The Geography Program at Hofstra University, 1935-2010: Lessons, Challenges and Prospects, G Saff, A Gillespie

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Content: The Geography Program at Hofstra University, 1935-2010: Lessons, Challenges and Prospects Geography majors Adrienne Gillespie and Allison Redman working at the Association of American Geographers Annual Conference, Washington, DC, April 2010 By Grant Saff* and Adrienne Gillespie** *Grant Saff is Chair of the Department of Global Studies and Geography, Hofstra University, 209J Roosevelt Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549. E-mail: [email protected] **Adrienne Gillespie graduated with a BA in Geography from Hofstra University in May 2010. E-mail: [email protected]
Introduction1
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010
In the summer of 2008, prior to formally becoming Chair of the new Department of Global Studies and Geography, Grant Saff attended the Association of American Geographers' Department Leadership Workshop, hosted that year by the Geography Department at UCLA.2 At UCLA, a number of sessions were held in a seminar room adorned with photographs of old faculty members, current faculty members, ex-students and so forth. The Department walls thus presented a vivid reminder of the history of the geography program and how the program had been an integral part of the history of UCLA. Yet, at Hofstra, despite geography being taught since 1936, we not only had no photographs adorning our walls, we did not even know who had taught in our program, who or how many students had graduated or even why geography was taught at Hofstra at all (after all, geography was dropped from the Harvard curriculum in the 1940s, and was not offered in many institutions much larger than Hofstra). Seeing the contrast between UCLA and ourselves, planted the idea that if we wanted to build a successful new Department we needed to recapture our history so that we could both reach out to past students and validate geography's place within Hofstra's historical development. The creation of a new Department also provided the perfect time to reflect on both the past successes and the problems that the program had encountered, and to think about ways to build on what had worked in the past while avoiding previous mistakes.
1 The authors would like to thank Jim Wiley, Kari Jensen, Zilkia Janer, Jean-Paul Rodrigue and Marcel Tenenbaum for comments on earlier drafts of this paper. We would also like to thank Christine Kempski for her help in proof reading the document. All opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not reflect the official position of either the Department of Global Studies and Geography or Hofstra University. 2 Prior to Fall 2008, the geography program had been part of the Department of Economics and Geography. 1
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 At this time, we were fortunate to discover that the Hofstra Geology Department had posted an excellent timeline of their Department on the Hofstra website.3 This provided a rough template of what was envisaged for our own Department's historiography, and it showed that information would be available should we decide to proceed on this project. During the course of the Fall 2008 semester, the idea of moving forward on this project took on added momentum. Not only had we now become our own Department, but the global financial meltdown meant that funding for future growth was likely to become much tighter. The implication was that departments would increasingly have to become more entrepreneurial with regard to attracting students and seeking sources of funding. Clearly part of this strategy will involve a much greater effort to keep in contact with alumni than has hitherto been the case. So the need for creating a historiography of the geography program existed. Fortunately, the creation of the new Department, coupled with the rapid growth of the Global Studies major had helped to attract a group of talented and highly motivated students to our programs. Further, the new office space that we moved into during the summer of 2008, included a lounge and seminar room where students could work communally and hold meetings. The new Department thus provided opportunities to promote student involvement in our programs. Having an independent budget also meant that for the first time we could use the budget to place advertisements for our program, help fund a student club, and offer students the opportunity to work as paid office administrators.4 This meant that we now had students who were really identifying with 3 See: http://www.hofstra.edu/Academics/Colleges/HCLAS/GEOL/geol_depthistory.html. 4 Department budgets are allocated by the Hofstra College of liberal arts and Sciences (HCLAS) Deans Office, but discretionary spending is controlled by the chair of the department. Prior to becoming our own 2
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 our Department, working in our offices, and doing all the other activities that are common in larger institutions. One of these students, Adrienne Gillespie, took the lead in establishing a new student club, and showed a great interest in helping build geographic awareness at Hofstra. In Fall 2009, Grant Saff asked if she would be interested in working on the history of our Department as part of her senior thesis. She not only embraced this idea, but enthusiastically set about doing so. This project is thus a collaborative effort. Adrienne undertook the research into the Department's history, conducted the interviews, and wrote the initial draft on the history of the program. Grant Saff provided much of the contemporary detail, conducted the contextual research, and did the bulk of the writing (and rewriting). Research Aims and Methodology The Geography program at Hofstra University became a part of the aforementioned Department of Global Studies and Geography in Fall 2008. Prior to this, the geography program had been part of the Economics Department, and even earlier the Geology Department. As will be shown in this paper, for much of that time the department remained small and was at various times almost completely moribund. When the new Department was established, we discovered that the Geography program had kept no internal records that date earlier than the mid-1990s, and none of the current faculty had any understanding of how the Department evolved prior to that time, what classes were taught or even who taught in the program. Fortunately, we were able to track down (in Poland) a retired professor, Dr Lambasa, who taught geography at Hofstra department in 2008, the geography program had never been allocated a separate budget from the much larger economics program (and the chair of the department was, but for one year, an economist). 3
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 from 1959 until 1993. She was able to provide invaluable insights into the program during this period. We were also fortunate that the Hofstra archives have a full set of University Bulletins (dating from the 1930s). The Alumni Office also supplied us with a list of geography graduates dating from the time they first kept records.5 We were also able to get further information from interviews that Adrienne Gillespie conducted with the current Provost of the University (Herman Berliner), who was previously a faculty member in the Economics Department and from the current Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Bernard Firestone) who has been very supportive of the Geography program and of the new Department of Global Studies and Geography. We were also able to get information from James Wiley who has been a geography faculty member since 1991, from Marcel Tenenbaum who was Chair of the Department of Economics and Geography, from 1984 to 1998, and also from the rest of the current faculty. This paper looks at the evolution of the Geography program, listing as far as possible the names of all full-time (and where possible, part-time) faculty that have taught in the program. We also show how the geography curriculum has changed over time, making an attempt to situate this evolution within broader national trends in geographic education. Particular attention is paid to the problems encountered in trying to maintain and build an undergraduate geography program with few faculty members, limited financial resources and as a very peripheral part of a larger department. More importantly, the paper presents the strategies that we used to compensate for the above 5 We could not, however, get any contact information for the graduates from the Alumni Office as they do not want Departments to contact graduates directly. This, as will be argued later, makes it difficult for a department to maintain links with past students and specifically directs all fundraising attempts through the University rather than the Department. 4
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 weaknesses. The paper also argues that recapturing the history of the geography program at Hofstra is an important tool in creating a sense of shared departmental identity among current, past and future students. This is particularly important, as in a difficult economic environment, the promotion of a department's institutional history can be an important tool in raising the department's external profile and also in creating a greater sense of internal university awareness about the program among other departments and the university administration. Hofstra University Nassau College ­ Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island was established as an extension of New York University in 1935. The college was first developed as a commuter institution, offering both evening and day classes. Hofstra's first classes were held on September 23, 1935. At that time there were 159 day students and 621 evening students.6 In 1937 the university's official name was changed to Hofstra College. In 1939, 83 students became the first four-year graduates of Hofstra College, and in the same year the College became independent from New York University. In 1949, the College first started offering Master's degrees, but there is no record of the geography program ever offering graduate degrees. In March 1963, Hofstra became Long Island's firs private university. By 1965 the university had almost 300 full-time faculty and 4,852 full-time students (see Table 1). In the 1960s, the University's various divisions were reorganized into schools, and the geography program became part of the Hofstra College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (HCLAS). In 1966 Hofstra opened its first residence halls, which 6 The information about Hofstra is taken from the annual Hofstra University Bulletins, 1936-2010/11. 5
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 allowed the university to attract a much more geographically diverse student body. The recession of the early 1970s had a serious effect on university enrollments. This resulted in severe budget problems, causing staff cutbacks. After a difficult period of adjustment, administrative changes were instituted, and from 1976, full-time enrollments started growing again. The enrollment problems can be seen in the 1975 Hofstra University Bulletin that notes that while the faculty of the University had grown substantially in the preceding ten years, so that there were now 400 full-time and 275 part-time faculty, the full-time student body had actually declined to 4,720 students (out of a total enrollment of 11,800). By 1985, the situation had turned around and full-time enrollment was up to 6,400 students out of a total enrollment of approximately 11,000 students (Hofstra University Bulletin 1985:7). The full-time faculty remained at around 400, but part-time faculty had increased to 325.
Table 1. Hofstra University, Enrollments and Faculty, 1965-2009.
Date Total Enrollment Full-Time
Enrollment
1965
------
4,852
1975
11,800
4,720
1985
11,000
6,400
1995
11,550
6,400
2009
12,400
7,631
Source: Hofstra University Bulletins
Part-Time Enrollment ----7,080 4,600 5,150 4,769
FT Faculty 300 400 400 446 544
PT Faculty ----275 325 537 641
By 1995, full-time undergraduate enrollment was given as 6,400, total enrollment was now 11,550 and the total faculty had increased to 446 full-time and 537 part-time faculty members. The trend between 1965 and 1995 was that total enrollment was relatively constant, but full-time enrollment increased by 1,548 students and at the same there was an increase of 136 full-time faculty members. In a school that relies heavily on 6
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 tuition to pay its bills, this enrollment growth had a very positive effect on the ability of the university to expand program offerings and hire more tenure-track faculty. As will be shown later, rising university enrollments during this period had no positive effect on geography enrollments, and the program actually lost one full-time faculty position during this period (1965­1995). Today, Hofstra University has grown to have 12,400 students, with 7,631 of these being full-time undergraduates. In addition, Hofstra University now has 1,185 faculty members (544 are full-time) and offers over 150 majors in over 19 academic areas. Geographic Education in the United States It is clear that any assessment of the successes and problems encountered by the Geography Program at Hofstra must be situated within the broader context of U.S. geographic education. This is particularly the case as, for much of its history, the difficulties that Hofstra has faced in establishing a viable and vibrant geography program were, to a very large degree, a reflection of the general decline of U.S. geographic education. Murphy (2007:121) notes that while U.S. colleges and universities play host to some 60 geography Ph.D. programs, 90-odd masters programs, and over 200 bachelors programs...The discipline is not as firmly entrenched in U.S. colleges and universities as subjects such as history, biology, and economics. Geography departments are generally smaller than those of neighboring disciplines, and there are many small colleges, and even some prominent universities, that do not have geography programs. De Blij (2005:5) echoing the above, argues that one of the problems that geography faces is that few people actually know what geographers do and fewer still know what geography is. This is partly due to the wide scope of the discipline that prevents an easy explanation of what 7
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 it is or what binds it together. As De Blij (2005:11) notes, the U.S. is also unique among developed countries in that an American student could go from kindergarten to graduate school without ever having taken a class or course in geography. This was not always the case as, at the turn of the 20th century, geography was widely taught in American schools, and the most prestigious U.S. universities had geography departments. This began to change after the Second World War when geography education began to fall out of favor. While the reasons for this are complex, Murphy (2007) argues that geography was never as entrenched in American universities as it appeared and that its status was very vulnerable to post-war challenges within the academy. In particular, Murphy (ibid:122-3) isolates the following six factors for causing the relative decline of geographic education: (1) the early twentieth-century trend toward American isolationism, (2) the subsequent emergence of an internationalism premised on the idea that American-style capitalism provided a template for an emerging global political-economy that would render place differences increasingly irrelevant ..., (3) the growing prestige of the sciences and the concomitant privileging of those social sciences that treated differences from place to place as noise in their model-building efforts, (4) the growing institutional division between the physical and social sciences in American universities, making it difficult for a discipline that sat astride that divide to find a niche, (5) the marginalization of geography in the primary and secondary schools with the rise of a history-dominated social studies curriculum..., and (6) the sense that geography had little to offer beyond the cataloging of Earth facts or problematic generalizations about environment-human relations. Also of importance were inter-and intra-departmental rivalries, which is one of the main reasons cited for Harvard closing its geography department in 1948 (see Wright and Koch, 2008). Murphy (2007:124) notes that the closure of the Harvard geography department worked against the establishment of geography departments at other universities and colleges as the argument could be (and was) made that a great university did not have geography. By the 1980s all of the other Ivy League 8
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 universities,7 with the exception of Dartmouth,8 had also stopped teaching geography. The reasons that Wright and Koch (ibid) provide for the ending of the Ivy League programs are very similar to those previously cited by Murphy, although they pay much closer attention to the situation of geography within various institutional structures and the role that individuals can play in either ending (Harvard) or saving (Dartmouth) a program. It must be noted, however, that even though geography programs were often closed, universities (including the Ivy League schools) continued to hire geographers as part of other departments (such as urban planning and Regional Science).9 Despite the loss of the Ivy League programs and those at a few other high profile institutions (such as the University of Michigan, the University of Chicago, and Northwestern), the number of students taking geography grew with the general rise in university attendance that accompanied the baby boom generation entering higher education. Between 1960 and 1970 the total enrollment in geography programs in the U.S. increased from 336,787 to 762,954 (Murphy 2007:123). Regardless of this impressive expansion, Murphy (ibid) points out that this was still well below the growth rates of other disciplines such as sociology, history, economics, and political science and that part of the increase was fuelled by the demand for training primary and secondary school teachers (linked again to the baby boom). The 1970s and 1980s proved to be a difficult time for geography programs as they faced enrollment declines and the fiscal pressures caused by the U.S. economic recession. 7 The Ivy League is made up of: Harvard, Yale, Princeton, the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell, Columbia, Dartmouth, and Brown. 8 Dartmouth, unlike the other Ivy League programs, was focused on undergraduate geography education. 9 A Center for Geographic Analysis was created at Harvard in 2006. This Center focuses on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and is thus not a direct replacement for the old department (see: http://www.gis.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do). 9
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Between 1970 and 1976 there was a net loss of 32 U.S. geography departments (Murphy, 2007:124). As Murphy (ibid) argues, Each of the programme losses could be seen as the result of the actions of unsympathetic administrators or of the internal problems (lack of attention to general undergraduate education, feuds among faculty, etc.). But focusing on such explanations directs attention away from the larger issue: many in the U.S. academic elite had come to view geography as a dispensable subject in institutions of higher learning. De Blij (2005:15) argues that one of the major causes for the relative decline of geographic education was that from the 1960s social studies began replacing individual social science disciplines in schools. This not only decreased interest in geography as a discipline, but as was previously noted in the Hofstra case, the move to social studies also meant that fewer education majors were required to take geography courses. At a college level, the number of geography graduates increased in the 1950s and 1960s and then declined until the 1990s, when the rise of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) helped fuel a comeback in enrollment (see Figure 1). Figure 1. Geography degrees awarded 1950/51-2003/4.* Source: Murphy (2007:124)10 *This includes graduate degrees. 10 For a more detailed breakdown, by degree awarded, see Pandit, 2004:13. 10
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 To elaborate further on Figure 1., in 1947-48, only 357 students received undergraduate geography degrees in the U.S., this increased to 4,326 in 1971-72, fell to 2,948 by 1987-88, and then slowly recovered to the mid-4,000 level by 2003-4. The most recent statistics, 2007-8, show 4,320 undergraduates receiving geography degrees (AAG 2010: 282-3). Hofstra to a large extent echoed the above, with declining enrollments from the late 1960s until the mid-1990s. Many reasons are given for the renewed interest in geography from the late1980s. Murphy (2007:128) cites the following as the main reasons for geography's expansion since the 1980s: (1) a heightened general sense that geography is relevant to the issues of the day, (2) a greater awareness and appreciation of geography among scholars in other disciplines, (3) an explosion of interest in GIScience and GIS, (4) an expanding job market for individuals with geographic training, and (5) the emergence of a more analytically sophisticated geography in some primary and secondary schools. By the 1980s, two trends had begun to converge: a growing awareness that globalization was increasing, which requires a greater understanding of other societies and of basic geographic literacy, and a general awareness among U.S. educators that most American students were not only lacking in geographic literacy, but that they were also less knowledgeable about geography than students in other developed countries. These trends were highlighted in the Global Geographic Literacy Surveys (conducted by the National Geographic Society) in 1988, 2002, and 2006, whose findings received much press coverage. The press coverage of the 1988 Survey that had found that U.S. students had an abysmal level of geographic awareness helped make the case for increasing the level of geographic education at high schools and colleges. By 2002, the Survey found that 55 11
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 percent of U.S. respondents indicated that they had taken geography courses, compared to 30 percent in 1988 (National Geographic Educational Foundation 2002:4). Nevertheless, the 2002 Survey, which looked at the comparative state of U.S. geographic knowledge, placed U.S. as next to last in geographic literacy, just above Mexico.11 The 2006 Survey of young Americans found: ... only 37% of young Americans can find Iraq on a map--though U.S. troops have been there since 2003. Six in 10 young Americans do not speak a foreign language fluently. 20% of young Americans think Sudan is in Asia. (It is the largest country in Africa.) 48% of young Americans believe the majority population in India is Muslim. (It is Hindu--by a landslide.) Half of young Americans cannot find New York on a map.12 The National Geographic thus argued that: These results suggest that young people in the United States--the most recent graduates of our educational system--are unprepared for an increasingly global future. Far too many lack even the most Basic Skills for navigating the international economy or understanding the relationships among people and places that provide critical context for world events.13 Providing a rationale for the 2002 Survey, the National Geographic Educational Foundation makes a very compelling case for the importance of improving U.S. geographic education, arguing: Broad and integrated geographic knowledge is critical to becoming a global citizen, critical to understanding and succeeding in a world which has increasingly taken on an international perspective in key arenas such as business, cultural diversity, resource use, and environmental protection. Children in every nation will need to possess basic geographic skills, such as locating places and understanding the context of current events, in addition to developing a spatial perspective and learning to use geographic tools, such as maps and computerized geographic information systems. This survey was designed to shed light on the competency of respondents on the most basic components of geographic knowledge and skills: the building blocks of geographic literacy. 11 The 2002 Survey polled more than 3,000 18- to 24-year-olds in Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Sweden and the United States. Sweden scored highest; Mexico, lowest. 12 http://www.nationalgeographic.com/roper2006/findings.html. 13 http://www.nationalgeographic.com/roper2006/findings.html. 12
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Given the issues highlighted above, there has recently been a greater emphasis on geography in K-12 education (see Bednarz and Bednarz 2004). Murphy (2007:129) notes that the outrage that greeted the results of the surveys highlighting the geographical ignorance of American students can help explain heightened official recognition of the discipline, including the U.S. Congress's recognition of a national Geography Awareness Week in 1987. Another measure of the increasing recognition of the importance of geographic education is that in 2000-2001, the College Board added its first Advanced Placement (AP) geography test. Since that time, the number of students taking the annual AP Human Geography test has increased from 3,272 in 2001 to 50,730 in 2009.14 Nationally, the renewed interest in geography is also linked in large measure to the rising importance and usage of Geographic Information Systems (GIS).15 It is fair to say that the growth of GIS from the 1980s provided a very compelling reason for universities to show greater interest in the teaching of geography. As Murphy (2007:133) notes, Any forward-looking institution of higher education can scarcely avoid serious engagement with GIS/GIScience. Not only are employment opportunities for students mushrooming in geotechnologies, but GIS has become so ubiquitous that new arenas of research and practice are opening up with dizzying speed... Reflecting and fuelling the GIS/GIScience boom is a student population that is increasingly drawn to geographic technologies. Many of today's students have grown up in an environment suffused with the products of these technologies. The typical weather report is accompanied by sophisticated map animations of changing weather conditions. Among the more popular dramas on television are CSI shows in which GIS and related forensic technologies are regularly used to solve crimes. Few young people pass up the opportunity to explore the 14 Murphy 2007, p.136 and http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap09_HumGeoGradeDistributions.pdf. 15 A GIS is a computer system capable of capturing, storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information; that is, data identified according to location. (http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/#what). In simple terms, it is the merging of cartography and database technology, allowing the presentation of various data types linked to location (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system). For a very good overview of GIS, see, http://www.esri.com/. 13
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 possibilities of Google Earth (http://earth.google.com/) on their personal computers or are unaware of the thousands of GIS-based map images that accompany the news of the day. Even conventional newspapers and magazines offer a level of mapping that was unknown a few decades ago. Hofstra may have benefitted from the increased awareness of GIS, but as will be shown later, the geography program has struggled to build a self-sustaining GIS program. A further reason for the recent growth in interest in geography is linked to globalization and the realization by scholars of various disciplines that an understanding of geography is essential to grasp the full extent of these global social, cultural, political and economic processes. For example, Paul Krugman, a Nobel-prize-winning economist and New York Times Op-ed columnist has not been shy to admit that, one of my big academic interests has been economic geography -- the study of where stuff gets located and how the Location decisions of different players in the economy interact to produce things like cities and industrial belts. (http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/02/20 /fashion-and-geography/). His fellow New York Times Op-ed columnist, David Brooks, has argued that, If you are 18 and you've got that big brain, the whole field of cultural geography is waiting for you. (http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/10/opinion/11brooks. done.html). As Murphy (2007:129-130) argues, ...the surge in interest in geopolitics, globalization and environmental change is surely fuelling a more general interest in geography--including among college and university students...growing general awareness of geography's relevance has arguably served both to strengthen the discipline's position at colleges and universities where it has long been present and to foster growing interest in geography at institutions of higher education where it has no formal presence. 14
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Given this greater awareness of the importance of geography, it is not surprising that the number of Ph.D.s awarded annually in geography has risen since the 1980s (see Gailie and Wilmot 2003, AAG 2010:282-3). For all the reasons cited, since the 1980s, a number of new geography degree programs have been established, and there has been an expansion (through new hiring) of many existing departments.16 Johnston (2004:1003-5) notes, however, that for all the recent successes of geography in the United States, the number of students majoring in geography is much the same now as it was in the 1970s and that the U.S. produces fewer undergraduate geography majors than the number of geography honors graduates in the much smaller British system. The lack of U.S. student knowledge about what geography is and what geographers do is reflected at Hofstra where very few students choose the university with the specific aim of studying geography. This is not unusual in the U.S. case, where even large programs have relatively few undergraduate majors. Geography programs clearly gain most of their academic reputation from their graduate programs, and small undergraduate programs are, therefore, bound to struggle in attracting students to their specific institutions. This is apparent in Table 2., which shows that even large and prestigious geography programs such as those at Rutgers and Syracuse have difficulty attracting a large number of undergraduate geography majors. Table 2. also shows that, while having a graduate program is important for attracting students into a geography program, it still seems possible to build a fairly large program with a limited number of faculty and without a graduate program. Rowan, New Hampshire and Vassar all have more geography majors 16 Murphy (2007:127) counts 16 new geography degree programs established between 1995 and 2005. 15
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 than Hofstra; and in the case of Rowan and New Hampshire, they have done so with a comparable number of full-time faculty. Table 2. Majors and Graduate Students in a Selection of Geography Departments in the Northeast, 2008. Source: AAG Guide to Geography Programs, 2009/10. The above conclusion is, however, somewhat misleading as the Vassar program is part of a joint earth-sciences department (www.earthscienceandgeography. vassar.edu/) and Rowan is a joint department of geography and anthropology (http://www.rowan.edu/ colleges/las/departments/geography/). These departments also benefit from greater emphasis on physical geography than the Hofstra program provides, with Rowan having its own geolab and a dedicated GIS instructor. The geography program at the University of New Hampshire is closest to the situation at Hofstra in that they have the same number of full-time faculty and a similar number of taught geography sections, yet they have roughly twice as many geography majors as the program at Hofstra.17 This shows it is possible with limited resources to have a bigger program than Hofstra, but if all the cited 17 See: http://www.unh.edu/geography/index.cfm?id=9641BB26-BD19-3D3B-DC6659E2E F08629D. 16
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 examples are taken together, it is clear that even the largest universities have relatively few undergraduate geography majors.18 At Hofstra, the vast majority of students entering our geography classes have little to no idea of what geography is or what will be expected of them. In this context, most students only decide to minor or major in geography after taking one of our classes to fulfill a university requirement, and then discovering an affinity for the material and/or the instructor. It is clear from our experience that unless the U.S. school system does a much better job at introducing students to geography, small undergraduate geography programs will continue to struggle in attracting freshmen as incoming majors. Nevertheless, it is also clear that with the correct strategy, it is possible to overcome some of these problems. Murphy (2007:128) notes that many programs have been attracting greater numbers of students by, paying attention to undergraduate education, developing effective mentoring and advising programmes for students, working closely with administrators, creating effective websites, collaborating with programmes sharing similar goals and subject-matter concerns, encouraging faculty to participate actively in the larger campus community, and aligning the department's mission with that of the larger university. As will be shown later in this paper, the current Geography Program at Hofstra has taken all of these strategies to heart, and this has in no small measure played a role in our expansion since 2008. 18 Even Hunter College with the highest number of majors in Table 2., offers four separate BA geography programs, a BA in geography, a BA in Environmental Science and BA in Social Studies for K-6 education, and a BA in Social Studies for 7-12 grade education (www.geo.hunter.cuny.edu/). 17
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1936-1958 The first record of geography being taught at Hofstra is in 1936, under the Social Science and History division of Hofstra University.19 The only mention of geography within the curriculum is under a class entitled "Backgrounds of Social Science" which was taught by Mr. Victor Henkel.20 The course description reads: An introduction to the factors underlying the growth of human institutions through the study of geography, natural resources, anthropology, and development of race (Hofstra Bulletin, 1936:22). In 1937, a class entitled "Materials of Social Science (Economic Geography and Human Resources)" was added to the curriculum, and Backgrounds of Social Science was removed (Hofstra Bulletin 1937:41). The new course was taught by Mr. Henkel and also by Mr. Joseph Kershaw. In 1941, Hofstra's curriculum was split into more specific divisions, and the Economics Department was created under the division of Social Sciences. During this time, the first geography-titled class, "Economic Geography," appeared in Hofstra's Curriculum (Hofstra Bulletin, 1941:56). There is no information about who taught "Economic Geography" from 1939 to 1943, but the course was taught from within the new Economics Department. It is thus clear that from its earliest inception at Hofstra the administration saw a linkage between geography and economics, rather than the much more common linkage with geology or earth sciences. In 1943, "Economics 23: Economic Geography" was revised to focus exclusively on economic geography within North America. To compensate for the narrower geographic focus, a 19 It is not clear from our research when the geography major was first offered (as opposed to offering scattered geography courses). It was not until the late 1950s that there were a sufficient amount of geography courses being offered to constitute a major. It would seem that the major was created some time between 1958 and 1960, as the first recorded BA geography graduates are in 1962. 20 A list of instructors in geography can be found in Appendix 1. This list includes both full-time and, where possible, part-time instructors. It has been very difficult to piece together who taught what classes or to come up with a complete list of part-time professors in the period prior to the mid-1990s. 18
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 new course was added titled "Economics 24. Economic Geography (Outside North America)" (Hofstra Bulletin 1943:54). Economics 23 and 24 were taught by Professor Charles Heath. The earliest regional geography classes taught at Hofstra thus dates from 1943, although at this time the focus was clearly economic geography (from a regional perspective). The 1946-1947 Hofstra Bulletin shows the formation of the Geology Department. At this stage only one geology class entitled "General Geology" was offered (Hofstra Bulletin 1946:62). This is important as during the 1947-1948 academic years, Economics 23 and 24 were dropped from the curriculum, and in their place geography was incorporated into new classes taught within the Geology Department. The Geology department offered the following classes: "Physical Geography of the United States" and "Geography of Long Island and Vicinity." It is unclear what the motivations for these changes were or what happened to the geography instructors. In March 1957, the name of the Geology Department was officially changed in the Bulletin to The Department of Geology and Geography." The geography program was headed by Dr. Roger Charlier and included classes such as Regional World Geography, Principles of Geography, Geography and Geology of NY State, Senior Seminar, and Workshop in Geography." This very common pedagogical linkage of geography and geology lasted until Dr. Charlier left Hofstra in 1958 and the geography program went into limbo.21 In 1958/9 the existing geography classes were dropped from the Hofstra Bulletin and the program was moved from the Geology Department to the Economics Department. This pairing was to last for fifty years, until the new Global Studies and Geography 21 The 1957 Hofstra University Bulletin reads Geology and Geography; Special Lecturer Charlier, Acting Chairman 19
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Department was established in 2008. What is thus clear from the chronology offered so far is that at no time during its existence at Hofstra was the geography program ever considered viable or important enough to anchor its own department. It is also clear that the university administration seemingly had little clear understanding (or interest) of what the pedagogic focus of the program should be which may account for the program's shuffling between the Geology and Economics Departments. Geography in the Department of Economics and Geography 1958-1991 The creation of the joint Department of Economics and Geography proved a precursor to the growth of the geography program during the 1960s. This period saw new faculty joining the program and the rapid addition of geography courses. The period also saw the first majors graduating with BA's in Geography. Between 1962 and 1972, 14 students graduated from Hofstra University with a Bachelors degree in Geography (see Appendix 3). In 1958/59, the Geography program was directed by Professor Nielsen, who is listed in the Bulletin as a visiting professor of Geography. In the 1959-1960 academic year, the Geography program was placed under the direction of Dr. Masaharu G. Inaba, a newly hired geographer, who was to remain as a full-time faculty member in the Department until 1991.22 Preceding the hiring of Dr. Inaba, there were no full-time geography professors, and geography classes were seemingly taught either by economists 22 The Department was headed by a Chairperson, who with a one year exception when James Wiley was Chair, was always an economist. In the 1950s-60s Bulletins, a separate advisor is listed for Geography. By the 1990s this was no longer the case, with the Chairperson being formally in charge of the program, and the degree of autonomy for the day to day running of the geography program being at his/her discretion. No geographer's received a stipend or release time to run the geography program, although in practice from the mid-1990s, most of the direct geography program administration, such as scheduling and advising, was done by the geographers themselves. 20
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 or adjunct professors. The hiring of Dr. Inaba was due to the increasing demand for geography courses by the growing number of education students, as at this time geography was required for New York State education majors. The hiring of Dr. Inaba and the increased enrollment in geography classes necessitated adjustments to the geography curriculum.23 Of importance was that when geography moved from the Geology Department, the previously mentioned Geography courses were dropped from the curriculum. In their place, new topical and regional courses were introduced, so that by the mid-1960s a fairly large complement of classes was being offered. These included courses in human, economic, urban and political geography as well as regional courses in North America, western Europe, the USSR and Eastern Europe and Monsoon-Asia. The growth in offerings and enrollments resulted in the 1962 hiring of another geography professor, Russell A. White. According to Dr. Lambasa (interview, 11/7/2009), Dr. White was a very popular professor who attracted many new students to the program. It was Dr. White, who suggested that one of his past geography colleagues from Columbia University, Maria Lambasa,24 apply for a vacant job teaching geography at Hofstra (Lambasa, 11/7/2009). In 1963, Dr. Lambasa was hired as an instructor of geography, and she was to remain as a full-time professor until 1993. During the 1960s the geography program was thus transformed into a small but viable major, offering diverse courses taught by three full-time geographers and one part-time geographer who taught evening classes. New courses added during this time, included a senior seminar (Geography 191, which is still our capstone course), courses on population and the environment, 23 A full list of courses can be found in Appendix 2. 24 Maria Lambasa was first employed under her maiden name, Maria Starczewska. Her name subsequently changed to Maria Koshel and then after leaving Hofstra to Maria Lambasa. 21
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 cartography and separate regional courses on China and Japan. It is clear from the curriculum offerings that there was an attempt to offer physical geography (the then Geography 1" course), something that the current program does not do on any systematic basis.25 In 1981, "Geography 100; Honors Essay" was introduced allowing geography majors to graduate with departmental honors.26 The introduction of so many new courses, necessary to create enough offerings for majors, meant that each professor had to be able and willing to teach a number of courses outside of their immediate research specialty. Dr. Lambasa notes that most of the students in her classes were initially female education majors. This growth period of the geography program came to an abrupt end when the New York Education Department dropped the geography requirement for teachers in the early 1970s. This forced the geography program to compete with other social science electives for students. Simultaneously, as will be illustrated in the next section, the general US popularity of geography was declining as school children were less exposed to the discipline. The problems faced by the Hofstra geography program at that time was thus not unique to Hofstra. What was perhaps different was that the university also entered a relative period of financial uncertainty in the late 1970s, which affected both enrollments and the quality of students. According to Dr. Lambasa, 25 Since 1998, the program has allowed majors to take an introductory geology course to expose students to physical geography. 26 Since 1996, the first period from which we have records, the following four students have graduated with Departmental honors, Claire Bowler (now Claire Stanek), James Eyler, Chris Karampahtsis and Matthew Craig. Hewan Girma who graduated with Economics Honors under Grant Saff's direction, subsequently had part of her honors work published in the Middle States Geographer (Micro-credit as a Development Instrument in Ethiopia. Journal of Middle States Division of the Association of American Geographers, 2003, 36, pp. 38-47) and also presented a paper at the Association of American Geographers annual meeting. 22
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 geography enrollments also suffered when the popular Russell White left the program in 1969, with his successors failing to attract as many new students into geography. A further reason for geography's difficulties in attracting students has to do with inherent difficulties in being a subordinate part of a larger joint department. Economics was always the much larger program, and the running of the Department was dominated by economics faculty. When Dr. White left the geography program, there were 12 fulltime faculty members, 10 of whom were economists, and only 2 were geographers.27 While this does not mean that the geography program was purposely neglected or discriminated against, it did unfortunately result in most resources and teaching sections being steered toward the larger program. In this situation a self-fulfilling prophecy is created, in that the smaller program has less faculty members and is thus given less teaching sections. This results in attracting fewer students, which in turn negates the need for either new faculty or more teaching sections. Thus, without strong advocates within the administration, and with department chairs focused on their own program (Economics), it is very difficult for the subordinate program to break this cycle of decline. What can help is the hiring of new energetic and entrepreneurial faculty members who see the need to expand the program, and can argue their case to the administration and chair. Unfortunately, it is difficult to attract such faculty into a sinking department, and as importantly it is very hard to make a case for new faculty lines in the face of declining enrollments. 27 As late as 1996 there were only 2 full-time geographers (and no adjuncts) and 7 full-time (and many adjunct) economists. In 2008 there were four full-time geographers (the highest number on record) and 9 full-time economists. 23
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Geography at Hofstra, 1991-1998 The geography program struggled to attract students during the 1980s and reached a critical juncture in 1991 when Dr. Inaba retired. At this stage enrollments had declined substantially, to the extent that Dr. Inaba was making up his full teaching load by teaching three economics courses each semester.28 Until the Fall 2002 semester, Hofstra faculty were required to carry a four-class per semester teaching load. This means that the Geography Program, with two full-time professors, should have been offering a minimum of eight geography sections per semester. Instead, as can be seen in Table 3, the program was only offering between five and six sections per semester, and by Spring 1991 total enrollment in all classes had fallen to 76 students.29 Given these declining enrollments, very few students were majoring, and thus graduating, with geography degrees. Between 1962 and 1986, 32 students graduated with a BA in Geography, but then no more were to graduate from the program until 1996 (see Appendix 3). Due to these dire enrollment numbers, when Dr. Inaba was about to retire, there was an understandable reluctance on the part of the economists to hire another geographer, and there was some debate about having the line transferred to economics. Such an outcome would have effectively signaled the end of the geography program at Hofstra. Fortunately for the future of the program, Dr. Lambasa prevailed upon the Dean and Chair, Dr. Marcel Tenenbaum, to keep the line in the geography program. 28 What also impacted the health of the program was that Dr. Inaba and Dr. Lambasa did not apparently work well together. 29 By way of contrast, in the Spring 2010 semester, the geography program offered 14 courses on load, with a total enrollment of 335 students. In addition to this the Department also offered 6 Global Studies classes with an enrollment of 182 students (enrollment for 11 of the classes were capped at a maximum of 35 students per class; the GIS class was capped at 25, and two were first-year seminars capped at 15 students). 24
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Table 3. Geography Enrollments by Semester, Fall 1989 - Fall 1998 Source: Compiled by Grant Saff from Department enrollment data in 1999. *Economics 165 (Urban and Regional Economics) was taught by Dr. Saff and counts toward the credits needed for a major in geography. The hiring of Dr. James E. Wiley, as an Assistant Professor in 1991 began to turn the program around (Lambasa, 11/7/2009). Although this was Dr. Wiley's first tenuretrack academic appointment, he had a long history of working in various university administrative positions. Indeed, Dr. Lambasa commented that his prior administrative experience played a significant role in the decision to employ him. Dr. Wiley was hired at a transitional point in both the program's and the university's history. The university had endured a difficult financial position in the 1970s and was repositioning itself as a more prestigious national institution, looking to recruit more students from outside of Long Island and the New York metropolitan area. Part of this repositioning was to emphasize the need for greater amounts of research on the part of faculty. To facilitate this, the teaching load was altered in 1992 from a four-four to a three-three load. This allowed the university to become a much more attractive destination for research oriented faculty. Dr. Wiley was one of the first beneficiaries of this change, but his first few 25
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 semesters nevertheless proved very difficult. The geography program that he entered lacked majors, the courses had low enrollment, and the curriculum had not been updated for many years. Further, he had no geography colleagues to support him (his one geography colleague, Dr. Lambasa, was also about to retire) and had very little department help. In addition to the above problems, in his first semester, some of his courses were cancelled due to low enrollments, leaving him owing courses to the university. Dr. Wiley realized that in order for geography to attract students, it had to be more closely integrated into students' university requirements. Hofstra had recently revised the Liberal Arts curriculum so that all students were required to take a set number of core classes in order to graduate. Dr. Wiley thus set about redesigning geography courses to fit the different core requirements, and introducing new courses that were part of the core requirements.30 This change proved very successful in attracting students into geography classes, resulting in most core classes having full enrollments after 1992. The rapid change in fortunes can be seen in Table 3., which shows that enrollment for Fall 1991 was only 66 students (average of 11 students per taught section, with two sections cancelled due to low enrollment), but had risen to 154 by Fall 1992 (average of 25.6 students per section, with no sections cancelled due to low enrollment).31 The growth in enrollment introduced many students to geography for the first time, and this resulted in a few of them deciding to become majors and minors. It also meant that 30 In the mid-2000s the core system was replaced by a distribution system, but all of the previous core classes were grandfathered into the new system. 31 Hofstra prides itself on having a relatively low student to faculty class ratio. In 2010 the average is 22 students per class (Hofstra Bulletin, 2009/10). Note the numbers for 1991 and 1992 reflect that in the former the load per instructor was four sections, and in Fall 1992 the load had been reduced to three sections per instructor. 26
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 when Dr. Lambasa retired, there was no debate for keeping the geography line which remained within the program.32 It is thus safe to say that the geography program was saved first by Dr. Lambasa's foresight in fighting to keep the first geography line, and then by Dr. Wiley's efforts in reviving the program. Dr. Lambasa was replaced by Mr. Eric Kwok, who left the program after two years. Grant Saff was hired to replace Professor Kwok in Fall 1996 (after having worked as an adjunct instructor in the Department since Fall 1995). He was hired specifically to teach courses in urbanization and Africa, but given the needs of the program, also began teaching the courses in human geography, topical geography, economic geography and took over the capstone seminar course, Geography 191." Students from the Geography 191 Seminar class, meeting with ex-mayor of New York City, David Dinkins to discuss the class project on Tompkins Square Park, 1998 Left to Right: Grant Saff, Brian Hakimian, Mayor David Dinkins, Akiba Reid, James Eyler, Alex Vasquez, Tara Fitzgerald. 32 Despite his initial reluctance to keep the geography line, once Dr. Tenenbaum saw the transformation that Dr. Wiley had produced, he became a staunch defender of the geography program. So much so, that when he retired and created a writing prize for the best paper by a student in the Department, he was clear that geography students were eligible to apply. This eligibility has remained, despite geography now being in a separate department to economics. 27
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 The above illustrates the difficulties of a small program offering a full major with so few faculty members. In small programs, in addition to the very diverse teaching load, faculty are also expected to do curriculum revision, perform regular department duties, maintain a research agenda and do a vast amount of administrative work (as the Chairperson was mostly focused on running the Economics program).33 In addition, being a small part of a larger department meant that tenure and reappointment prospects rested on evaluations done by non-geographers, making this especially difficult if you specialized in research that is not readily accessible beyond your own discipline. By 1997 the geography program had clearly turned the corner; core classes were mostly full, electives often drew over twenty students, none of the classes were being cancelled due to low enrollment and the program had produced the first two BA geography graduates since 1986. Nevertheless the program clearly could not get bigger unless it was given more sections to teach, and this proved an uphill battle. Section allocations were provided to the Department by the Dean's Office, and the chairperson could then divide them among the Economics and Geography programs. The Chair was obligated to provide the two geography professors with their full load (six classes in total per semester), but any additional classes would in effect come out of the economics load. Trying to convince the chair to give extra sections to geography proved very difficult, especially as this might also mean giving long-term economics adjunct faculty fewer 33 The program was also not helped by the rapid succession of Department Chair's which followed the retirement of Dr. Tenenbaum. Between 1998 and 2007 the Department had four different full-time Chair's, and one Acting Chair (2006-7). During each summer, the Department was Chaired by two separate Economics Adjunct Professors (even when full-time Geography faculty were available to do the job). 28
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 courses to teach.34 It was not until Fall 1998 that we were finally successful in gaining two extra sections to hire a geography adjunct professor.35 Between 1991 and 1998 the curriculum was greatly revised, including the introduction of new courses in topical geography, and new individualized readings courses were introduced as was an internship course. New regional courses in Africa and Latin America were introduced, while the previous course descriptions were revised and updated. To compensate for our lack of course offerings in physical geography, we redesigned the program to allow our majors the option of taking an introductory course in geology. While clearly a course in geology is not a perfect substitute for an introductory course in physical geography, with few other options and limited resources, it was the best solution that we could devise. Geography at Hofstra, 1999-2008 With our higher enrollments and the growing importance of GIS for geography and other disciplines, we were able to successfully make the case to the Dean that we should be awarded a new faculty line to introduce GIS courses. In Fall 1998 we began an accelerated recruiting process for a GIS specialist, with a regional specialty in Asia. In Spring 1999, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue joined the faculty. Dr. Rodrigue was hired specifically to create GIS offerings, and also to offer courses in transportation and East and South East Asia. He soon added two new GIS course offerings to the curriculum, 34 The chair could have made a case on the program's behalf to the Dean's Office to raise the total department section allocations, but this was entirely up to him (or her). 35 Dr. Wiley served as Chair of the joint Department in 2001/02. This was significant in that it showed that the economists were willing to entrust the running of the Department to a geographer. It was not, however, particularly helpful for the geography program per se. In the first instance, it meant that there was now only one geographer serving on the Department Personal Committee (DPC) and secondly, if Dr. Wiley expanded geography sections this would be seen as favoring geography at the expense of economics. Dr. Wiley only served for one year before the position reverted to being held by an economist. 29
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 redesigned the Asian regional course offerings and also introduced a new course in transportation geography. The addition of Dr. Rodrigue to the geography faculty meant that our base course load was now 9 classes a semester, and through lobbying the Chair, we were able to keep an adjunct position open, thus effectively raising our load to 11 classes per semester.36 The building of a GIS program within the department has proved much more difficult than anticipated. The first issue we faced was to convince our Chair and the Dean that GIS was both important to geography and a potential source of revenue for the University and that we should thus be allocated an additional faculty line to build a specialization in GIS.37 To their credit, they were persuaded by our argument, and we were able to begin the job search that culminated in the hiring of Dr. Rodrigue. Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue in his office in Barnard Hall, 1999. 36 At this time we also found it difficult to find qualified adjunct professors. This has changed in recent years, particularly as some of our past students have begun teaching in the Department. Our first student to come back and teach was Alisa Burdman who completed an MA in geography at Hunter College. She was followed later by Eileen Downing and Hewan Girma, who had not been geography majors but had taken a significant number of classes in our program, and who obtained graduate degrees in fields that we teach. 37 The Dean of HCLAS, Bernard Firestone, has proved to be very supportive of geography at Hofstra (and Global Studies). Without his support, the program would not have been able to grow the way it has. 30
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 A second complication for the geography program was that without our knowledge the business development Center (BDC) at Hofstra had received New York State funding to set up a GIS lab and intended to create a diploma program for part-time students in GIS. When Dr. Rodrigue was hired, he needed permission from the BDC to use the lab, and he had no control over the workstations or priority access to this lab. After a few years, during which time few students enrolled, the BDC stopped offering the GIS diploma. A pattern had, however, unfortunately been set, and it took until the mid2000s before the geography program was really able to take ownership of GIS at Hofstra. A further frustration for Dr. Rodrigue was that the initial GIS course offerings failed to attract many students. The course was not a requirement in any other programs at Hofstra and was not part of the Hofstra core curriculum. Dr. Rodrigue thus faced the real possibility that if he offered the course with any regularity, it might not attract sufficient students to run. This again highlights the vicious cycle of being a small program with few majors. Once we became our own Department in 2008 we were able for the first time to begin reversing this trend. First, after outlining our dilemma to Dean Firestone, he agreed that GIS courses would not be cancelled even if they failed to attract the necessary eight Students needed to run on load (fortunately this has not occurred). This meant that we could for the first time offer the GIS introductory course, Geography 60 every semester, which in turn has meant that we now have enough students to start offering the GIS intermediate course on load (Geography 160). The second major change in our GIS fortunes was that we were able to purchase an ArcView site license so that students 31
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 and faculty could access the software from all the on-campus student computer labs.38 Faculty could also access the software in their offices from the Hofstra network. This change has made the teaching of the GIS courses substantially easier for both the instructor and the students, and has freed them both from dependency on the workstations in the BDC lab. Students in Geography 60, "Introduction to GIS," 1999. Source: J.P. Rodrigue. Our program's experience with building a GIS program illustrates that it is very difficult without a large funding commitment from the university to purchase software and create a dedicated lab. It also highlights how hard it is for a faculty member to create a program from scratch while at the same time being responsible for teaching various other courses, conducting research and performing university service.39 A lesson for the future is that to build a self-sustaining GIS program, you should have at least one faculty member whose only responsibility is toward building, running and teaching in the GIS program. This position need not be a tenure-track assistant professorship, but could be a 38 Our site license allows for 31 concurrent users at any time. 39 A consequence of only having two (later three) faculty members was that all university events had to be shared among a few faculty, placing a much higher service load on each faculty member than was the case in larger programs (or for the Economics faculty). 32
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 GIS instructor/lab position. With the right institutional support there is no reason why the geography program could not build a successful GIS curriculum that would attract students into the university, be it as geography majors or as students doing a specialized diploma in GIS. An issue that we have encountered in trying to build enrollment for our GIS course offerings, and also an impediment to creating physical geography courses, relates to the way the distribution system has been created at Hofstra. The existing system requires students to take a set amount of courses in different distribution categories, such as Humanities (literature, art, dance, music, drama), Natural Sciences (geology, astronomy, math, engineering, biology, chemistry, physics), Mathematics/Computer Science (computer science, math, engineering), Social Sciences (geography, economics, anthropology, sociology, political science), Behavioral Sciences (history, religion, philosophy), and then classes that are Cross-Cultural (essentially non-western) and Interdisciplinary (such as global studies). The problem for the geography program is that the current system does not allow us to place physical geography and GIS courses into any category outside of the Social Science distribution system. This means that in the case of GIS we have been unable to increase enrollments by placing our introductory GIS course into the Mathematics/Computer Science category. We would face a similar problem if we tried to create physical geography distribution courses, in that they would not fit into our existing Social Science category and could not be placed within the Natural Science category. Clearly the present distribution system was not designed to accommodate a discipline such as geography which straddles the various distribution categories. Logically, some thought should be given to being much more flexible for a 33
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 program such as geography where much (if not most) of the discipline (physical geography) is routinely considered part of the natural sciences.40 Professors Rodrigue and Wiley in Tunisia, January 2001 Source: J.P. Rodrigue With the addition of Dr. Rodrigue, our enrollments continued to rise, and in 2006 Dean Firestone was thus supportive of our program's request for an additional faculty line. In Fall 2007 Dr. Kari Jensen joined the geography program as an Assistant Professor. She was hired to expand the program's offerings in cultural geography and also expand our South-Asian regional course offerings. We had also previously added new regional courses on Middle-America and the Caribbean. The growth in course offerings also resulted in a significant increase in the number of declared geography majors and minors. Since 1996, thirty-three students have graduated with a Bachelor's degree in Geography, compared with only thirty-two students in the preceding thirty-four years. 40 Physical geography (or the Earth Sciences tradition) encompasses subjects such as climatology, geomorphology, pedology, biogeography, hydrology, and meteorology. The main purpose of Physical Geography is to explain the spatial characteristics of the various natural phenomena associated with the Earth's hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere (from www.physicalgeography.net/). 34
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 By the end of 2007, the Geography Program was the largest it had been up to that point. For the first time there were four full-time faculty members and one adjunct professor (Dr. Veronica Ouma, who was teaching two classes), so that our regular geography course allocation had grown to fourteen courses a semester.41 Dr. Kari Jensen, 2008 The growth of our program altered our position within the joint Department in that we were now a growing proportion of the faculty and our administrative needs had also significantly increased.42 It was obvious that the existing joint department was not in the long-term best interests of either of the two programs, but it remained to be seen whether the geography program could make a convincing academic and fiscal case to the University administration for the program to become its own department. 41 Dr. Veronica Ouma has been an adjunct professor in the Department since 2007. 42 In December 2007, one of the economists was on sabbatical and two were not yet on the Department Personnel Committee (neither was Dr. Jensen), thus the DPC comprised four economists and three geographers (the Chairperson is not on the DPC). This illustrates how much more important the view of the geographers now were within the Department. 35
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 The Department of Global Studies and Geography, 2008 to the Present In 2006, Grant Saff was asked by the Chairperson of Economics and Geography, Robert Guttmann, if he would be interested in directing a new proposed program in Global Studies. At the time Hofstra was also in the process of creating a Center for Suburban Studies, and the geography faculty felt that this was a much better source of linkage for both the geography program and for our faculty members' academic specializations.43 The geographers had made a case to Dean Firestone that Suburban Studies should be affiliated with the geography program and headed by a geographer, but despite our best efforts the program was attached to the Sociology Department. While the Administration clearly had their own reasons for linking the new position to Sociology, it still made little pedagogic sense to us, and highlighted the shortcomings of our status within the joint Department and our comparative lack of influence with the Administration.44 The Chair of our Department was rightly anxious that we not lose the opportunity of directing Global Studies and saw no point in pushing hard for what he saw as the less appealing linkage with Suburban Studies.45 From the perspective of the Economics Program (and the joint Department), this made a lot of tactical sense; it did, however, mean that a new academic Center that focused on one of the key geographic fields (urban geography) was being placed under the direction of another department.46 43 Dr. Saff had received his PhD in urban planning and his research was on cities and suburbs, and Dr. Rodrigue was a noted transportation geographer who had also done a lot of research on urban and suburban issues. 44 Our case included the obvious point that suburban studies was a subset of urban geography. 45 The Chair was clearly privy to his own sources and thus may have known that we would not get suburban studies, and saw no reason to fight a losing battle, especially if this would cost us the chance to direct global studies. 46 Unsurprisingly, the new academic director of the Suburban Studies Center was a recent geography graduate from Berkeley, thus adding to the pool of geographers on campus, albeit within another department. 36
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 While at the time this seemed like a lost opportunity to expand the geography program, in retrospect it worked out very well for us. It was also an instance where to some degree our association with Economics worked to our benefit, as without this association, it is unlikely that the Director of Global Studies position would have been offered to a geography faculty member.47 After meeting with Dean Firestone, Dr. Saff accepted the Directorship of Global Studies and set about creating the new program, which received HCLAS faculty approval in Fall 2007. The way the program was set up at the time was that the Director of Global Studies was appointed by the Dean to administer the program, and as such, the program was not vested in any particular department. This presented the geography program with an opportunity to make the case that combining the Geography and Global Studies programs into one department would not only create a permanent structure and home for the new Global Studies program, but also strengthen the Geography program. The timing of our request to the Dean in Fall 2007 proved fortuitous. The Geography program now had four full-time faculty members, our student numbers and curriculum were growing, our faculty members were highly productive scholars, and a geographer was already administering the new Global Studies program. Our growth was also placing a greater administrative burden on the chairperson of the joint department. It also helped our case that Dean Firestone was sympathetic to our needs and saw potential for growth in both Global Studies and Geography. We also pointed out that GIS was important for the future of our program and that we could, with the adequate university support, create a viable GIS program that could attract new students to the university. It 47 Dr. Guttmann was also very important in this, in that he not only saw the tremendous academic potential for Global Studies but was very supportive of Grant Saff accepting the Directorship and helped facilitate the process with Dean Bernard Firestone. 37
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 no doubt also helped that in Fall 2007 the university was doing very well; enrollments were up despite more selective entrance requirements, the university had successfully moved toward becoming a more nationally recognized institution, and we were set to host one of the 2008 presidential debates, bringing a great deal of added positive publicity to the University. On a more prosaic level, there was also a lack of office space in Barnard Hall which Economics/Geography shared with Political Science, and a new department could be relocated out of the building thus freeing up office space in Barnard. The financial cost of creating a new department was also relatively small, while the potential payoff for all was quite large. It still, however, took a leap of faith on the part of the University administration to support our request, particularly as at that stage, there was no guarantee that the new Global Studies major would prove attractive to students or that there were enough geography faculty to effectively run an independent department.48 Importantly for us, the acting Chair of Economics, Roberto Mazzoleni, and the regular Chair, Robert Guttmann, who was on leave in France, were supportive of our request to create a new department.49 After we submitted our request to Dean Firestone in November 2007, he sent a supportive letter to the Provost (Herman Berliner) who also supported the creation of a new department.50 The process then moved very quickly, and the new department, now called Global Studies and Geography, was officially approved in Spring 2008. We moved to our new offices in Roosevelt Hall in summer 48 The geographers are thus particularly indebted to the support of Dean Bernard Firestone, the Dean of Hofstra College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, and also Herman Berliner, the University Provost. From a practical perspective, the support of Dean Richard Apollo was enormously helpful in setting up the mechanics and infrastructure of the new Department. 49 We are especially grateful for the support of the Acting Chair of the Department, Dr. Mazzoleni. He saw the benefits to both programs of dividing the Department, and we owe him a great deal of gratitude in supporting us, helping smooth over any potential opposition amongst economics faculty members and making the transitional semester (Spring 2008) work so well. 50 Initially called, Global Studies, Geography and Geographic Information Systems. 38
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 2008, and we began operating as a new Department in the Fall.51 The new Department also gained a new Global Studies faculty member, Dr. Linda Longmire, bringing us up to five full-time faculty members. She was later followed by Dr. Zilkia Janer, first as a joint appointment with Romance Languages and Literatures and then as a full-time Global Studies faculty member, in Spring 2010. Since the merger, the geography program has continued revising the curriculum, adding new geography courses on migration, demography, and resources and energy. The new Department has enabled us to spend a lot more time focusing on recruitment and retention of students, and we have redesigned the geography program to make it as easy as possible for Global Studies majors to minor in Geography. We have also made some of our geography courses requirements for Global Studies majors, thus creating a very positive synergy between the two programs. At present, our unofficial count is that the Department has around 62 majors and minors (15 of whom are geography students), and in May 2010 the first two Global Studies majors graduated from the program (see Appendix 4). One of the great advantages of becoming our own Department and gaining faculty was that we also were allocated more teaching sections. This allows us to reach more students, some of whom in turn decide to major or minor in our programs. This brings us back to the earlier point that a failing department creates a self-fulfilling cycle of decline, while a successful department has the opposite effect. 51 Grant Saff was appointed Chairperson, beginning in Fall 2008. 39
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Reflections on the Past and Opportunities for the Future The history of the geography program at Hofstra reveals some interesting lessons about trying to build and run a successful small undergraduate geography program. First, it is very difficult to create a thriving undergraduate program if you are only a small part of a much larger department. To grow, a department needs an adequate number of committed faculty members and necessary teaching sections. For much of its history it is clear that the geography program at Hofstra did not have either of the above. The result was that faculty members had to teach far too many diverse courses, while at the same time there were never enough sections to build momentum for growth. Majors and Graduates, December 2009 From Left to Right: Anthony Sacco (December 2009), Ashley Hughes (May 2010), Adrienne Gillespie (May 2010), Allison Redman (class of 2011), Valerie Rizzuto (December 2009). A successful department also needs a full-time chair who is entirely invested in the actual program that he or she is administering. The chair must also constantly advocate for a program's interests and engage in program promotion. In a joint 40
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 department, with very divergent programs, such as Economics and Geography, it is understandably very hard to do this if it appears that this growth will come at the expense of your own program (or section allocations). For a joint department to be successful, it needs a shared focus and a clear shared identity. The Department of Global Studies and Geography has this synergy; the Department of Economics and Geography did not. What is also needed, particularly in the current adverse economic circumstances, is a great deal of department entrepreneurship. Faculty members need to take ownership of a program and work tirelessly at promoting the program. This is hard and often unrecognized work. New faculty do not get credit toward tenure because they recruited students, and they don't receive extra salary because they spent long hours advising students. But this is the only way to keep a department growing, and the rapport that you build with the students now will eventually be paid back when they become your supportive alumni. This is illustrated in Figure 3., where the Geography Department at Michigan State received almost $45,000 of alumni support in 2009 (Spartan Geographer, 2010, p.1). Figure 3. Contributions to the Geography Department, Michigan State, 1999-2009 Source: Spartan Geographer, Newsletter, Geography Department, Michigan State, Spring 2010 41
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 To get this level of support a department must provide graduates with a sense of pride in their old department, part of which is to create a sense of shared identity and history. It is also necessary to maintain access to your alumni, which can be difficult at Hofstra as the Alumni Office guards contact information and prefers that all fundraising and outreach be directed through their office. The best way to maintain contact with our former students is to keep them invested in the Department through newsletters, our website (www.hofstra.edu/geography) and our Facebook page.52 We can, however, only do this with those alumni that we have tracked down (most of whom only date to the late 1990s).53 While we are working with the Alumni Office in making contact with alumni, a much more efficient model for Department fundraising is to maintain a department database and thus call on alumni as needed, as illustrated by the Geography Department at Michigan State (and many other geography departments). It also the case that many alumni of small departments have developed a close relationship with the faculty and sometimes have a closer connection to their old Department than to the University, making them more open to giving financial and other contributions to the former rather than the latter. The centralized fund raising model thus potentially misses donors which individual departments could reach. To create a necessary sense of shared identity our Department has been very supportive of our majors. This includes trying to employ them whenever we have openings for student aides to work in the Department, helping to find them internships, working with them to find study-abroad opportunities, and encouraging them to use our 52 www.facebook.com/home.php?ref=logo#!/group.php?gid=20914446655. 53 See Appendix 4, which provides a map of our geography graduates by current zip code. The Alumni Office provided Allison Redman (a joint Geography and Global Studies major) with the data for a GIS project, but they would not provide data at any level smaller than a zip code. 42
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 available office space as a communal work and meeting place. We have also worked with the students to help them form a Global Studies and Geography Club, which had its first full meeting in Spring 2010. We are also constantly on the lookout for any funding that would benefit the students. To this end, all of our faculty members are strongly encouraged to use our majors as part of the Provost's Peer Teacher Program, which not only provides qualifying students with a modest financial stipend, but also allows them to gain valuable skills that they can add to their resumes.54 We have also begun hosting an event for graduating students at the end of each semester, and we encourage all of our majors to attend (and invite alumni through our Facebook page). Global Studies and Geography Student Club organizational meeting, October 2009 If we want to gain future alumni support for our program and generate more majors, it is clear that we have to create a Department where students feel welcomed and where 54 In Spring 2010, our program had five peer teachers, effectively allowing us to give $1,000 of extrabudgetary support to our majors. In Fall 2010 all six full-time faculty and one adjunct faculty member will have peer-teachers for their classes. 43
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 faculty are available to mentor them and work to improve their future career prospects.55 Maintaining contact between current students and alumni is also an important tool for providing career advice and opening up networking opportunities for the students. Creating a welcoming, student-centric Department does not mean that the Department has sacrificed academic standards to attract students, as our growth in majors has occurred despite our courses being among the most challenging in the College.56 In these difficult economic times, it is not enough for faculty at institutions such as Hofstra to simply come in to teach a few days a week and then spend the rest of their time at home doing research. Faculty have to be actively involved in program building, which takes a much greater level of commitment than many faculty members have been used to in the past. Graduating Majors, Spring 2010 From Left to Right: Anna Rawlins and Nhaomie Douyon (Global Studies), Adrienne Gillespie and Ashley Hughes (Geography). 55 Adrienne Gillespie provides a very good assessment of what the Department has been trying to achieve for our students in the following two videos which were filmed in May 2010 by Hofstra Public Relations for the Hofstra Website. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEvVGAAtV3Q and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dT-G-mIQ-Ws. 56 According to HCLAS data, in Fall 2009 the Department awarded the lowest average grades in the Social Sciences and Humanities, and the third lowest grades if you included the Natural Sciences. 44
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 The creation of the new Global Studies and Geography Department has removed the Geography program from the protective wing of the Economics Department. We are now, in the language of modern management, a cost-center, which must generate a positive return to the University. This is not something that we should necessarily welcome, but it is the reality that we face. While non-tuition driven universities have the freedom to offer any programs that they desire, and state universities should have a duty to provide a very wide array of programs, we unfortunately do not have that ability or perhaps that mission. When pressed by the University administration, our Department cannot justify our existence by making some intangible argument that our discipline(s) is essential for ensuring that students receive a well-rounded education (however true that may be). Our Department cannot simply argue that a knowledge of geography and global studies are essential for producing educated students and good citizens because, in truth, in times of shrinking budgets, we are expendable in a way that the English or Economics or Political Science Departments are not. We can argue that this is not fair, but within the context of a private university, it makes more sense for us to embrace the new realities of higher education. This means that we have to generate revenue, and the only way to do that is through a combination of attracting students to the University, bringing in grants, getting donations from alumni or generating majors to justify our salaries. As demonstrated in the previous sections, it is unlikely, unless we add a graduate program or professional diploma in GIS, that the Geography program will be able to specifically attract students to the University. Global Studies, however, because of the variety of its offerings, may be able to do so, and this can be a springboard for channeling many more students into the Geography program. 45
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 What is already clear is that, for the first time in the history of the Geography program, we really have the opportunity of building a self-sustaining program, and that hopefully over time we will be able to generate more of our own funding. To do so, however, also requires a level of financial support from the University administration. Many geography departments have built highly successful and lucrative GIS programs (both certificate programs and graduate programs), but to build these programs requires a substantial upfront financial commitment with no guarantee of future success. It is likely that if current economic trends continue, students will increasingly seek out academic programs that offer professional training, thus enhancing their future employment opportunities. A GIS program, be it a Masters Degree, professional diploma or dedicated undergraduate specialization should, if marketed correctly, be a very attractive choice for students. Similarly, the creation of an undergraduate urban planning program would likewise create a professional degree within our department. The New York metropolitan region has a number of very successful urban planning graduate programs, but there are no undergraduate programs within 250 miles of Hofstra.57 The creation of a planning degree, much like a GIS program, would also require fairly steep start-up costs, but in an increasingly uncertain academic marketplace, it is likely that these types of professional degrees will attract students to the University in a way that general degree programs will not. Importantly, for departments to thrive, they have to be offered an adequate number of teaching sections, which remains the main tool for attracting majors. Unfortunately, the current structure of most universities is ill-suited to rapidly respond to 57 Such as Columbia, Rutgers, New York University, and Hunter College. The closest university to Hofstra that offers an undergraduate planning degree is Cornell, which is over 250 miles away. For a list of universities offering planning degrees, see: http://www.acsp.org/education_guide/overview. 46
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 challenges in a market-driven way. This can be illustrated by looking at how teaching sections are allocated to the various programs at Hofstra. At present, the number of teaching sections allocated is based on the number of existing faculty lines, how many sections one had in the past, how many other programs one services and so forth. A department with virtually no majors can thus still command a hefty bounty in the section allocation scramble. Conversely, without positive administrative intervention, it can take years for a growing department to add teaching sections (and by that time, it may no longer be growing). Essentially, a university is run along Fordist lines, lacking the flexibility to rapidly respond to changing needs or demand (essentially a GM model in an Apple world). To take the cost-center analogy further, if academic departments are viewed as needing to justify their keep, then they should also be empowered with the entrepreneurial tools to do so. This would give them much more flexibility to rapidly create new courses, to bid against other programs for teaching sections (based on how many students they can attract), to embark on fundraising initiatives within a department, to set up and administer their own websites, to set their own upper enrollment limits for classes, and so forth. Central to this is the need to move to a much more flexible system of benefits and rewards, which at the least means some form of merit pay tied to particular performance indicators, which should include recruitment of majors and extra time devoted to advisement and program building. To make this happen, the Hofstra Chapter of the AAUP58 also needs to adjust its stance on the hiring of non-tenure track faculty to allow departments such as ours the ability to create specialized teaching and lab 58 The Hofstra faculty are represented by a local chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP). 47
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Life in the Department Below: Students Working in the Department, 2009. On Right: Alex Moore, the first student to declare a Global Studies major ( 2007). Professor's Zilkia Janer and JP Rodrigue, Graduation Party, December 2009 2nd Annual Department BBQ, August 2009 Left: Dr. Veronica Ouma. Below: Professor James Wiley, Gordana Petrovic, Jean-Paul Rodrigue. 48
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 positions to run programs such as GIS. This move away from Fordism to flexible production will require a change in mindset among the University administration, the faculty and the Hofstra AAUP, but it may be the only way that universities are able to compete within the realities of the new academic marketplace. To get back to the issue of teaching section allocations, there is no easy answer in how a new department can overcome a shortage of sections, especially as sections are seldom allocated based on the number of majors in a program. Clearly though, when the University is forced to make section cuts due to declining enrollment, these could be applied in a non-regressive way. This means that programs with a large number of sections and few majors would lose more sections than programs with fewer sections and a growing number of majors. Such a system would reward growing departments and provide an incentive for all departments to work harder to attract majors. One strategy that the Department will need to embark on is to reach out to other Schools to see if we can have some of our courses incorporated into their curriculum. The obvious four Schools with congruent interests are the School of Education, School of Communication, the Business School and the new Medical School. With continued globalization and the rapid growth of GIS in business applications, there has never been a better time to try to build links with the Business School. Similarly, the rapid spread of global media and the impact that this is having on culture, raises the possibility of closer links with the School of Communications. The addition of a Medical School at Hofstra also provides a number of opportunities for linkages. In Spring 2010, we were one of a handful of HCLAS Departments to introduce specializations in the new BA Major in Pre-Health Sciences (with a Concentration in 49
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Humanities or Social Sciences). This will allow pre-med students to do concentrations of 21 semester hours in either Global Studies or Geography. It is also the case that one of the fastest growing areas in GIS is Medical GIS. Medical GIS refers to the use of GIS technology for health related applications. Medical GIS functions include spatial and temporal analyses involving the pattern and distribution of health outcomes, public health applications, environmental health applications, and applications related to the delivery and utilization of health services (http://www.cdrewu.edu/rcmi/GIS/medgis.shtml). The new Medical School thus provides us with an opportunity for attracting new students into our program and for helping to drive the growth of GIS at Hofstra. Majors at the party for graduating seniors, May 2010 Nhaomie Douyon, Drew Mackie, Allison Redman We also need to look at ways to keep our curriculum relevant and attractive to students, and also to begin offering distance learning courses. While some of our courses do not easily lend themselves to distance learning, many of them can be offered in this way. This is particularly the case as most of our faculty have already embraced 50
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 Powerpoint slides which they put online and also use Blackboard as a site for readings, quizzes, review sheets and other forms of interaction. Thus, it should not be too great a step to move some classes fully into distance education. While this is not something that we should necessarily welcome, it is unfortunately necessary if we want to compete with other institutions (and departments) for students. It is also crucial that a Department has clear goals and objectives, and that these are assessed on (at least) an annual basis. For this purpose we have been holding an annual one-day department workshop toward the end of summer. This has proved extraordinarily useful for both strategic and operational planning. It can be argued that one of the major shortcomings of our prior position in the Department of Economics and Geography was that there was very little Strategic Planning about the direction and future of the Geography Program. This has now been rectified. This paper has shown that geography at Hofstra has gone through some very challenging periods, but has always managed to remain as part of the Hofstra curriculum. It has survived being shuffled between departments; it survived when it only had one faculty member; it came back from the brink of extinction in 1958; and it is now in better shape than at any time in its history. This paper has also been the first systematic attempt to document the history of geography at Hofstra. It is hoped that this preliminary effort will result in others, whom we may have missed, adding to and filling in the many gaps in our story and that this will prove to be a living and often revised project that will help illustrate both our past struggles and hopefully our future successes. _________________________________ 51
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 REFERENCES Association of American Geographers. 2010. Guide to Geography Programs in the Americas, 2009-2010. Washington, DC, AAG. Bednarz, Robert and Sarah Bednarz. 2004. Geography Education: The Glass is Half Full and It's Getting Fuller. Professional Geographer, 56(1), pp. 22-27. Bednarz, Sarah, Roger Downs and JoAnn Vender. 2003. Geography Education in Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 461-478. De Blij, Harm. 2005. Why Geography Matters. New York: Oxford University Press. Gailie, Gary and Willmott, Cort (eds). 2003. Introduction in Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-14. Hofstra University Bulletin's 1936-2009/10. Hempstead: Hofstra University. Johnston, Ron. 2004. Review of Gailie, Gary and Willmott, Cort (eds), Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 94(4), pp 1003-1005. Murphy, Alexander. B. 2007. Geography's Place in Higher Education in the United States. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 31 (1), pp. 121-141. National Geographic Education Foundation. 2002. National Geographic -- Roper 2002 Global Geographic Literacy Survey. November. www.nationalgeographic.com/geosurvey2002/.../RoperSurvey.pdf Pandit, Kavita. 2004. Geography's Human Resources over the Past Half-Century. Professional Geographer, 56(1), pp. 12-21. Spartan Geographer. 2010. Newsletter for the Alumni and Friends of Geography at Michigan State University. Department of Geography, Michigan State University, Spring. Wright, Richard and Natalie, Koch. 2008. Geography in the Ivy League. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~geog/IvyGeog.pdf Interviews: Dr. Maria Lambasa (Koshel), 11/7/2009. Dr. James Wiley, 11/12/2009. Dean Bernard Firestone, 3/11/2010. Provost Herman Berliner, 3/1/2010. All interviews were conducted by Adrienne Gillespie 52
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010
APPENDIX 1: FULL-TIME GEOGRAPHY FACULTY AND THEIR QUALIFICATIONS
1935-1939 Victor Rodney Henkel A.B., school of public and international affairs, Princeton 1936-43 Gray Truitt - Director of the Division of Social Sciences A.B., DePauw; A.M., Columbia 1941-45 Charles Heath, 1946-47 Professor Luke 1948-1955 Henry A. Curtis ­ Instructor in charge of Geology Program A.B., 1942, Colgate; M.S., 1955, Hofstra 1955-58 Humbert S. Revel B.A., 1949, New York Joseph A. Puig A.B., 1947, Queens 1955-58 Roger H. Charlier B.S., 1943, Liege; License/Science, 1945, Bruxelles; Ph.D., 1947, Friedrich-Alexandra; Professional Geologist Certificate, 1953, McGill 1958 - 59 A.M. Nielsen ­ Advisor, visiting professor of geography B.S.; M.S.; Sc.D., 1921, New York 1959 - 1991 Masaharu George Inaba ­ Advisor of Geography B.S.; M.B.A., 1953, Columbia 1959 - 1993 Maria Starczewska (later Koshel, Lambasa) ­ B.A. 1958, Warsaw; M.A. 1961, Columbia 1959 - 1969 Russell A. White AB. 1958, Hunter; A.M, 1962, Columbia 1968 - 1972 Joseph A. Hazel Ph.D., 1963, Columbia 1969 - 1972 Ruth R. Davis B.A., Queens College; M.A., New School for Social Research Robert Grainger B.A., Western Ontario; M.A. Western Ontario 1972 ­ 1973
Leon Nahon B.A. 1951, Bordeaux; M.A. 1955, Paris; Ph.D. 1970 1991- present James E. Wiley B.A. 1970, Rutgers; M.A. 1972, Ohio State; Ph.D. 1991, Rutgers 1993 - 1995 Eric C. Kwok B.A. 1983; M.Sc. 1985, Hong Kong 1996 - present Grant Saff B.A. 1984, Cape Town; B.A.(Hons) 1986, Cape Town; M.S.C. 1989, Witwatersrand; Ph.D. 1996, Rutgers Homepage: http://people.hofstra.edu/Grant_Saff/ 1999 - present Jean-Paul Rodrigue B.S. 1989, Montreal; M.S.C. 1991, Montreal; Ph.D. 1994, Montreal Homepage: http://people.hofstra.edu/Jeanpaul_Rodrigue/ 2007 - present Kari Jensen B.A. 1996, Oslo; M.Phil. 2000, Oslo; Ph.D. 2007, Penn State Homepage: http://people.hofstra.edu/Kari_Jensen/ GEOGRAPHY ADJUNCT FACULTY 1996 ­ PRESENT Dr. Eve Baron, 1997-98 Ms Alisa Burdman Dr. Richard Deal, 2002 Ms Stephanie Di Pitrello, 2008 Ms Eileen Downing, 2009- 2010 Ms Hewan Girma, 2010 - present Dr. Veronica Ouma, 2007 - present Ms Enid Ringer, 2004 Mr Joseph Sidoti, 2001 Mr Mandeep Singh, 1999-2000 Mr Frederick Stallings, 2006 GLOBAL STUDIES FULL-TIME FACULTY 2008 Linda Longmire B.A. 1974, UC, San Diego; Ph.D. 1988, CUNY Gr Sch & Unv Cent
53
2010 Zilkia Janer B.A. 1992, Puerto Rico Rio Piedras; Ph.D. 1998, Duke GLOBAL STUDIES ADJUNCT FACULTY Dr. Conrad Herold, 2007 Dr. Judith Tabron, 2008 ­ present Students Working in the Department, Fall 2009 APPENDIX 2: GEOGRAPHY AND GLOBAL STUDIES COURSES AND COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 1935 Backgrounds of Social Science. An introduction to the factors underlying the growth of human institutions through the study of geography, natural resources, anthropology, and development of race. 1936 Materials of Social Science (Economic Geography and Human Resources) This course will deal in the first term with the effects of climate, relief, the distribution of raw materials, and geography in general on the activities of man. The second term of the course will deal with the human variables, such as race relations, population movements, and various other social factors which affect the social sciences.
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 1939-1940 Economic Geography This course will deal with the effects of climate, relief, the distribution of raw materials, and geography in general on the activities of man. 1943-1947 Economics 23. Economic Geography A regional study of North America dealing with the effects of climate, relief, and material resources upon the activities of man in this continent. Economics 24. Economic Geography (Outside North America) A regional study of the world outside of North America, dealing with the effects of climate, relief and material resources upon human activities in each region of the world. Special efforts will be made to explain the comparative economic development of the various regions 1947-48 Economic geography was removed from the economics curriculum and geography courses were added to the geology curriculum. GEOL 15: Geography of Long Island and Vicinity Influence of geographic factors on the settlement pattern and land utilization (Taught by Professor Curtis, included a $25 fee for plane fare across Long Island). 1948-57 GEOL14: Physical Geography of the United States A regional study emphasizing the physiographic regions and their influence on American History and economic life. 1958-59 Previous geography courses Geology 14 and 15 were taken out of the Geology Department curriculum, and new geography courses were created. The geography program was administered by the Economics Department. GEOG 1: Principles of Geography Agencies of earth's change, climate, location, and natural resources, as causal factors in the environment of man. GEOG 101: Geography of North America Geography as a basis for understanding the people of North America, especially the United States and Canada.
54
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010
GEOG 102: Social and Economic Geography Population trends and distribution; location, utilization and importance of material resources; emergent social problems. 1959-62 (Geography 102 was removed from the curriculum) GEOG 110: Geography of Anglo-America Geographic factors affecting the exploration, settlement, population distribution, land and economic development of the United States and Canada. 1962-65 GEOG 1: Introductory Human Geography Regional variations of the interaction of man's physical and cultural environments. GEOG 101: Economic Geography Human, energy, food, mineral, and industrial resources of the world. Effect of these resources on nation development. GEOG 110: Geography of Anglo-America Geographic factors affecting the exploration, settlement, population distribution, land and economic development of the United States and Canada. GEOG 112: Regional Geography of Europe Physical environment and cultural developments. Geographic factors for fragmentation confederation of European states. GEOG 113: Resources of Industries of Monsoon Asia Human, food, energy, and industrial resources of East and South Asia. Emphasis on economic development of China, India, and Japan. 1965-82 GEOG 105: Political Geography (course added 1965-66) A study of the influence of location, size, shape, boundaries and resources on the political life and international relations of nations. GEOG 1 & 2: Introductory Geography (course modified 1967-68) First semester: physical elements of geography, earth-sun relationships, weather and climate, vegetation, soils, and landforms. Second semester: introduction to cultural geography, population, economic production, settlements, races, and religion. GEOG 122: Western Europe (course added 1967-68) An analysis of the geographic factors affecting the history and development of Western Europe and its parts. Attention is given to the problems and goals of the European Economic Community
(E.E.C.) and the European Free Trade Association (E.F.T.A.). GEOG 123: U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe (course added 1967-68) A study of the physical environment of the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe and the role of this environment.
1968 GEOG 103: Population and Settlements Demographic, cultural and environmental factors affecting spatial aspects of population. Internal structure and aerial distribution of settlements. GEOG 191: Geography Seminar Readings in past and recent geographic literature. Each student to give a written and oral report on a selected geographic problem.
1971
GEOG 1: Environment and Society
Introduction to the major elements of man's
physical environment and the interrelationships
between environment and society in selected
regions of the world. (Formerly Introductory
Geography).
GEOG 2: Spatial Organization of Society
The location, distribution, and morphology of
settlements, towns, and cities; economic land
use; transport systems; population distribution
and migrations; regional structure and
development.
(Formerly
Introductory
Geography).
GEOG 102: Population, Resources, and
Environment
Environmental, cultural, and demographic
factors affecting the distribution and migration of
population; population explosion and world
resources.
GEOG 103: Towns and Cities
Distribution, morphology, and hierarchy of
towns and cities, urban transport patterns, urban
hinterlands, economic basis for cities, urban and
regional planning.
GEOG 130: Geography of China
The physical, historical, and regional geography
of China. Regions covered include China Proper,
Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Sinkiang,
Tibet and Taiwan.
GEOG 131: Geography of Japan
The description and analysis of the geographic
aspects of the modernization of Japan, with
special emphasis on the economic, population
and urban geography of the country.
55
GEOG 150: Cartography Earth's grid, projections, scale. The compilation of data for mapping, cartographic design, map construction and reproduction. GEOG 193: Economic Geography Seminar Review history and literature of economic geography. Methodology for investigating economic geographic problems. Each student is required to present an oral and written report to the seminar. Prerequisite: Geography 101 or the permission of the instructor. GEOG195: Urban Geography Seminar Problems, methodology, and research in urban geography. Each student will present a paper on some geographic problem in the metropolitan New York area. Prerequisite: GEOG 103 or approval of instructor. 1980 GEOG 195, GEOG130, GEOG 105, GEOG 150 removed from the curriculum. 1981 GEOG 100: Honors Essay Research for and the writing of a substantial essay in the field of geography. Open only to senior geography majors who are eligible for and desire to graduate with departmental honors and who secure, before registration, written permission of the department chairperson. 1989 GEOG 113: Economic Geography of East and Southeast Asia Introduction to the regional economics of China, Japan, and the adjacent states of East and Southeast Asia. (Formerly Resources and industries of Monsoon Asia). 1992 GEOG 3 Geographic Systems: An Introduction to Topical Geography An introduction to a variety of geographic systems around the world and to methods used by geographers to study them. Course provides students with the conceptual basis for understanding and interpreting a wide variety of world events and the relationships that exist among world regions. Focus is on topics rather than on regions. Students examine different aspects of geography, ranging from the study of physical landscape to many of the human geographic sub-disciplines such as political geography and population.
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 GEOG 135: Economic Geography Theory and analysis of the location of economic activities; distribution and hierarchy of central places; land use; delineation, structure and growth of economic regions. May be used towards the 30 semester hours in economics required of economics majors (Formerly 101). 1994 GEOG 140: Geography of Latin America Study of the physical and human geographic roots of Latin American societies, from Mexico to the southern cone of South America. Explores the forces that shaped this unique regiona and considers its role in the contemporary worlds. Impact of historical geography since preColumbian period on Modern Latin America. Economic and political geography in relation to other world regions. Changing human landscapes and social transformations currently affecting many of the area's inhabitants. 1995 GEOG 145: The Geography of Africa (permanent approval in 1998) GEOG 151, 152: Readings in Geography Intensive reading, oral, and written work focusing on a regional and/or topical subdiscipline of geography. Open only to students interested in pursuing advanced work in geography and who have arranged to work with a supervising faculty member. 1996 GEOG 141: Geography of the Caribbean An exploration of the physical and human forces that have shaped the landscape of the Caribbean Basin. Attention focuses on a variety of social, population, development, and geopolitical issues of importance to the region and on the role played by the Caribbean in today's world. 1998 GEOG 145: The Geography of Africa Study of Africa's diverse human and physical landscapes, focusing on the interaction between the two. Analysis of the cultural, environmental, economic, social, political, and population geography of the continent. Both North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, the continent's two major regions, are featured prominently and examples are drawn from many of Africa's more than 50 individual nation-states.
56
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010
1999 GEOG 103: Urban Geography (Replaces Towns and Cities) Introduction to the key features of urban geography, including the distribution, structure, and hierarchy of towns and cities, the economic basis for cities, the growth of world cities, urban policy and urban problems, and urban and regional planning. While the scope is global, the emphasis is on the development of the United States urban landscape. GEOG 153, 154: Readings in Geography Intensive reading, oral, and written work focusing on a regional and/or topical subdiscipline of geography. Open only to students interested in pursuing advanced work in geography and who have arranged to work with a supervising faculty member. GEOG 60: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems This course introduces students to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) foundations, concepts and application techniques. GIS are used to encode, store, analyze, and report spatial data and provide a repository, which can be constructed, maintained, edited and analyzed. By linking different information technologies such as mapping and database management systems, spatial information can be used to facilitate management and decisions in a wide array of fields. These include marketing, industrial and commercial location, resource inventory and management, environmental impact assessment, urban planning, transportation, tracking crime data. GEOG 160: Intermediate Geographic Information Systems Geographic Information Systems are used to encode, store, analyze, and report spatial data. This multimedia course expands the GIS foundations, concepts, and application techniques already acquired to the introductory course (GEOG 60). It mainly focuses upon the professional applications of the GIS technology as well as the understanding of more advanced spatial analysis functions such as geocoding, classification, statistical surfaces, overlay and network analysis. The student is expected to become proficient in applying GIS for the analysis of problems in a wide array of fields. 2000 GEOG 190: Internship in Geography This work-study program aims at providing students with an opportunity to apply academic and theoretical knowledge to practical situations.
A minimum of 84 hours of work in an approved academic, government, non-government or research institution is combined with weekly classroom meetings, reading and writing assignments including an in-depth term paper that situates the internship experience with the broader framework of theoretical geographical scholarship. GEOG 104: Special Topics in Geography This course provides a study of a particular subject or problem in geography, with the specific topic for the course varying from semester to semester. Possible course topics include an introduction to geographical information systems (GIS), transportation geography, urbanization in the developing world, the economic geography of China, and environmental geography. Students should consult with the particular instructor each time the course is offered to determine if prior preparation for the topic to be covered is recommended. Such consultation may take place prior to registration or on the first day of class. 2001 GEOG 106: Urbanization in the Developing World Coping with rapid urbanization and the uncontrolled growth of cities, poses one of the greatest geographical challenges facing the nations of the developing world. This course introduces students to the study of urbanization in the developing world and explores the urban problems such as insufficient infrastructure, unemployment, lack of housing and inadequate social services that occur in these cities. The course has a regional focus and looks at the development of cities in Latin America, Asia, Sub-Sahara Africa, and North Africa and the Middle East, highlighting each region's distinctive urban patterns and problems. The last section of the course looks at possible solutions and policies that could be adopted to help alleviate the problems of rapid urbanization and poverty in the cities of the developing world. 2003 GEOG 80: Transport Geography Contemporary economic processes, such as the globalization of trade and the emergence of economic blocs, have been accompanied by significant growth in the movements of people, freight and information. Transport Geography is concerned about these movements along with the infrastructures, institutions and corporations supporting them. It tries to link spatial
57
constraints and attributes with the origin, the destination, the extent, and the nature and purpose of movements. Transportation, therefore, has varied and complex impacts over populations, economies and geography. GEOG 113C: Geography of East and Southeast Asia This course examines East and Southeast Asia, commonly known as Pacific Asia. Pacific Asian societies have experienced various phases of development since the end of World War II. Topics include socioeconomic features of: Japan, China, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and other countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines. Problems and prospects of development in the region as well as issues related to urbanization, transportation, agriculture and resource development are covered. 2004 GEOG 143: The Geography of South America Course introduces students to the physical and human landscapes of South America. After beginning with the development of several themes that unite the continent and Latin America more generally, the course shifts to a country-by-country approach to explore the subregions, cultures, economic geography and social issues affecting each of South America's 13 countries. GEOG 148: Geography of Australia and the South Pacific This course introduces students to the physical and human landscapes of a fascinating continentcountry and its neighboring island countries in the South Pacific. Topics include the physical geography, settlement geography, economic geography, and environmental geography of the region. On selected occasions during the summer session, the course will be offered in Australia, with two weeks of classes at Hofstra followed by field work in the Australian Outback, the Queensland rainforest, the Great Barrier Reef, and Sydney, Australia's major city. 2005 GEOG 14F and 14S: First-Year Seminar This course gives first-year students the opportunity to work in a seminar format with a member of the faculty in an area of the faculty member's research interests.
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 2008 GEOG 004: Cultural Geography Cultural geography is one of the main subdisciplines of human geography. At the core of human geography are the concepts of place and space. In this course we will analyze the interrelationship between culture and the production of the geographic landscape. We also investigate how migration has led to cultural diffusion, and how culture influences perceptions of the natural environment and the usage of natural resources. Lastly, we analyze the cultural norms that underpin the allocation of public and private space, and how these norms in turn influence our sense of space and place. GEOG 114: Geography of South Asia Analyzes the human geography of South Asia, (i.e., the countries of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives). Emphasis will be on cultural, economic and political geography. Topics covered include natural resources, religion, gender roles, migration, governance, trade, development, child labor and contemporary slavery. 2009 GEOG 005: Population and Migration Geography Population and Migration Geography introduces students to two of geography's sub-disciplines, both of great contemporary importance. Initially, students will learn about factors that influence population size, distribution, and structure, relating these to environmental, economic, and political impacts. Afterward, the focus shifts to migration, a very controversial process in many parts of the world. Several regional and national immigration case studies will be analyzed. GEOG 006: Resources and Energy Resources and energy geography is a broad introduction to the geography of resources. Geographical resources include natural resources, human resources, capital, as well as energy. Resources are fundamental to many activities and much value is attached to their procurement, transformation and use. Most resources are used to produce an outcome of economic value, such as providing food, energy and materials for manufacturing and construction. The strategic importance of resource development and the multiple uses of resources will be analyzed in this course.
58
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010
GLOBAL STUDIES COURSES 2007-2010 GS 1: Introduction to Global Studies Introduction to Global Studies is an interdisciplinary course that introduces students to different perspectives on global studies and exposes them to critical global economic and cultural issues and challenges. This course also examines globalization at a variety of different scales of analysis, ranging from global, to regional and national, to individual. The ultimate goal is to provide students with an understanding of the main conceptual approaches to global studies and thus enhance their ability to understand and evaluate important real-world issues and problems. GS 2: Cultural Globalization Culture is at the center of contemporary debates on globalization. This course introduces the interpretive categories that are used in the study of the cultural dimension of globalization. The course will allow students to understand the contradictions of cultural globalization with its movement toward cultural homogenization on the one hand and the proliferation of cultural identities on the other. The course takes a specific interdisciplinary approach, showing the effects of global culture on cultural formation throughout the world (but with particular attention to the non-Western world). Some of the issues discussed are the complex global connectivities of specific cultural products and practices like literature, telenovelas (soap operas), restaurants, Bollywood and Hollywood movies. GS 100: Honors Essay Research and writing of a substantial essay in the field of global studies. GS 104: Special Topics in Global Studies This interdisciplinary course provides a study of a particular subject or problem in global studies, with the specific topic for the course varying from semester to semester. Possible course topics include the political economy of global consumer culture, the McDonaldization debates, the importance of place in the global economy, globalization and the survival of indigenous languages, globalization and the feminization of manufacturing production, and the political geography of the global economy. Students should consult with the particular instructor each time the course is offered to determine if prior preparation for the topic to be covered is recommended. Such consultation may
take place prior to registration or on the first day of class. GS 105: The Globalization of Food Cultures This course analyzes the ways in which diverse food cultures around the world have been shaped in the context of colonialism, modernization, and globalization. Readings focus on the construction and hierarchization of ethnic and national identities based on patterns of food production, preparation and consumption. Special attention is paid to the role of written and cinematic texts in the process of creation and contestation of culinary cultural identities. We also look at how different cultures resist the homogenizing tendencies of globalization by localizing fast food and redefining traditional food practices. GS120: Global Transport and Logistics This interdisciplinary course introduces the major components of the global transport system supporting passenger and freight movements, as well as telecommunication systems, and all the economic stages of production, distribution, and consumption. Drawing on literature from a wide range of disciplines and perspectives, the course highlights that transportation and the management of distribution is fundamental to the understanding of globalization, trade, and the ways in which corporations use logistics to their advantage. GS 151 to 154: Readings in Global Studies Intensive reading, and oral and written work focusing on a subject of relevance to global studies. These courses are only open to students interested in pursuing advanced work in global studies and who have arranged to work with a supervising faculty member. GS 180: Senior Seminar in Global Studies and Research Methodology The Senior Seminar in Global Studies and Research Methodology is designed for senior global studies majors. This seminar course informs global studies majors on how to conduct detailed qualitative and quantitative research on global studies topics and also examines their understanding of the theoretical aspects of the subject. The seminar provides an introduction on how to set up research questions and gather and analyze different types of data. A comprehensive examination and the completion of a research report are required. The research report has three components: a proposal which includes oral presentations to fellow students, a final written report, and an oral presentation of research findings to fellow students.
59
GS 190: Internship in Global Studies This work-study program aims at providing students with an opportunity to apply academic and theoretical knowledge to practical situations. A minimum of 28 hours of work (for each semester hour of credit) in an approved academic, government, non-government or
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 research institution is combined with weekly classroom meetings, and reading and writing assignments, including an in-depth term paper that situates the internship experience within the broader framework of global studies scholarship.
APPENDIX 3 ­ LIST OF GEOGRAPHY GRADUATES 1962 ­ 2010
Richard Rom
BA
Donald Hannon
BA
James Miranda
BA
John Hickey
BA
Stephen Ragone
BA
David Shamash
BA
John Lawther
BA
Robert Martin
BA
Stephen Molello
BA
Charles Maggiore
BA
Jeannette Cheslock
BA
Robert Gaiser
BA
Dan Pasaric
BA
Ira Freund
BA
Lawrence Hammond BA
Paul Glorioso
BA
Robert Lavell
BA
James Ritchie
BA
Gail Rowan
BA
James McDougall
BA
Kenneth Rood
BA
Robert Linker
BA
Ethan Enzer
BA
George Lascaris
BA
Michael Szczerba
BA
Andrew Arenth
BA
Adam Boornazian
BA
Elizabeth Lee Riggs BA
Paul Wolfle
BA
James Henigman
BA
Francis Bennett
BA
Hisami Sakoda
BA
David Kirkup
BA
Alexander Vasquez
BA
Maureen Hager
BA
Alisa Burdman
BA
1962 1962 1962 1963 1963 1967 1967 1970 1970 1970 1971 1971 1971 1972 1974 1974 1975 1975 1976 1977 1977 1978 1979 1980 1982 1982 1983 1983 1984 1984 1985 1986 1996 1998 1998 1998
60
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010
James Eyler*
BA
1998
Michael Albanese
BA
1999
Claire Stanek
(Bowler)*
BA
1999
Janet Makhani
BA
1999
Maureen Hager
BA
1999
Christopher Devlin
BA
1999
Carrie Zaher
BA
2000
Wylie Adames
BA
2001
Chris Karampahtsis* BA
2001
Joseph Amplo
BA
2001
Alexander Ng
BA
2002
Alexander Borja
BA
2002
Richard Gomez
BA
2003
Richard Shaitelman
BA
2003
Michelle Geluso
BA
2003
Leonard Costa
BA
2003
Kathleen Marcel
BA
2005
William Hambrecht
BA
2005
Peter Watson
BA
2006
Simon Burke
BA
2006
Matthew Craig*
BA
2007
Robert Kwiatkowski BA
2007
Sol Auerbach
BA
2008
Shanti Chadha
BA
2008
John Field
BA
2009
Anthony Sacco
BA
2009
Valerie Rizzuto
BA
2009
Ashley Hughes
BA
2010
Adrienne Gillespie
BA
2010
*Graduated with Departmental Honors
LIST OF GLOBAL STUDIES GRADUATES MAY 2010 -
Anna Rawlins
BA
2010
Nhaomie Douyon
BA
2010
61
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 APPENDIX 4 Created by Allison Redman, using ArcGIS, 2010 62
The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010
Alumni Kathleen Marcel, 2005 graduate with James Wiley, at our party for graduating seniors, May 2010.
Sol Auerbach, 2008 graduate, currently in the Peace Corps in Malawi.
Simon Burke, 2006 graduate, working as a tour guide in Paris, summer 2009.
Matt Craig, 2007 graduate, working for "Teach for America," Mississippi, 2009.
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The Geography Program at Hofstra, 1935-2010 For more information about the Department of Global Studies and Geography visit our Website: WWW.HOFSTRA.EDU/GEOGRAPHY Awards to Majors, Spring 2010 Grant Saff, Anna Rawlins, Annie Styles, Nhaomie Douyon http://www.facebook.com/home.php?ref=logo#!/group.php?gid=20914446655 Department of Global Studies and Geography 130 Hofstra University 209F Roosevelt Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549 Phone: 516-463-5826 Fax: 516-463-6968

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