A History of Islamic Societies

Tags: Cambridge University Press, Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Islamic societies, Inner Asia, East Africa, Middle Eastern, Europe, Islamic history, North Africa, Southeast Asia, Muslim population, Lena Salaymeh, Ottoman Empire, David Moshfegh, understanding, Islamic reform, University of California, Berkeley, Middle Eastern Cities, religious communities, Islam Ancient, Global History, eleventh century, outline chronology, PREFACE Islam, Islamic schools, Conversions to Islam, Islamic civilizations, Islam, web service, Muslim Cities, Sunni Islam, narrative chapters, Middle Eastern communities, Ottoman empires, Sufi missionaries, Arab�Middle Eastern Islam, Sudanic Africa, Timurid Empire, Sufi Islam, Muslim empires, Middle Eastern Islam, Persian, Lapidus Frontmatter, state histories, Hannah Jewell, Islamic legal history, Ira M. Lapidus University of California, Berkeley, Southeast Asian history, regional histories, schools of law, Africa, incomplete knowledge, world history
Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information A HISTORY OF ISLAMIC SOCIETIES, THIRD EDITION This third edition of Ira M. Lapidus's classic A History of Islamic Societies has been substantially revised to incorporate the new scholarship and insights of the last twenty-five years. Lapidus's history explores the beginnings and transformations of Islamic civilizations in the Middle East and details Islam's worldwide diffusion to Africa; Spain; Turkey and the Balkans; Central, South, and SouthEast Asia; and North America. The book has been updated to include historical developments in the first decade of the twenty-first century. The narrative is unified by its focus on the organization of primary communities, religious groups and states, and the institutions and cultures that define them. The history is divided into four parts. The first part is a comprehensive account of pre-Islamic late antiquity; the beginnings of Islam; the early Islamic empires; and Islamic religious, artistic, legal, and intellectual cultures. Part II deals with the construction in the Middle East of Islamic religious communities and states to the fifteenth century. Part III includes the history to the nineteenth century of Islamic North Africa and Spain; the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires; and other Islamic societies in Asia and Africa, situating them within their global, political, and economic contexts. Part IV accounts for the impact of European commercial and imperial domination on Islamic societies and traces the development of the modern national state system and the simultaneous Islamic revival from the early nineteenth century to the present. Organized in narrative sections for the history of each major region, with innovative, analytic summary introductions and conclusions, this book is a unique endeavor. The informative and substantial update, balanced judgment, and clarity of presentation ­ which readers have come to expect of this work ­ ensure that it will remain a classic in the field. Ira M. Lapidus is Professor Emeritus of History at the University of California, Berkeley. Throughout his long and illustrious career he has published extensively. His abiding interest has been the relationships among families, tribes, religious communities, cities, and states. This is exemplified in his current work and previous publications, including Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages (1967, 1984); Middle Eastern Cities (edited, 1969); Contemporary Islamic Movements in Historical Perspective (1983); Islam, Politics and social movements (co-edited with Edmund Burke, 1988); the two previous editions of A History of Islamic Societies (1988, 2002); and Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History (2012).
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information A HISTORY OF ISLAMIC SOCIETIES THIRD EDITION IRA M. LAPIDUS University of California, Berkeley
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA
Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning, and research at the highest international levels of excellence.
www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521732970
C Cambridge University Press 1988, 2002, 2014
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First edition published 1988 Second edition published 2002 Third edition pubished 2014
Printed in the United States of America
A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Lapidus, Ira M. (Ira Marvin)
A history of Islamic societies / Ira M. Lapidus, University of California, Berkeley. ­ Third edition.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9 (hardback) ­ ISBN 978-0-521-73297-0 (paperback)
1. Islamic countries ­ History. 2. Islam ­ History. I. Title.
DS35.63.L37 2014
909.09767­dc23
2013028546
ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9 Hardback ISBN 978-0-521-73297-0 Paperback
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information Contents
List of illustrations List of figures List of maps List of tables Preface Acknowledgments Acknowledgments to the first edition of A History of Islamic Societies Acknowledgments to the second edition of A History of Islamic Societies Publisher's preface Introduction to Islamic societies PART I THE BEGINNINGS OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATIONS THE MIDDLE EAST FROM c. 600 TO c. 1000 1 Middle Eastern societies before Islam Ancient, Roman, and Persian empires The Roman Empire The Sasanian Empire Religion and society before Islam Religions and empires Women, family, and society (co-author, Lena Salaymeh) Marriage, divorce, and sexual morality Property and inheritance Seclusion and veiling Conclusion THE PREACHING OF ISLAM 2 Historians and the sources 3 Arabia Clans and kingdoms Mecca Language, poetry, and the gods 4 Muhammad: preaching, community, and state formation The life of the Prophet The Quran v
page xvi xvii xviii xx xxi xxix xxxi xxxv xxxvii 1 7 8 9 10 11 15 16 16 18 19 19 22 26 28 30 31 33 33 36
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
vi
Contents
The Judeo-Christian and Arabian heritage
38
Community and politics
40
Conclusion: the umma of Islam
44
THE ARAB-MUSLIM IMPERIUM (632­945)
5 Introduction to the Arab-Muslim empires
46
6 The Arab-Muslim conquests and the socioeconomic bases of empire
48
The conquests
48
The administration of the new empire
50
7 Regional developments: economic and social change
54
Iraq
54
Syria and Mesopotamia
55
Egypt
57
Iran
58
The integration of conquering and conquered peoples
58
Conversions to Islam
61
Arabic and other Middle Eastern languages
63
8 The caliphate to 750
65
The Rightly Guided Caliphs
65
The Umayyad monarchy (661­685)
67
The imperial caliphate: the Marwanids (685­750)
69
The crisis of the dynasty and the rise of the Abbasids
70
9 The Abbasid Empire
74
Baghdad
74
Abbasid administration: the central government
76
Provincial government
79
Local government
80
Resistance and rebellion
82
10 Decline and fall of the Abbasid Empire
85
The decline of the central government
85
Provincial autonomy and the rise of independent states
88
COSMOPOLITAN ISLAM: THE ISLAM OF THE IMPERIAL ELITE
11 Introduction: religion and identity
92
12 The ideology of imperial Islam
95
Umayyad architecture
96
The desert palaces
99
The Umayyads and the ancient empires
100
Islam and iconoclasm
101
13 The Abbasids: Caliphs and emperors
102
The caliphate and Islam
102
The inquisition
104
Architecture and court ceremony
105
The Arabic humanities
106
Persian literature
108
Hellenistic literature and philosophy
109
Culture, legitimacy, and the state
112
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
Contents
vii
URBAN ISLAM: THE ISLAM OF SCHOLARS AND HOLY MEN
14 Introduction
114
15 Sunni Islam
118
The veneration of the Prophet
119
Early Muslim theology
120
Ash arism
123
Scripturalism: Quran, hadith, and law (co-author, Lena Salaymeh)
124
Law in the seventh and eighth centuries
125
Tradition and law: hadith
128
Reasoned opinion versus traditionalism
130
The schools of law
132
Asceticism and mysticism (Sufism)
134
16 Shi i Islam
139
Isma ili Shi ism
143
WOMEN, FAMILIES, AND COMMUNITIES
17 Muslim urban societies to the tenth century
144
Women and family (co-author, Lena Salaymeh)
144
Women and family in the lifetime of the Prophet
145
Women and family in the Caliphal era
147
Property and inheritance
148
urban communities
150
18 The non-Muslim minorities
153
The early Islamic era
153
Islamic legislation for non-Muslims
154
Christians and Christianity
156
Early Islamic era to the ninth century
156
Christian literature in Arabic
157
Crusades and reaction
158
The Egyptian Copts
159
Christians in North Africa
160
Jews and Judaism (co-author, David Moshfegh)
161
Egyptian and North African Jews: the Geniza era
163
The yeshivas and rabbinic Judaism
163
The nagid
165
Jewish culture in the Islamic context
165
19 Continuity and change in the historic cultures of the Middle East
167
Religion and empire
171
Conclusion
174
PART II FROM ISLAMIC COMMUNITY TO ISLAMIC SOCIETY EGYPT, IRAQ, AND IRAN, 945­c. 1500
20 The post- Abbasid Middle Eastern state system
177
Iraq, Iran, and the eastern provinces
177
The Saljuq Empire, the Mongols, and the Timurids
182
The Saljuq Empire
182
The Mongols
184
The Timurids
186
The western regions
188
Fatimid Egypt
188
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
viii
Contents
Syria and the Crusades
192
The Mamluk empire
195
Military slavery
197
The iqta system and Middle Eastern feudalism
197
Royal Courts and regional cultures: Islam in Persian garb
200
The post- Abbasid concept of the state
206
21 Muslim communities and Middle Eastern societies: 1000­1500 CE
208
Women and family: ideology versus reality (co-author, Lena Salaymeh)
208
Royal women
209
Women of urban notable families
210
Working women and popular culture
210
Jurisprudence and courts
212
Urban societies: the quarters and the markets
213
Religious communities
215
Shi is
215
Schools of law
216
Sufis
220
Islamic institutions and a mass Islamic society
223
Muslim religious movements and the state
226
22 The collective ideal
230
Sunni theory
230
Mirrors for princes
232
The philosopher-king
234
23 The personal ethic
237
Normative Islam: scripture, Sufism, and theology
237
Sufism in the post- Abbasid era
239
Al-Ghazali: his life and vision
240
Theology
245
Alternative Islam: philosophy and gnostic and popular Sufism
247
Islamic philosophy and theosophy
247
Ibn al- Arabi
250
Popular Sufism: the veneration of saints
251
Dialogues within Islam
254
24 Conclusion: Middle Eastern Islamic patterns
258
Imperial Islamic society
259
States and communities in a fragmented Middle East
261
Coping with the limits of worldly life
263
State and religion in the medieval Islamic paradigm
264
PART III THE GLOBAL EXPANSION OF ISLAM FROM THE SEVENTH TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURIES
25 Introduction: Islamic institutions
269
Conversion to Islam
269
North Africa and the Middle East
269
Turkish conquests and conversions in Anatolia, the Balkans, the Middle East, Inner Asia,
and India
272
Conversions in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa
274
Muslim elites and Islamic communities
277
The reform movement
280
Social structures of Islamic societies
283
Islamic states
285
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
Contents
ix
THE WESTERN ISLAMIC SOCIETIES
26 Islamic North Africa to the thirteenth century
288
Muslim states to the eleventh century
288
The Fatimid and Zirid empires and the Banu Hilal
292
The Almoravids and the Almohads
294
Scholars and Sufis: Islamic religious communities
296
27 Spanish-Islamic civilization
298
Hispano-Arabic society (co-author, David Moshfegh)
299
Hispano-Arabic culture
301
The Reconquista
303
Muslims under Christian rule
304
The Jews in Spain (co-author, David Moshfegh)
307
The synthesis of Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin cultures
310
The breakdown of convivencia (co-author, David Moshfegh)
311
The expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal (co-author, David Moshfegh)
312
Jews in North Africa
314
The expulsion of the Muslims (co-author, David Moshfegh)
315
28 Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco from the thirteenth to the nineteenth
centuries
316
Tunisia
316
Algeria
319
Morocco: the Marinid and Sa dian states
320
The Alawi dynasty to the French protectorate
323
29 States and Islam: North African variations
326
ISLAM IN ASIA
30 Introduction: empires and societies
329
31 The Turkish migrations and the Ottoman Empire
331
Turkish-Islamic states in Anatolia (1071­1243)
331
The rise of the Ottomans (c. 1280­1453): from ghazi state to empire
332
The Ottoman world empire
336
The patrimonial regime: fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
339
The janissaries and civil and religious administration
340
Ottoman law (co-author, Lena Salaymeh)
342
Provincial government
343
Royal authority, cultural legitimization, and Ottoman identity
344
The Ottoman economy
347
Rulers and subjects: Jews and Christians in the Ottoman Empire
349
Jews
352
Greek Orthodox and Armenian Christians
353
Coptic Christians
354
Christians in the Ottoman Near East
355
Muslim communities
357
Women and family in the Ottoman era (1400­1800) (co-author, Lena Salaymeh)
358
The Ottoman legal system and the family
359
Freedom and slavery
360
Family and sexuality
361
32 The postclassical Ottoman Empire: decentralization, commercialization, and
incorporation
363
Commercialization
364
New political institutions
366
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
x
Contents
Networking
368
Power, ideology, and identity
369
Center and periphery
371
33 The Arab provinces under Ottoman rule
373
Egypt
373
The Fertile Crescent
374
34 The Safavid Empire
377
The origins of the Safavids
377
Iran under the early Safavids
379
The reign of Shah Abbas
381
The conversion of Iran to Shi ism
384
State and religion in late Safavid Iran
386
The dissolution of the Safavid Empire
388
35 The Indian subcontinent: the Delhi sultanates and the Mughal Empire
391
The Muslim conquests and the Delhi sultanates
391
Conversion and Muslim communities
395
The varieties of Indian Islam
397
Muslim holy men and political authority
399
The Mughal Empire and Indian culture
400
Authority and legitimacy
403
The decline of the Mughal Empire
405
The reign of Aurangzeb (r. 1658­1707)
406
Islam under the Mughals
408
The international economy and the British Indian Empire
412
36 Islamic empires compared
414
Asian empires as Islamic states
416
37 Inner Asia from the Mongol conquests to the nineteenth century
418
The western and northern steppes
419
Turkestan (Transoxania, Khwarizm, and Farghana)
423
Eastern Turkestan and China
428
38 Islamic societies in Southeast Asia
432
Pre-Islamic Southeast Asia
432
The coming of Islam
433
Portuguese, Dutch, and Muslim states
436
Java: the state, the ulama , and the peasants
439
The crisis of imperialism and Islam on Java: 1795­1830
441
Aceh
442
Malaya
444
Minangkabau
445
ISLAM IN AFRICA
39 The African context: Islam, slavery, and colonialism
447
Islam
447
Slavery
450
Colonialism
450
40 Islam in Sudanic, savannah, and forest West Africa
452
The kingdoms of the western Sudan
452
Mali
454
Songhay
455
The central Sudan: Kanem and Bornu
456
Hausaland
458
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
Contents
xi
Non-state Muslim communities in West Africa: merchants and religious lineages
459
Zawaya lineages: the Kunta
461
Merchants and missionaries in the forest and coastal regions
463
Senegambia
465
41 The West African jihads
467
The Senegambian jihads
468
Uthman don Fodio and the Sokoto Caliphate
469
The jihad of al-Hajj Umar
472
The late nineteenth-century jihads
473
Jihad and conversion
475
42 Islam in East Africa and the European colonial empires
477
Sudan
477
Darfur
479
The coastal cities and Swahili Islam
480
Ethiopia and Somalia
482
Central Africa
484
Colonialism and the defeat of Muslim expansion
485
CONCLUSION
43 The varieties of Islamic societies
490
44 The global context
497
The inner spaces of the Muslim world
497
The Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean
497
The desert as ocean: Inner Asia and the Sahara
499
The rise of Europe and the world economy
501
European trade, naval power, and empire
502
European imperialism and the beginning of the modern era
504
PART IV THE MODERN TRANSFORMATION: MUSLIM PEOPLES FROM THE NINETEENTH TO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURIES
45 Introduction: imperialism, modernity, and the transformation of Islamic societies
511
Islamic reformism
514
Islamic modernism
515
Nationalism
520
Patterns of response and resistance
521
The contemporary Islamic revival
522
NATIONALISM AND ISLAM IN THE MIDDLE EAST
46 The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and the modernization of Turkey
524
The partition of the Ottoman Empire
524
Ottoman reform
527
The Young Ottomans
529
The Young Turks
530
World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
532
Republican Turkey
533
The Turkish Republic under Ataturk
533
The post­World War II Turkish Republic
535
Islam in Turkish politics: 1950­1983
537
Islam and the state: 1983­2000
538
The AKP: a new synthesis and a new governing party
540
The current state of Turkish politics
543
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
xii
Contents
47 Iran: state and religion in the modern era
544
Qajar Iran: the long nineteenth century
544
The constitutional crisis
547
Twentieth-century Iran: the Pahlavi era
548
The ulama and the revolution
552
The Islamic Republic
555
Islam and the state
559
48 Egypt: secularism and Islamic modernity
561
The nineteenth-century reforming state
561
British colonial rule
563
Egyptian resistance: from Islamic modernism to nationalism
564
The liberal republic
565
The Nasser era
568
Sadat and Mubarak
570
The Islamic revival
572
Secular opposition movements
576
Revolution and reaction
577
49 The Arab East: Arabism, military states, and Islam
579
Notables and the rise of Arab nationalism
579
Arabism and Arab states in the colonial period
583
Syria
584
Lebanon
586
Iraq to 1958
586
Transjordan and Jordan
587
The struggle for Arab unity and the contemporary Fertile Crescent states
588
Syria
590
Iraq
593
Lebanon
597
The Palestinian movement and the struggle for Palestine
599
Zionists and Palestinians to 1948
599
The Palestinian movement and Israel from 1948 to the 1990s
601
Toward a two-state solution?
604
50 The Arabian Peninsula
608
Yemen
608
Union of the two Yemens
610
Islam and the state
611
Saudi Arabia
611
Political and religious opposition
615
Foreign policy
616
The Gulf states
617
Oman
620
Kuwait
620
Bahrain
621
Qatar
621
United Arab Emirates
622
Arab states, nationalism, and Islam
622
51 North Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
627
Algeria
627
The French occupation
627
The rebirth of Algerian resistance: to the end of World War II
630
The drive to independence and the Algerian revolution
633
Independent Algeria
635
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
Contents
xiii
Tunisia
638
The colonial era
638
Independent Tunisia: from the 1950s to the present
640
Morocco
641
Under colonial rule
641
Independent Morocco
645
Libya
646
Islam in state ideologies and opposition movements: the Middle East and North Africa
648
52 Women in the Middle East: nineteenth to twenty-first centuries (co-author, Lena
Salaymeh)
652
Imperialism and reform in the nineteenth century
652
Changes in family law
653
Women's secular education
654
Labor and social and political activism
654
Post­World War I nation-states
656
Turkey
656
Iran
657
Egypt from the 1920s to the present
659
Post­World War II Arab states
660
Education, work, and social activism in the Arab countries
661
Changing social mores
662
Islamism and feminism
663
Western gaze and obsession with veiling
665
Twenty-first-century revolutions
666
ISLAM AND SECULARISM IN CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN ASIA
53 Muslims in Russia, the Caucasus, Inner Asia, and China
667
The Caucasus and Inner Asia under Tsarist rule
667
Islamic reform and modernism: the jadid movement
670
The revolutionary era and the formation of the Soviet Union
673
Soviet modernization
676
The pre­World War II era
676
Post­World War II
680
Post­Soviet Russia
683
The Caucasus
684
Azarbayjan
686
Newly independent states in formerly Soviet Central Asia
687
The Muslims of China
691
Conclusion
696
54 The Indian subcontinent: India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh
698
From the Mughal Empire to the partition of the Indian subcontinent
698
Muslim militancy from Plassey to 1857
699
From the Mutiny to World War I
701
From cultural to political action
705
From elite to mass politics
707
The Pakistan movement
709
The Muslims of post-Partition India
712
Pakistan
716
Foreign policy
720
Afghanistan
721
Bangladesh
727
Conclusion
727
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
xiv
Contents
55 Islam in Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines
729
Dutch rule and economic development in the Indies
729
Southeast Asian responses to Dutch rule
732
Islamic traditionalism and revolt
732
The priyayi, the merchant elites, nationalism, and Islamic modernism
733
The conservative reaction
737
Islamic and secular nationalist political parties: 1900­1950
738
The Indonesian Republic
740
Sukarno and a secular Indonesia: 1955­1965
742
The Suharto regime: state and Islam, 1965­1998
742
Indonesian Islam: 1998 to the present
746
British Malaya and independent Malaysia
747
The Malaysian state and Islam in a multiethnic society
750
The Philippines
752
Conclusion
754
ISLAM IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY AFRICA
56 Islam in West Africa
755
Colonialism and independence: African states and Islam
755
West African Muslim-majority countries
761
Mali
761
Mauritania
764
Senegal
766
Nigeria: a divided society
769
Muslims in other West African states
776
57 Islam in East Africa
780
Sudan
780
Independent Sudan
783
Military rule
784
Civil war
787
Somalia
787
Ethiopia and Eritrea
789
Swahili East Africa
791
Zanzibar
791
Tanzania
792
Kenya
794
Uganda
795
The Shi i communities
796
58 Universal Islam and African diversity
798
ISLAM IN THE WEST
59 Muslims in Europe and America
802
Muslims in the United States
802
American converts
804
Muslim identity issues in the United States
806
Canada
809
Eastern Europe
810
Bosnia and Yugoslavia
810
Albania and Albanians
811
Bulgaria
812
Muslims in Western Europe
813
Immigrant identities in Europe
815
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
Contents
xv
Immigrant status by country
816
Britain
816
France
819
Germany
821
Sweden, the Netherlands, and Spain
823
The anti-immigrant reaction
824
Conclusion: secularized Islam and Islamic revival
826
The institutional and cultural features of pre-modern Islamic societies
827
The nineteenth- and twentieth-century transformation of Islamic societies
828
Nations, nationalism, and Islam
829
The Islamic revival
832
Religious revival
834
Transnational Islam
837
"Islamism" and political action
838
Transnational politics: military and terrorist organizations
840
Contemporary patterns in the relations between states and Islamic societies
846
Islamic and neo-Islamic states
847
Secularized states with Islamic identities
849
Secularized states and Islamic opposition
850
Islamic national societies in Southeast Asia
852
Muslims as political minorities
854
Concluding remarks
855
Glossary
859
Bibliography
869
Annotated bibliography from A History of Islamic Societies, second edition
905
Index
951
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information ILLUSTRATIONS
1 The pilgrimage to the Ka ba 2 The Dome of the Rock 3 The central portico of the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus 4 Mosaics of the Damascus mosque (detail) 5 A page of an illuminated Quran 6 An old woman petitions Sultan Sanjar 7 A youth prostrating himself before a ruler 8 A Sufi preaching 9 The Battle of the Twelve Heroes 10 Patio de los Leones, Alhambra (Granada, Spain) 11 Sultan Selim the First 12 The Sultan Ahmed (Blue) Mosque, Istanbul 13 The Sultan Ahmed (Blue) Mosque, Istanbul (interior) 14 The Maydan of Isfahan 15 Persian court dress in the Safavid period: (a) Male court dress in the Safavid period; (b) Female court dress 16 The marriage of Akbar 17 The Taj Mahal 18 The Registan of Samarqand 19 The Ubadiah Mosque, Kuala Kangson, Malaysia 20 Hausa horsemen during tenth-anniversary-of-independence celebration, Niamey, Niger 21 The Muharram procession, Calcutta 22 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and the shah of Iran 23 A girls' school, Tehran 24 President Nasser is mobbed by townspeople 25 HAMAS posters for Student Council elections, al-Azhar University, Gaza 26 Ulama study the Quran in Tashkent 27 A mosque in Inner Mongolia 28 Families celebrate the end of Ramadan at the Jami Masjid of Delhi 29 Pakistani soldiers 30 The Mosque of Mazar-i Sharif, Afghanistan 31 Dawn prayer to celebrate the end of Ramadan, Jogyakarta, Indonesia 32 The Friday Mosque at Mopti, Mali 33 The tomb of the Mahdi, Omdurman, Sudan 34 An anti-Rushdie demonstration, London
page 43 96 98 99 125 219 233 252 273 308 337 346 347 382 389 402 405 424 444 471 513 535 556 568 605 681 694 714 718 723 745 763 782 817
xvi
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information FIGURES
1 The family of the Prophet 2 The Banu Umayya and the Umayyad caliphs 3 The Abbasid caliphs to the disintegration of the empire 4 The Shi i imams 5 Saljuq-period dynasties 6 The Isma ili imams 7 The early Sufi orders and their founders 8 The Qadiriyya and the Tijaniya in West Africa
page 34 68 77 140 182 190 221 462
xvii © in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information MAPS
1 The Middle East on the eve of the Muslim era
page 27
2 The Arab-Muslim empire to 750 CE
51
3 Iraq and Baghdad in the early Abbasid era
75
4 The post-imperial succession regimes, late tenth century
178
5 The Middle East in the Ghaznavid era, early eleventh century
181
6 The Saljuq Empire in the late eleventh century
183
7 The Mongol empires in the thirteenth century
185
8 Egypt and Syria, showing the crusader states in the twelfth century
193
9 The expansion of Muslim states and populations, 900­1700
270
10 Islamic schools of law and Sufi brotherhoods, c. 1500
278
11 North Africa, Spain, and the Mediterranean in the ninth century
289
12 North Africa, Spain, and the Mediterranean in the late eleventh century and the Almoravid
conquests
293
13 North Africa and Spain in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
305
14 The expansion of the Ottoman Empire, c. 1280­1683
334
15 Iran under the Safavids, seventeenth century
387
16 The Delhi sultanates
392
17 The Mughal Empire, 1605­1707
406
18 Russian expansion in Islamic Inner Asia to 1920
422
19 Muslim states of Southeast Asia to 1800
434
20 The Portuguese, Dutch, and British empires in Southeast Asia, 1500­1914
437
21 Sub-Saharan Africa, eleventh to fourteenth centuries
453
22 Sub-Saharan Africa, sixteenth to eighteenth centuries
457
23 Trade, settlements, and the diffusion of Islam in West Africa, 1500­1900
460
24 The jihad states of the nineteenth century
474
25 East Africa
478
26 Colonial expansion in Africa to c. 1900
486
27 European domination over Islamic and other lands, 1815
505
28 European domination and the Muslim world, c. 1920
512
29 Islamic reform and resistance movements: eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
516
30 Territorial losses and the partition of the Ottoman Empire, 1683­1923
526
31 The Middle East between the world wars
585
32 Arab­Israeli conflict: (a) UN Partition Plan, 1947; (b) Israel and the occupied territories, 1967 602
33 Arabia and the Persian Gulf, c. 1974
618
34 Soviet and Chinese Inner Asia to 1990
677
xviii
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
List of Maps
xix
35 Ethnic populations in Inner Asia and Afghanistan
688
36 Oilfields and pipelines: the Middle East and Inner Asia
692
37 India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
713
38 The Indian Ocean
748
39 Northern and Sudanic Africa, c. 1980
762
40 Muslim population by percentage of total population
842
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information TABLES
1 Islam in World History 2 Outline chronology of early Islamic history 3 Middle Eastern provincial regimes: the Abbasid Empire and the post-imperial era 4 Early schools of law 5 Iran: outline chronology 6 Central concepts in law 7 The vocabulary of Sufism 8 Islamic religious movements and sects 9 Islamic worship 10 The social organization of Sufism 11 Muslim religious leaders 12 North Africa: outline chronology 13 The Ottoman dynasty 14 Muslim India: outline chronology 15 Inner Asia: outline chronology 16 Islamic reform (tajdid) movements, eighteenth to twentieth centuries 17 Regimes of the Arabian Peninsula 18 Muslim population by countries 19 Countries with more than 100,000 Shi i Muslims 20 Countries with the largest number of Muslims living as minorities
page 20 47 88 132 187 238 241 255 257 281 285 291 333 393 421 517 612 843 846 846
xx © in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information PREFACE
Islam is the religion of peoples who inhabit the "middle" regions of the planet from the Atlantic shores of Africa to the South Pacific and from the steppes of Siberia to the remote islands of South Asia: Berbers, West Africans, Sudanese, Swahili-speaking East Africans, Middle Eastern Arabs, Turks, Iranians, Turkish and Persian peoples of Central Asia, Afghans, Pakistanis, many millions of Indians and Chinese, most of the peoples of Malaysia and Indonesia, and minorities in the Philippines ­ some 1.5 billion people adhere to Islam. In ethnic background, language, customs, social and political organization, and forms of culture and technology, they represent innumerable variations of human experience. Yet Islam unites them. Although Islam is not often the totality of their lives, it permeates their self-conception, regulates their daily existence, provides the bonds of society, and fulfills the yearning for salvation. For all its diversity, Islam forges one of the great spiritual families of mankind. This book is the history of how these multitudes have become Muslims and what Islam means to them. In this book we ask the following questions: What is Islam? What are its values? How did so many peoples, so different and dispersed, become Muslims? What does Islam contribute to their character, to their way of living, to the ordering of their communities, and to their aspirations and identity? What are the historical conditions that have given rise to Islamic religious and cultural values? What are the manifold ways in which it is understood and practiced? To answer these questions, we shall see how religious concepts about the nature of reality and the meaning of human experience, embedded at once in holy scripture and works of commentary and as thoughts and feelings in the minds and hearts of Muslim believers, have given shape to the lifestyles and institutions of Muslim peoples, and how reciprocally the political and social experiences of Muslim peoples have been given expression in the values and symbols of Islam. Our history of Islam is the history of a dialogue between religious symbols and everyday reality. This book covers the history of the Islamic world from its beginnings in the seventh century to the present day. It is based upon the original A History of Islamic Societies, first published in 1988. A second edition, revising and bringing contemporary history up to date, was published in 2002. Reviewing this work only a few years later, it is striking not only that recent events call for a still further updating but that as a result of scholarly research the past is changing too. The changes are generated in some instances by the discovery of new sources, but more commonly by new historical methods and theories that lead to both controversy and fresh insights. To take account of these changes, the editors of Cambridge University Press and I have decided to modify the format of this work. This new edition will be published as three books. The first, already published, contains a very substantially revised history of Islamic societies from their beginnings in early seventh-century Arabia to the eve of the modern era. This is the second book, and it contains xxi
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
xxii
Preface
the entire work, recounting the history of Islamic societies from their beginnings to the present. The part devoted to modern history is updated on crucial issues, such as contemporary Islamic movements, the recent uprisings in the Arab world, the place of women in Muslim societies, and Islam in Europe and North America. The first book, Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History, will serve the needs of students and others interested in the early foundation and worldwide diffusion of Islam. This book, A History of Islamic Societies, is directed to readers who would like the entire history in one volume. The third volume, tentatively titled "Islamic Societies in the Modern Era," will appear in the near future. These books share two goals. One is to tell the history of each particular population, country, or region of the Islamic world. The second is to identify the themes that give cohesion to the concept of Islamic societies. In this book, history is understood not as a sequence of stories but as an integral process in which state, religion, community, and cultures are related in many variable but definable ways. In all periods, Islam has to be understood in the context of previous and contemporary cultures. Islamic cultures are shaped by their connections to the ancient world before it; to other contemporary Islamic societies; to non-Islamic cultures; and to economic, technological, and political conditions that are not connected to religion and culture. In the present era, it has become debatable as to whether Islamic societies will continue to develop in their historic forms. Although there are many controversies among Muslims and others over the correct version of Islam, this book attempts to recognize, depict, and respect its enormous richness and diversity.
THE BEGINNINGS OF ISLAM IN THE MIDDLE EAST The first part of this book deals with the beginnings and early development of Middle Eastern Islamic societies. The new edition emphasizes how early Islam was a part of and a continuation of the civilizations that preceded it. We review the Basic Structures of ancient empires, including a new section on women and family, tracing the precedents set by ancient norms for Islamic laws and values. The controversial historiography of the last thirty years dealing with the "origins" of Islam, the validity of the early sources, and the authenticity of the Quran is reevaluated, and new perspectives are incorporated into the text. There are important changes in the study of architecture as a display of imperial legitimacy. A revised history of early Islamic law and the veneration of the prophet give new perspectives on early Islamic religiosity. A new chapter situates the non-Muslim minorities under Muslim rule. These new themes are integrated into an overall perspective on the interconnections of ancient, Mediterranean, and early Islamic cultures. Although bedouin elements made pre-Islamic Arabia different from many of the settled regions of the Middle East, in politics, trade, material development, and religious cultures, Arabia was already closely connected to the larger Middle Eastern Region. Pre-Islamic Arabian religious and literary culture not only stemmed from bedouin practices but was modeled on the general system of culture found in the cities of the Middle East since the third century. Cultural interactions continued and were intensified after the Arab-Islamic conquests. Arab-Muslim participation in the antique heritage continued approximately to the eleventh century. Islamic civilization developed out of a cultural matrix that included Arabian tribal culture and religious practices; Jewish beliefs, religious practices, and community institutions; Christian theology and eschatology; and Roman and Sasanian arts, literatures, legal systems, and political institutions. Pre-Islamic cultures were adapted through specific texts and translations, oral recitations, and ordinary social and business contacts among peoples with different backgrounds. Arab-Muslims shaped the linguistic and religious cultures of the region, while the emerging Islamic civilization was itself shaped by the earlier Middle Eastern and Mediterranean civilizations. I call this phase the Arab-Islamic renaissance,
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
Preface
xxiii
a period of assimilation, adaptation, and creative transformation of previous, late antique Middle Eastern cultures into an Arabic-Islamic form. Similarly, political, economic, and social institutions were carried over from the ancient into the Islamic epoch. The modes of production in agriculture, trade, services, and taxation remained the same ­ indeed they were ratified in Islamic law for commerce and property. The caliphate understood imperial rule as it was understood and proclaimed by the Roman-Byzantine and Sasanian emperors and similarly defined and legitimated its rule through architecture, art, and the patronage of literary and religious activities. Family life and the position of women in society carried on the concepts and practices of late antique societies. The religion of Islam itself, although newly revealed, shared the theology of its predecessors and provided similar codes for ritual and Social Behavior and communal loyalties. The Quran presents Islam as a correction and the true version of corrupted older religions. Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and Muslims all believed in God, the angels and the prophets, the last judgment, and the purpose of human existence as being the fulfillment of God's commands and faith in his truth. Early Islam also shared folk traditions and popular spirituality with non-Muslims. Eastern Syriac Christians who believed in the human nature of Jesus had common ground with Muslims. Jews were, like Muslims, committed monotheists. Sufism drew inspiration from the Quran and from neo-Platonism and Hindu mysticism. To all Middle Eastern peoples, similar beliefs implied a community, and all believed that religious communities had a founding prophet. Gnosticism, messianism, magic, mysticism, science, and philosophy were also found in all the Middle Eastern religions. The distinctive cultural achievements of the early Arab-Islamic era linked Islamic civilization to its predecessors. Philosophy was translated from Greek and Syriac into Arabic, and Muslim theology (kalam) was built on the same dialectics and concepts as Christian theology. Islamic law (fiqh) was a continuation of Roman provincial law, canon law, Talmudic law, and Persian law, progressively integrated with the teachings of the Quran and hadith to form what we now know as Islamic law. The Arabian poetic forms (qasida) became the basis of classical Arabic poetry. Persian literature (adab) was translated into Arabic. Poetry and adab became the basis of the literary "formation" of the cultivated gentleman. In architecture, the basics of the design and decoration of mosques and even their placement in the urban environment created a distinctive Arab-Muslim presence, although based on an older visual vocabulary. A substantially new chapter deals with the interactions of Muslims, Jews, and Christians in Spain. In all these respects, a new civilization had come into being, one that was creative and distinctive and yet a continuation of the basic institutional structures and cultural forms of previous Middle Eastern and Mediterranean civilizations ­ an innovative expression of the historic Middle Eastern cultures. Over centuries, however, the process of assimilating, Arabizing, and Islamizing historic cultures led to the consolidation of a distinctively new civilization whose ancient sources were forgotten, concealed, and perhaps obliterated, and whose roots can now only be uncovered by scholarly investigation. Thus, Islam is part of a common Eurasian civilization. It continues directly from Roman, Byzantine, and Persian late antiquity. Islam integrated the existing political forms, modes of economic production, religious values, and family structures. It shares the conceptual world of Judaism and Christianity, although there are major differences due to the accidents of language and vocabulary and of historical and cultural references. Islam did not change the fundamental institutions of civilization so much as it changed languages, ideologies, and identities. In Part II we see how this distinctively Middle Eastern Islamic civilization achieved dominance in the period from the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries. In the midst of repeated nomadic invasions from the east and Crusades from the west, a new quasi-imperial, quasi-feudal system of political
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
xxiv
Preface
institutions was consolidated. Nomadic forces and military slavery supported by the assignment of benefices and fiefs became the regional norm. Muslim communities were organized into Sunni schools of law, Sufi fraternities or brotherhoods, and Shi i sects. This was the era of the cultural consolidation of "normative Islam" based on the integration of law and Sufism and of alternative forms of Muslim belief based on philosophy, theosophy, and the popular veneration of saints. In this era, a political ethic was defined. Most important, there grew up alongside Arabic literatures a new Persian literary and poetic culture that became the dominant language and culture for the eastern regions of the Muslim world. Henceforth, Islamic culture would be expressed in both Arabic and Persian media (and later in Turkish media and that of other languages). This new edition contains newly written or extensively reworked chapters on the Timurid Empire and its political and cultural importance, the development of Persianate Islam, the social structure of Middle Eastern communities, and women and family.
THE GLOBAL DIFFUSION OF ISLAM TO THE NINETEENTH CENTURY The third part of the book describes how Arab­Middle Eastern Islam was the paradigm for the recreation of Islamic societies in other languages, cultures, and regions of the world. Everywhere Islam took shape as a hybrid of local cultures and Middle Eastern Islam. From the seventh to the tenth centuries, Arab conquerors brought Islam and the Arabic language and culture to North Africa and Spain, Iran and Transoxania. Persians, Turks, and Soghdians in the east and Berbers and Goths in the west were incorporated into the Arab-Muslim empire. Merchants and missionaries, often Sufis, brought Islam to the steppes of Inner Asia. From Egypt, the Sudan, and North Africa, Islam and Arab culture reached Saharan and Sudanic Africa. After these direct contacts, Islam was carried further by newly Islamized Persian, Turkish, and African peoples. Arab-Islamic culture followed later conquests, colonization, missionary proselytization, and commerce. On the mainland of Eurasia, migrating, conquering, and empire-building Turkish peoples brought Islam westward into Anatolia, the Balkans, and southeastern Europe, eastward into Inner Asia and China, and southward into Afghanistan and the Indian subcontinent. Here, they established the Mongol, Timurid, Shaybanid, Mughal, Safavid, and Ottoman empires. The new empires patronized Muslim schools, courts, Sufi hospices, and other religious and communal institutions. The empires are newly described in terms of recent scholarship. The Ottoman chapters have been expanded to discuss women, family, and religious minorities. The three great early modern Muslim empires ­ the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal empires ­ are discussed in terms of processes of decentralization and networking among central and local elites. The Muslim empires are presented in the context of the worldwide development of early modern empires and are compared with one another. In the Indian Ocean region, merchants and Sufi missionaries carried Islam from Arabia to India and East Africa (tenth to twelfth centuries). From Arabia and India, Islam reached the MALAY PENINSULA and the Indonesian archipelago (thirteenth to fifteenth centuries). From the coastal zones, it spread to the interior of the islands and continents. In Africa, Arab and Berber traders and settlers in the Saharan and Sudanic regions, Arab and Persian settlers on the East African coasts, and Dyula communities in West Africa were the nuclei of Muslim influences. Often, colonies of Muslim traders allied with local political elites and induced the rulers of the states of Ghana, Mali, Kanem, Songhay, Hausaland, and Dogomba to accept Islam. African History chapters have been expanded and updated to deal with not only Islam but also slavery and European colonialism. The global diffusion of Islam is discussed in the context of the rising power of Europe and in terms of the regional interconnectedness of Muslim societies ­ in the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean and the great inner "seas," the Taklamakan desert in Inner Asia, and the Sahara in Africa.
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
Preface
xxv
As I explain later in this volume, By the nineteenth century, Islamic societies the world over had acquired similar types of Muslim elites, beliefs, religious practices, and social organizations. In each Muslim region, we find not one but several variant types of Islam. There were the scholars who represented formal learning, organized education, and judicial administration, affiliated through schools of law. There were also the scholars-cum-Sufis, who combined legal learning with mystical discipline and contemplation, in an effort to live their lives in imitation of the Prophet. Such religious teachers perpetuated a tradition of learning that combined law, theology, and Sufi wisdom representing Sunni­Shari a (orthoprax)­Sufi Islam. There were ecstatic visionary Sufis in the tradition of Ibn al- Arabi and the gnostic forms of Islamic mysticism, as well as the popular forms of Sufi Islam expressed in veneration of saints, faith in their charismatic powers, and belief in the magic of their shrines. Throughout the Muslim world, Sufism in all its forms became the most widespread and popular expression of Islam.
THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN ERA By the eighteenth century, Islamic societies had begun to decline in political power. The Safavid state had been defeated by Afghan invaders and, deserted by its tribal vassals, disintegrated completely. The Ottoman Empire went through a period of decentralization that impaired the imperial state. The Mughal Empire disintegrated into numerous competing provincial and feudal regimes. In Southeast Asia, a centralized regime had never been established over the Indonesian archipelago or the Malay Peninsula. In North Africa, Muslim states were being subverted by their declining commercial position in the Mediterranean while provincial, tribal, and Sufi resistance was on the increase. The Sudanic states had long passed the peak of their commercial prosperity, although Muslim communities were growing in influence. A critical, but hardly the only, factor in the political decline of many Muslim regimes was the rising power of Europe. European societies were generating technological inventions, economic wealth, and military power that would profoundly change the conditions of life not only for Muslims, but for all the world's peoples. On the northern flanks of majority-Muslim areas, the steppes of Inner Asia came under Russian control. China established its suzerainty in eastern Turkestan; Russia and China took control of most of the Muslim populations of Inner Asia. On the southern flanks of majority-Muslim areas, European expansion began with Portuguese, Dutch, and British merchant adventurers, who won naval and trading empires in the southern seas and ended by establishing colonial regimes. The Portuguese were displaced by the Dutch, who took control of the Southeast Asian trade in the seventeenth century, made themselves suzerains of Java by the middle of the eighteenth century, and conquered the rest of the Indies in the course of the nineteenth. The British also began by establishing trading bases and ended by conquering an empire in India. They took control of the Indian Ocean ­ with bases in Malaya, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and East Africa ­ and Egypt. The French took territorial control of North Africa. Africa was the last region with a large Muslim population to be subjected to colonial domination. All of Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia came under European rule by World War I. Only the Ottoman Empire and Iran maintained their political identities without experiencing direct colonial rule. By the nineteenth century, Europe was not only seizing the trade and the territory of Muslim states, it was beginning to seize the imagination of Muslim peoples. European military and technological efficiency and artistic styles, as well as political (especially nationalist) concepts and moral values, began to influence Muslim populations. These influences opened the modern era in the history of Muslim peoples. Part IV continues the regional histories of Islamic societies from the late eighteenthand nineteenth-century European imperialist and commercial interventions until the present. The
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
xxvi
Preface
central theme is the response of Muslim elites and populations, in each region and country, to the impact of Europe. There were two principal worldwide Muslim responses. Muslim religious leaders attempted to revise and reform Islam itself. They wanted to return to the pristine Islam bequeathed by the Prophet Muhammad. This was to be found in the Quran and in the earliest and most valid sayings of the Prophet (hadith). The reformers rejected later accretions of story and myth, folk practices, and superstitious and magical beliefs. They rejected Sufi veneration of saints' tombs, and beliefs in mystical and spiritual transcendence. The more radical reformers disavowed Islamic law as well. By return to the true Islam the reformers believed that they would restore the integrity, the viability, and indeed the power of Islam and Islamic societies. The second response came from the political or former political elites, and from a newly developing modern educated intelligentsia of soldiers, administrators, professionals, and intellectuals. They believed that their societies had to adapt to the power of Europe and the conditions of the contemporary world, and that the basic principles of Islam could and should be the foundation of rational, scientific, and patriotic modern societies. The Islamic modernists advocated for scientific education, economic development, and reformed political institutions. The two responses were often combined by modernists committed both to the reform of religious belief and practice and to the adaptation of Islamic societies to the contemporary world. In the first half of the twentieth century, the government elites and intelligentsias turned from Islamic modernism to secular nationalism. After World War I, Turkey and Iran became independent nation-states. After World War II, nationalist movements overthrew European rule and established independent states throughout Africa and Asia. Most of the new Muslim-majority states declared themselves secular national states. Pakistan, Morocco, Sudan, Iran after the revolution of 1979, and Afghanistan after the rise of the Taliban in 1991 became Islamic states. The Muslims of India, the Soviet Union, and China, and other smaller Muslim populations remained minorities within nonMuslim ethnic-majority states. In each case we explore the political context, the emergence of new elites, and the Islamic and secular national ideologies that defined the struggle for independence and national identity. In turn, the formation of nation-states set the political framework for Islamic religio-communal and political movements and identities in the present era. Starting in the 1970s, in reaction to political oppression, economic exploitation, and conflicting cultural values, Muslims everywhere began to reassert their Islamic identity. The Islamic revival was in part personal and communal; in part it was a political effort to transform nation-states into Islamic states. The struggle between secular, often military, elites and Islamic parties goes on to the present. As a work of history this book is shaped by its source materials. The history of each region is based on the prevailing scholarship for each area; the literature of each region emphasizes different concerns. For example, the literature about the Middle East lays heavy emphasis upon questions of women and family. The literature on Central Asia emphasizes economic issues. Historical studies of the Indian subcontinent give prominence to communalism and communal conflict. Here I try to look beyond local issues, and to integrate regional histories with the common themes that define the global impact of Islam, Islamic movements, and Islamic identities. The scope of the book itself implies that it is not a narrative history, a telling of stories, but history seen as a holistic process in which the relations among and the variations in state, economic, religious, communal, and cultural forms help us to analyze both the organization and the evolution of societies. It is not a history of events, but a history of civilizations. As a historian, however, my primary interest is not in theory but in the adaptation of theory to the needs of a coherent and meaningful exposition. The central problem of this book is how to present a history of enormous diversity ­ the history of societies that to sight and sound are utterly
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
Preface
xxvii
different ­ and yet preserve some sense of their historical and institutional relatedness. For the reader, this book is intended to provide a coherent overview of Islamic history. As a teacher, I think that the endless everyday flow of events and news confuses rather than enlightens us and that a large "map" of the subject as a whole is essential to the understanding of particular occurrences. Only from an overall point of view can we acquire the poise, distance, and perspective that make it possible to identify basic contextual factors and long-term historical trends, and to distinguish them from accidental and short-term considerations. The reader should be cautioned, however, that the factual narrative approach of this book conceals great uncertainties of historical judgment, incomplete knowledge, conflicts of opinion and interpretation among experts, and constantly changing research that brings new knowledge and new points of view to the fore. Little has been said about the degree of reliability or the margin of error in the presentation of information, but the book is based on the most reliable research and interpretation. The reader should be aware that parts of the work are provisional and exploratory in nature and represent the author's best judgment about particular subjects. A few comments about the organization of the book may help readers find their way through this large volume. The book is divided into four parts, each of which has an introduction and conclusion that deal with the organizing concepts on which the book is based and summarize the important themes implied in the narrative chapters. For an overview of the transformation of Islamic societies, these introductory and concluding chapters may be read separately or in conjunction with selected period or regional histories. The table of contents and the index are of course the reader's guide, but the reader or teacher using this book as a text could also create an alternative table of contents, following particular regional or state histories ­ Middle Eastern, South Asian, African ­ through successive periods, or following such themes as the roles of religious elites ( ulama and Sufis), women and family, and religious and ethnic minorities. For convenience the medieval and early modern histories of the Arabian Peninsula, Libya, and Afghanistan are combined with their modern histories and are located in Part IV. The definition of geographic regions requires some arbitrary simplifications. Muslim world areas are by and large defined in regional terms such as Middle East, North Africa, Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and West and East Africa. For convenience of reference, and despite the obvious anachronism, these areas or parts of them are commonly identified by the names of present national states such as India, Indonesia, or Nigeria. This is to simplify identification for readers unfamiliar with the geography of these vast regions and to avoid such cumbersome locutions as "areas now part of the state of ___," but it should be clear that the use of these terms does not necessarily imply any similarity of state and social organization or of cultural style between pre-modern and contemporary times. Transliterations from the numerous native languages of Muslim peoples have been simplified for the convenience of English readers. In general, I have tried to follow standard scholarly usage for each world area, modified by the elimination of diacritical marks and sometimes adapted to give a fair sense of pronunciation. Certain standard Arabic terms and names are given in their original, usually Arabic, literary form despite actual variations in spelling and pronunciation the world over. Dates are given in the Common Era.
Ira M. Lapidus University of California, Berkeley
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The preparation of this new book has provided me with two great joys for nearly five years. One is the joy of learning, catching up and coming to terms with recent scholarship. The other, even more important, is the collaboration of young scholars who contributed their erudition, their methodological sophistication, and their friendship and encouragement. I value them for the opportunity to know and work with them as much as for the work itself. For the long duration of this project, Lena Salaymeh has contributed her great knowledge of the early Islamic sources and the late antique, early Islamic history; her understanding of Islamic law; her methodological sophistication; and her exacting standards for historical rhetoric. She has reviewed, commented on, and edited the entire book, with a view to each of these considerations. She has done wide-ranging research on women, family, and law, and she is the co-author of new and revised sections and chapters on these subjects. Her practical know-how has been invaluable with computer-connected matters and with the preparation of the text for publication. Our conversations have informed me, sharpened my judgment, and stimulated my interest. I am very grateful for her colleagueship. She is writing an innovative and deeply researched book on Islamic legal history. David Moshfegh has briefed me on the history of Jews in Muslim lands with a sensitive ear for historiographical controversies and the influence of political positions on historical writing. His own dissertation concerns early European orientalism and shows a keen sensitivity to the conjunction of personal needs, cultural controversies, and political engagements in the shaping of late nineteenthand early twentieth-century orientalist scholarship. He is the co-author of the sections on Jews in the early Islamic era and in Spain and has contributed to the history of Jews in the Ottoman Empire. Kevin Schwartz was my informant about new writing on Persian and Indian history, and the construction and diffusion of Persianate culture throughout western, Central, and southern Asia and in the Indian Ocean region. He was an alert and forthright critic of the previous versions of these topics and helped bring me up to date with current scholarship. Heather Ferguson provided a fresh orientation to the new historiography on Ottoman history and helped me interpret it and integrate it into the revised account in this volume. She alerted me to the new historiography on empire formation in the early modern period. Her dissertation on the circle of justice gave me a fresh conceptual approach to understanding Ottoman government. Murat Dagli provided me with valuable important insights from his rich knowledge of Ottoman history, brought me up to date in the new historiography, and read my draft chapter with an informed and critical eye. Nadia Nader did research on the position of women, especially in Egypt in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and provided me with valuable materials from her reading of the Egyptian press, TV, and her personal experiences. xxix
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-51430-9 - A History of Islamic Societies: Third Edition Ira M. Lapidus Frontmatter More information
xxx
Acknowledgments
The important contribution of Lisa Pollard to the study of women and family in the second edition carries over to this volume. Lisa also reviewed the revised chapter on women in the modern Middle East and made helpful suggestions for its improvement. I want to thank Hannah Jewell for her contribution to the modern and especially to the recent history of Islamic societies. Hannah began with her knowledge of Arabic and Middle East affairs and branched out to other world regions. She identified the relevant literature, and summarized and interpreted it in her intelligent reports. She read a draft of the modern history sections of the book and made many helpful corrections and suggestions. Hannah tracked down population and other data for the text. In our many conversations she has contributed her insights and helped me shape my understanding of recent history. I am grateful for her cooperation and her contribution to the modern history sections of this book. My professorial colleagues have been inspiring and helpful. I am indebted to Huricihan Islamoghlu for many conversations enriched by her sophisticated knowledge of comparative economic and world history. Yuen Gen-Liang read a draft of Part I and made many helpful suggestions for its improvement. Jeffrey Hadler introduced me to the latest work in Southeast Asian history, including his own contributions to the history of Minangkabau. Munis Faroqui was supportive of my studies of Islamic history in the Indian subcontinent. Max Lecar helped correct the chapter on Islamic Spain. Briana Flin was my library and secretarial assistant. Her careful attention to detail is a welcome and important contribution to the project. I am especially grateful to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and to its administrative officers and staff. The Mellon Foundation has generously supported this project with an Emeritus Fellowship, and its officers and staff have been throughout responsive and supportive of the Special Needs of this project. I am deeply grateful to my wife, Brenda Webster, for her constant love and support. Finally, but not least, I want to thank Marigold Acland and the staff of Cambridge University Press for their encouragement and unfailing enthusiasm for this book. They sustained me through the work and motivated me to finish at last. I also thank Mary Starkey for her refined and attentive editing of this volume as well as the previous second edition.
Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. The author and publisher would be pleased to hear from copyright owners they have been unable to trace.
© in this web service Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org

File: a-history-of-islamic-societies.pdf
Published: Thu Sep 4 16:14:18 2014
Pages: 30
File size: 0.2 Mb


, pages, 0 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb

The velveteen rabbit, 31 pages, 0.56 Mb

IMPOSSIBLE RECOLLECTIONS, 278 pages, 1.81 Mb

I Wanted My Brain Back, 14 pages, 0.28 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com