The Value of Bilingual Education and Bilingual/Bicultural Teaching Aides in the Classroom, J Adams, KT Pak

Tags: PDF Writer, bilingual education, language development, Growing Up Healthy, Bilingual Research Journal, Inver Hills Community College, community college, teaching aides, Jack Adams, community, Open Access Journals, Academic Search Premier, Minnesota, Latino community, Yvette Lapayese, teaching aide, Adams Spanish Immersion, public school system, Official School, South Central College, United States, 27 November 2008, bilingual education programs, Community Based Research, public education, bilingual programs, Accessed, Brookings Institution, 13 December 2008, English language development, state legislature, Rice County, Minnesota, Lesley Bartlett, Stacey York, ELL students, Joyce Pre-School, de Jong, Anne Auten, Spanish translations, ELL, Ester J. de Jong, Los estudiantes de Adams, Joyce Preschool, Preescolar Joyce, language minority students, foreign language, French language, Tom Loveless, reform movements, Joseph P. Viteritti, charter schools, Ali Michael, Norma Andrade, English Language Learner, Joyce tambi�, province of Quebec, Shanan Fitts, public school education
Content: The Value of Bilingual Education and Bilingual/Bicultural Teaching Aides in the Classroom Jack Adams Political Science 350: Immigration and Citizenship Professor Katherine Tegtmeyer Pak 12.17.2008 1 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Made possible by the Blue Cross/Blue Shield Foundation of Minnesota, Growing Up Healthy was organized in 2006 with the purpose of connecting low-income families with young children (0 to 5) in Rice County, Minnesota, to the community resources available to them. Focusing specifically on the Latino neighborhoods in Northfield and Faribault, the most pressing issues in the classroom pertain to English language development and competency. A great deficiency of bilingual/bicultural teachers and teaching aides exists in the local public school system. This project assesses the current situations facing non-English speaking youth in the United States, and offers a critique of the current educational policies in place. By addressing the value of bilingualism and effective bilingual education programs in Minnesota, key resources are provided for pursing bilingual education degrees at the community college level. The desired outcome of this project is to enhance equal language development in the classroom by developing bilingual/bicultural teachers and teaching aides.
Index Part I. Community Based Research Explanation II. Literature Review III. Bilingual Education Review IV. Successful Minnesota Bilingual Programs V. Interview Finding s VI. Interview Contacts VII. South Central College VIII. Inver Hills Community College IX. Bibliography
Page 3-5 6-10 11-15 16-17 18-21 22 23-24 25-28 29-32
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Community Based Research In the About Us section of Growing Up Healthy's website, it is written that "the issue in Rice County is not so much a lack of programs, services or resources, but rather a disconnect between the people who need to access existing services and the people, agencies and systems that provide them" (Growing Up Healthy). It is through this idea that a community based research project was founded, with the hope of facilitating and promoting stronger networks of communication and interaction between local organizations and policymakers in the Northfield/Faribault communities. In early September I attended a Growing Up Healthy neighborhood leader meeting where I learned about problems facing the Latino community in Northfield/Faribault, specifically focusing on the Hulett neighborhood. Many issues were addressed, ranging from legal problems facing illegal immigrants in car collisions, to post-high school opportunities available for local monolingual Spanish speaking youth. What was most apparent throughout the discourse was the pressing issue of English language deficiency and its effects on the local Latino community. Speaking with Janet Muth, liaison between St. Olaf College, Growing Up Healthy, and our classroom, I learned that the teaching-aide retention rate in the Northfield/Faribault public school system is low. In addition to this, there is a substantial lack of bilingual/bicultural teaching-aides available in the local public school classrooms. Linking these two facts, I discovered a gap in the Rice County educational system which could hinder non-English speaking students by stunting language development and comprehension. To rectify these deficiencies, I began to investigate teaching aide programs at the community college level, and subsequently, the requirements of these programs. I also researched effective bilingual education programs at the elementary level in the State of Minnesota, and the positive outcomes which result from these programs. To understand what educational opportunities are available for prospective teaching aides at the community level, I researched programs at South Central College, a local community college in 3 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Mankato and Faribault which offers child development careers. I also researched programs at Inver Hills Community College in Inver Grove Heights, specifically the urban teaching program and the human services program. Investigating these programs led me to important contacts within the education departments at the respective institutions. After speaking with instructors at various early education programs around the state, it became apparent that there is a glaring deficiency of foreign language preparation within the classroom. Also, bilingual/bicultural student enrollment is, on average, low. My findings are available in the Interview Findings and Interview Contacts section of this document. Embedded within my conversations were the goals of Growing Up Healthy, which in turn generated interest among the instructors. All early education programs around the state require a community service/involvement component, and it is my hope that in the future, Growing Up Healthy could benefit from these involvement opportunities. My project has evolved into a hybrid: a meeting ground of community based research and traditional independent research. Through the use of scholarly analysis, my findings validate the importance of bilingual education while facilitating the pursuit of a teaching aide degree in the local area. It is my hope that these results will help Growing Up Healthy promote bilingual education and bicultural learning within the community, while also providing adequate resources for potential job opportunities for local students, parents, and prospective educators. Due to the subject matter of my study, the recipient audience is large. Ultimately, my findings support Growing Up Healthy's initiatives by defending bilingual education programs, representing the Latino community through the structuring of equal opportunity public education, and by providing clear access to resources for pursing further education. If disseminated correctly, this document can encourage members of the Rice County Latino community to pursue further education at local institutions, which will enable them to return to the community as bilingual teaching aides or fully certified bilingual teachers. For Growing Up Healthy, this document can help neighborhood leaders and community administrators 4 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
understand the realities facing public education policy in the United States, while also defending the value of bilingual education and foreign language enhancement. Finally, having identified important contacts serving as educators around the state, I have generated a dialogue calling for a greater focus on foreign language development and bilingual/bicultural preparation within the classroom. In essence, the target audience of this project is prospective teacher/teaching aides, current educators in support of bilingual programs, community college instructors, and Growing Up Healthy community leaders and administrators. Under the leadership of Janet Muth, Nate Jacobi, and Kathy Tegtmeyer Pak, I investigate the effects of bilingual/bicultural teaching aides in the classroom, and outline the process of becoming a teaching aide in the State of Minnesota. I explain the value of bilingual education in the United States, and ultimately, hope to sustain a dialogue calling for language development and enhanced proficiency. 5 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Literature Review It is overwhelmingly clear throughout the literature which I've uncovered that a great gap exists in this country when it comes to educating the populous. Recognized by think tanks, scholarly databases, and publicized media, the inequalities present in our educational systems and structures are undeniable. Although native English speakers can suffer the effects of policy gaps, non-native English speaking students are in the weakest position for success and achievement in the American educational structure. President George Bush's No Child Left Behind Act was enacted for the purpose of bridging the educational gap in our nation. Unfortunately, for the most part, all that the program has succeeded in doing is widening that gap. My research has led me in many directions, while introducing me to new questions along the way. Educational policymaking has clarified my understanding of policy implementation in the United States, while also emphasizing the complexities associated with the federal system. Studying bilingual education reform has revealed an attempt to rectify the inequalities present throughout the nation. Studying bilingual elementary programs I attempt to discern what the best educational policies are, while also understanding where their foundations are rooted. My research is cemented in the idea that bi-lingual education provides the most effective form of education, not only for English Language Learners (ELL) and limited-English proficient learners (LEP), but also for native English speakers as well. Finally, by keeping a firm understanding of Growing Up Healthy's project goals, strategies, and principles, the non-profit organization continues to guide my search, clarify my findings, and help me understand the bigger picture of my research. By identifying the needs of low-income and undocumented families in Faribault's Hulett neighborhood in early September, I have somewhat of an understanding of what can be achieved, and what must be changed. 6 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Bilingual education in the United States began as a product of the civil rights movement. According to Christine H. Rossell, in the 1960s Hispanic high school completion rates contrast dramatically to those of white students. There existed almost a 40 percentage point gap between the two groups, favoring white students (Rossell 2000, 216). It was understood that lessons being taught in English were the cause of the inequality. Rossell writes that Congress embraced this logic by passing three statutes that addressed the educational and civil rights of linguistic minority students: (1) the Bilingual Education Act of 1968 (ESEA), (2) Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and (3) the Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA) of 1970. Administrative agencies, such as the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) and the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs (OBEMLA), were created as a result of this legislation and directed to implement these provisions (Rossell 2000, 216) Although the advantages to bilingual education are obvious, many oppose the programs saying that they act as a crutch to students by pre-destining them for continual failure by not adequately allowing them to develop in English. Ian C. Friedman, author of Education Reform introduces this debate. He writes that Proponents claimed that if Language Minority Students were taught some subjects in their native tongue, they potentially could learn English without sacrificing content knowledge. The bilingual education's critics disagreed, arguing that this approach keeps students in a cycle of native language dependency and inhibits their progress toward English-language mastery (Friedman 2004, 43). Current legislation reflecting this negative opinion is showcased through Proposition 227, California's elimination of bilingual education from public schools, passed in 1998. Proposition 227 embraces the idea that Hispanic students are trapped by bilingual education. Recently, similar legislature has been passed in Arizona as well. Although gaining speed and popularity, the reforms have remained in CA and AZ. Nationwide, we focus our attention on a nationwide policy act, No Child Left Behind. 7 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Tom Loveless is the director of the Brown Center on Education Policy through the Brookings Institution think tank. Loveless has done extensive research on the effects of the No Child Left Behind act and its effects on high achieving students. In describing NCLB, he writes that Historically the federal government provided additional revenue to schools serving the disadvantaged children, ostensibly so that schools could offer services that would help poor children learn. The architects of NCLB sought to transform the federal education dollar from a school entitlement into an incentive to prod schools toward better performance. Universal proficiency became the nation's foremost education goal. (Loveless 2008) If this is interpreted correctly, how can widening the gap between high performance classrooms and low performance classrooms ensure universal proficiency? The only way that universal proficiency can be achieved is by developing a universal language: English. The reality faced by millions of immigrants to the United States is that language classes aren't readily available or accessible. According to an article published by Lawrence Hardy, senior editor for the American School Board Journal, of the 11 million unauthorized immigrants in the United States, 5 million are children. Between 2004-2005 Hispanics accounted for 49% of the nation's population growth, and between now and 2020, the Hispanic population will increase by 77% (Hardy 2007). This increase in population will have a significant effect on classrooms, education policies, and teaching strategies. Hardy writes that "although new strategies for testing English language learners are mostly in the research stage, states with current or planned exit exams are moving ahead with policies to hold ELLs to the same standards as other students and require them to pass exams before receiving a diploma (Hardy 2007). Clearly there is something missing from the picture. By holding ELL students to the same level as native English speakers, a discrepancy is not only being facilitated, but being supported through policy. To fully understand education policymaking in the United States, it is necessary to focus on federal, state, and municipal levels. Because of the broad nature of federal policymaking, the responsibility rests on the respective states, and most importantly, on the school districts. Most 8 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
literature suggests that in the American federal system, the majority of education policy is being written within state legislature. Writing on behalf of the Brookings Institution, Tom Loveless focuses on reform movements in the American educational system, saying that Reform movements in American education are based on theories of social change. The standards and accountability movement is based on the theory that a sequence of three activities will improve education: first, defining what students should learn (setting standards); second, testing to see what the students have learned (measuring achievement); third, making the results count (holding educators and students accountable) (Loveless 2005, 7). Minnesota has consistently succeeded within the realm of public education and related policymaking. Joseph P. Viteritti explains one of Minnesota's foundational moves in response to a national demand for education equality in his book School Choice: How an Abstract Idea Became a Political Reality. He writes that In 1991 Minnesota became the first state in the nation to pass a charter school law. Six years earlier Minnesota had pioneered a statewide choice plan that allowed students to travel across district lines to attend schools as long as space was available. But charter schools opened up a new frontier for reform. The charter school movement in Minnesota and elsewhere was driven as much by educators who were fed up with the strangling regimen of factory model schooling as by parents seeking educational alternatives (Viteritti 2005, 143). Minnesota has experienced great success in educational reform and policymaking, and continues to lead national rankings in test-taking, college placement, and public school education. Although not implemented at the state level, bilingual education is prevalent in a number of school districts and embraced by a significant portion of Minnesota. To understand provincial implementation of bilingual education as regulated by the government, we turn our focus to the province of Quebec in Canada. Because of its focus on language development and enhancement, an important case for comparison is the current policy-making being written in Quebec, Canada. The strong ties to French language and culture influence policy making in the province of Quebec. The literature regarding 9 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Quebec's educational structure focused primarily on foreign language education. Although emphasis is placed on multiple disciplines, including technology, science, mathematics, social sciences, and arts education, bilingual education is the focus of policymaking. According to Quebec's Schools on Course, Quebec's Educational Policy Statement, It is vital that students master their first language (or the language of instruction) and for this reason, it must be the top priority of our schools. We study our first language in order to communicate, but also because it is a major part of our heritage. Language is the stepping stone to all other types of learning. Emphasis will also be placed on the acquisition of a second language and a third language given the linguistic context of North America and the globalization of economic activity and communications. Moreover, there is increasing recognition that young children have the least difficulty learning other languages that learning other languages promotes proficiency in one's own language because of the comparisons that are inevitably made with the mother tongue (2008). Quebec's focus on retaining French language, culture, and heritage is present through all forms of reform, legislation, and policy implementation. The Minister of Education established a Provincial Curriculum Board which focuses specifically on ensuring effective reform and educational restructure. Beginning at the elementary level, the policies in place are focused on enhancing French language skills of all citizens, native and non-native. In the 2006 Education in Quebec: An Overview, the Minister of Education writes that "under the charter of French language, instruction is to be given in French at the pre-school, elementary, and secondary levels" (2006). Policymaking in Quebec is closely scrutinized to ensure the preservation of French culture and heritage. Although substantively different than the system in place in the United States, Quebec provides an effective example of bilingual education implementation at the provincial level, while also highlighting the success which can follow such policymaking. Perhaps the United States will be able to use Quebec as a model for restructuring the educational system to allow for greater language development, fluency, and equality. 10 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Bilingual Education Review In her critique of the No Child Left Behind Act, Yvette Lapayese writes that The current hegemony of English monolingualism insists that students give up their first language, despite the evidence that demonstrates monolingualism is neither neutral, necessary, or beneficial. To the contrary, bilingualism is an asset to the student and actually contributes to increased cognitive flexibility and adaptability (Lapayese 2007, 311). When approaching the current policymaking and legislation regarding public education in this country, specifically the No Child Left Behind Act, one can see glaring elements of racism, classism, and socio-economic discrimination. Lapayese highlights this reality in her article, Understanding and Undermining the Racio-economic Agenda of No Child Left Behind. She states that within the constructs of ideology, "language policies both reflect and (re)produce the distribution of power within larger society" (Lapayese 2007, 311). Touching on themes of classism, racism, and economic discrimination, she reveals the uncomfortable realities of the NCLB Act. Ali Michael, Norma Andrade, and Lesley Bartlett also comment on the inequalities present in today's system. Writing for The Urban Review, they state that "American schools have overwhelmingly regulated students whose first language is something other than English to categories of failure, rather than setting up cultural arrangements that define students' linguistic and cultural resources as assets" (Michael and Andrade and Bartlett 2007, 169). Commenting specifically on the sociohistorical model, they write that "schooling for Spanish speaking students is one that defines students as suffering from a deficit. This deficit model is compounded by recent accountability policies, such as the federal NCLB Act and corresponding state and local policies that establish standardized tests as ethical measure and procedures of academic success and failure" (Michael and Andrade and Bartlett 2007, 176). Shanan Fitts adds to the argument by stating that "traditional schooling emphasizes assimilation, monolingualism, and homogeneity. In such an environment the languages, cultures, and histories of Latino/a students are consistently marginalized, ignored, or constructed from an Anglocentric point of view" (Fitts 2006, 338). Similarly, Lapayese writes that "In the United States, English becomes a 11 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
gatekeeper to education, employment, business opportunities and popular culture, maintaining linguistic imperialism to the detriment of mother tongues" (Lapayese 2007, 310). As was stated earlier, much of this negative commentary is attributed to the structuring of the No Child Left Behind Act. Writing for the Bilingual Research Journal, Shanan Fitts states that "No Child Left Behind authorizes the use of one-size-fits-all English immersion programs and emphasizes that best practices for literacy development in monolingual English children can and should be applied to all children regardless of linguistic background" (Fitts 2006, 343). Writing again about NCLB, Yvette Lapayese explains the connection between the Bilingual Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act. She states that On 8 January 2002, the Bilingual Education Act was eliminated as a part of a larger school reform measure known as No Child Left Behind (NCLB). By effectively eliminating even the suggestion of bilingualism, NCLB affects the linguistic assimilation of immigrant and other language minority children and perpetuates the English-only hegemony of the school systems in this country (Lapayese 2007, 310). Although positive in a sense of drawing attention to bilingual education, Fitts links the negative outcomes of the policymaking to more extreme categorization. She writes that "although the Bilingual Education Act of 1968 brought more attention and funding to bilingual education programs, it also had the unfortunate side effect of linking bilingualism to poverty and remediation" (Fitts 2006, 339). Lapayese continues the criticism by stating that Absent from Title III (reauthorized Bilingual Education Act under NCLB) are any recognitions of the benefits of bilingual education and bilingualism, issues of cultural differences and needs for multicultural understanding, and acknowledgement of factors which have negatively impacted the education of second language learners (Lapayese 2007, 310). Moving forward in the argument promoting bilingual education, we focus on the role of the teacher in the classroom and the structural changes which accompany a bilingual setting. 12 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Aileen Hale, Jennifer Snow-Gerono and Fernanda Morales are all commenting on ethnographic writing and the positive effects it can have on the teachers in a bilingual classroom, in addition to the students. They write that "The uniqueness of all persons is found in the individual experiences they have lived and in the unique ways they tell their own stories" (Hale and SnowGerono and Morales 2008, 1415). Specifically regarding ethnographic writing, they state that It is first through the process of writing one's own narratives that teachers discover how their multiple identities transcend to their classroom teaching/pedagogy. This greater selfawareness opens teachers to a new desire of knowing and understanding others. Thus, when introduced to the ethnographic writing process, teachers are empowered with a discovery tool that serves as a means to gain deeper insights into the lives of their students and their students communities (Hale, and Snow-Gerono and Morales 2008, 1415). Writing for the Early Childhood Education Journal, Cristina Gillanders comments on teacher training programs in the United States and their lack of bilingual requirements as a cause of weakness. "Compounding the problem, only fifteen percent of B.A. early childhood teacher preparation programs and thirteen percent of A.A. programs require a course in working with bilingual children. Also, state administrators reported that the most urgent challenge they face in serving Latino children is the lack of Latino and bilingual professionals" (Gillanders 2007, 47). Re-entering the debate, Yvette Lapayese writes that it should be about "preparing teachers for educating linguistic minorities to go beyond the methods fetish and to reconsider the professional identities of teachers as extending beyond the classroom role, to include that of political agent" (Lapayese 2007, 312). Unfortunately, with the realities facing funding and job cuts in the public school sector, teaching retention rate is steadily rising. Elena Sandoval-Lucero notes this problem, stating that "for the past decade, literature in the field of teacher recruitment and training has foretold of a teacher shortage for the beginning of the 21st century and suggests the need for as many as 2 million new teachers" (Sandoval-Lucero 2006, 195). The realities facing ELL classrooms today are bleak. According to the U.S. Department of Education, in the past decade, "the number of ELLs in American schools has increased nearly 70% to 5.5 million. 80% of ELLs have Spanish as their first language and are twice 13 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
as likely as native English-speaking peers to have reading achievement levels significantly below average for their age" (Calhoon, and Al Otaiba and Cihak and King and Avalos 2007, 169). The authors also note that "nearly 60% of Spanish speaking fourth grade students cannot read English at even a basic level" (Calhoon, and Al Otaiba and Cihak and King and Avalos 2007, 169). Keeping our focus on teachers, we move deeper into the classroom and the structural changes which follow such progression. Writing for the Linguistics and Education, Kate Olson introduces a theory known as CHAT, Cultural-historical activity theory. The theory "contends that all human development is founded upon social interactions in cultural practices that are mediated by the use of cultural artifacts, tools and signs. Fundamental to this mediated interaction is language" (Olson 2007, 123). Continuing the earlier discussion about discovering self-narrative and identity, Terese C. Jimйnez, Alexis L. Filippini, and Michael M. Gerber connect the classroom to the home. Their findings prove the validity of this important connection. They write that Extensive and methodologically-varied research shows that children's language and literacy development begins within the home and through family experience long before children start formal instruction. Early home experiences with language provide naturally based and authentic opportunities for children to identify, understand, and use those components of language and emergent literacy skills that form the basis for other necessary literacy skills (Jimйnez, and Filippini and Gerber 2006, 431). When focusing specifically on developing a child's bilingual abilities in the classroom, it is important to look at a variety of proposals outlining programs in place. Calhoon, Al Otaiba, Cihak, King and Avalos lay out several guiding instructional principles, as they call them, to improve ELLs reading development. This is just one of many bilingual teaching methods, also known as TWBI (Two-way Bilingual Immersion), TWBE (Two-way Bilingual Education), TWI (Two-way Immersion), and DL (Dual Language). Their outline is the following: 1. Provide early explicit code-focused instruction. 2. Increase opportunities for vocabulary development through structured academic talk. 3. Promote fluency through vocabulary and repeated readings in meaningful texts. 14 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
4. Train comprehension strategies using narrative and expository texts (Calhoon and Al Otaiba and Cihak and King and Avalos 2007, 170). Ester J. de Jong also comments on the importance of TWBE programs writing that In a TWBE program, a balanced group of native majority language speakers and native minority language speakers are integrated for instruction, and subject matter is conducted in the minority and majority languages with the goal of developing high levels of bilingualism for all students in the program (de Jong 2002, 2). Complimenting the setting and style of a TWBE classroom in a different article, Integrated Bilingual Education: An Alternative Approach, de Jong writes that "it seems paradoxical to try to teach children English by isolating them from the large numbers of native English speakers available in the mainstream classes of their schools" (de Jong 2006, 24). Outlining the theoretical framework for TWBE programs, de Jong writes that they consist of three components: 1. It considers theories of bilingualism for minority students, which emphasizes the importance of both strong native language literacy skills for learning a second language and high levels of proficiency in two languages in additive bilingual settings. 2. It looks at successful instructional practices of teaching a foreign language to language minority students. 3. Finally, it builds on theories that regard Language Learning as a socio-cultural phenomenon in which student interactions are central to the learning process (de Jong 2002, 2). It is through these models, opinions, and proofs that we understand bilingual education as presenting the greatest advantages, opportunities, and equalities to our classrooms today. 15 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Successful Minnesota Bilingual Programs Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet 615 South Chatsworth Street Saint Paul, MN 55102 Official School website: Official School description (with English and Spanish translations): Adams Spanish Immersion is an elementary school that provides children with an opportunity to be fluent in a second language. Adams' students are surrounded by Spanish all day long and learn to speak and comprehend the language much as a child learns to speak for the first time. Our School is a place where families and staff value the importance of language and the opportunities that are gained by learning another language. It is a magical place where dedicated staff and involved parents nurture young minds and hearts. La Escuela Adams de Inmersiуn en Espaсol provee a los niсos de la oportunidad de hablar una segunda lengua fluidamente. Los estudiantes de Adams estбn rodeados de espaсol todo el dнa y aprenden a hablar y entender en la misma forma en que un niсo/a aprende a hablar por primera vez. Nuestra escuela es el lugar donde tanto familias como maestros valoran la importancia de una segunda lengua y las oportunidades ganadas al aprender Espaсol. Es un lugar mбgico donde todo el dedicado personal y la participaciуn de los padres nutren las mentes y corazones de nuestros jуvenes. (Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet 2008, "Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet") ELL - English Language Learner / Eseсanza de Inglйs para Estudiantes que hablan otros idiomas. ELL means English Language Learner. This is a child who speaks a language other than (or in addition to) English at home. ELL students are eligible to receive extra help at school, depending on their needs. In our school, most of the students who are ELL speak Spanish at home. They receive ELL services because their home language and/or strongest language is Spanish. We might serve a child in Spanish, especially in primary grades or in English, depending on the student's specific needs. Our goal is to provide the child with the right tools to build up his/her language proficiency. (Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet 2008, "FAQ about ELL/Preguntas comunes sobre ELL") El departamento de Inglйs estб compuesto por cinco profesoras bilingьes, quienes trabajan en colaboraciуn con los profesores de clase para enseсar lectura y escritura. Todas nuestras maestras de ELL han sido entrenadas en los talleres de Lectura y Escritura ofrecidos a travйs del distrito de St. Paul. Debido a que nuestras maestras de ELL tienen la capacidad de comunicarse en los dos idiomas, estбn constantemente apoyando a establecer un lace entre padres y estudiantes latinos con la comunidad entera de Adams. (Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet 2008, "ELL") 16 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Joyce Pre-School 1219 West 31st Street Minneapolis, MN 55408 Official School website: Official School description (with English and Spanish translations): Welcome to Joyce Preschool! Joyce Preschool has been providing quality early education to children and families for over 40 years and two-way Spanish-English immersion programming since 1995. We are a two-way immersion, Spanish-English preschool licensed by the Department of Human Services. We have a strong emphasis on kindergarten readiness, second language acquisition, parent involvement in education and development of early literacy skills. Joyce operates as an independent 501.c.3 nonprofit. We offer Preschool Classes, Parent-Child Classes, Summer Camp sessions and our Asociaciуn de Padres de Familia, a group for Latino parents. Joyce also offers products and services to support development of bilingual programming in order to better serve the rapidly growing Latino immigrant population in Minnesota. (Joyce Pre-School 2008, "Welcome") ЎBienvenidos al Preescolar Joyce! El Preescolar Joyce ha proveнdo una educaciуn inicial de calidad a niсos y familias por mбs de 40 aсos y cuenta con un programa de inmersiуn espaсol - inglйs desde 1995. Tenemos un programa preescolar de inmersiуn con licencia del Departamento de Servicios Humanos. Ponemos un gran йnfasis en la preparaciуn para kindergarten, adquнsiciуn de un segundo idioma, involucramiento de los padres y el desarrollo de habilidades de educaciуn temprana. Joyce opera como una asociaciуn independiente sin fines de lucro -501.c.3-. Ofrecemos clases de educaciуn preescolar, clases para padres e hijos, sesiones de verano y nuestra Asociaciуn de Padres de Familia, un grupo para padres Latinos. Joyce tambiйn ofrece productos de apoyo y desarrollo de programas bilingьes para servir de mejor manera a la creciente comunidad Latina en Minnesota. (Joyce Pre-School 2008, "Bienvenidos") 17 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Interview Findings At South Central College I spoke with Lynn Grenz, Child Development instructor, who helped me understand the realities of the student body in her classroom. Noting that 1-2 students in a classroom of 25 are fluent in another language, bilingualism and foreign language development is recommended, but not enforced (Grenz 2008). An important website which Grenz recommended to me was E-LECT, available at This website is an online resource for early childhood education instructors and students. A common complaint that I encountered throughout my investigation of the community college system is that the student body, in general, is pressed for time. The programs serve a much larger student body demographic than traditional colleges around the country. Because of this, many students enrolled in early childhood education programs at the community college level are managing full or part-time jobs, supporting families, and satisfying coursework requirements. For this reason, E-LECT was created to offer online classes and resources for current students and educators. Stacey York also discussed the purpose of ELECT by describing the small size of the technical programs available in the State of Minnesota, and the need for a unified community college network (York 2008). She stated that "by having E-LECT online, it helps people coordinate their degrees and finish in a timely manner" (York 2008). E-LECT served as a valuable resource for my project as it connected me with instructors at various community college education programs around the state. When questioned about the preparation teachers undergo for teaching non-English speaking students, York noted that a relationship with the Spanish department at Rochester Community and Technical College encourages students to take Spanish courses (these courses include Spanish language, Hispanic studies, and Latin American history) (York 2008). As she noted, students are also encouraged to pursue a bilingual/bicultural teaching certificate which adequately prepares students for a bilingual/bicultural classroom (York 2008). In her opinion, it is important for children to 18 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
"continue having an education in their native tongue in addition to English" (York 2008). Finally, she introduced me to the successful bilingual program in South Minneapolis at the Joyce Pre-school. Anne Auten, Urban Teaching program director at Inver Hills Community College also explained another approach to pursuing a bilingual teaching degree/certificate. TESL, Teaching English as a Second Language, is a 10-credit certificate enabling teachers to understand how to work with students speaking other languages. Noting that bilingualism is "paramount" but not enforced, Auten encourages this certificate in her classes in addition to regular language classes (Auten 2008). Similar to York, Auten noted that teachers at Inver Hills are prepared to "bring non-English speakers into the classroom by establishing a level of comfort with the English language" (Auten 2008). In her opinion, cultural interaction is the most important piece of bilingualism. The urban teaching program develops resiliency in teachers, students, and families, and creates a sense of cultural interaction, as Auten noted. An important element of the program consists of a service component requiring students to complete 40 hours of service in school classrooms which classify as urban. Urban classification is based on a combination of statistics pertaining to race, socioeconomic status, and language ability. Specifically outlined, a school classified as urban has 30% students of color, 40% students receiving free and reduced lunch, and 10% students whose home language isn't English (Auten 2008). At Inver Hills, Auten has observed that the majority of students in the Urban Teaching program progress to teaching licensure, as opposed to using their 2-year degree to enter the job market after graduation. I was lucky enough to connect with one of these students. Studying in the Human Services department at Inver Hills Community College with hopes of becoming a bilingual educator, Ivan Ortiz is an invaluable resource to my project. Serving as a neighborhood leader for Growing Up Healthy, he is the perfect example of successful bilingual integration influencing positive community involvement and educational pursuit. Similar to Grenz, 19 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Ortiz noted that in his class of 25-30, only 2 students speak Spanish fluently. In his opinion, there isn't a great deal of interest among his peers to study a foreign language (Ortiz 2008). Upon finishing at Inver Hills, he hopes to matriculate to St. Thomas to acquire his teaching license and ultimately serve as a bilingual teacher in the public school system. Encouraging students to follow similar paths as Ivan is the desired outcome of this project. Speaking with Kelly McKown, instructor in the Early Childhood Development program at St. Paul College, I heard a different perspective regarding diversity within the student body of the program. McKown describes St. Paul College's student body as being "extremely diverse," where bilingualism is a reality for most of the student body (McKown 2008). The most common second languages in order at Hmong, Somali, and Spanish. Describing the preparation teachers undergo to teach diverse language classrooms, McKown states that "through class activities and community engagement, diversity is experienced and witnessed around the city" (McKown 2008). Finally, for hiring purposes, Mckown notes, "bilingual applicants are always favored and preferred" (McKown 2008). The last instructor I spoke with was Darci Stanford, a Child Development Instructor at South Central College. Teaching a variety of early childhood development courses, specifically family and community relations, Stanford explained how she helps prepare students for diverse language classrooms. She stated that "for the most part students must be familiar with the resources available in the community, focused on different cultures, language skills, and styles, and finally, understand and practice patience. Patience with written communication and patience with verbal communication" (Stanford 2008). Specific to her classroom is a community service component which requires students to study and investigate "any sort of social issue in the community" (Stanford 2008). Three hours of volunteer work with a community organization satisfies the requirement. What was most interesting about Stanford was that she was familiar with Growing Up 20 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Healthy. Serving on a local board with a GUH member, Stanford is somewhat familiar with the organization. Perhaps a connection between Stanford's classroom and GUH can be explored in the future. A Summary of Questions Asked 1. Is there a bilingual component integrated into the teaching/education program? 2. Do you see an important need for bilingualism in the classroom? 3. What does the average student in your classroom look like? What languages do they speak? 4. Is there a community involvement piece of the degree? Is this emphasized? Is there a language requirement? 5. What is the current job market for teachers finishing 2 or 4 year degrees? Does bilingualism distinguish a teaching candidate? 6. How are students prepared to teach their future students if the future students don't speak English as a first language? 21 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Interview Contacts
Lynn Grenz
- Child Development Instructor
South Central College
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 1-507-389-7325
Link to E-LECT Instructor profile:
Ivan Ortiz
- Growing Up Healthy Neighborhood Leader
Inver Hills Student in Human Services
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 1-507-581-3494
Stacey York
- Child Development Instructor
Rochester Community and Technical College
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 1-612-659-6645
Link to E-LECT Instructor profile:
Anne Auten
- Urban Teaching Program Director
Inver Hills College
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 1-651-554-3758
Kelly McKown - Early Childhood Development Instructor St. Paul College Email: [email protected] Phone: 1-651-846-1419 Link to E-LECT Instructor profile:
Darci Stanford - Child Development Instructor South Central College Email: [email protected] Phone: 1-507-332-5827 Link to E-LECT Instructor profileL
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(*Note: The following section is intended to serve prospective teachers/teaching aides. All information is available online on the respective institution websites) South Central College: Quick glance Official College website: City/population: Faribault/22,733, Mankato area/48,310 Tuition and fees (2008-2009): $4,515 FAFSA code: 005537 Enrollment: Total number students served: 4,857 Full-year equivalent enrollment: 2,344 Percent female: 53.2% Percent male: 46.8% Percent students of color: 5.9% Degrees offered: Associate in Arts, Associate in Science, Associate in Applied Science, diplomas, certificates (Minnesota State Colleges and Universities 2008, "South Central College")
2008-2009 Tuition and Fees Through Summer 2009
Cost Per Credit
Tuition* Online Tuition** Student Activity Fee MSCSA Technology Fee Total Total for Online Courses
$135.20 $169.70 $5.00 $0.31 $10.00 $150.51 per credit $185.01 per credit
(Minnesota State Colleges and Universities 2008, "Tuition and fees") 23
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South Central College: Teaching Programs Child Development Careers The Child Development program is designed to establish foundations in early childhood education, improve the quality of early childhood services, and increase professionalism in the field. Students will learn skills, such as; guidance techniques, health and safety, cultural sensitivity, curriculum planning, enhancing literacy and interpersonal communication. Education for early childhood licensure is provided by South Central College according to the Minnesota Department of Human Services requirements. Individuals will be prepared for careers in a variety of early childhood and educational settings. Graduates may pursue positions such as early childhood teachers or assistants, or as paraprofessionals within a school system. Current degree options include: 17 credit certificate (online option available) 34 credit diploma 66 credit AAS degree 66 credit AAS degree with a paraprofessional emphasis 60 credit AS degree Graduates receiving an A.S. degree in Child Development may transfer the degree to Minnesota State University, Mankato to pursue a B.S. in Early Childhood Education. Eligibility Requirements: To be enrolled in the Child Development program, the following requirements need to be met: 1. A background check conducted by the Minnesota Department of Human Services. 2. A high school diploma, an equivalency certificate or participating as a PSEO student. 3. Maintain a C or higher in all technical courses while enrolled in the program. 4. Program Core Competencies As a result of completing this program, the student will be able to: 1. Display knowledge of guidance techniques that promote positive adult child relationships. 2. Understand developmental milestones. 3. Demonstrate the ability to choose age appropriate activities; plan, develop and implement lesson plans. 4. Demonstrate knowledge of appropriate physical environments for learning. 5. Demonstrate techniques for observing, recording and analyzing observations. 6. Identify and implement techniques of collaboration with parents, colleagues, children and community services. (South Central College 2008) 24 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Inver Hills Community College: Quick glance
Official College website:
Course Catalogue is available at
Important contacts:
Name Diana Butzlaff Nancy Kaczrowski Anne Auten Cheryl Redinger Thomas Reis James Tift
Telephone #
Education [email protected]
(651)450-8345 x982
Education/Human services [email protected] x991
Urban Teacher [email protected]
Human Services [email protected]
Human Services
[email protected] (651)554-3717
Human Services
[email protected] (651)450-8345 x923
· Over 8,000 credit students (unduplicated headcount) · 3,656 Full-Year Equivalent (FYE) students in 2007-2008 · Average age approximately 24 (about one-half traditional college age and one-half adult/ returning students) · 59% women, 41% men · 17% students of color · 39% full-time (12 credits or more) · Recent data shows that 36% of full-time students (12 credits or more) are first-generation college enrollees · 101 regular full-time faculty; 144 part-time and adjunct faculty (Nov 2008) · 57 academic disciplines; 24 two-year degree options, and 29 certificates · 1,700 credit classes scheduled (fall, spring, summer) · Approximately 10,000 students served through Continuing Education/Customized Training · More than 60 percent of Inver Hills graduates go on to four-year institutions
(Inver Hills Community College 2008, "About Inver Hills")
Tuition and Fees Tuition 2008-2009
Standard Tuition
Online courses tuition
Computer Nursing tuition Networking (CNT) tuition
Student life/activity fee $4.47
Technology fee
health services fee
Parking user fee
Student association fee $0.31
Total per credit
(Inver Hills Community College 2008, "Tuition and fees") 25
Paramedic(EHS) tuition $149.92-$229.92 $4.47 $7.00 $0.95 $2.50 $0.31 $165.15-$245.15
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Inver Hills Community College: Teaching Programs Urban Teacher Program (UTP) Applicants to the Urban Teacher Program (UTP) enroll in specially designed courses that will introduce them to the world of teaching. This program offers hands-on field experience with children of various grade levels in urban classrooms. Please contact the college for further information. (Inver Hills Community College 2008, "2007-2009 Course catalogue") Purpose: This degree program is designed to provide a comprehensive, quality, pre-professional education curriculum that facilitates equal access to relevant upper division teacher education licensure programs as well as staff development opportunities for urban educators that address diversity, resiliency and reflective best practice. A program graduate will present to a four-year education licensure program an e-folio that documents the student's experiences in the first two years and serves as a foundation for upper division work in MnSCU or private institutions especially supportive of non-traditional or historically under-served students. Graduates have the knowledge, skills and dispositions needed to support improved academic outcomes among urban learners; education paraprofessionals meet teacher quality standards. (Inver Hills Community College 2008, "A.S., Education: Urban teacher") The Program offers three tracks: - Elementary Education Major - Middle School/Secondary Education Major - Early Childhood Education Major Potential Classes: EDU 1130 Early Childhood Education (3 credits) Provides an opportunity for students to explore the early childhood education field as caregivers of young children. Individuals will explore their role as a practitioner through self-exploration, classroom activities, and group activities. HSER 1130 and EDU 1130 are co-listed; department should be selected at registration. EDU 1132 Creative Activities for the Young Child (2 credits) Presents the principles needed to plan creative experiences for young children in all curriculum areas. Creative activities and experiences will be explored that enhance children's social, emotional, cognitive, language, and physical developmental. Materials fee required. EDU 1143 Multicultural Education/Human Relations (3 credits) Emphasizes the development of classroom teachers who are multiculturally informed, gender fair, and disability aware. Examines issues such as racism, sexism, oppression, prejudice and discrimination. The course aims to increase students' capacity to identify, discuss, and reflect on the ethical dimensions of political, social and personal life and to examine the responsibility of 26 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
classroom teachers to practice productive citizenship. Emphasis is on demonstrating multicultural competence required of all successful teachers working with diverse youth. Designed to meet State of Minnesota human relations requirement for teacher licensure. EDU 2010 Teaching Emergent Readers (2 credits) Focuses on theories and strategies related to emergent literacy in both pre-school and classroom settings. Models methods and appropriate learning activities, explores assessment tools and practices, and identifies appropriate books that promote beginning reading. Intended for prospective early childhood or primary teachers, school paraprofessionals, and other educators working with emergent readers. EDU 2011 Teaching reading comprehension (2 credits) Examines ways to improve students' reading comprehension. The class is intended for paraprofessionals, prospective teachers and other educators working with reading in the content area. The material presented will focus on expository text structures, vocabulary development, and the schema theory. Methods and appropriate activities will be modeled in class. Comparisons will be made between narrative and expository texts. EDU 2012 Essentials Of Effective Instruction (2 credits) Implements and internalizes effective practices in the areas of: Classroom and group management, time on task, interactive direct instruction, differentiated instruction, cooperative small group management, teacher feedback, and praise; while practicing the use of research. Educational assistance and other prospective educators interact with each other while they study research which: 1.) Examines the practices of more effective and less effective teachers, 2.) Looks at educators as reflective practitioners and, 3) Studies educators' knowledge. EDU 2805 Introduction to Children's Literature (2 credits) Introduces students to the study and evaluation of literature (picture books, folktales, fantasy, Realistic fiction, historical function, young adult fiction, and nonfiction) written for children of all ages. Intended for students interested in a teaching career or in working with children, but is open to all interested students who meet the course prerequisite. Access to public libraries is required. Prereq: Placement in ENG 1108 or satisfactory completion of ENG 1108 prerequisite. (Inver Hills Community College 2008, "Education") Human Services Courses are open to students interested in obtaining an A.S. degree or certificate in Human Services as well as students interested in the content who are not seeking a degree. Firsthand experience and a focus on implementation of skills and techniques prepares students for work in a variety of helping professions or for transfer to a bachelor's degree in Human Services or Social Work. Concentrated certificates are available in Human Services Assistant and Childcare Teacher. Course descriptions for HSER courses appear below. For faculty contact information and websites (if available), use the staff search function link below and select Human Services in "Department." For degree and 27 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
certificate information, click on the link below for Career Programs and go to Human Services in the alphabetical listing of programs. Human Services Department link: Potential Classes: HSER 1104 Multicultural Awareness in the Helping Profession (3 Credits) Examines attitudes and enhances knowledge and skills that are necessary to work effectively with culturally diverse populations in the human services field. Students will explore their own and others' cultural identities, values, attitudes, and behaviors. Emphasis is placed on how to adjust services to the multicultural needs of individuals who are served. HSER 1121 Adolescent and Youth Work (2 Credits) Focuses on learning about adolescents, identifying their developmental stage, tasks and goals, and how to work with them concerning their mental and physical health needs. Common adolescent crisis problems and cases will be explored, including assessment and intervention strategies. This course is for Human Service Students, counselors, other helping professionals, law enforcement personnel, teachers and parents. HSER 1128 Guidance, Communication and Development of Young Children (3 credits) Discuses developmental characteristics of infants, toddlers and preschool children with emphasis on stages of and individual differences in rates and styles of learning. Incorporates guidance principles and techniques in order to better understand the child's behavior and improve skills in working with children in various situations. HSER 1128 and EDU 1128 are co-listed; department should be selected at registration. HSER 1130 Early Childhood Education (3 credits) Provides an opportunity for students to explore the early childhood education field as caregivers of young children. Individuals will explore their role as a practitioner through self-exploration, classroom activities, and group activities. HSER 1130 and EDU 1130 are co-listed; department should be selected at registration. Credit will be given in only one department. HSER 1132 Creative Activities for the Young Child (2 credits) Presents the principles needed to plan creative experiences for infants, toddlers, and young children in all curriculum areas. Creative activities and experiences will be explored that enhance children's social, emotional, cognitive, language, and physical development. Materials fee required. HSER 1132 and EDU 1132 are co-listed; department should be selected at registration. HSER 1195 Urban Education: Early Childhood Birth To Grade 3 (3 credits) Gives students a perspective on teaching at the early childhood through third-grade levels in an urban setting. In addition to attending the weekly 2-hour discussions, students will complete 30 volunteer hours in an early childhood program or elementary school. The lecture/discussion groups and guest speakers will focus on such issues as curriculum, Minnesota Early Childhood Indicators of Progress, classroom management, various cultures, parent-teacher communication, classroom issues, and technology in the classroom. EDU 1195 and HSER 1195 are co-listed; department should be selected at registration. Credit will be given in only one department. Prerequisites: EDU 1191 or instructor permission; HSER 1195 has no prerequisite. 28 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Works Cited Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet. 2008. "Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet." Accessed 13 December 2008. Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet. 2008. "ELL." Accessed 13 December 2008. Adams Spanish Immersion Magnet. 2008. "FAQ about ELL/Preguntas comunes sobre ELL." an_Qu_significa_ELL. Accessed 13 December 2008. Auten, Anne. 2008. Interviewed by Jack Adams, December 11. Northfield, MN. Calhoon, Mary Beth, and Stephanie Al Otaiba and David Cihak and Amber King and Annalise Avalos. 2007. Effects of a peer-mediated program on reading skill acquisition for two-way bilingual first-grade classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly 30:169-184. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 1 December 2008. Coulter, Cathy and Mary Lee Smith. 2006. English language learners in a comprehensive high school. Bilingual Research Journal 30: 309-335. De Jong, Ester J. 2002. Effective bilingual education: From theory to academic achievement in a two-way bilingual program. Bilingual Research Journal 26, no.1:1-20. Available through Directory of Open Access Journals in the Bilingual Research Journal Online. Accessed 3 December 2008. ____________. 2006. Integrated bilingual education: An alternative approach. Bilingual Research Journal 30, no.1:23-44. Available through Directory of Open Access Journals in the Bilingual Research Journal Online. Accessed 3 December 2008. Escamilla, Kathy. 2006. Semilingualism applied to the literacy behaviors of Spanish-speaking emerging bilinguals: Bi-iliteracy or emerging biliteracy? Teachers College Record 108, no.11:23292353. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 2 December 2008. Fitts, Shanan. 2006. Reconstructing the status quo: Linguistic interaction in a dual-language school. Bilingual Research Journal 29, no.2:337-365. Available through Directory of Open Access Journals in the Bilingual Research Journal Online. Accessed 3 December 2008. Friedman, Ian C. 2004. Education reform. New York: Facts On File, Inc. Gillanders, Cristina. 2007. An English-speaking prekindergarten teacher for young Latino children: Implications of the teacher-child relationship on second language learning. Early Childhood Education Journal 35, no.1:47-54. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 30 November 2008. Grenz, Lynn. 2008. Interviewed by Jack Adams, December 10. Northfield, MN. 29 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Hale, Aileen, and Jennifer Snow-Gerono and Fernanda Morales. 2008. Transformative education for culturally diverse learners through narrative and ethnography. Teacher and Teaching Education 24:1413-1425. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 29 November 2008. Hardy, Lawrence. 2007. Coping with illegal immigrants in school. Education Vital Signs: 4-6. Horwedel, Dina. 2005. Bringing a cultural consciousness to the classroom. Issues in Higher Education 22, no.17:30-32. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 1 December 2008. Inver Hills Community College. 2008. "2007-2009 Course Catalogue." Accessed 27 November 2008. Inver Hills Community College. 2008. "A.S., Education: Urban teacher." Accessed 27 November 2008. Inver Hills Community College. 2008. "About Inver Hills." Accessed 27 November 2008. Inver Hills Community College. 2008. "Education." Accessed 27 November 2008. Inver Hills Community College. 2008. "Tuition and fees." Accessed 27 November 2008. Jia, Yueming, and Zohreh R. Eslami, and Lynn M. Burlbaw. 2006. ESL teachers perceptions and factors influencing their use of classroom-based reading assessment. Bilingual Research Journal 30: 407-430. Jimйnez, Terese C, and Alexis L. Filippini and Michael M. Gerber. 2006. Shared reading within Latino families: An analysis of reading interactions and language use. Bilingual Research Journal 30, no.2:431-452. Available through Directory of Open Access Journals in the Bilingual Research Journal Online. Accessed 3 December 2008. Joyce Pre-School. 2008. "Bienvenidos." Accessed 13 December 2008. Joyce Pre-School. 2008. "Welcome." Accessed 13 December 2008. Lapayese, Yvette V. 2007. Understanding and undermining the racio-economic agenda of No Child Left Behind: Using critical race methodology to investigate the labor of bilingual teachers. Race Ethnicity and Education 10, no.3:309-321. Found using ERIC CSA database. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 29 November 2008. Loveless, Tom. 2005. Test-based accountability: The promise and perils. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution Press. 30 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Loveless, Tom. 2007. The 2007 Brown Center report on American education: How well are American students learning? Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, Brown Center on Education Policy. Loveless, Tom. 2008. High achieving students in the era of NCLB. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, Brown Center on Education Policy. Mahon, Jennifer. 2006. Under the invisibility cloak? Teacher understanding of cultural difference. Intercultural education 17, no.4:391-405. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 2 December 2008. McKown, Kelly. 2008. Interviewed by Jack Adams, December 11. Northfield, MN. Menken, Kate. 2006. Teaching to the test: How no child left behind impacts language policy, curriculum, and instruction for English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal 30: 521546. Michael, Ali, and Norma Andrade and Lesley Bartlett. 2007. Figuring "success" in a bilingual high school. The Urban Review 39, no.2:167-189. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 2 December 2008. Minnesota State Colleges and Universities. 2008. "South Central college." Accessed 27 November 2008. Minnesota State Colleges and Universities. 2008. "Tuition and fees." Accessed 8 December 2008. Olson, Kate. 2007. Lost opportunities to learn: The effects of education policy on primary language instruction for English learners. Linguistics and Education 18:121-141. Available through Academic Search Premier. Accessed 20 November 2008. Ortiz, Ivan. 2008. Interviewed by Jack Adams, December 10. Northfield, MN. Rossell, Christine H. 2000. The federal bilingual education program. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution Press. Sandoval-Lucero, Elena. 2006. Recruiting paraeducators into bilingual teaching roles: The importance of support, supervision, and self-efficacy. Bilingual Research Journal 30, no.1:195218. Available through Directory of Open Access Journals in the Bilingual Research Journal Online. Accessed 3 December 2008. Schmidt, Ronald Sr. 2000. Language policy and identity politics in the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. South Central College. 2008. "Child development careers." Accessed 27 November 2008. Stanford, Darcy. 2008. Interviewed by Jack Adams, December 11. Northfield, MN. 31 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::
Viteritti, Joseph P. 2005. School choice: How an abstract idea became a political reality. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution Press. York, Stacey. 2008. Interviewed by Jack Adams, December 11. Northfield, MN. 32 PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial ::

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