Anglo-Saxon, England, Norman knights, HARALD HARDRADA, Germanic language, Duke William of Normandy, King Edward the Confessor, job Interview, HAROLD GODWINSON, B. William, King of England, King Canute of England, Germanic tribes, Norman Conquest I. Anglo-Saxon England, northern England, central England, the Vikings, Viking invaders, the Anglo-Saxons, Edward the Confessor, Saxons, Norman French
I. Anglo-Saxon England
A. Following Roman rule, Germanic tribes moved into England - first as invaders and then as settlers. The culture that developed in England was called "Anglo-Saxon" after two of the tribes (the Angles and the Saxons). B. Anglo-Saxon rule - the Anglo-Saxons divided themselves into separate kingdoms; the most powerful were Northumbria in the north, Mercia in central England
and Wessex in the south. C. The Anglo-Saxons waged fierce battles to fend off Viking invaders who had settled in northern England
. Alfred the Great, the king of Wessex pushed the Vikings (called "Danes" by the British) back into northern England. However, the Danes returned and re-conquered England under a Scandinavian ruler, King Canute. England was sharply divided between the Vikings and the Anglo-Saxons. D. Finally England was united under the rule of Edward the Confessor
. Edward was part Anglo-Saxon and part Norman (Normandy had been conquered by the Vikings). However, Edward died leaving no heir and so the Nobles were left with a dilemma about who would be the next to rule. Three different men claimed the throne:
A job Interview in 1066: who would you choose?
HAROLD GODWINSON OF WESSEX · Brother of King Edward the Confessor's wife. · Son of one of the most powerful nobles in England. · Claimed to have been named the next king by Edward. · Was English and popular with many of the people. · Already had some experience running the country.Duke William of Normandy
· Cousin of King Edward the Confessor. · Claims that Edward promised him the throne 15 years ago. · Claims that Harold of Wessex also promised him the throne. · Is already very successful as ruler of Normandy. · Claims he could repeat the job as King of England
HARALD HARDRADA OF NORWAY · Is already a successful King of Norway. · Is the descendant of King Canute of England. · Claims his family was promised it could rule England years ago. · Spends lots of time at war and usually wins. · Collects lots of taxes from his people to pay for wars. · Is very unpopular and known as Harald the Bad.
II. The Battle of Hastings A. The Witan, a council of Anglo-Saxon nobles, was charged with making the decision of who would be the next ruler of England. They chose Harold of Wessex to be the next king. B. William was determined to win the throne for himself. He crossed the English channel with a powerful force of Norman knights. In a decisive battle
William defeated Harold's army at Hastings in 1066. C. Today, Duke William of Normandy is commonly known as William the Conqueror. William's rule brought many changes to England; he introduced Norman laws, customs and language. However, the Anglo-Saxon's did not quickly accept them. Anglo-Saxon was a Germanic language and Norman French
was based on Latin. However, over time, the lifestyles, laws and customs of England grew to combine elements of both cultures.
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