Work values of Chinese university students in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese Mainland: a literature review, MS WONG, M Yuen

Tags: career development, UK, Chinese university students, research studies, Taiwan, Faculty of Education, work values, research, CHINESE MAINLAND, secondary certificate, support students, Rupert French, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, university students, Hong Kong, industry areas, Great Southern Institute of Technology, scores, factor scores, career decisions, development, college students', career decision making process, Wakamatsu Yosuke Shiga University, decision making process, CAREER FITNESS, college students, students, undecided students, Australian Blueprint of Career Development, occupations, thinking styles, Heather Gwilliam, students with special needs, CAREER PLANNING, labor market information, Association of American Medical Colleges, specialty indecision, cultural differences, GENDER STEREOTYPES, SELF-EFFICACY, occupational choices, translation method, American version, McCarthy Catholic College, Choice Employment Solutions, Winston Churchill Trust Fellowship, electronic portfolio, Australia, cross sectional study, career development strategies, career assessment, Learning Objectives, ideal system, career planning system, Heather, Mrs JoAnn Bowlsbey Kuder Inc, Catholic Education Office, career education
Content: WORK VALUES OF CHINESE University Students IN HONG KONG, TAIWAN AND CHINESE MAINLAND: A Literature Review Mr. Shui-wai WONG 1, Dr. Mantak Yuen 2 1 Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2 Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong This presentation reviews the empirical literature on work values among university students in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese mainland. The authors reviewed research studies investigating work values among Chinese university students in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese mainland from 1979 to 2010. In Hong Kong, there are surprisingly few research studies on the topic of work values of university students (e.g. Fung, 1979; So, 1979; Chow & Blumenfeld, 1984; Luk & Bond, 1993; Cui et al., 2006). Compared to Hong Kong, empirical studies of college students in both the Chinese mainland and Taiwan are relatively abundant. Localized scales measuring work values have been developed by researchers in Taiwan and Chinese mainland, whereas Hong Kong researchers have relied heavily on the scales established by Western scholars. The extant studies have tended to show that research on work values in the three regions is still considered as fragmented and heavily dependent on Western theories proposed by Maslow, Herzberg, Rokeach, Schwartz (Hung & Liu, 2003; Huo & Li, 2009). Empirical data also revealed that the work values of university students in the three locations seemingly converge in a combination of both materialistic and individualistic values. While there were some common findings across studies from Greater China, differences appeared to include an increasing emphasis on localized studies of core components of work values in Chinese culture, with qualitative and intergenerational research on work values evident in Taiwan. Quantitative and crosssectional surveys are still dominant in both the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong. There is a need for more research on work values of university students as well as value-based counselling practice since work values are found to be a key determinant of an individual's motivation, action, decision-making (including career choice), functioning and self-definition. Work values also serve as a potential micro-macro link between an individual and social structure and culture (Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004). The future direction should include characterizing work values of Chinese university students, developing a comprehensive theory on work values, developing localized scales, identifying the mechanism of how work values affect work behaviours and outcomes, and placing values clarification as an important part of career counselling practice. TRYTECH: A MODEL FOR EARLY CAREER EXPLORATION Ms Justine Bradney Great Southern Institute of Technology Young people preparing to transition from school educational settings to training and employment are often faced with overwhelming choices. They are asked to determine what career direction they will take and almost simultaneously enter an adult world of learning. Young people considering these pathways are often those with concrete learning styles and therefore they may find the abstraction of "talking about" or "researching" pathways and careers does not provide the insights they need to map their own pathways. Some industry
areas have acted to provided meaningful experiential learning opportunities for young people (For example: Try-A-Trade) to attract them toward their industry areas. While these provide great opportunities' for young people to explore an industry area they often do not provide for the young people's need to explore a range of options. The TryTech model, developed in the Great Southern Region of Western Australia, has been successfully trialed over three years. It provides career development opportunities for three significantly different target groups of young people. It is a partnership between local schools and the Great Southern Institute of Technology and has proven to be effective in developing and clarifying the aspirations of young people in the district and is a mechanism for successfully easing the transition from school to training. This presentation will provide participants with an effective and adaptable model for career development of young people including: · Limitations, · Applications and Target groups, · Expectations, and · Structure. The model bases delivery on the principles of adult learning. The principles of adult learning encompass active participation - adults learn best by doing, using meaningful material that participants can relate to, employing a holistic learning attitude where participants start with the 'big picture' and then break it down into smaller components, employs more than one type of sensory experience and offers opportunities to practice the new skills and gain positive reinforcement as a result PACTS ­ PARENTS AS CAREER TRANSITION SUPPORT PROGRAMME. THE IMPORTANT ROLE PARENTS PLAY IN THEIR CHILDS TRANSITION INTO FURTHER TAINING AND CAREER PATHWAYS. Ms Mary Licciardo, Mrs Mikchelle Peterson, Mrs Daniela Ascone Youth Connect, Australia Parents & teachers both play an important, influential role in the career development of young people. This session will outline a program that can help both of these groups to build skills & knowledge that will have a positive impact on the career transitions of young people. The PACTs Program-Parents As Career Transition Support is a series of workshops that can be held in a variety of settings including schools & community centres. The aim is to give parents up to date information on education & training pathways so they can assist their teen to make the best possible decisions based on current knowledge. Parents are more importantly given advice on how to support their teen with career exploration & decision making in a positive, way that develops decision making skills for the future. The TACTS (Teachers As Career Transition Support) Program is for staff who are involved in pathways counselling in the schools so they have an understanding of the fundamentals of career
development. This is to provide a framework for the discussions they will have with young people & their parents to ensure it is as productive as possible. Teachers are made aware of the range of resources & support available to them to assist with this process SENSE OF CAREER FITNESS AND DECISION MAKING PROCESS Mr. Wakamatsu Yosuke Shiga University The purpose of the present study was to examine college students' assessment about career (vocational) fitness (Super, 1969), and its relation to career decision making process. A questionnaire was administered 325 Japanese college students before job hunting activities. Subjects assessed their fitness about his/her most actual alternative. The items contained four factors, "personality", "work style", "hope or constraint from other people", and "ability". Decided students assessed their fitness higher than undecided students on all factor scores. They scored very high on "personality", and many of them picked up items about "interest" and "comfortableness" as very fit items. Many undecided students picked up "preparation for examination", "tolerance for difficulties or responsibility" as very unfit items. The undecided students were divided three clusters on the four factor scores of fitness: group 1 had all minus scores other than "hope or constraint", group 2 had all plus scores, and group 3 had all minus scores. Group 2 exhibited higher scores of career exploration survey (Stumpf et al., 1983), and went forward more smooth process of decision making. Group 1 had more optimistic attitude to their indecision. In sum, sense of career fitness were closely related to their decision making process. Undecided students who had low sense of fitness were not motivated to exploration behavior, so were hard to decide all the more. Decided students had another risk, because they seemed to have optimistic image to their alternatives. Implications for career guidance and counseling are discussed. GEN Y AND THE WORKPLACE / ENGAGEMENT AND RETENTION Ms Shauna Quinlivan Options Your Choices Your Futute This poster session focuses on the issues facing employers around the engagement and retention of Gen Y in the workforce. This generation have been raised to be independent thinkers, have and express opinions and have choice in all aspects of their life. The economy is currently experiencing the impact of Gen Y's postponement of adult responsibilities and their desire to `experience' life before committing to a more formal career decision making process. To engage and retain Gen Y staff, employers and managers can no longer use old management strategies but need to adopt strategies that will allow them to work collaboratively with Gen Y encouraging and supporting their professional development and engagement. The poster presentation objectives are to identify: · Generational difference · Specific characteristics and attitudes of Gen Y · What Gen Y want from a `work friendly' work place
· Hurdles to successful engagement of Gen Y in the workforce · Strategies that will help engage Gen Y in the workforce CAREER PATHWAYS FOR GENERAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS: LINKING LIFE ROLES, WORK VALUES AND CAREER STAGE Ms Lesley Piko Australian National University General medical practitioners (GPs) deal with increasingly complex health conditions and treatments, and an ageing population. However, once fully qualified, GPs are confronted with relatively flat career trajectories. Many GPs respond by working only part-time on clinical activities, in combination with non-clinical life roles. This project informs a larger study of career decisions GPs make after working for several years in their chosen profession. The project's aim is to research the connections between career stage, work values, life roles, gender and age in decisions by doctors to limit clinical work. Twenty GPs from a purposive sample participated in semi-structured interviews and a pilot survey. They were asked about their work history, life roles, work values, career concerns and work intentions. The Physician Values in Practice Scale-Short Form(1) and Adult Career Concerns Inventory-Short Form(2) were chosen for the pilot survey. The findings of this exploratory project provide insights into the way in which work values and career concerns combine to influence mid-career choices by GPs, especially decisions to limit their involvement in clinical work. In the absence of an upward clinical career path, many GPs seek to enhance other non-clinical life roles in spheres such as business, research, policy development, family and leisure. An awareness of how GPs make mid-career decisions provides a basis for supporting the career development of a range of professionals such as doctors, pharmacists and dentists who all work in an essentially flat career framework. 1. Rogers ME, Creed PA, Searle J, Hartung PJ. The Physician Values in Practice Scale-Short Form: Development and initial validation. Journal of Career Development. 2010:published online 17 May 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0894845310363593. 2. Perrone KM, Gordon PA, Fitch JC, Civiletto CL. The Adult Career Concerns Inventory: Development of a short form. Journal of Employment Counseling. 2003;40(4):172. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE IRANIAN VERSION OF THE SPECIALTY INDECISION QUESTIONNAIRE: A PRELIMINARY STUDY Dr Arash Hadadgar Medical Education Development Centre, Iran Determining causes of career indecision and treating them helps students make an optimum decision. Psychologist and career consultants have developed measuring tools for career indecision.
This study wanted to define psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the specialty indecision scale. We prepared an Iranian version of Specialty Indecision questionnaire based on the Association of American Medical Colleges' Specialty Indecision Scale (SIS). Face and cultural validity of this cross sectional study were checked by educational experts, and translation and back translation method respectively. The tool had an 18 demographic questions and 40 specialty indecision related items. Users completed the Iranian version of specialty indecision questionnaire on the web. Items were grouped again by factor analysis. Fifty eight subjects participated in the study. Reliability of the questionnaire was. Two questions were omitted and five questions were changed. Questions were categorized under four factors (general indecisiveness, postponing, barriers and lack of determination). These altogether covered 47% of the total variance. Study shown that a web based specialty indecision questionnaire is feasible. This study had major differences with the American version both in number of factors and the content of each factor. The differences could be interpreted with cultural differences and residency admission process among two countries and weakness of translation method. Also these differences may be due to small sample size of the study and large scale future researches are needed. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OCCUPATIONAL GENDER STEREOTYPES AND SELF-EFFICACY AMONG FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN JAPAN Dr. Tomoko Aadachi Osaka Kyoiku University The problem of occupational gender segregation has not yet been resolved in Japan. Female tend to choose traditionally female dominated occupation and avoid male dominated area. Current study investigated the occupational choices among female students from a psychological perspective by examining occupational gender stereotypes, self-efficacy and the relationship between these two concepts. Occupational gender stereotypes and self-efficacy were assessed using the M-F scale of the Vocational Preference Inventory which consists of seven male dominated and seven female dominated occupations. Surveys were conducted during classes and valid responses were obtained from 565 female university students. There was a significant difference between average gender stereotype score for male and female dominated occupation, with a low average score for the former. This indicates that generally male dominated occupation is perceived as masculine and female dominated occupation is perceived as feminine. The relationships between occupational gender stereotypes and occupational self-efficacy were also examined using regression analyses. Results indicated that occupational stereotypes were negatively related to self-efficacy in all seven male dominated occupations, whereas these relations have not seen for female dominated occupations.
The above findings suggest that the recognition that male dominated occupations as explicitly masculine has the effect of lowering self-efficacy for male dominated occupations, which might limit considering such occupations as future alternatives. It is suggested that interventions focusing on reducing gender stereotypes would be useful for expanding career choices among female university students. THINKING STYLES AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT - AN INTRODUCTION TO USING THE HERRMANN BRAIN DOMINANCE INSTRUMENT IN CAREER PRACTICE Lee Miles Western Australia Thinking styles impact our perspectives and how we interact with others. The HBDI is the art and science of understanding how individuals think. It provides a basis for measuring different thinking preferences and determines the degree of dominance that has developed among the four thinking structures (quadrants) of the brain. These correspond to the cerebral hemispheres and the limbic system of the brain. Developed by Ned Herrmann in the 1970's, HBDI will be of interest to practitioners to learn about. They may apply the fundamentals presented in their daily practice and help others appreciate how to optimise and adapt their thinking, decision-making or communication styles. It will also help to explain why people find it easier to communicate with some people than with others, and cast light on why some elements of education or work seem effortless and more satisfying, and also why some academic subjects or hobbies are more interesting and appealing to different people. When the HBDI is understood, people are better able to understand their thinking styles and how this impacts the way they learn, communicate and solve problems. This knowledge can be transferred to many working environments, such as career coaching and organisational development. Specifically in relation to career development, understanding thinking preferences can increase job suitability for individuals and heightening job satisfaction. From an organisations perspective, a better "job-fit" can decrease turnover and job dissatisfaction. FOSTERING CAREER EXPLORATION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS THROUGH A GENERAL EDUCATION COURSE IN HONG KONG Dr Raysen Cheung and Mr Simon Fung City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Career education courses are widely applied as career interventions in the university setting in different cultural contexts. Research perspectives on career exploration (e.g. Flum & Blustein, 2000; Cheung & Arnold, 2010) can be applied to improve the design and effectiveness of such courses. This study aims to test how far a career education course can be designed and delivered to foster career exploration among university students in the Hong Kong context with reference to research perspectives in career exploration. A pre-and-post quantitative design will be employed to examine possible significant changes from a sample of about 80 students enrolled in a general education course (13 weekly sessions on the nature of careers and career management). To establish a control group for comparison, data will also be collected from students of another general education course (not related to careers) in the same university. The career exploration survey (Stumpf et al.,1983) and the career decision profile (Jones, 1989) will be adopted as major measurements. Multivariate designs will be employed to examine possible significant changes in self and environment awareness, as well as vocational self concept crystallization. Results from the intervention group and the controlled group will be compared. Discussions will be on the extent career exploration perspectives can be applied to guide the intervention of career course in Hong Kong and beyond. Data from assessments will also be analyzed to improve practice. Implications on future study will be highlighted. EFFECTS OF A WEB-BASED CAREER PLANNING SYSTEM ON SCHOOL PERFORMANCE AND PERSISTENCE Mrs JoAnn Bowlsbey and Mr Spencer Niles Kuder Inc, USA Motivate your students and encourage higher achievement by implementing education and career planning tools. Join us to learn how a South Carolina study revealed that education and career planning plays a critical role in easing academic transitions and puts students on the right path to career success. This study sought to examine the impact that the use of a CAGAS has on students' school performance, career decision making and education transitions (when compared to non-system users) In January 2008, a study conducted by Catalina D'Achiardi-Ressler, Ph.D., examined the impact that career Information Systems, namely the Kuder® Career Planning System (KCPS), has on students' school performance, their ability to make career decisions, and their transition into higher education. Students from two technical colleges in South Carolina were randomly selected to participate in this study. This created a pool of nearly 2,000 participants, approximately half of whom were KCPS users. Dr. D'Achiardi-Ressler's hypotheses provided initial evidence that students using the KCPS, compared to non-KCPS users performed better in school; transitioned to postsecondary education at a higher rate; selected postsecondary majors related to their assessment scores; and changed their
major, on average, less than one time, which suggests that students can graduate from college faster. This study provides some initial evidence that students using a CACGS (in this case the KCPS) are potentially impacted in more than one positive manner. LIFE-LONG LEARNING THROUGH WEB-BASED EDUCATIONAL AND CAREER PLANNING SYSTEMS Mrs JoAnn Bowlsbey Kuder Inc, USA This presentation examines the concept of an integrated web-based educational and career planning system that serves the developmental needs of individuals from childhood through adulthood, providing different information and activities for different life stages and different needs. Such an ideal system would include career assessment, labor market information, information about education and training opportunities, and support for job placement and transition. The core of this ideal system would be a lifelong, editable, electronic portfolio which individuals could use as a repository of assessment results, plans, relevant information, and items that document accomplishments, skills, and experience. Users would be able to develop custom-made eportfolios for electronic transmission to employers or other designated persons. Further, the potential for such a system to be used internationally, with access to different appropriate databases and on a combination of electronic devices, will also be considered. Key Learning Objectives: · Attendees will learn the major components necessary for a successful lifelong and inclusive web-based career planning support system and portfolio. · Lastly, attendees will learn how similar collaboration across the globe can be facilitated for various organizations in a broad range of user-interfaces. THE TRANSITIONS OF SCHOOL LEAVERS ­ CAREER OPTIONS IN A TIME OF CHANGE Mrs Heather Gwilliam McCarthy Catholic College, Australia Mrs. Heather Gwilliam has recently been awarded a Winston Churchill Trust Fellowship to travel to the UK and investigate the Transitions of Young People through schooling and into training, further education and the workplace. She will be undertaking the Fellowship in May/June 2010, visiting centres, agencies, schools and providers of assistance to learn about the `Connexions' model in the UK and observe first hand how they are managing career provision and advice, both in schools and the community. Heather has a passion for students with special needs and those who `fall through the cracks' as far as schooling and opportunities go. She has had a long career in Special Education, as a class teacher, social educator and consultant, particularly in the challenging western suburbs of Sydney. Heather
currently works as a Careers Adviser and Support Officer in far western Sydney at the foot of the Blue Mountains. In 1990 she helped form the `Transition' program for the NSW DET which introduced the concept of Individual Plans (IEP's, ITP's, IP's) for all students with special needs. This in turn led to more opportunities for workplace experiences, training and alternative pathways to achieve results in school and beyond. She sought funding for and commenced two employment services, NOVA Employment and Choice Employment Solutions, both now DEN providers across Western Sydney and beyond. In 1997 Heather transferred to the Catholic Education Office, Parramatta, to begin the Transition program in the 27 schools of the Diocese. The program won a National Teaching Award in 2006 and was also part of the pilot for the establishment of local community Partnerships in Australia (LCP's), in a CATS research project (2002-03), following-up 150+ students with special needs & disabilities, two years beyond school. Transition is now firmly established in the `Enterprise & Equity' framework of the CEO. In her work, Heather has seen the transforming effect of carefully structured work experiences, supports, networks and teams built around young people and their families. She sees the critical importance of agencies, schools and post-school institutions working together, especially for marginalized and disadvantaged students. She also has a great interest in the follow up of higher achieving students who leave post-school education, often without completing their chosen degree and who need further support and direction. The UK `Connexions' program aims to liaise with every 13-19 year old, nation wide, regardless of education sector. Heather seeks to investigate the ways this program works in schools and beyond, both in London and regional settings, including the challenges experienced in the north of the UK. She hopes to bring back information that will guide policy development and assist local partnerships, state education and national discussions on the needs of youth and their transitions in and beyond school. THE JOURNEY FROM PERSONAL LEARNING PLANS TO INDUSTRY PATHWAYS Ms Pam Fletcher and Ms Ann Leenders Department of Education and Children's Services, South Australia In a climate of significant changes to senior school curriculum , we are supporting young people plan possible pathways through developing personal learning plans to explore possibilities and then using a specific industry area as the context for some of their curriculum. Enabling young people to manage their career planning whilst at school and afterwards is the aim. Key Learning Objectives: · What makes a Personal Learning Plan effective? · What support can we provide young people in exploring and planning their pathways? · How can you work with a range of stakeholders to provide the optimum environment for young people's pathways planning?
· How can you introduce career development skills to young people and enable them to manage their own career during their lifetime? Over the last 10 years we have promoted career education and encouraged schools to use the Australian Blueprint of Career Development and support students to undertake VET competencies. The Industry Skills Program combines this work and provides a structure where students can complete their secondary certificate and maintain a specific industry context in many of their courses. We started in 2009 and will continue to expand with more students and industry areas involved. Data should start to provide some evidence of its effectiveness and provide guidance about how to improve our career Development Strategies. Interaction invited during the presentation and examples of the industry pathways plans and the personal learning plans will be shared GIVE YOUR STUDENTS THE BEST CHANCE OF CAREER SUCCESS Mr Rupert French The Job Winners, Australia A highly effective job search training course specifically designed for people on the threshold of their careers · Comprehensive; from establishing the right attitude through to succeeding in the new job · Clearly explained step-by-step approach and practical strategies · Easy to teach · 9 reproducible student manuals double as teaching outlines · 20 specimen rйsumйs and 10 other application documents to illustrate and for downloading for use as templates · All the resources needed to run a successful course in effective job search techniques · Presentation slides only used where they emphasise important points · Black slides focus attention back to the instructor and to the manuals Uses methodology recommended by the world's leading experts including Richard Nelson-Bolles, Howard Figler, Daniel Porot and J. Michael Farr and proved by the success enjoyed by the author's clients over the past 10 years

MS WONG, M Yuen

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