A Collection of Welsh Household Names from 1602, CA merch Catmael

Tags: Denbigh, Denbigh Castle, Welsh Household Names, Cardigan, English, Flint, England and Wales, names, Montgomery, substantive, household names, English and Welsh, Evans, Place-names, Cardiganshire, Wales, James Bell, church of Mary, John Thomas Evans, James H. Alden, Henry Owen, Middle English Dictionary, Wellington, place names, Welsh names, place name, Glan Y Cery, Archaeologia Cambrensis, Welsh name, Liverpool Agricultural Society, University of Michigan, George Owen, Dictionary
Content: A Collection of Welsh Household Names from 1602 Countess Aryanhwy merch Catmael modernly known as Sara L. Uckelman [email protected] 1 Introduction The following data are taken from George Owen's accounts of Cardiganshire, Denbighshire, Flintshire, and Montgomeryshire in 1602, as it appears in The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Chronicle of December 1832 [1, pp. 511­514]1 (the article ends `to be continued', but I have not yet been able to find in which volume). For each of these shires, Owen recorded the names of the local nobles, the names of their mansions, and the names of their wives. Important geographical names such as the names of the chief towns, forests, ports, and rivers are also recorded. Though the records are in English, Owen was a native Welshman, and his spellings show strong Welsh influence. The names of the mansions are the most interesting part of the data, and the subject of this paper. 1.1 About the data The names that make up the present data are the names of the mansiones `home, dwelling, abode' (I have used `mansion' throughout due to the similarity to its English cognate; however, I don't have any data of the size of the buildings specifically) of the generosi `noble[men], [people] of noble birth' of the county. A handful of the house owners were knights, and the sheriffs of the county, both before and after 1602, are often associated with one of the mansions. Many of the mansion names, which are a mix of English and Welsh, were either identical to or became parishes, towns, and major cities. Some I have been able to find only in this particular record, some the latest record I can find is from the early 19th C. The names, whether they became the names of great cities or not, provide insight on how more `local' places, as opposed to names of cities and towns, were named. These mansion names 1 The Cardiganshire data also appears in [11] where it is taken from "Dr. Henry Owen's Pembrokeshire, Part iv, pp. 461­479". The spellings here often differ from those in the Gentleman's Magazine; it appears that either H. Owen or Evans substituted the modern forms of the place names. This has been of quite a bit of assistance in identifying the etymology of some of the names.
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would be suitable for use as household names in the SCA, which makes this list doubly important given the derth of information about the names of noble households in medieval Wales (cf. [14]); we discuss how the data can be used to create new authentic household names in §3 below. 1.2 Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used: adj. adjectival der. derivative/derived from deut. deuterotheme el. element EModE early modern English gen. genitive ME Middle English ODan Old Danish OE Old English OFr Old French ON Old Norse pers.n. personal name pl. plural pl.n. place name prot. prototheme r.n. river name unc. uncertain/unclear 2 Alphabetical list of mansion names In the list below, we have identified each name as either linguistically Welsh or linguistically English (on the basis of the etymology of the root elements, and not on the basis of the orthography), and provided information about the etymology, where it can be determined. A few of the names combine English and Welsh elements, but this is quite rare. Each name is listed with the documented spelling in bold, followed by the county in which the name appeared, followed by the linguistic and etymological information. Abermaid (Cardigan): Welsh. `mouth of the river Mad', aber, Mad. Abernantbychan (Cardigan): Welsh. `mouth of the small stream', aber, nant, bychan.
Welsh Household Names
Abertanat (Montgomery): Welsh. `mouth of the river Tanat', aber, Tanat. Bangor (Flint): Welsh. `wattle-fence enclosure'. Berse (Denbigh): English. Unc., either `pleached hedge' or pers.n., *Bers, berse. Berthllwyd (Montgomery): Welsh. `grey thicket, grey copse', perth, llwyd. Bodildris (Denbigh): This is almost certainly an error for Bodidris; the only place where I have found the -ildris spelling is in Owen. Welsh. `church, abode of Idris', bod, Idris. Brecton (Flint): English. `farmstead, estate of the cultivated land or breck', brЇec, tuЇn. Broughton (Flint): English. `brook estate, brook village', brЇoc, tuЇn. Bryncuryn (Denbigh): Welsh. bryn `hill' + unc.el. I have been unable to find any example of this spelling outside of Owen, and think it may be an error resulting from a misreading of Bryneuryn `gold hill'. Bullington (Montgomery): English. `Bulla's farmstead or estate', Bulling, tuЇn. Buttes (Denbigh): English. `stump, thick end; (archery) butts', butt. Cadwgan (Denbigh): Welsh. pers.n. Caeryvallen (Denbigh): Welsh. caer `fort, stronghold, fortified estate' + y `the' + unc.el. Chirck (Denbigh): English. chirk, anglicized form of Welsh r.n. Ceiriog. Clydsiack (Cardigan): Welsh. clwyd `hurdle, wattle; gate' + unc.el. Evans lists the name as Clwydsiack. Coedmor (Cardigan): Welsh. `big, large forest', coed, mawr. Denbigh Castle (Denbigh): Welsh and English. `little fort castle', din, bych, castel(l). Dolycock (Montgomery): Welsh. unc., perhaps `red, russet watermeadow', d^ol, y `the', coch. Eglwysvagh (Denbigh): Welsh. `little church', eglwys, bach. Emrall (Flint): Welsh. `emerald', emrallt. While the connection isn't obvious in this spelling, the variant Emerallt ("as it is written in some old MSS" [16, p. 173]) leaves little doubt. Eyton (Denbigh): English. `island estate, island village', Їeg, tuЇn. Fennes (Flint): Unc. Perhaps English, a deriv. of fenn `fenn, marsh, marshland'. Foysogy (Denbigh): Unc. I have been unable to find anything remotely like this outside of Owen. The prototheme may be a deriv. of ffos `ditch, mote, trench'. Geirnos (Cardigan): Welsh. `mounds; spires, cones'. curn, os pl. suffix.
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Gilfield (Montgomery): Welsh and English. `corner of open country', cil, feld. Glaenclwyd (Denbigh): Welsh. `gate by the boundary', glan, clwyd. Glan Y Cery (Cardigan): Welsh. glan `bank, boundary' + y `the' + unc.el., perhaps related to C^ar pers.n. + i, a territorial suffix. Evans lists the name as Glan Eleri ; the deuterotheme here is Eleri. Glynn (Montgomery): Welsh. glyn `valley'. Gogarthan (Cardigan): Welsh. A deriv. of gogerdd `ledge, step, terrace'. Goldgreve (Flint): English. `gold grove, copse', gold, grЇaf, grЇafa, grafa. Greysford (Denbigh): English. `grassy ford', grжs, ford. Guven Egran (Flint): Welsh. Unc. The deut. may be related to Egryn, pers.n. and the name of a saint. Gwaynynog (Denbigh): Welsh. gwaen `moor' + y `the' + unc.el., perhaps a deriv. of ogog `cave'. Gwerigge (Montgomery): Welsh. Unc. I have found nothing remotely similar to this. Gwsaney (Flint): Welsh. gwys `inhabitancy, peopled place, country' + unc.el. The prototheme is evidence in the modern form Gwysany. Hanmere (Flint): English. `Hagena's lake or pool', *Hagena, mere. Horseley (Denbigh): English. `clearing in a wood frequented by horses', hors, lЇeah. Houghton (Flint): English. Either `farmstead, village by the wood' or `farmstead, village on the hill spur', holt, hЇoh, tuЇn. Howton (Flint): Cf. Houghton, above. Killphorch (Cardigan): Welsh. cil `nook, corner, angle' + unc.el., perhaps related to fforc `fork'. Evans lists the name as Cill-fforch. Krigbischan (Cardigan): Welsh. Evans lists the name as Crug Bychan, `little mound', crug, bychan. Lansaintfred (Cardigan): Welsh. `church of Saint Ffraid', llan, sant, Ffraid. Lanvair (Denbigh): Welsh. `church of Mary', llan, Mair. Cf. Llanvaer below. Lenghton (Montgomery): English. unc.el. + tuЇn `enclosure; farmstead; estate; village'. Leude Brooke (Flint): Welsh?/English. unc.el. + brЇoc `stream, brook'. Llanbeder (Cardigan): Welsh. `church of Peter', llan, Pedr. Llandigwy (Cardigan): Welsh. `church of Tigwy', llan, Tigwy. Evans lists the name as Llandygwy. Llangranog (Cardigan): Welsh. `church of Crannog', llan, C(a)rannog. Llanidos (Montgomery): Welsh. llan `church' + unc.el., perhaps an error for Idloes pers.n.
Welsh Household Names
Llanllyr (Cardigan): Welsh. `church of Lly^r', llan, Ll^yr. Llanvaer (Cardigan): Welsh. `church of Mary', llan, Mair. Cf. Lanvair above. Llanwilling (Montgomery): Welsh. `church of Mylling', llan, Myllin(g). Llanybythen (Cardigan): Welsh. llan `church' + y `the' + unc.el. This may be modern Llanybyddar, in which case the deuterotheme is byddar `deaf ones'. Llwynrwirth (Cardigan): Welsh. `Iorwerth's grove', llwyn, Iorwerth. Llydiard (Montgomery): Welsh/English. `grey ridge', llwyd or *lЇed, *garth. Llyny Knottie (Denbigh): Welsh. llyn `lake' + y `the' + unc.el. Llysvasey (Denbigh): Welsh. llys `court' + unc.el., perhaps related to f^as `ligature, band'. Llywenn (Denbigh): Welsh. Unc. Llywen is a pers.n., the name of a saint. The word llywen also meant `west' in the early 19th C [19], though I haven't been able to trace it further back. Machynleth (Montgomery): Welsh. `plain of Cynllaith', ma, Cynllaith. Maesmaur (Montgomery): Welsh. `big field', maes, mawr. Manachty (Cardigan): Welsh. mynachdy `monastery', from mynach `monk' + fy `house, abode'. Marchwiall (Denbigh): Welsh. marchwia(i)l `large saplings'. Marthavarn (Montgomery): Welsh. ma(r)th `flat, plain, open' + unc.el. [19] glosses avarn as `laying aside judgement; bribery', which makes no sense here. Montgomery (Montgomery): `Gomeric's mountain', identical with the French place name Montgomery, mons, mont, Gomeric. Morvamaur (Cardigan): Welsh. `large sea marsh', morfa, mawr. Mostyn (Flint): English. `farmstead, village by the bog', mos, tuЇn. Newton (Montgomery): English. `new estate, new village', nЇiwe, tuЇn. Northoppe (Flint): English. `north plot of enclosed land', north, hop. Ornvryn (Cardigan): Welsh. unc.el. + bryn `hill'. Evans lists the name as Crynvryn, crwn `round, circular' + bryn. Pantylungdy (Flint): Welsh. pant `hollow' + y `the' + unc.el. Pantyskir (Denbigh): Welsh. `rocky hollow', pant, y `the', sker. The identification of the final element is not certain. Panybettwys (Cardigan): Welsh. `hollow by the chapel', pant, y `the', betws. The loss of t in the prototheme seems idiosyncratic to Owen's record; cf. the forms in [24, s.n. Pantbetws]. Parke (Montgomery): English. park `park'. Penbryn (Cardigan): Welsh. `top of the hill', pen, bryn. Penrythan (Flint): Welsh. `red, ruddy (hill)top', pen, rhydd. The derivation of the second element from rhydd is uncertain.
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Plasgellin (Denbigh): Welsh. plas `mansion, place' + unc.el., perhaps a mutated form of cellan `little cell'. Plusyward (Denbigh): Welsh. plas `mansion, place' + y `the' + unc.el. The place also appears as Plasyward or Plas y Ward, e.g., Simon Thelwall of Plas y-Ward was sheriff of Denbighshire in 1612 [15, p. 101].2 Pool (Montgomery): English. pЇol `pool, pond'. Pool Castle (Montgomery): English. `castle by the pond', pЇol, castel(l). Rhewsayson (Montgomery): Welsh. `hill of the Saxons', rhiw, Sais, pl. Saeson, Rosgarreck (Montgomery): Welsh. `stony moor', rhos, garreg. Rosnant (Montgomery): Welsh. `moor with a stream' or `valley moor', rhos, nant. Royton (Denbigh): English. `farmstead where rye is grown', rЇyg. e, tuЇn. Ru^g (Denbigh): Welsh. Also found as Rug and Rhug, this name has proved more difficult than expected given that it's modernly a rather large, well-known place. The only suggestion of origin that I have found is given in [8, p. 40], where it is glossed as `place of heather'. Rywabon (Denbigh): Welsh. `Mabon's hill', rhiw, Mabon. Soflwyn (Denbigh): Welsh. `white stubble', sofl, wyn. St. Asaph (Flint): English. Saint Asaph or Asaff was a 6th C bishop. Talaceray (Flint): Welsh. `acerage at the end' or `end of the acerage', t^al, acr, pl. acrau. The Green (Denbigh): English. the `the' + grЇene `grassy spot, Village Green'. Tir y Gilby (Cardigan): Welsh. tir `land' + y `the' + unc.el. Evans notes that this place is now called Tre Gybi. Toxhill (Denbigh): ?/English. unc.el. + hyll `hill'. The prototheme may be ODan *tЇok, gen. *tЇoks `fool'. The presence of a Scandinavian element in a Welsh placename is not unreasonable; Owen and Morgan [18] list a handful of such elements. Trevalyn (Denbigh): Welsh. `farm, settlement by the river Alun', tref, Alun. Vannel (Flint): Welsh. unc.el., perhaps related to ban `peak'. Wellington (Flint): English. There are a number of possible derivations of the prototheme: (1) wжlling `spring', (2) Weola pers.n. + ing, (3) *wЇeoling `mechanical device; trap', (4) walu `ridge, bank' + ing `of, belonging to'. The deuterotheme is tuЇn `enclosure; farmstead; estate; village'. Y Berth ddw (Denbigh): Welsh. `the shaded thicket', y `the', perth, du(f ). 2 And in 1837, one Robert Jenkins of Plas-y-ward received "for the second best pen of five short wool lambs, a piece of plate value one pound" from the Liverpool Agricultural Society [3, p. 469]. Completely irrelevant, but too delicious not to include.
Welsh Household Names
Monothematic Dithematic Other
English 7 18 0
Welsh 13 53 2
Other/Mixed 0 5 1
Figure 1. Summary of data
Yscoed (Denbigh): Welsh. `below the woods', is, coed. Ystradfflyr (Cardigan): Welsh. ystrad `vale' + Ll^yr pers.n. fflur `flower', or Fflur r.n. The modern name is Strata Florida `covered in flowers'. Yvardre (Denbigh): Welsh? Unc. I have been unable to find anything like this outside of Owen. 3 Analysis and discussion 100 mansions are recorded in these three counties, with 99 distinct names (there are two mansions named Llandigwy in Cardigan; their patrons, John Byrth and David Thomas Parry, are not obviously related to each other. A summary of the different languages and constructions can be found in Figure 1. The vast majority (76.8%) of the names are dithemetic in construction, consisting of a substantive element and a descriptive element. In dithematic English placenames, the descriptive element generally precedes the substantive element, e.g., Royton `rye estate, rye farmstead'. In Welsh, the order is generally reversed, with the substantive element preceding the descriptive, e.g., Llanvair `Saint Mary's church' or Maesmaur `large open country'. Of course, there are exceptions; for example, the compound Mynachdy `monastery' derives from mynach `monk' and fy `house, abode', and the descriptive element precedes the substantive, as opposed to the other way around, *Fymynach. Similarly, and as expected given the location the data is taken from, the vast majority (66%) of the names are Welsh in origin. Of the six names of mixed origin, one (Denbigh Castle) appends an English substantive to a stand alone Welsh place name. One (Gilfield ) combines a Welsh substantive with an English substantive. Two (Pantyskir and Toxhill ) combine an English or Welsh substantive with a descriptive of uncertain but presumably Scandinavian origin. One (Montgomery) is a loan-name from the continent, and the last (Leude Brook ) has an English substantive with a prototheme of unidentified origin. Two Welsh names which are neither monothematic nor strictly dithematic in construction can be interpreted as dithematic names with complex (dithematic) deuterothemes: In Abernantbychan, nant `stream' is modified by bychan `small' before being attached to aber `mouth'; in Lansaintfred,
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the saint's name Ffraid has the descriptive sant added to it before being attached to llan `church'. What guidelines for the formation of new household names can be drawn from this data? Quite a few, as it turns out. Many conclusions are relatively obvious, but bear stating anyway: 1. Dithematic names are more common than monothematic. Pick a substantive element (the prototheme in a Welsh name, the deuterotheme in an English) and a simple descriptive, such as a color, a relative location, or a geographical feature, and combine. 2. Be hesitant to mix English and Welsh elements in the same name; two examples out of 100 is a poor foundation to extrapolate from. However, there is no reason to think that the formation Denbigh Castle, combining an independent Welsh place name with the English substantive castle, is unique or unusual; thus, this pattern can be recommended. 3. In Welsh, place names which contain either personal names or names of river are not uncommon (29%). Pick a substantive that refers to a type of lodging or structure (bod, llan), and a personal name, and combine. 4. The English names do not differ in any substantive way from names across the border; any name which is suitable for a small English town is also likely appropriate for a Welsh mansion name, particularly in border counties. We noted above the current derth of information on Welsh household names to use as SCA-appropriate models; the exception is [14]. However, there, Jones focuses on the way that a group of people associated with a given person, usual a noble or a land-holder, could have been referred to, rather than on the names of their houses; in the section "Individual Stuctures", she notes that "The naming of individual structures is quite traditional, although the names used in period are often quite different from those chosen today. Castles and churches have been discussed above in relation to towns named after them. You can find modern references to Renaissanceera manor houses by name, but I haven't been able to ascertain the age of those names and for the most part they are the same sorts of names that one finds for villages." The evidence provided above bears this out: None of the names would be especially surprising as the name of a village or town, or even a larger city. One aspect of household that we haven't touched on at all here is the social aspect, of who it was that inhabited these houses, and what the
Welsh Household Names
make-up of their households were. Owen provides no information beyond the name of the noble and, in most, but not all, cases, the name of his wife. Nevertheless, for the reader who is interested in the social structures of these households, we are happy to point to the bibliography of [14], which has references to many works discussing these matters. Appendix: Glossary of elements In this section we give three lists of themes: English, Welsh, and Other. Each list is arranged alphabetically by element, and includes a gloss; a note whether the theme was used as a prototheme or deuterotheme, or both (name which has neither prot. nor deut. identified was used as a standalone monothematic element); and ends with a list of the pl.n.s in which the elements occur. These lists include themes that are only tentatively identified in §2, and so any entry in the list should be referred back to the earlier section to read any caveats. Elements which I have been unable to identify even tentatively are omitted. English I have used here the standard OE form of the elements (or the ME where no OE form exists). As a result, one cannot simply take the elements and combine them without alteration to form dithematic placenames as recommended above. Instead, one needs to use the temporally appropriate ME or EModE forms. These forms can be found using [2, 22, 23]. Asaph pers.n. St. Asaph. berse `pleached hedge'. Berse. *Bers pers.n. Berse. brЇec prot., `cultivated land, breck'. Brecton. brЇoc prot. & deut., `stream, brook'. Broughton, Leude Brooke. Bulling prot., Bulla pers.n. + ing `of, belonging to'. Bullington. butt `stump, thick end; (archery) butts'. Buttes. castel(l) deut., `castle'. Denbigh Castle, Pool Castle. chirk anglicized form of Welsh r.n. Ceiriog, q.v. Chirck. Їeg prot., `an island'Eyton. feld deut., `open country'. Gilfield. fenn `fenn, marsh, marshland'. Fennes. ford deut., `ford'. Greysford. *garth deut., `ridge'. Llydiard.
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gold prot., `gold'. Goldgreve. grжs prot., `grass'. Greysford. grЇaf, grЇafa, grafa deut., `copse, grove'. Goldgreve. grЇene `grassy spot, village green'. The Green. *Hagena prot., pers.n. Hanmere. hЇoh prot., `spur of a hill'. Houghton, Howton. holt prot., `wood, holt'. Houghton, Howton. hop deut., `plot of enclosed land, esp. in marshes'. Northoppe. hors prot., `horse'. Horseley. hyll deut., `hill'. Toxhill. lЇeah deut., `wood, clearing in a wood'. Horseley. mere deut., `mere, lake, pool'. Hanmere. mos prot., `bog'. Mostyn. nЇiwe prot., `new'. Newton. north prot., `north'. Northoppe. park `park'. Parke (Montgomery): English. pЇol prot., `pool, pond'. Pool, Pool Castle. ryЇg. e prot., `rye'. Royton. saint `saint'. St. Asaph. tuЇn deut., `enclosure; farmstead; estate; village'. Brecton, Broughton, Bulling- ton, Eyton, Houghton, Howton, Lenghton, Mostyn, Newton, Royton, Wellington. wжlling prot., `spring'. Wellington. waling prot., walu `ridge, bank' + ing `of, belonging to'. Wellington. Weoling prot., Weola pers.n. + ing. Wellington. *wЇeoling prot., `mechanical device; trap'. Wellington. Welsh aber prot., `mouth of a river, estuary'. Abermaid, Abernantbychan, Aber- tanat. acr deut., pl. acrau, `acre'. Talaceray. Alun deut., r.n., from pers.n. Alaunos. Trevalyn. bach deut., `small'. Cf. bych(an) below. Eglwysvagh. bangor `wattle-fence enclosure'. Bangor.
Welsh Household Names
ban `peak'. Vannel. betws deut., `house of prayer, chapel'. Panybettwys. bod prot., `abode, church'. Bodildris. bryn prot. & deut., `hill'. Bryncuryn, Ornvryn, Penbryn. bych(an) deut., `little, small'. Cf. bach above. Abernantbychan, Denbigh Castle, Krigbischan. byddar deut., `deaf ones'. Llanybythen. Cadwgan pers.n. Cadwgan. caer prot., `fort, stronghold, fortified estate'. Caeryvallen. C(a)rannog deut., pers.n. Llangranog. C^ar deut., pers.n. Glan Y Cery. Ceiriog pers.n., from c^ar `beloved' + -iog adj. suffix. Chirck. cellan deut., `little cell'. Plasgellin. cil prot., `nook, corner, angle'. Gilfield, Killphorch. clwyd prot., `hurdle, wattle; gate' Clydsiack, Glaenclwyd. coch deut., `red, ginger, russet'. Dolycock. coed prot. & deut., `trees, woodlands, forest'. Coedmor, Yscoed. crug prot., `mound'. Krigbischan. crwn prot., `round, circular'. Ornvryn. curn `head, mound; cone, spire'. Geirnos. Cynllaith deut., pers.n. Machynleth. din prot., `fort'. Denbigh Castle. d^ol prot., `water-meadow'. Dolycock. du(f ) deut., `black, swarthy, shaded'. Y Berth ddw. eglwys prot., `church' Eglwysvagh. Egryn deut., pers.n. and the name of a saint. Guven Egran. Eleri deut., r.n. Glan Y Cery. emrallt `emerald'. Emrall. f^as `ligature, band'. Llysvasey. euryn deut., `gold', also used as a pers.n. Bryncuryn. fflur deut., `flower'. Ystradfflyr. Fflur deut., r.n. Ystradfflyr.
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fforc deut., `fork'. Killphorch (Cardigan): Welsh. ffos prot., `ditch, mote, trench'. Foysogy. Ffraid deut., pers.n. Welsh Ffraid is Irish Brigid. Lansaintfred. fy deut., `house, abode'. Manachty. garreg deut., `rock, stone'. Rosgarreck. glan prot., `bank, boundary'. Glaenclwyd, Glan Y Cery. glyn `valley'. Glynn. gogerdd `ledge, step, terrace'. Gogarthan. gwaen prot., `moor' Gwaynynog. gwys prot., `inhabitancy, peopled place, country'. Gwsaney. Idloes deut., pers.n. Llanidos. Idris deut., pers.n. Idris was king of Merioneth in the late 6th and early 7th C; in Welsh mythology, he was a giant and an astronomer. Bodildris. Iorwerth deut., pers.n. Llwynrwirth. is prot., `below'. Yscoed. *lЇed See llwyd below. llan prot., `church' Lansaintfred, Lanvair, Llanbeder, Llandigwy, Llangra- nog, Llanidos, Llanllyr, Llanvaer, Llanwilling, Llanybythen. llwyd prot. & deut., `grey'. Berthllwyd, Llydiard. llwyn prot., `grove'. Llwynrwirth. llyn prot., `lake'. Llyny Knottie. Lly^r deut., pers.n. Llanllyr, Ystradfflyr. llys prot., `court'. Llysvasey. llywen `west' ? Llywenn. Llywen pers.n., the name of a saint. Llywenn. Mabon deut., pers.n. Rywabon. Mad deut., r.n., from pers.n. Maed. Abermaid. maes prot., `open country, field'. Maesmaur. Mair deut., pers.n. Welsh Mair is English Mary. Lanvair, Llanvaer. ma prot., `plain'. Machynleth. marchwia(i)l `large saplings'. Marchwiall. ma(r)th prot., `flat, plain, open', used in a substantive sense of `plin, field'. Marthavarn.
Welsh Household Names
mawr deut., `large, big'. Coedmor, Maesmaur, Morvamaur. morfa prot., `sea marsh'. Morvamaur. Myllin(g) deut., pers.n. Llanwilling. mynach prot., `monk'. Manachty. mynachdy `monastery', from mynach and fy, q.v. Manachty. nant prot. & deut., `stream'. Abernantbychan, Rosnant. nant prot., `valley'.Rosnant. ogog deut., `cave'. Gwaynynog. pant prot., `hollow'. Pantylungdy, Pantyskir, Panybettwys. Pedr deut., pers.n. Welsh Pedr is English Peter. Llanbeder. pen prot., `head, top'. Penbryn, Penrythan. perth prot., `thicket, brake, copse'. Berthllwyd, Y Berth ddw. plas prot., `mansion, place'. Plasgellin, Plusyward. The prototheme can be found in numerous Denbigh names in the 16th­18th C, e.g.: Plas Chambers (deut. English chamber, pl. chambers `chamber'), Plas Coch (deut. Welsh coch `red, ruddy'), Plas Gronow (deut. Welsh Goronwy pers.n.), Plas Iolyn (deut. Welsh Iolyn pers.n.), Plas Issa (deut. unc.), Plas Newydd (deut. Welsh newydd `new'), Plas Power (deut. unc.), Plas yn Rhal (deut. unc.), Plas Turbridge (deut. English Turbridge pl.n.), Plas Uchav (deut. unc.) [7, pp. 366-369]. rhiw prot., `hill'. Rhewsayson, Rywabon. rhos prot., `moor'. Rosgarreck, Rosnant. rhydd deut., `red, ruddy'. Penrythan. ru^g `place of heather'. Ru^g. Sais deut., `Englishman, Saxon'. Rhewsayson. sant deut., `saint'. Lansaintfred. sofl prot., `stubble'. Soflwyn. t^al prot., `end'. Talaceray. Tanat deut., r.n., from t^an `fire'. Abertanat. Tigwy deut., pers.n. Llandigwy. tir prot., `land'. Tir y Gilby. tref prot., `farm, settlement'. Trevalyn. wyn deut., `white'. Soflwyn. ystrad prot., `vale'. Ystradfflyr.
Countess Aryanhwy merch Catmael
Other Gomeric OFr pers.n. Montgomery. mons prot., Latin `mount, mountain'. Montgomery. mont prot., OFr `mount, mountain'. Montgomery *toЇk prot., ODan `fool'. Toxhill. sker deut., ON `rock, scar, reef, skerry'. Pantyskir.
References [1] The Gentleman's Magazine: And Historical Chronicle, XCIII, part. 2, Dec., 1832. http://books.google.de/books?id=uLIUAAAAQAAJ. [2] Middle English Dictionary. University of Michigan, 2001, 2013. http: //quod.lib.umich.edu/m/med/. [3] Anonymous. Premiums awarded by the Liverpool Agricultural Society, 1837. Farmer's Magazine, 7:468­470, 1837. [4] Sabine Baring-Gould and John fisher. The Lives of the British Saints: The Saints of Wales, Cornwall, and Ireland, volume 3. Kessinger Publishing, 2005. [5] James Bell. A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer of England and Wales, volume III. A. Fullarton & Co., 1935. [6] George Henry Borrow. Wild Wales: Its People, Language and Scenery. Echo Library, 2006. [7] William Cathrall. History of North Wales: Comprising a Topographical Description of the Several Counties of Anglesey, Caernarvon, Denbigh, Flint, Merioneth, and Montgomery, to which is prefixed A Review of the History of Britain From the Roman Period to the Saxon Heptarchy. Interspersed with Notes Biographical and Explanatory, volume II. J. Gleave and Sons, 1828. [8] Dewi Davies. Welsh Place-names. Cambrian Printers Aberystwyth, after 2006. [9] Trefor Rendall Davies. A Book of Welsh Names. Sheppard Press, 1952. [10] Flavell Edmunds. Traces of History in the Names of Places. With a Vocabulary of the Roots Out of Which Names of Places in England and Wales are Formed. Longmans, Green, and Co., 1869.
Welsh Household Names
[11] John Thomas Evans. Leading Cardiganshire families, with their residences, from the reign of Queen Elizabeth to the present time. In The Church Plate of Cardiganshire, pages 116­117. James H. Alden, 1914. [12] Heini Gruffudd. Enwau Cymraeg i Blant / Welsh Names for Children. Y Lolfa, 1980. [13] James Johnson. Place Names of England and Wales. Bracken Books, 1994. [14] Heather Rose Jones. Period Welsh models for SCA households and the nomenclature thereof, 1994. WWW: Self-published, http://www. heatherrosejones.com/welshhouseholdname/. [15] J. Y. W. Lloyd. Sheriffs of Denbighshire--no. II. Archaeologia Cambrensis, no. 48:97­117, 1869. [16] J. Y. W. Lloyd. Sheriffs of Denbighshire--no. III. Archaeologia Cambrensis, no. 3:169­192, 1870. [17] T. J. Morgan and Prys Morgan. Welsh Surnames. University of Wales Press, 1985. [18] Hywel Wyn Owen and Richard Morgan. Dictionary of the Place-Names of Wales. Gomer Press, 2007. [19] William Owen. A Dictionary of the Welsh language, Explained in English. E. Williams, 1803. Two Volumes. [20] Gwynedd O. Pierce. Capel y fanhalog. Morgannwg, 45:69­79, 2001. [21] P. H. Reaney and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1995. [22] A. H. Smith. English Place-Name Elements. Cambridge, 1956. [23] Victor Watts, editor. Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, Based on the Collections of the English Place-name Society. Cambridge University Press, 2004. [24] Iwan Wmffre. Place-Names of Cardiganshire, volume 1. Archaeopress, 2004.

CA merch Catmael

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