo, a cultura, eu sempre coloco, passo, eu me preocupo sim com repassar a cultura do povo falante da lнngua inglesa. S: Ъltima pergunta: como vocк se vк hoje como professor de Inglкs e como vocк gostaria de ser? M: Bem, eu...como professor de inglкs...й sempre um desafio, nй? Porque eu sei que eu preciso cada vez mais aprofundar, eu sei que eu preciso й..melhorar mais, em todos os sentidos, eu acho que o professor hoje, ele nunca pode pensar que ele tб pronto, ele sempre tem que...no momento que ele pense que ele estб pronto, ele nгo й um bom professional. Ele tem que pensar que, sendo da lнngua inglesa, como vocк tб fazendo a entrevista aqui sobre a lнngua inglesa...sendo a lнngua inglesa ou qualquer outra disciplina...eu nгo posso dizer que eu estou satisfeito, porque senгo estou acomodado, eu nгo serei, nгo estou sendo um profissional competente naquilo que delegaram a mim como professor, como educador. Entгo, eu sempre tenho em mente que eu
131 preciso buscar mais. Em resumo, eu preciso nй, estar em constante busca. Raquel S: Raquel, qual sua formaзгo como professora de Inglкs? R: Sou licenciada em lнngua inglesa. S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona inglкs? R: Hб trкs anos. S: Que tipo de escola? R: Antes era estadual, nй, agora municipal. S: E que tipo de escola vocк gostaria de lecionar? R: Ah, escola modelo, com central de ar, data show, quadro magnйtico, que ultimamente as escolas estгo arcaicas, ainda й quadro de giz. S: Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professora de inglкs? R: A falta de carga horбria de lнngua portuguesa. S: De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado um professor influenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й? R: Repita S: De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado um professor influenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й? R: Ainda tфaprendendo...com inglкs, porque й uma lнngua bem complexa ainda pra mim, e o que ela influenciou na minha vida foi que eu tive assim, um crescimento muito grande, tanto como intelectual e profissional. S: Certo. Qual o significado e a importвncia da lнngua inglesa no mundo e pra ti assim, na tua vida? R: Antes, na minha vida a lнngua inglesa era sу como...й...manter uma carga horбria, manter um emprego nй, mas hoje vejo que alйm dela ter ...tб crescendo a cada dia mais e mais e mais , tб tendo uma...tanto no campo de trabalho como na vida, em relaзгo a crescimento nй? Ela tб se tornando assim, um tudo pra mim, que antes eu sу visava o lucro. Na minha formaзгo eu visava sу o lucro. Hoje nгo. A minha visгo й outra. S: Vocк se sente totalmente а vontade pra falar inglкs? R: Ainda nгo. S: Por quк? R: Porque eu nгo consigo ainda...eu tenho cursos de inglкs, eu trabalho com a lнngua inglesa, mas assim, eu tenho assim...eu ...eu tenho receio аs vezes . Eu tenho que me preparar muito bem antes de dar uma aula, assim, com receio de algum aluno me perguntar alguma coisa e eu nгo souber (sic) responder.
132 S: Certo. Vocк acha que domina a lнngua? R: Nгo... S: O que isso significa pra ti, dominar a lнngua? R: Й saber se comunicar, й...em qualquer instвncia. Й pegar um texto, saber a traduзгo daquele texto, saber o que ele tб dizendo e eu ainda nгo posso fazer isso. Tem textos que eu consigo ler, traduzir bacana. Mas assim, se eu for me comunicar com um estrangeiro, ainda nгo й..ainda nгo to 100%. S: Como vocк acha que um professor de inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua inglesa se sente em diferentes contextos? R: Й como se fosse um aletrado, nгo soubesse ler...tem vontade de ler mas nгo consegue, entendeu? Entгo й isso que eu tф tentando. Eu tф tentando me aperfeiзoar, tф fazendo cursinho, nй? Pra ver se eu consigo me alfabetizar na lнngua inglesa, no caso me comunicar. S: Certo, vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнdo como professor de inglкs? R: Na minha graduaзгo. Na minha graduaзгo eu me senti perdida. Porque a maioria dos meus colegas na minha turma sabiam (sic)falar inglкs, conseguiam entender o que o professor falava...e eu nгo entendia nada. Se nгo fosse assim, os meus amigos, assim, me incentivarem a nгo desistir do curso, eu nгo taria hoje graduada em lнngua inglesa. Por exemplo, a Sнlvia. Elafoi assim, uma inspiraзгo porque se nгo fosse a amizade dela, da Rozвngela, eu nгo teria terminado meu curso porque elas duas foram assim essencial na minha graduaзгo. S: Em relaзгo a um falante nativo de inglкs, como vocк se sente? R: Rб...(risos), eu me sinto...totalmente, como se fosse uma deficiente..deficiente, assim eu precisava gesticular, porque eu nгo consigo ainda me comunicar com estrangeiro. S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeita em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? R: Eu nгo digo insatisfeita...й...eu...eu...й...na minha aula de lнngua inglesa eu sempre tento ficar...fazer aquele momento de aula de descontraзгo. Por exemplo, eu falo alguma expressгo e o meu aluno fala diferente eu comeзo a rir e tento fazer com que aquela aula nгo seja aquela coisa monуtona, como foi na minha йpoca do ensino mйdio. Eu faзo com que o inglкs, eu faзo com que eles se apaixonem pelo inglкs, como eu me apaixonei. S: Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da cultura de lнngua inglesa em suas aulas? R: Nгo. S: Por quк?
133 R: Eu tento...eu tento...que eles primeiro aprendam o conteъdo programбtico, tento fazer com que eles gostem da lнngua inglesa pra poder eu passar pra esse segundo plano. Que pra conteъdo...em relaзгo а aula ...conteъdo й importante. A cultura inglesa nгo й tгo importante quanto o conteъdo, pedagogicamente falando, mas pra mim й, mas primeiro tem que fazer eles gostarem da lнngua inglesa pra poder eles entenderem a cultura da lнngua inglesa. S: Como vocк se vк hoje como professor de Inglкs e como vocк gostaria de ser? R: Ah, eu me sinto realizada. Eu me acho toda poderosa. Mas eu queria falar fluentemente inglкs, eu nгo queria tб sу nesse estado. O meu professor no meu cursinho diz assim, que eu tenho que ter mais paciкncia, porque eu jб quero falar, jб quero me comunicar, ter experiкncia de falar com estrangeiro. Eu sei que eu ainda nгo tenho cacife ainda... Mas eu pretendo ter e ele diz que eu tenho que ter paciкncia, que a lнngua inglesa й paciкncia... Rozвngela S: Qual sua formaзгo como professora de inglкs? R: A graduaзгo que vocк diz? S: Й, tua formaзгo... R: Й Letras, com habilitaзгo em lнngua inglesa. S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona inglкs? R: Leciono inglкs hб dez anos. S: Que tipo de escola? R: Na rede pъblica estadual lecionei dez anos e na rede pъblica municipal estou hб um ano. S: Que tipo de escola vocк gostaria de lecionar? R: Uma escola que ...que tivesse uma estrutura melhor, em termos de materiais didбticos, que atualmente tem,mas nem sempre й possнvel utilizar. S: Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professora de inglкs? R: Sempre gostei de Inglкs, й...o que mais me motivou foi atй mesmo a carкncia de professores de lнngua inglesa, foi a...e por eu gostar tambйm da lнngua. S: De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado professor influenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й? R: (demora pra responder) S: Assim, tu te tornou uma pessoa mais confiante... R: Й...a minha identidade como professora, й... eu me sinto realizada, porque foi, sempre foi um sonho meu ser professora, mas eu jamais
134 imaginava que fosse uma professora de inglкs. Mas eu me identifico muito, e й uma coisa que sempre estou buscando para me aprimorar melhor no meu trabalho, na minha profissгo, tanto й que a minha primeira graduaзгo й Letras em Lнngua Portuguesa, e fui atrбs atй conseguir a graduaзгo em lнngua inglesa mas eu fiz cursinho nй, no curso livre, pra ter maior desempenho e aprender mais e mais porque na faculdade vocк sabe que a gente nгo tem toda...nгo tem todo..o suporte, nй? Entгo vocк tem que ir atrбs pra batalhar, entгo eu sempre me identifiquei muito assim, e me sinto que й um ...uma profissгo que eu sempre sonhei mesmo. S: Qual o significado da lнngua inglesa no geral e assim, na tua vida? R: A importвncia...que ...vocк sabe que...vocк tem que...saber uma outra lнngua. Й, vocк...pra mim й importante porque й algo que me realiza e algo que sempre , como eu jб falei, sempre eu busquei nй? Entгo й ...a importвncia pra mim...eu nгo digo que ela estб em primeiro lugar porque se tivesse primeiro lugar eu teria que falar com fluкncia a lнngua inglesa, tudo...e admiro tambйm as pessoas que falam fluentemente a lнngua inglesa mas pra mim ela й de muita importвncia devido a minha profissгo, com certeza, e o mercado de trabalho hoje exige uma outra lнngua. S: Certo. Vocк se sente totalmente а vontade pra falar inglкs? R: Nгo. S: Por quк? R: Eu nгo tenho fluкncia. Eu nгo me sinto assim а vontade porque...eu nгo tenho fluкncia em lнngua inglesa...eu entendo...mas eu nгo consigo falar a lнngua inglesa, entгo eu tenho que praticar muito, eu deveria fazer tipo assim, um...passar pelo menos um tempo sу falando com pessoas que falam inglкs, porque eu nгo me sinto segura. Agora, com relaзгo a assunto, esse tipo de...no meu trabalho eu me sinto segura. Mas nгo assim, falar fluentemente a lнngua inglesa. Porque na sala de aula vocк sabe que nуs nгo precisamos falar em inglкs. A explicaзгo, tudo, й em portuguкs, nй? Mas ...eu nгo me sinto segura. S: Vocк acha que domina a lнngua? R: Dominar...aquilo que acabei de falar, dominar na fluкncia, nгo domino. Mas assim, em questгo de conteъdo, eu domino. Eu tenho assim, seguranзa no que eu repasso para os alunos. S: Como vocк acha que um professor de inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua, se sente em diferentes contextos? R:Se sente...eu acredito que se sente muito excluнdo, assim, porque se uma pessoa vai dar aula...jб tive vбrios...assim, vбrias pessoas que sу tem o bбsico e meteram a cara e foram trabalhar com lнngua inglesa ,
135 mas as vezes nem tem assim uma...uma base pra estar trabalhando aquele assunto, devido a formaзгo mesmo da pessoa. Eu acredito que me sentiria muito excluнda e muito assim, й...como й que se diz, й...discriminada propriamente dito. S: Sim. Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que se sentiu excluнda como professor de inglкs? R: Nгo. Nunca passei por isso. S: Mas conhece alguйm que passou? R: Eu jб ouvi falar sim, por pessoas...inclusive uma colega minha porque й...diziam que ela nгo sabia й...inglкs e como ela ia dar aula de lнngua inglesa se ela nгo sabia nem falar direito o portuguкs. Eu jб ouvi falar, jб... eu conheзo assim, uma pessoa que houve...que teve essa discriminaзгo.Mas comigo nunca aconteceu isso. S: Em relaзгo a um falante nativo de inglкs, como vocк se sente? R: Eu me sinto muito nervosa (risos). Estar perto de uma pessoa que fala, eu jб tive assim uma experiкncia com uma pessoa assim ...mas eu me sinto muito insegura com medo de nгo entender o que ela precisa saber e eu nгo assim, nгo estar ...nгo souber assim, nгo ...a resposta que ele precisa no momento. Mas tambйm nunca tive assim essa experiкncia assim , de muito contato com pessoas , com a lнngua mesmo...que fala fluentemente ...que seja de lб mesmo. S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeita em relaзгo ao seu desempenho oral? R: Existe sim. Й essa questгo da fluкncia. E eu gostaria de falar. Meu sonho й isso, eu admiro as pessoas , inclusive admiro vocк Sнlvia, muito , muito, muito, me espelho muito em vocк , em termos de profissionalismo, aprendi muito com vocк com relaзгo a aula, essas questхes...assim, eu sinto falta mas tambйm eu sei que eu preciso ir atrбs porque a gente tem que procurar sempre aprimorar , melhorar aquilo que nуs ...o nosso objetivo nй?Entгo eu tenho essa...ainda gostaria assim de fazer um curso de conversaзгo , justamente nessa parte da oralidade, que eu tenho muita dificuldade. Mas ler textos assim com os alunos, й...questгo de mъsica, isso daн eu... se eu ensaiar bastante , nй? Isso daн eu tiro assim...isso aн eu trabalho bem com os alunos. Mas a questгo de oralidade e de fluкncia que eu falo isso... S: Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da cultura de lнngua inglesa nas suas aulas? R: Eu me preocupo porque nуs nгo temos que mostrar sу aquela questгo da gramбtica, temos que mostrar assim como nуs temos a nossa cultura aqui no Brasil, temos tambйm que mostrar a cultura da ...de outros paнses, nй? Geralmente ...jб que estamos falando em lнngua inglesa, com
136 certeza, isso daн faz parte porque nуs temos que trabalhar nesse contexto, a gente nгo vai trabalhar isoladamente . S: Tб, ъltima pergunta. Como vocк se vк como professor de inglкs hoje e como vocк gostaria de ser? R: Eu me vejo hoje uma...no que eu sempre quis, eu me vejo uma boa professora. Assim, com as minhas turmas, eu acredito que os alunos aprendem alguma coisa e jб contribui muitas...assim...com relaзгo a alunos que se interessam, sabe que escola pъblica geralmente os alunos nгo tem esse interesse assim,nй, em questгo da ...do conhecimento mesmo, nй? Mas й muito gratificante vocк encontrar um aluno e falar assim: "ah, professora, aprendi muito com a senhora, quando eu vejo tal coisa eu sу lembro da senhora, daquela aula que a senhora explicou tanto, agora eu tф em outra escola", entгo isso й muito gratificante. Eu me sinto realizada e acredito que eu tenho que melhorar com relaзгo a ...atй mesmo em questгo de conhecimento, coisas novas que todo tempo vai aparecendo, nй? Entгo nуs temos que estar sempre atualizados com relaзгo a tudo isso, essa ...a lнngua inglesa mesmo, nй? Valdinei S: Valdinei, qual sua formaзгo como professor de inglкs? V: Primeiro a Lнngua Portuguesa e depois a lнngua inglesa. S: Hб quanto tempo vocк leciona inglкs? V: Hб cinco...seis anos S: Que tipo de escola vocк leciona e por quк? V: Atualmente com o ensino mйdio, em comunidades e foi a oportunidade que surgiu pra mim no momento, nй? S: Й o ensino modular, no caso V: Isso, ensino modular, que й o SOME. S: Tu pode falar (sic) em pouco... V: Й o Sistema Organizacional de Ensino Modular, nй? Em vez da ...do governo, no caso, o Estado, construir o prйdio, mandam esses professores pra lб, pra trabalhar nessas referidas comunidades, nй, pra...pra...concluirem o Ensino Mйdio. S: Certo. Entгo os professores sгo mandados para as comunidades ribeirinhas... V: Isso! Ribeirinhas, comunidades pequenas, distantes, muito distantes das cidades, onde o aluno nгo pode sair da cidade para o centro urbano, no caso a cidade. S: Que tipo de escola vocк gostaria de lecionar?
137 V: Eu acredito que todo professor nй, gostaria de lecionar numa escola que tivesse uma boa estrutura, nй? Certamente a formaзгo tanto para o aluno e do professor seria bem melhor. S: Qual foi sua motivaзгo para se tornar professor de inglкs? V: Ah...eu fui um tempo pra Manaus, nй e trabalhei numa бrea, aeroportuбria, nй e exigia uma outra lнngua e fui atrбs, nй, foi o momento que eu me vi como uma pessoa que ...que falasse ...uma oportunidade pra falar uma outra lнngua. Quer dizer, foi o trabalho realmente, depois a oportunidade de professor. S: De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado um professor influenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й? V: De que forma...(demora pra responder) S: : De que forma ter aprendido inglкs e ter se tornado um professor influenciou na sua identidade, quem vocк й, tipo, se vocк й uma pessoa realizada... V: Sim, lуgico! Eu acho que...todo esse tempo que vocк tem aprendido inglкs, nй, tem convivido com o pouco da lнngua inglesa, conhecido um pouco da lнngua inglesa й...coloca um pouco da nossa identidade (sic). S: Tб. Qual o significado ou importвncia da lнngua inglesa no geral e na tua vida? V: Em geral, a oportunidade nй? Abre caminhos...em geral...abre caminhos com certeza, oportunidades... S: E na tua vida? V: Й oportunidade tambйm. S: Tб. Vocк se sente totalmente а vontade pra falar inglкs? V: Nгo, nгo posso dizer isso atualmente. Eu nгo posso dizer que eu nгo sinto a vontade de falar inglкs. Eu me sinto mais como um tradutor do que como um professor que fale. S: Vocк acha que vocк domina a lнngua? V: Totalmente nгo. Eu acho que a lнngua, ela й... ela muda, nй? Ela nгo й, ela nгo pбra, tб sempre se modificando. Entгo eu acho que isso...dizer que a lнngua , ela й..ela й...ъnica...nгo posso dizer isso, nй? Como vocк falou, ela todo tempo tб mudando, ela й dinвmica, nй? S: Como vocк acha que um professor de Inglкs que nгo fala a lнngua inglesa se sente em diferentes contextos? V: Se sente indiferente do texto? S: Nгo, em diferentes contextos V: Eu acredito...sу pelo fato de nгo estar num paнs que nгo fale a lнngua inglesa й sempre diferente, nй? Eu acho que й mais um ambiente mesmo.
138 S: Vocк jб passou por alguma situaзгo em que sentiu excluнdo como professor de Inglкs? V: Nгo, atй o presente momento nгo. S: Tu conhece (sic) alguйm que jб passou? V: Conhecer, nгo conheзo, mas jб ouvi falar. S: Tu lembra a situaзгo, assim... V: Ah, de pronъncias, nй, que um fala de uma maneira, outro fala de outro e aquela pessoa que tem menos estudo, vamos dizer assim, menos conhecimento que o outro, se sentiu mais abaixo do que a outra. S: Tб, em relaзгo a um falante nativo de inglкs, como vocк se sente? V: Nativo...nгo posso dizer tгo bem, nгo posso dizer tгo mal, nй? Fica no meio termo aн, porque nativa й aquela pessoa que nasce naquele ambiente, eu nгo posso dizer que eu sou um nativo, nй? S: Existe alguma coisa que te deixa insatisfeito em relaзгo ao teu desempenho oral? V: Nгo. Penso que nгo S: Vocк se preocupa com o ensino da cultura de lнngua inglesa em suas aulas? V: Sim, bastante. S: Como vocк... V: Bastante! Porque atravйs de colocar essas visхes,ensinar essas culturas de outro paнs, que falam a lнngua inglesa, jб transforma (sic) esse aluno, jб coloca a visгo desse aluno mais adiante. S: Certo, e como vocк se vк hoje como professor de inglкs e como vocк gostaria de ser? V: Hoje? Me sinto (sic) realizado. E como eu gostaria? Ah...й uma pergunta meio difнcil porque a gente nгo vai...a gente vк se realmente no futuro da gente ...uma melhora...sу que no momento nгo posso dizer do futuro, tenho que dizer do agora. Me sinto agora realizado. E no futuro, quem sabe, posso estar melhor do que estou agora.

SCB de Souza

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