Urban land use planning, policies and management in sub saharan african countries: Empirical evidence from akure, nigeria, A Aribigbola

Tags: Urban Research Symposium, Nigeria, Ondo State, Akure, land use planning, accessibility, Land Use, land management, Housing, Nigerian Institute of Town Planners, land ownership, Urban and Regional Planning, Ministry of Works, Ibadan University Press, Sustainable Development, Urban Planning, land use control, government, land use management, STUDY AREA Akure, Urban Environmental Management, land problems, urban land markets, Ministry of Lands and Housing, Physical Planning, Urban Management Program, Development, World Development, land use plan, Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Built Environment, dependent variable, urban land, urban development, land development, Planning Sciences Adekunle Ajasin University, public policies, Urban Land Use Planning, efficient management, urban land use, land owners, Federal Government of Nigeria, land markets, independent variables, Square Square Change Statistics Change Change, acquisition of land, Acquisition of land Ownership, Town Planning Division
Content: Urban Land Use Planning, Policies and Management in Sub Saharan African Countries: Empirical Evidence from Akure, Nigeria Afolabi Aribigbola (PhD, MNITP, RTP) Department of Geography and Planning Sciences Adekunle Ajasin University P. M. B. 001 Akungba Akoko Ondo state Nigeria E-mail: [email protected] Summary This paper examines urban land use planning, policies and management in sub Saharan Africa using Akure, Nigeria as a case study with a view to determining its effects on land accessibility. It discusses land use control mechanisms and constraints to land use management. The basic data set for the paper was generated by a systematic survey of land owners from the nine wards into which the city was stratified. Other relevant materials were sourced from published sources including government departments. Frequency tables, percentages and regression analytic techniques were employed to analyze the data. The paper reveals that although land use planning and policies and mechanisms are in place in the city, they are not fully implemented and do not have any significant effect on land accessibility. Reinvigoration of land use policies including amendment of the land use act was advocated. Key Words: Land Use Planning, Land accessibility, Land use control mechanism, Policies, Sub Sahara Africa, Ownership of land and land management.
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 I. INTRODUCTION Nigeria is one of the most rapidly urbanizing countries in Africa and the challenges that come with this, especially in the provision of adequate housing and basic services are major challenges that government faces (FMH&UD, 2003). Attempts to meet the challenges facing the built environment in the country motivated the government to articulate and introduce some programs and policies as well as created institutions to control and manage urban land use. Despite the various efforts of government, individuals and agencies both locally and internationally to improve urban development and particularly those associated with land use conversion and management, land use problems particularly shortages and affordability still persist. The questions that need to be addressed include; why do land use problems still persist despite the various government interventions and actions? Under what conditions or situation or circumstances are the policy packages introduced? Do the land use management practices, condition and circumstances prevailing in the country permit the kind of policy introduced and what are the situational factors that hinder effective or efficient management of land use in developing societies such as Nigeria? and what are the effects of these policies on land and housing markets particularly in context of developing world cities. The growing problems of land use and the design of effective and efficient management systems to combat crisis and degradation accompanying uncontrolled and unguided use of land has attracted international, national and local attentions. The most serious problems confronting cities and towns and their inhabitants as enumerated by the Habitant II Agenda (2002) include improper land use and insecure tenure among others. How does land reform affect people's access to land for housing, cost and the land market mechanism in context of developing world cities like Akure? Therefore, in the last few decades, several legislations and legal issuances on land development and environmental management have been introduced. Rising costs of land and accessibility to urban land in Nigeria like most developing countries, has become a serious issue in urban areas of the country. Conventionally policy makers are blamed for this problem, which has been attributable to a number of factors including corruption and lack of interests to adopt alternative land use systems. Therefore, in an attempt to meet the challenges facing the built environment in Nigeria, a number of programmes and policies impinging on urban land use and land markets have been articulated and introduced. These policies embrace the direct construction of housing, sites-and services programme, the 1978 Land Use Act that purports to transfer the ownership and management of land from individuals and communal ownership to public ownership, the 1991 National Housing Policy as well as the revised and reinvigorated National Housing and Urban Development policy of 2002. The 2002 National Housing Policy sought to ensure that all Nigerians own or have access to decent, safe and sanitary housing accommodation at affordable cost with secure tenure through private sector initiative with government encouragement and involvement. The policy reflects Nigerian government acceptance and commitment to the Habitat Agenda adopted by 171 national governments of achieving "Adequate Shelter for All" and Sustainable human Settlement". And the Urban and Regional Planning law of 1992 that seeks to re-organize physical planning in Nigeria as well as its Ondo State version termed Ondo State Urban and Regional Planning Edict enacted in 1999. This paper explores land use control mechanisms and organizational structure as well as policies instituted to manage urban public land in sub Sahara Africa using Akure, the Ondo 2
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 capital as a case study. Ondo State is one of the 36 states of Nigeria. The paper identifies and discusses the effects of public policies on people's accessibility to land, costs of land as well as identifies constraints to effective and efficient management of public land in the study area. II. conceptual framework AND RELEVANT LITERATURE Land has been identified as a function of virtually all forms of production (Ratcliff, 1976). Land is required for various uses in both the urban and rural areas of all society. As nations grow in size and rural areas become urban centers and urban centers become large metropolitan areas, there is always increased competition as well as demand for land for different purposes. This requires adequate planning and control to ensure harmonious development and functional efficiency of these uses and settlements. Conceptually, the Von Ludwig Bettalanffy's (1971) General System Theory provides an appropriate framework for comparing the mutual interdependence of land use policies, accessibility to land and integrated land use management systems. Akin to the General Systems theory where everything affects everything else are the trans-boundary effects of local and regional policies on land and allied resources, which today have assumed remarkable currency. Consequently, local policies are no longer viewed in their isolationist context, but within the broader framework of constraints and opportunities afforded by the 21st century information technology. According to Ratcliff (1976), as a common factor and denominator in the framing and execution of the social and economic policies of nations, in the allocation, use and management of land should be done to guarantee access and equity, which the Land Use Act (1978), aimed to achieve in Nigeria. In particular, population increases arising from uncontrolled natural births and rural-urban migration, and a growing commercial sense, have combined to re-orientate the traditional communal land holding status of the Nigerian lands (Ola, 1983). From the planning perspective, land represents a mosaic that ought to be regulated to ensure conformity and balance of the built environment (Bailey, 1975; Ratcliff, 1976). However, the general inefficiency associated with majority of the developing countries' land policies, and the absence of secure tenure, adequate land management capacity among others, have been cited by Bernstein (1994), Hardoy and Satlerwaite (1989), as serious problems precipitating existing land crises in these countries. Inappropriate instruments and weak institutional structures are among the cavalcade of problems plaguing the commodity. However, the existence of crises in the Nigerian land market is paradoxical, if not an anathema, judging from the whooping 913,072.64 square kilometers of land that lay to be shared among the estimated 140 million Nigerians (neglecting the hills, rivers, swamps, and other uninhabitable areas). Nonetheless, the existence of crises in the Nigerian land market could be traced to rapid and uncontrolled migration, natural increase and urbanization, existing socio-cultural cleavages, lack of secure tenure, inadequate information, inappropriate and inefficient land policies and instruments, weak institutional structures and lack of land management capacity, among other factors (Bernstein, 1994). The literature on urban land markets began with the work of Isard (1956), Alonso (1964), Muth (1961), Mills (1967) and others. The literature reveals that land is a factor of production, essential to the provision of urban housing and infrastructural services and production of agricultural foods (Agbola, Olatubara and Olorunfemi, 2002,). At the same time, land is demanded as a financial asset (Salazar et al, 1990). Conventional explanations have blamed indigenous people for being conservative and strongly inclined towards traditional land use practices which constraints the promotion of alternative land uses (eg., Forestall, 1966; Sfer- 3
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 Yonis, 1993; Rasul,2005) . Such simplistic explanations are not satisfactory, because studies from a number of societies such as Kenya (Tiffen and Mortmore, 1994), Nepal (Thapa, 1998), Java in Indonesia (Angelsen, 1995), and Thailand (Turkelboom et al., 1996) suggest that indigenous people do adopt sustainable land use practices when the necessary policy and institutional supports are available (Rasul, 2005). Geertz (1963) showed that when a policy environment is unfavorable, population pressure may lead to `involution', where existing systems are continued through internal readjustments instead of moving to the next hierarchical level of intensification. It is now increasingly realized that policies and programmes to promote sustainable land use should be based on a firm understanding of the past and how past policies and courses of action have conditioned existing land use practices (Bryant, 1997). Thus, Rasul (2005), analyzed how changes in policies and laws have influenced land use in Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), Asia. On the operation of the land markets, Dowall (1989), in his study of housing markets in Bangkok, contended that an ample supply of land, strong competition among developers and builders, and adequate supply of finance are necessary conditions for the efficient operation of the land market, especially in the fastest growing cities of the developing countries. These three conditions apply to urban land markets (Salazer et al, 1995). Conceptual construct on urban land use generally draws from three different descriptive and prominent classical theories of Burgess (1925), Hoyt (1939) and Harris and Ulman (1964). These models were developed to generalize about the patterns of urban land use found in early industrial cities of the United States. One of the earliest attempts to model the nature of urban land use was presented by E.W Burgess in 1925. The concentric zone model articulated by him states that as city grow; it expands radically around the Central Business District (CBD) to form a series of concentric circles. The operating mechanism of the concentric circle model was the growth and radial expansion of the city with each zone having a tendency to expand outward. The model was based on ecological principle of invasion and succession and therefore, was designed as both statement of function zonation of urban growth (Murdie, 1971). In Hoyt`s model, the central business district remains as a circular form at the centre of the city while residential area of similar socio-economic status originating near the centre tend to migrate in sectors towards the urban fringe. (Murdie, 1971). Socio-economic status then varies according to an angular measurement about the city center. The multiple nuclei model as applied to urban areas was first suggested by R.M. Hurd and R.D. Mckenzie and later elaborated upon by C.D. Harris and E.L Ullman. According to Murdie (1974), the basic notion of this model is that urban land uses concentrate around several nuclei rather than a single core. It is an amalgam of Burgess and Hoyt's model with the addition of multiple nucleus, there are many nuclei in the city. That the central business district is not necessarily located at the geometric centre of the city, but may be off to one side, other nuclei may be centers of industry, wholesaling, education, etc. On land use planning and controls Levy (2003) identified two major ways in which a municipality may shape its pattern of land use. According to him, these are the public capital investment and legal controls over the use of privately owned property. In this context, public capital investment creates specific facilities which make up part of the total land use pattern; while land use control embraces subdivision regulations which essentially control the manner in which new land is subdivided and placed on the market for development and zoning ordinances. Besides, other land use control measures identified in the literature include site planning review, architectural review (building planning) and historical preservation. 4
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 With regards to land management, the UN-Habitat Conference of 1976 held in Vancouver, Canada, recommended public land management and control as the surest way of ensuring efficient and equitable distribution of land resources. Thus, public land management is expected to among other things; guarantee equitable distribution of land rights on the basis of non-commercial criteria; empower government to ensure a more judicious, orderly and healthy development of urban areas; guarantee cheaper and easier access to land for both public and private land development; and curb speculation which was believed to be the main cause of escalating land prices in the periphery of urban areas (Omirin, 2003). In Nigeria, the literature on urban land use indicates a strong adherent to the conventional land use planning approach. Most major cities including Lagos, Kaduna, Port Harcourt, Onitsha, Enugu, Aba and some in other parts of Niger Delta region have been developing with the conventional land use approach (Jiboye, 2005). This has generated diverse urban problems manifesting in the form of deterioration of cities into slums, pollution, congestion, unsanitary condition and epidemics. Nigerian cities are reputed to be the dirtiest, most unsanitary, least aesthetically pleasing and dangerously unsafe for living (Agbola, 2002). They are characterized by non-functioning infrastructural facilities, most poorly governed, intensively dotted with illegal structures, while physical growth and development of the cities had not been properly managed or controlled (Aluko, 2000). According to Falade (2003), land use plans for most cities often seek to make life better for the masses living in cities as a major goal, but the reality of the case is that these lofty and laudable goals are never achieved. Thus, people in urban areas wallow not only in abject poverty, but they also do not live in planned urban areas, which are "orderly safe, convenient and healthy living environment' that is promised as the gains of land use planning (Falade, 2003; Baba, 2003). In addition however, past studies of land use in Nigeria have focused on availability of land for physical development and the evaluation of acceptability or otherwise of the Land Use Act, 1978 of (Olaore, 1983, 1985; Uchedu, 1979; Udo, 1990). Some focused on analysis of the provision of the implementation of the Act (Egunjobi, 1990; Omotola, 1984; and Otonio, 1985), while Onibokun (1995) examined the relationship of the law to urban land use planning and urban land prices and urban spatial pattern. Adeniyi (1987) contended that the use and misuse of land over time and space are indicators of cultural, economic, political and technological attributes of users and the laws under which they operate, while Omirin (2003) emphasized that access to land is a function of physical, economic, institutional and contextual factors Constraints to access can therefore emanate from any of these sources. From the perspective of land users Omirin (2003) asserted that accessibility comprises of availability of usable land, affordability, the convenience with which the cost of the land can be paid without undue financial strait, security of tenure, the assurance that possession, occupation, development and use of the land will be free from intrusion, conflicting claims, disturbance and sudden loss, and ease of transaction. The literature reveals that recent analyses of urban land markets shows a growing concern for policy and regulatory issues but lacks a robust framework capable of showing how land markets functions, the major policy and regulatory constraints that affect efficient land operation (Agbola, et al 2002). In addition past studies have also not adequately focused the effect of institutional structure and government policies on land accessibility and ownership, and the functioning of the urban land market that is germane to sustainable land use planning and city development in contemporary times. Therefore, this current study is germane to understanding urban land use dynamics in context of developing world by empirical determination of the factors influencing urban land and 5
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 housing markets. The focus on empirical determination of the predictors of urban land markets variables will afford a richer understanding of the major determinants of land markets and their effects on land ownership and management that could aid and facilitate design of realistic land use planning policy in Nigeria and similar developing societies. III. THE STUDY AREA Akure is a traditional Nigerian city and like other traditional Yoruba towns in the country, it existed long before the advent of British colonial rule in the country. The city is located within Ondo State in the South Western part of Nigeria. Ondo State is one of the 36 states of Nigeria. It lies approximately on latitude 70 151 North of the Equator and longitude 50 151 East of the Greenwich Meridian. Akure is a medium- sized urban centre and became the provincial headquarter of Ondo province in 1939. It also became the capital city of Ondo State and a local government headquarters in 1976. Consequently, there was heterogeneous massing of people and activities in the city (M.W & H, 1980). The city's morphology has changed over time to assume its present status with its attendant land problems, as experienced in similar medium sized urban centers in Nigeria. Akure is located approximately 700 kilometers South West of Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria and about 350 kilometers to Lagos the former capital of Nigeria. It is located within the tropical rain forest region of Nigeria where rainfall is high through the year. The increased relative political influence of Akure as a state capital since 1976 has greatly promoted its rapid growth and increased socio-economic activities resulting in its spatial expansion from an area of about 16 squares kilometers in 1980 to about 30 square kilometers in 2000 (Ministry of Works, Lands and Housing, 2000) The population of the city grew from 38, 852 in 1952 to 71,106 in 1963. Its population was estimated to be 112,850 in 1980 (DHV, 1985); and 157,947 in 1990 (Ondo State of Nigeria, 1990). The 1991 national population census however, puts the population of Akure at 239,124 and its estimated population in 1996 was 269,207 (NPC, 1996). At present using a population growth rate of 3 percent, the city is estimated to have over 380,000 people. As a result of its designation as a State Capital in 1976, Akure experiences more accelerated growth and more serious problems compared to other towns in Ondo State (DHV, 1984) IV. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS The empirical research in this paper focuses on land use planning and management in Akure. The case study was chosen on the pragmatic basis that it offers access to richer data than most towns in its regional setting of Ondo state as a result of its dual role as a state capital and local government headquarter as well as the seat of most federal establishment in the area. The scope of this paper therefore, requires a comprehensive data set containing variables on households' characteristics, indicators of accessibility to urban land and its characteristics including costs, rents, and mode of accessibility to land, size and institutions responsible for managing land in Akure among others. The paper is based on primary and secondary sources of data. The Primary data was collected from direct interviews, personal observations and responses to questionnaires administered on selected land owners in Akure and heads of institutions, departments and agencies responsible for land use planning and management in the city. Secondary data were obtained from Ministry of Lands and Housing, Ondo State Development and Property Corporation, and Urban Planning Authority in Akure. The basic data set for the paper was therefore collected using a structured questionnaire administered to selected residents 6
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 of Akure. Systematic sampling technique was used to select buildings at intervals of every tenth building in the nine wards into which the city was stratified. In all, a total of 1,266 questionnaires were administered on land owners. The Directors of Department of Urban and Regional planning and Lands Services of Ministry of Works, Lands and Housing were interviewed. In addition, other relevant materials and data were sourced from published sources including government departments, journals, newspapers, textbooks and internet among others. Frequency tables, percentages and regression analytic techniques were employed to explain and amplify the results of the research. Land use accessibility estimates are estimated using a sample of landowners selected in a field survey conducted by the author in 2006. The landowner's variables are constructed from the perspective of a reference individual, which is the individual filling out the questionnaire. The model specification includes characteristics of the reference person, sources and ownership of land and methods of land use management in Akure. Monthly income is constructed using only the individual landowners' income and land accessibility variables. The interrelationships between land accessibility variables, household characteristics and land use characteristics (dependent and independent variables) were explored using the stepwise multiple regression analysis technique. This technique is not only capable of handling the problem of interactions among the independent variables but also it enables us to know the contribution or importance of each variable (or linear composite of variable) to the explanation of variation in the dependent variable (land accessibility). It also allows the prediction of value of the dependent variable. According to Bryman, et al (1990) the equation of multiple regression of y (dependent variable) on X1, X2... Xn (independent variables) is given as: Y = a + b1x1 + b2x2 ........................ bnxn + e Where, X1, X2.... Xn are the independent variables b1, b2 ... bn are multiples regression coefficients for the independent variables (the slope of the regression line relative to x-axis) `a' is an error term which points to the fact that a proportion of the variance in the dependent variable, y is unexplained by the Regression equation. In order to identify what effect the independent variables have on the dependent variable, coefficient of determination is considered. In multiple regressions, this effect is measured by the coefficient of multiple determinations (R2), which is the ratio of the sum of squared due to regression to total sum of squares. The coefficient of multiple determination is used to compute the proportion of the variance of the dependent variable that is due to the combined effects of the independent variables. The regression analysis is undertaken to identify and determine the influence of some independent variables on key index of ownership and use of land in Akure. V. LAND USE PLANNING AND POLICIES IN AKURE V. I Land Use Planning in Akure Formal land use planning and management in Nigeria began in 1863 with the enactment of the Town Improvement Ordinance by the colonial government (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1863). The ordinance was meant to control development and urban sanitation in Lagos, then the federal capital of Nigeria. However, modern planning could be said to begin in the country in 1946 when the Nigerian Town and Country Ordinance was enacted. Western Region where Akure was located enacted its own Town and Country Planning law that forms chapter 123 of the laws of Western Nigeria. This law among other provisions established Town Planning 7
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 Authorities (TPAS), which were to control and guide the orderly development of the settlements within their jurisdiction by approving proposals for physical development and the preparation of development schemes and land use plans (Olujimi, 1993). In March 1979, as a result of the poor staffing situation and non-availability of a staff pension scheme, Ondo State government abolished the Area Planning Authorities (APAs) including Akure Area Planning Authority. In its place, a unified town planning control system was adopted which centred all town planning activities in the Town Planning Division of the Ministry of Lands and Housing. Following the centralisation of planning in Ondo State in 1979, the responsibility of planning Akure was taken over by the state government and the Town Planning Division (now Department of Urban and Regional Planning) of the Ministry of Works and Housing. As a result of the need to guide and control development of the city as a state capital and to also cope with the rapid growth of the city, a private planning consultant was commission by the state government to prepare a master plan for the city. The plan that covers the period 1980 ­ 2000 was completed in 1983. The plan was reviewed in 1998 .by the officials of the ministry. At present, the planning, control and management of land in the city is undertaken by the Departments of Urban and Regional Planning, Land Services and Survey, Ministry of works, Lands and Housing, Akure. They discharge different but complimentary functions. The Department of Land Services is responsible for allocating public lands, issuance of Certificate of Occupancy (C.of O.) and management of government lands and estates in the city. The Department of Urban and Regional planning is responsible for the preparation of government layout plans and development schemes, approval of development plans (i.e. building plans, layout plans, etc) and general physical development control through its Area Urban and Regional planning Office in the city. Whereas, the Survey Department is in charge of mapping government lands, vetting and approval of survey plans prepared by private consultants in the city. V. II: Land Use Policies in Akure Land policies are the rules, customs and regulations guiding the use, allocation, distribution, planning and management of land resources. The Federal Military Government of Nigeria issued a land use Decree (No6) (Now Land Use Act) of March 1978, which purports to take over the ownership and control of land in the country thereby providing a uniform legal basis for a comprehensive national land tenure system. It is a national land policy that seeks to streamline the ownership, acquisition and disposition of land. Before the promulgation of the Act there are differences between different parts of the country. With regards to tenure laws the cardinal principle of all customary land tenure in Nigeria is that land belongs to all the people who may be held by families, communities and individuals. The right of access is based on the privilege of being a member of the family or community. Acquisition under the customary law used to be through cultivation, building, fencing and the like. There were no coherent and comprehensive land policies for Nigeria before the Land Use Act of 1978. the entrance of the Land Use Act on to the Nigerian land scene was essentially to remove the obvious serious inequality and insecurity associated with the land tenure system (Ola, 1984), and to facilitate an arrangement that would revolutionize the country. Thus, in March 1978, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) promulgated the Land Use Decree (LUD) aimed at radicalizing land ownership and land development in Nigeria (Onibokun, 1995). Government and individuals approached communities for land for farming, housing or planning services etc., with all the socio-cultural implications. With respect to strategic town planning services, such as the preparation, implementation and management of planning schemes, however, the Town Planning Ordinance 8
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 gave the planning authorities the power to expropriate lands for the preparation of planning schemes, (and to compensate for the expropriation), and wide powers too, to regulate the manner and type of developments on the schemes in order to ensure that lands are used and developed in the best planning principles. The Land Use Decree 1978 was instituted to achieve a number of objectives prominent among them was to solve the problems of lack of immediate availability of land for use when required by all concerned; curb the activities of land speculators. In sum it was introduced to remove bitter controversies resulting at times in the loss of lives and limbs, which the land is known to be generating, streamline and simplify the management and ownership of land in the country, assist the citizenry, irrespective of his social status to realize his ambition and aspiration of owning the place where he and his family will live a secured and peaceful life, and enable the government to bring under control the use to which land can be put in all parts of the country and thus facilitates planning and zoning programs for particular use. By the promulgation of the decree in Nigeria in 1978, ownership and management of land was transferred to the government from individuals and communities in which hitherto resides ownership and control of land. Another important area of government policy that impinges upon urban land use planning and management, relates to the articulation and implementation of housing and urban development policy. Public intervention in housing in Nigeria began in the colonial period following the outbreak of bubonic plague in Lagos in the 1920s. During the period 1900 to 1960, government involvement was centered essentially on the provision of quarters for expatriate staff and for selected indigenous staff. In order to address the growing housing shortages and affordability problems in Nigeria, in recent times, a number of housing policy initiatives have been articulated and introduced. The National Housing Policy launched in 1991 had as its ultimate goal, ensuring that all Nigerians owned or had access to decent housing accommodation at affordable cost by the year 2000. The main objective of the policy was to make the private sector the main vehicle for the organization and delivery of housing products and services (Yakubu, 2004).It should be added that at target year of the policy (i.e. 2000), that the policy could not make the anticipated impacts on the built environment as a result of some factors associated with inadequacies of the PMIs, lack of access to land and title to land and problem of mortgage loan affordability among others (Okewole and Aribigbola, 2006). The recognition of the growing housing problems in both the rural and urban areas of Nigeria and the acceptance of the failure of the expired 1991 National Housing Policy prompted the federal government of Nigeria to set up a 15- man Committee to review existing housing policy and articulate the New National Housing Policy (NNHP) of 2002. The 2002 NNHP has as its primary goal of ensuring that all Nigerians own or have access to decent, safe and sanitary housing accommodation at affordable cost with secure tenure through private initiative, that is Real Estate Developers on the basis of mortgage financing. In sum, there is disengagement of public sector in housing provision to that of private. One unique aspect of the housing and urban development policies in Nigeria is that the policy made it mandatory for states and local governments to create sites and services plots that are to be sold to members of the public. Besides the policy recommended a review and amendment to the land use Act. However, field investigations revealed that Akure South Local Government where Akure is situated did not discharge this function. The Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Decree of 1992 was promulgated on 15th December 1992. Some the salient provision of the decree is that it made plan preparation and administration compulsory at the federal, state and local government levels. Under the law, land 9
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 use plans are to be prepared by the federal, states and local governments. It also assigned responsibilities to the three tiers of government. In 1999, the Ondo State government enacted the state's version of the 1992 National Urban and Regional Planning Law known as Ondo State Urban and Regional Planning Edict. Edict number 2 of 1999. The edict created State Urban and Regional Planning Board and Local Planning Authorities at the state and local government levels respectively. Thus various plans including land use plans are expected to be prepared that have widespread implications on accessibility cost and use of land in Akure. In Ondo state, the states housing and land policy that seeks to improve the housing infrastructure and delivery by eliminating a number of problems including shortages of housing and access to land among others was articulated (Ondo State, 2005). Other policies that relate to land management in Akure include the sites and services programme, the infrastructure fund IDA project and urban Renewal and Slum Upgrading programme. VI: LAND USE PLANNING AND MECHANISM IN AKURE Following the centralisation of planning in Ondo State in 1979, the responsibility of carrying out land use planning tasks was taken over by the state government and the Town Planning Division (now Department of Urban and Regional Planning) of the Ministry of Works, Lands and Housing. As a result of the need to guide and control development of the city as a state capital and to also cope with the rapid growth of the city a private planning consultant was commissioned by the state government to prepare a master plan for the city. The plan that covers the period 1980 ­ 2000 was completed in 1983. A major component of the master plan of the city is that it was accompanied by a comprehensive broad land use plan for the city. However, field investigation revealed that most of what was propped in the land use plan was not implemented. In a recent study in the city it was found that majority of residents of the city are unaware of the existence of the master plan for the city (Aribigbola, 2006). The implication of this is finding is that people who are not aware of the existence of a land use guide for the city in which they own land are not likely going to comply with its requirements and specifications. Besides, the preparation of master plan for the city, another major instrument for planning in the city is the use of layout plan, where parcels of land are sub-divided into plots of various sizes and for different uses such as residential, industrial, commercial, public and semi public uses by public and semi public institutions , private individuals, families and communities. In this regard, members of the public particularly families are required to submit their proposed layout plans to the Area Urban and Regional planning Office for planning approval. Investigations revealed that to date, a total of 641 residential layout plans have been processed and approved in Akure by members of the public as against 20 by public and semi-public organizations in the town. Approved layout plans are required before planning permissions are granted to developer to commence physical development. The process of approval of layout start with submission of proposed subdivision plan. The plan is scrutinized by officers of Area Urban and Regional Planning Office to determine the conformity of the proposed plan with planning requirements and standards. Where a plan falls short of planning standards, it is returned to the promoter for necessary corrections and amendment. When the promoters have compiled with all requirements, such layout plans are accepted and recommended by the Area Urban and Regional Planning Officer to the Director of Urban and Regional Planning at the state ministry of Works, Lands and Housing for approval. The above procedure subsists with reference to building plan approval except that the Area Urban and Regional Planning Officer is the approving Authority. However, the officer is expected to forward major land use proposal and development projects such as 10
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industrial, commercial, institutional and public uses to the Director for approval. Such development requires other vital documents such Environmental Impact Analysis Report (EIAR) before planning approvals are granted to use such land for the proposed development. Another area in which the planning office functions in the city, is the area known as `Protest and Petition". In this case, any member of the public that is disturbed by his neighbor with regards to use and misuses of land is permitted to report to the planning office, where an officer of the ministry is deployed to investigate and report to the office for intervention and possible settlement. Furthermore, the Department also carries out development control where the city according to the Area Urban and Regional Planning Officer for Akure, the city is divided into six zones; and Zonal Inspectors are appointed to go round their zones daily to identify and stop contravention. This activity according to the ministry is hampered by inadequate facilities such as motor vehicles and motorcycles that are required for constant patrol of the zones by site Inspectors. At present, the Akure Area Urban and regional Planning Office does not have vehicle of any kind that can be used to monitor land use activity in the city. Yet building plans are approved daily by the office. Thus, development is springing up haphazardly without planning permission and in contravention of land use planning regulations and requirements. The consequence of this motivated the Urban and Regional Planning Department to undertake demolition of illegal structures in Akure in 2004. However, the demolition exercise was stopped by the state Governor because of the negative political image that was attached to the exercise. Thus, development control in the city is mostly limited to approval of plans and when aggrieved individuals come forward to report contravention (Aribigbola, 2006).
VII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS VII. I. Descriptive Analysis (a) Level of Monthly Income of land owners in Akure The literature review earlier undertaken indicated economic factors as one of the factors affecting land use. Thus, the income level of the sampled population was selected for examination as follows. Table 1 shows the level of monthly income of sampled land owners in Akure. A close observation of table 1 shows that the highest percentage of land owners earns below #7,500 the national minimum monthly wage at present in Nigeria. This group accounted for 30.8 percent. This is followed by those that earn between #7,500 and #15,000 monthly. From the table, one may conclude that majority fall under the low income group. 70.6 percent of the sampled land owners earn below #25, 000 monthly. Yet this group of people own land in the city. This prompted the investigation of mode of acquisition of land as well as the initial cost of purchase of land by respondents in Akure.
Table 1: Income profile of Landowners in Akure
Income (Naira) Below 7,500 7, 501 ­ 15,000 15,001 ­ 25,000 25,001 ­ 35,000 35,001 ­ 45,000 45001 ­ 55,000 55,001 ­ 65,000
Frequency 318 231 180 102 84 59 36
Percent 30.8 22.4 17.4 9.9 8.1 5.7 3.5
Cumulative Percent 30.8 53.2 70.6 80.5 88.7 94.4 96.6
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Above 65, 000
22
2.1
100
Total
1032
100
Source: Field Survey, 2006
Note: $1 equals about #130
Table 2 depicts the mode of acquisition of land in Akure. From the table, majority of selected landowners acquired their plot of land through purchase from private individuals (50.6 percent). This is followed by those that got their land through inheritance from parents and family. This accounted for 44.5 percent of land ownership in the city. From the table on acquisition of land from public sources including federal, state, local governments and their agencies accounted for only 0.9 percent of the total sampled land owners in Akure. Yet the principal law guiding ownership and use of land in the city, that is the 1978 Land Use Act specified government as the owner of land from which individuals are suppose to obtain permission before use. This result shows that accessibility to land for different uses from public sources is very small. It also indicates a change from the previous believe that land belongs to families. It is indicative of transformation in the land and housing markets that is making it increasingly possible for land to be bought and sold like other consumer goods as against the earlier tradition that forbid sale of land and housing in the area. Table 3 shows the initial cost of buying land by respondents in the city. A high proportion of the land owners sampled bought their land under #5,000 while those that bought their land above one million naira have the least number of respondents (one percent). The cost of land appeared low because many land owners did not actually bought their land especially indigene and those that has stayed long in the city. This findings underscore the role of families and communities in land use allocation and distribution in the city and the fact that most families don't sell land especially to members of the family but elders in charge of family land only take money for drinks and kola nut that are usually not high when compared to market prices of land in the city.
Table 2: Mode of Acquisition of Land by Respondents in Akure
Source of land
Frequency Percentage
Inheritance
465
44.5
Purchase from individual 528
50.6
Government/Agency
9
0.9
Others
42
4.0
Total
1044
100
Source: Author's Field Survey, 2006
Cumulative Percentage 44.5 95.1 96.0 100
Table 3: Initial Cost of purchase of Land in Akure
Amount (Naira) Below 5,000 5,001 ­ 10,000 10,001 ­ 20,000 20,001 ­ 50,000
Frequency 282 36 57 78
Percentage 46.1 5.9 9.3 12.7
Cumulative Percentage 46.1 52.0 61.3 74.0
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50,001 ­ 100,000
69
11.3
85.3
100,001 ­ 500,000 75
12.3
97.5
500,001 ­ 1,000,000 9
1.5
99.1
Above 1,000,000
6
1.0
100
Total
612
100
Source: Field Survey, 2006
(b) Accessibility to land in Akure The literature revealed that from the perspective of land uses, land accessibility essentially comprises four elements of availability, affordability, security of tenure and ease of transaction (Omirin, 2003). These four elements are therefore employed in the examination land owners accessibility to land in the study area. With regards to availability, the Land Use Act purports to make land accessible to all Nigerians irrespective of their status, background and state of origin. Tables 4 and 8 depicts the ownership of layout from which people are to buy or access land plots and length of time spent to acquire land particularly for building purposes. An analysis of table 4 revealed that ownership of layouts is significantly dominated by family. In this context, 49.7 percent of land plots are sourced from family layouts. The next important owner of layout according to the table are those owned by private individuals which accounts for 22.6 percent of land owned by respondents in Akure. Again, the three tiers of government of federal, state, and local government did not contribute much to land plots in the study area. Collectively, the three tiers of government accounted for only 8.9 percent of all selected plots in the city Data obtained from the Department of Land services revealed that the total number of plots on government layout scheme in the city is 2,924. This is rather insignificant when compared with the population of the city at over 380,000 people and the fact that there are over 28,864 buildings (see Table 6) in the city.
Table 4: Ownership of layout of Land occupied by Respondents
Owner of Layout Frequency
Private Individual 234
Family
535
Community
173
State government 56
Local Government 10
Federal government 30
Others
30
Total
1077
Source: Author's Field Survey, 2006
Percentage 22.6 49.7 16.1 5.2 0.9 2.8 2.8 100
Cumulative Percentage 22.6 72.3 88.4 93.6 94.5 97.3 100
Table 5 shows the length of time in weeks that it takes land owners in the city to secure their parcel of land for acquisition in Akure. From table 5, majority of respondents (31.7 percent) got their land within one week of search for them especially from Private sources. This is followed by the group that obtains land between two and four weeks. This group accounts for
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20.3 percent of the respondents. The implication of this result is that acquisition of land in the city is relatively easy since the result of the study indicates that 52 percent of the sampled land owners obtained their land within four weeks. However, further investigations shows that land transaction is more complex than this. Acquisition appears simple because majority of land owners obtain their land from unofficial sources such as individuals and family. Thus, when land is purchased by people, they still need to perfect the title document by obtaining certificate of occupancy as specified by the Land Use Act. Besides, the fact that processing of this title document takes at least six months, it makes rooms for double payment for the same plot of land. Apart from those lands obtained directly from government, field investigation reveal that land owners will pay to initial owner of land and also pay to government to obtain title document. However, from public sources, investigation revealed that it takes longer period of time to obtain land from the government sources.
Table 5: Length of Time taken to secure land by Respondents
Time (Week) One 2­4 4 - 12 12 -24 24 ­ 52 Above 52 Total
Frequency 258 165 126 78 105 81 813
Percentage 31.700 20.3 15.5 9.6 12.9 10.0 100
Cumulative Percentage 31.7 52.0 67.5 77.1 90.0 100
Source: Author's Field Survey, 2006
Table 6: Property in Akure Categorized by Use
Use
No
Percentage
Residential
23,655
82
Commercial
1,159
4.0
Industrial
680
2.4
Religion
1,081
3.7
Hospital/Clinic
77
0.3
Educational
301
1.0
Public
233
0.8
Mixed
1,660
5.8
Total
28,864
100
Source: Ondo State Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, Akure, 2002.
On present cost of land plot occupied by respondents, they were requested to estimate the present value of the land. The summary of their responses is as shown on Table 7. From the table, the
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monetary value of land is now considered very high in the city. According to the table, 25.3 percent of the sampled land was estimated to cost between #250,000 and #500,000.
Table 7: Present Value (Cost) of land Occupied by Respondents in Akure
Amount (Naira)
Frequency
Below 100,000
114
100,001 ­ 250,000
216
250,001 ­ 500,000
237
500,001 1,000,000
75
1,000,001 ­ 10,000,000 228
Above 10,000,000
42
Total
912
Source: Author's Field Survey, 2006
Percentage 12..5 23.6 25.9 8.2 25.0 4.6 100
Cumulative Percentage 12.5 36.2 62.2 70.3 95.3 100
Table 8: Time of Acquisition of Land for Development in Akure
Period
Frequency Percent
Before 1960
255
25.1
1961 - 1978
240
23.6
1979 - 1999
372
36.6
2000 - To date 150
14.7
Total
1017
100
Source: Field Survey, 2006
Cumulative Percentage 25.1 48.7 85.3 100
Table 8 shows the time the various land plots survey were acquired by the respondents in Akure. An analysis of the table shows that 25.1 percent acquired their plots of land before 1960 when Nigeria attained independence, 23.6 got their plots between 1961 and 1978 before the introduction the Land use Act in the area.
VII.II: Multiple Regression Analysis In order to analyze the relationship between different socio-economic and demographic and land accessibility variables, regression technique was employed. This enables identification of the underlying dimension or pattern of land accessibility as well as the contribution of each land accessibility variables to land ownership and use in the city. Stepwise multiple regression is appropriate given the large number of explanatory variables and the limited distribution of the dependent variables in decision involving land ownership in Akure. The results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis of Land ownership parameters against twenty-eight land accessibility variables is shown in Table 9.
Table 9: Summary of result of Regression Analysis on Land access index
Variables
B
Std.
R
Coefficient Error
Of the
R
R
FT
Sig. F
Square Square Change Statistics Change
Change
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Time
of -0.098
Acquisition of
land
Ownership of 0.490
layout
Original owner 0.347
of land
Education
-0.134
Length of stay -0.197
in the city
Present value of 0.297
land
Marital Status 0.190
of landowner
Length
of -0.150
search for land
Income
-0.212
Estimate .85378 .633 .401 .401 151.11 -1.594 .000 7 .80008 .690 .476 .075 32.351 7.637 .000 .74583 .739 .547 .071 34.927 7.606 .000 .71586 .764 .584 .038 20.151 -2.068 .000 .70515 .774 .598 .014 7.819 -3.631 .006 .69396 .783 .613 .014 8.204 5.223 .005 .67517 .797 ..635 .022 13.489 4.012 .000 .66075 .808 .652 0.17 10.710 -3.631 .001 .65028 .815 .665 012 8.103 -2.847 .005
Constant = 0.251
Source: Field Survey, 2006
Table 9 shows that nine variables were selected as determinants of ownership of land in the study area. The entire nine variable selected by stepwise regression model accounted for about 66.5 percent of the total variation in land accessibility in Akure. From the regression summary table, the coefficient of determination R2 is 0.665 implying that about 66.5 percent of the total variation in accessibility to land is explained by the combined influence of the nine independent variables selected by the regression model The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the percentage contribution of all the nine independent variable to land accessibility estimate is significant. (ANOVA F value of 49.994 is significant at 0.05) As shown on the table, time of acquisition of land is a significant predictor of accessibility to land. Time of acquisition of land alone accounted for about 40 percent of the total variation in explanation of landownership and accessibility in Akure. This is followed by ownership of layout, which accounted for about 7.5 percent of the total variance explained. Other important variables selected are original owner of land, 7.1 percent; education of land owner 3.8 percent; marital status, 2.2percent; length of stay in Akure 1.4 percent and length of search for land, 1.7 percent and ownership of vehicle, 1.5 percent. The relationship shows that time of acquisition of land, ownership of layout, original owner of land, education of land owner, marital status, and length of stay in Akure and length of search for present land positively related to the Land accessibility of respondents in Akure. From the above, the two most important variables explaining Land ownership in the study are the time of acquisition of, ownership of layout plans and the role of original owners of the land. The implication of this is that ownership of land is influenced by the period in which such parcel of
16
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 land was purchased, the original owner and who actually prepared the layout of the area since majority of plots of land in the study area are located in approved layout plans. The regression result indicates that economic factors such as income of land owners, occupation and cost of land are not significant factors determining accessibility to land. Only education and marital status among social factors entered the regression model. The fact that time of acquisition of land, ownership of layout plan and original owner of land before present owners are selected by the regression analysis point to the fact that cultural factors such as family and community ownership of land are still very relevant and significant in explaining land use and accessibility in the study area.. This fact is strengthened by the findings that majority of land owners obtain their land from private sources such as individuals, families and communities. This finding also shows that government land control mechanisms and policies have not much impact on land ownership, use and accessibility in the city. VIII. CONSTRAINTS TO LAND USE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN AKURE Having discussed land use planning, policies and their effects on accessibility to land in Akure, it is evident that formal land use planning and the accompanying policies have not been used to promote and enhance improved people's access to land for use in the city. A number of factors are responsible for this state of inadequate land use planning and management in the city. These constraints were investigated and summarized as follows. Inadequate spatial information/data on Land Use Inadequate information/data is one of the major problems facing land use planning and management in Akure. Field investigation reveals lack of data on land use, no comprehensive and up to date plan or map showing land use pattern and structure of ownership in the city. Lack of base map was found to be a major problem of land use planning in the city. Investigations show that cadastral survey covering the whole city was undertaken last in 1972, despite the fact that the city has grown spatially in recent times especially since 1976, it became a capital city. Various attempts by the state and federal governments of Nigeria to map the entire city using modern techniques including satellite imagery are yet to materialize. Thus, land use planning in the city is still based on the base map of the city undertaken in 1972. Individual plans generated by families and agencies involved in land use planning and management are not related and coordinated. No land census or land register showing the ownership of each parcel of land, the total acreage by ownership and type of use by which each parcel is committed. Thus, planning of land use is undertaken in piece meal through family and community layout without adequate and up-to-date information about the available land and their location in the city. Lack of vital land information made it difficult to monitor the allocation and use of each parcel of land in the city which in most cases result into consistent and inefficient allocation and development on land for various development purposes. Non Adoption and Utilization of Modern Planning Approaches/Techniques. Following the leading of the international community, a number of concepts and approaches such as sustainable urban development that emphasized sound environmental management including land management has been devised and adopted. Field investigations show that, these new approaches and methodologies have not been incorporated into land use planning and management in the city. As shown by Aribigbola (2006), land use planning in the city is still undertaken mainly by government officials in the ministry without involving the 17
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007
public who are to use such land. Again, as found by Aribigbola and Ebehikhalu, (2006), the basis of planning in Akure is the traditional master plan approach that emphasizes the utilization of the professional expertise of planners to determine and articulate physical development plan for the city. Therefore, non-adoption and incorporation of the new approaches are a major constraint that needs to be surmounted to ensure better management of land in the city.
Outdated and Outmoded land use Planning Policies, Laws and Regulations Land use and management in Nigeria generally is still based on the land use Act of1978 .This law was mainly concerned with use and allocation of land for different purposes. The land use act mainly deals with allocation and acquisition and confirmation of title on owners, it does not indicate the vital aspect of management which is the control of development on the land. The Urban and Regional planning Act of 1992 that was meant to improve land use planning activity and land management in Nigeria is yet to be implemented, 17 years after enactment. Thus, land use planning and management in Akure like most towns in Nigeria is still based on the 1946 Act which itself was based on the 1932 Town and Country Planning Act of United Kingdom that has been changed several times. Consequently, one of the major constraints to effective and efficient planning and management of land in Akure is the absence of up to date and dynamic laws and regulation to guide and control land use activity and management.
Inadequate Manpower to Control and Monitor land use Closely associated with the above constraints is inadequacy of qualified land use planners. The Akure Area Urban Planning Office is saddled with the responsibility of carrying out the planning and control of development on land in Akure that has an estimated population of over 380,000 and a total area of 30 square kilometers (Ministry of Lands & Housing, 2000). Table 2 shows the total number of staff of the Area Planning Office to be 14. Out of this number, majority (86percent) are non-professionals. Only 14 percent are registered town planners by the Town Planners Registration Council of Nigeria (TOPREC). The body responsible for regulating and registering land use planners in the country.
Table 10: Staff of Akure Area Urban and Regional Planning by category
Category of Staff
Number of Staff Percentage
Registered Planner
2
14
Sub Professional
2
14
Town Planning Assistant
6
43
Others
4
29
Total
14
100
Source: Area Urban and Regional Planning Office, Akure, 2006.
Poor and Inadequate Funding of Land use and management Activities Another major constraint to effective land use planning and management is poor and inadequate funding in the area. A close observation of the State's government budget for 2005, 2006, and 2007 financial years shows that no financial allocation was made directly to land use and city planning. Land use planning did not feature at all directly in the budget proposals for
18
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 the periods. The only allocation made indirectly to land use planning and management covers staff salaries and other emoluments. At the local government level, land use planning at present is not being undertaken; therefore, it did not feature in its budget proposal. In such a situation, it becomes difficult to initiate plans and development schemes to organize land use and land management and undertake other essential planning tasks germane to land use management. This explains why the last master plan was prepared for the city in 1980, though, attempts was made by staff of Department of Urban and Regional planning to review the plan in 1998. The result of the exercise left much to be desires, since outcome of the exercise was not detail and comprehensive as that prepared in 1980 and its outcome has not been implemented. Field investigations also show that in the last 10 years no physical development schemes have been initiated and executed by government and government agencies. As a result of poor funding, essential facilities required to undertake planning activities are not available. Thus, the activities of the Department of Urban and Regional planning has been restricted or limited to the approval of layout and building plans prepared by families, communities and individuals as well as granting statutory rights of occupancy to owners of land. As a consequence, the gap created, has been filled by families and communities and individuals that dominated the preparation and control of layout plans in the city as demonstrated earlier Inadequate Institutional Framework for land Use Planning and Management As indicated earlier, the Department of Urban and Regional Planning of the State Ministry of Works, Lands and Housing Undertakes the planning of the city. Other agencies that are involved in land use planning activities in the city include Capital and Urban Development Authority that was recently merged with the State Housing Corporation. The Housing Corporation has three housing estates established and controlled by the corporation without reference to the Department of Urban and Regional Planning of the state Ministry of Works, Lands and Housing. The Department of Urban and Regional Planning of Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development also controls the physical development activities on federal land and federal government housing estates in the State. Akure South local government has also been involved in planning in its own area of jurisdiction. These various agencies carry out land use planning and management tasks without proper reference to each other. Investigation reveals lack of coordination of their activities. Besides, the above, land management in the city operates in a vacuum. Overall land use zoning plan and map for the city is not available to guide land use and management decisions in the city. The existing and available base map for the city was prepared in 1968. This has become grossly inadequate to facilitate effective management of the city's land. Other associated problems include lack of adequate and reliable demographic data. Field investigations revealed that land use planning and management in the city is for most part restricted to estate development for public sector workers at the expense of overall management of the city' land. IX. LAND USE PLANNING IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The above exposition and analysis of land use planning, policies and its effects on land accessibility revealed that policies and land development control mechanisms exist in the city. However, they were found not to have significant effects on land accessibility by majority of landowners in the city. The study indicated that most land transactions and activities take place outside the formal land use planning mechanism created by the government. It was also found that policies enunciated to improve and organize ownership and use of urban land and efficient 19
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 functioning of land market in Akure did not have any significant effect on the ownership structure and accessibility to land in the area. Informal sector land providers such as individuals and families are still very relevant in land use planning, control and management in the area.. Besides, the study revealed the constraints to land use planning and management in the city to include lack of information including base map, land use map as well as data on all plots of land in the city. It therefore, becomes incumbent to identify how to improve land use planning and management in the city to make it innovative and responsive to modern trend and ensure equity in terms of accessibility by residents of the city as well as enhance efficient functioning of the city's land market . This is essential because development of most urban areas is influenced, to some extent by processes of urban policy and urban planning; and since urban policies and planning are dynamic activities whose formulation and interpretation is a continuing process; there is a need to invigorate planning machinery and land management activity in Akure to incorporate and integrate all land use control and management agencies in the city and to introduce measures to guarantee effective and efficient land management in the city. There is the urgent need to review the Land Use Act of 1978 to integrate the socio- economic characteristics of the people that permit communities and families to have a say in land use planning and administration. This is essential because almost thirty years after the introduction of the Land Use Act, families and communities still exert great influence on land use decisions in the city. The advent of the Land Use Act and the instrument of Certificate of Occupancy have fuelled unprecedented speculation, private ownership and commercialization of land. The unbridled corruption and high-handedness encouraged by the Act have also defeated the equity and accessibility advantages that the Act had intended to ensure. As a matter of urgency, government should embark on a comprehensive cadastral survey of all lands in the city, to determine their quantity, use desirability for various purposes, using the geographical information System (GIS) approach. Land should be listed and registered to ensure the security of tenure of the holder. It is only when the quantity and quality of lands are known that land could be classified for various uses, and other policies applied to them. A comprehensive coding of land should facilitate easy referencing, as well as define property boundaries, thus, eliminating unnecessary disputes and litigations associated with urban land use in the city. There is the need to strengthen land use planning and management capacity in the city. Capacity building with respect to land issues should be distinguished from manpower development. Sustainable land policies should combine incentive systems, which should be negative (i.e. sanctions), or positive (i.e. rewards), in order that land policies are enforced. Enforcement of land policies requires effective policing; otherwise, the objectives will be defeated. Thus, land use control mechanism and department should be improved by employing more people, make essential facilities available that will facilitate and enhance their land use control activity. The present practice where land use control is limited mainly to approval of plans and granting of certificate of occupancy without monitoring their outcomes can not be expected to achieve the desire results of ensuring equity in accessibility to land and efficient functioning of land market in the city. X: CONCLUSION The paper shows that land management and control tools are either not available or weakly implemented. Besides, the paper found land use activity to be disjointed and uncoordinated since several organizations and agencies are involved in land use without a 20
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 coordinating agencies or an overall land use plan within which effective land use management can be undertaken. The paper concludes that for land use management to be effective, there is the need for an integrated land use approach. The present approach of disjointed and uncoordinated land use practices cannot be expected to provide the desired outcome of sustainable city development. Thus, for land use management to flourish and more importantly to create convenient and conducive environment for present and future generations, there is the need for a more fundamental rethinking of land use control mechanism, policy and action. Land use management in Ondo State should be decentralized and new legislation that would reflect current global thinking and approach to more humane and environmental friendly approach of sustainable development need to be embraced and instituted in the city and country as a whole. The paper revealed that land use planning in the city is lacking in scope, content and coordination. Interdisciplinary approach is required to reduce existing inefficiencies and abuses in land use in the city XI. BIBLIOGRAPHY Journals: Adeniyi, O.P. (1987). "An Appraisal of the Land Use Decree with Particular Reference to Basic Data Requirement on Land Availability for Various Developments". The Estate Surveyor and Valuer, Journal of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers. 2(2), 68-79. Aluko, O. E. (2000): "Development Control in Nigeria's New Civil Rule Programme". Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners (JNITP) 13, 78 ­ 88. Angelsen, A. (1995). "Shifting Cultivation and Deforestation: A Study from Indonesia. World Development 23, 1723- 1729. Baba, J.M. (1994). "Sustainable Development and the Nigerian Environments". The Nigerian Geographical Journal, Ibadan University Press. 1 - 19. Harris, C.D. and Ullman, E. L. (1945). "The Nature of Cities". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 242, 7. Olujimi, B. A. J. (1993). "The Administration of Physical Planning in Nigeria: The Ondo State Experience". Landscape and Urban Planning. 25, 115-126 Oyesiku, O. O. and Asiyanbola, A. R. (2001). "Towards Effective Public Participation and Implementation of the New Urban and Regional Planning Law''. Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners. 14, 69-61 Ratcliff, J. (1976); Land Policy: An Exploration of the Nature of Land in Society: The Built Environment. 1-27. Tiffen, M. and Morttimore, M. (1994). "Malthus Controverted: the Role of Capital and Technology in Growth and Environment Recovery in Kenya. World Development. 22, 997-1010 Uchendu, V.C., (1979). "State, Land Society in Nigeria: A Critical Assessment of the Land Use Decree". Journal of African Studies. 6, 2-24 Yakubu, T (2004). "Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria in Perspective", Homes and Property Guide. B Gold Communications, Isolo, Lagos. 1(2) 36- 39. Books and Reports: Adeniyi, E. O. (1981). "Administrative Framework for Physical Planning in Nigeria". In Sada 21
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 P.O. and Oguntoyinbo J.S. editors. Urbanization Process in and Problems in Nigeria, Ibadan University Press. 31-44. Alonso, W. (1964). Location and Land use. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Bailey,J. (1975). Social Theory for Planning. Rougledge and Kegan Paul Ltd, Pergamon Press. 69-94. Betalanffy, L, (1971). General System Theory. Allen Press Berstein, J. (1994). "Land Use Considerations in urban environmental Management". UNPD/ UNCHS/World Bank Urban Management Program. Washington DC. 1-8. Bryant, R.L. (1997). The Political Ecology of Forestry in Burma. C. Hurst and Co. Ltd, London. Burgess, E. W. (1925). "The growth of City", in Park, R.B.: Burgess, E.W. and McKenzie, R.D. editors. The City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Dowall, David E. (1991). "The Land Market Assessment: A New Tool for Urban Management". Urban Management Programme Paper. 4 Washington DC. Egunjobi, Layi. (1990). "The Performance of the Land Use Decree". Report of a Research sponsored by Social Science Council of Nigeria. CURP, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2002). Government White paper on the Report of the Presidential Committee on Urban Development and Housing. Abuja, Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (FMH&UD), (2003). Sustainable Human Settlements Development: National Urban Strategies. Petral Digital Press, Abuja. Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, (2006). Federal Land information system (FELIS). A Handbook on FELIS. Abuja, Nigeria. Forestal (Forestal Forestry and Engineering International Ltd). (1966). Reconnaissance Soil and Land Use Surveys. Chittagong Hill Tracts, Vancouver, Canada. Geertz, C. (1963). Agricultural Involution: The Process of Ecological Change in Indonesia. University of California Press, Berkeley (CA). Hoyt, H. (1939). "The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighbourhoods in American Cities". U.S. Federal Housing Administration. Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Isard, W. (1956). Location and Space Economy. M.I.T. Press. Levy, M. John, (2003). Contemporary Urban Planning. Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, United States. Mabogunje A.L. (1992) "Perspective on urban land and management policies in Sub-Sahara Africa: World Bank technical paper. 196. Ministry of Works and Housing, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria Akure Master Plan 1980 ­ 2000 Ola, C.S. (1984). Town and Country Planning, and Environmental Laws Nigeria. University Press Limited, Ibadan. 73 Omotola, J.A.O. (1984). Essays on the Land Use Act 1978. University of Lagos Press. Ondo state Government (1990). Digest of Demographic Statistics of Ondo State. Ministry of Finance, Budget and Planning, Akure. Ondo State of Nigeria, (2003). Report on the Survey of Housing units in Selected Urban Towns in Ondo State. Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Ondo State of Nigeria, (2005). Sectoral Policy Documents. Onibokun, G. Adepoju, (1995). Urban Land Ownership, Market and Development Process in Nigeria. Centre for African Settlement Studies and Development (CASSAD), Ibadan, Nigeria. Monograph Series 5. Otiono, G.C., (1985). Land, Land, No Land. Newswatch 1(18). 22
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 Pacione, M. (2001). Urban Geography: A Global Perspective. Routledge London. 131- 156. Rasul, G. (2005). State Policies and Land Use in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Gatekeeper Series 119. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Salazar, A., Brando, P., and Gershon, F. (1995)."Regulatory Policies and Reform: the Case of Land Markets". In Claudio, F. editor. In Regulatory Policies and Reforms: A Comparative Perspective. World Bank. 191 -209. Satterthwaite, D. (1983), "Public Land Acquisition and Shelter for the Poor". In UN-Habitat in Land for Housing the poor. Habitat and Swedish Council for Building Research, Stockholm. 49 ­ 60. Sfeir-yonis, A. and Dragun, A.K., (1993). Land and Soil Management: Technology, Economics, and Institution. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. Turkelboom, F., Van, KK, Ongprasert, S., Sutigoolabud, P. and Pelletier, J., (1996). The Changing Landscape of Northern Thai Hills: Adaptive Strategies to Increasing Land Pressure. In Montane Mainland Southeast Asia in Transition. Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Umezuruike, O.N. (1989). The land Use Decree 1978: A critical analysis. FAB Education Books, Jos, Nigeria. Udo, R. K. (1990). Land Use Policy and Land Ownership in Nigeria. Ebieakwe Ventures, Lagos. UNCHS (Habitat)/ UNEP (1998). Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP): The SCP Process Activities. A Snapshot of What They Are and How They are implemented United Nations (UN) (1996). "Strategies to implement Human settlements Policies on Urban Renewal and Housing Modernization ". United Nations Publications World Commission on Environment and Development, (WCED) (1987). Our Common Future Oxford University Press. Conference Proceedings and Symposia: Aribigbola, A. (2006). "Public Participation in Planning in Developing Countries: the Example of Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria". In Mouurshed Monjur, editor. Global Built Environment: Towards an Integrated Approach for Sustainability. Proceedings of GBEN 2006 Conference held 11th -12th September 2006, University of Central Lancashire. Preston, United Kingdom. Aribigbola, A. and Ebhikhalu N. O. (2006). "Planning and Sustainable Development: Innovations and New Directions for the Built Environment in Nigeria". In Okewole, I. A. Ajayi, A., Daramola,A., Odusanm, K. and Ogunba, O., editors. The Built Environment: Innovation Policy and Sustainable Development. Covenant University, Nigeria. 179-185. Falade, J.B. (2003). "The Urban and Regional Planning Process, the Old Order and the New Paradigm." A paper presented at the 2003 Mandatory Continuing professional development Programme (MCPDP) of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners (NITP) held in Calabar, Asaba and Kaduna. Jiboye A. P. (20005) "Globalization and the Urban Growth Process in Nigeria" In Fadare et.al editors. Globalization, Culture and Nigerian Built Environment. Faculty of Environmental Design and Management, OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 2, 342 ­ 345. Agbola, T. Olatubara, C.O and Olorunfemi, F.B. (2002) Urban Land and Infrastructure: Issues, challenges and strategies in the Design and Management of Nigerian cities" In Amole, D., Ajayi, A., and Okewole, A., editors. In the City in Nigeria: Perspectives, Issues, Challenges and Strategies. Proceedings of a National Conference organized by the Faculty of Environmental Design and Management, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria, 9th ­ 11th October, 2002. 28-42. 23
Fourth Urban Research Symposium 2007 Mabogunje A. L., (2003). "Land Management in Nigeria: Issues, Opportunities and Threats". In Omirin, M.M. Nubi G.T. and Fawehinmi, A.S., editors. Land management and Property Taxation in Nigeria. Proceedings of a National Workshop Organized by the Department of EState management, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria. 13-31 National Population Commission (NPC) (1996). Census '91 Final Results. Ondo state. Omirin. M. M. (2003). "Issues in Land Accessibility in Nigeria". In Omirin M. M., Nubi G.T. and Fawehinmi, A.S., editors. Land Management and Property Taxation in Nigeria. Proceedings Of a National Workshop Organized by the Department of Estate management , University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria. 49-70 Okewole,I.A and Aribigbola.A.(2006). "Housing Affordability as key Factor to a Sustainable Housing Policy in Nigeria". In Okewole I. A., Daramola, A.S., Ajayi, A.C., Ogunba, A. O. and Odusami, T. K., editors. The Built Environment: Innovation Policy and Sustainable Development. Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. 414 ­ 420. Olaore, G. O. (1983). "Urban Land Use in Nigeria: The Dilemma of Harmonizing the Compulsion of Modernization with the Urban Growth Process". Paper presented at the Second World Congress on Land Policy. Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Mass June, 20 ­ 24. Thapa, GB. (1998). "Nepal's Experience in Hill Agriculture. In E.C.Chapmn, B. Bouahom and PK. Hansen, editors. Upland Farming Systems in Lao PDR: Problems and Opportunities for Livestock. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Vientiane, Laos 18-23 May, 1997. Australia Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 24

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File: urban-land-use-planning-policies-and-management-in-sub-saharan.pdf
Title: Urban Land Use Planning, Policies and Management in Sub Saharan African Countries: Empirical Evidence from Akure, Nigeria
Author: A Aribigbola
Author: DR. ARIBIGBOLA
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